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Engineering and Consulting Firms Association, Japan
PROVINCES OF INDONESIA
1. ACEH 2. BALI 3. BANGKA-BELITUNG 4. BANTEN 5. BENGKULU 6. GORONTALO 7. IRIAN JAYA 8. JAKARTA 9. JAMBI 10. JAWA BARAT 11. JAWA TENGAH 12. JAWA TIMUR 13. KALIMANTAN BARAT 14. KALIMANTAN SELATAN 15. KALIMANTAN TENGAH 16. KALIMANTAN TIMUR 17. LAMPUNG 18. MALUKU 19. MALUKU UTARA 20. NUSA TENGGARA BARAT 21. NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR 22. RIAU 23. SULAWESI SELATAN 24. SULAWESI TENGAH 25. SULAWESI TENGGARA 26. SULAWESI UTARA 27. SUMATERA BARAT 28. SUMATERA SELATAN 29. SUMATERA UTARA 30. YOGYAKARTA
ra Sip u ra Uta Pagai elat a n gai S Pa
as B ar ( o a li a t am b o k ra m
Town, village International boundary Provincial boundary Main road Secondary road Railroad Major airport
I ND I A N
0 0 250 500 250 110° 750 km 500 mi
O CE A N
Bandar Lampung 8 Jakarta 11 a und l at S Se Semarang 4 ra n Se 10 dd Java Ban r 30 aka Yogy
23 G r e a t e r Pare Pare Laut Lahat Banja r m a s i n S u n d a J I s l a n d s Kotabumi A V
aya rab BA LI S E A Madura Kangean
S E A
Te lu k B
S a la w
Kepulauan Riau Kepulauan Lingga
Map No. 4110 Rev. 4 UNITED NATIONS January 2004
G u lf
SOUTH C H INA SEA
EA N S
BRUNEI DARUSSALAM Bandar Seri Begawan
CE L E B E S SE A
P A C I F I C
O C E A N
PAPUA NEW GUINEA
S AV U
Lesser Sunda Islands
ARAFU RA SEA
Gulf of Carpentaria INDONESIA
The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.
AU STRA LIA
Department of Peacekeeping Operations Cartographic Section
Map of Indonesia (source: United Nations)
................................................................. 1 1........8 SMALL SCALE POWER GENERATION DEVELOPMENT OF OTHER ENERGY SOURCES...........................2 PRESENT EXPLORATION STATUS IN EASTERN INDONESIA ........................................................4 METHODOLOGY TO PROMOTE GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN THE EASTERN PROVINCES ..................................................... 5 CHAPTER 2 NECESSITY OF GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE EASTERN PROVINCES ......7 NECESSITY OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN THE EASTERN PROVINCES ...................................................................... 95 5.............................................................................................................................................................................................................4 SCOPE OF WORK ...5 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE ............................... 13 CHAPTER 3 GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN EASTERN INDONESIA..................6 FUTURE INITIATIVE .......................4 GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN EACH FIELDS ........................ 84 4.............................6 PROJECT COST ESTIMATE ............. 8 2................................................................................................................................................................1 OUTLINE OF STUDY ..............................................................1 PROJECT COMPOSITION .... 106 5...........................5 STUDY AREA ......................................................... STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE ENVIRONMENT (GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENT RELATED) ........................................3 NECESSARY STUDY FOR FUTURE GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT ................3 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION ORGANIZATION ......................................................................................... 56 3...............................................................................1 OVERVIEW OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN EASTERN INDONESIA....................................................................................................................................................... 7 2.......................................................... 106 5.............. 110 5.... 110 ...... 54 3....................................................................................................................................... 62 CHAPTER 4 ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL ASPECT .......................................................1 BACKGROUND OF GEOTHERMAL POWER DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA ............................ 84 4.............................................................7 STUDY TEAM ...................................................................... 4 1.................................................. 11 2..............................4 DEVELOPMENT SCHEDULE ............................................. 2 1.......................................................2 LEGISLATION.2 CONSULTANT SERVICE ..............5 SOCIAL SITUATION OF THE EASTERN PROVINCES ..................................... 7 2............................................................... 7 2.. 1 1.................. 9 2............... 54 3.................... 12 2.......................................................................................... 95 5......... 8 2.................. 4 1.................................1 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT SYSTEM.............. 54 3....................3 CURRENT STATE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA ...3 OBJECTIVES ............. 4 1.............6 ELECTRICITY SUPPLY AND DEMAND SITUATION IN THE EASTERN PROVINCES ................................... 5 1.. 4 1.......Table of Contents Executive Summary CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .... 109 5............................................ 85 CHAPTER 5 IMPLEMENTATION PLAN..............................................8 STUDY SCHEDULE........................2 BACKGROUND .....................2 SIGNIFICANCE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT ................
......................................................3 GEOTHERMAL PROJECT ............................... 123 7..2 CDM INSTITUTION IN INDONESIA . 117 CHAPTER 7 PREPARATION OF GEOTHERMAL POWER DEVELOPMENT PROJECT ......................4 EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENT .................................. 128 8.......6 CDM PROJECT IN A ODA PROJECT .....5..................................2 FINANCIAL EVALUATION ................................................................................... 112 6..............................................................................................................................2 SUPPLEMENTARY STUDY AND PROJECT PLANNING .................................... 126 8.....111 CHAPTER 6 ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT ....5 SMALL SCALE GEOTHERMAL POWER DEVELOPMENT AS SMALL SCALE CDM.................................................... 131 ...1 CO2 EMISSION BY POWER SOURCE.................................................................................................................................................................................... 126 8............... 123 7.................................................................................1 ECONOMIC EVALUATION .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 130 8............................1 NECESSITY OF PREPARATION STUDY ..............7 FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENT PLAN .............................. 127 8... 126 8................................................ 124 CHAPTER 8 PROJECT POTENTIAL FOR CDM.. 112 6........................
...................... 94 Fig....... 83 Fig....................5 MW)................................ 3-13 Photograph of the flow twist of NEDO MT-2 well (Muraoka et al..... 2007) ................................... 3-5 Map Showing the Resource Potential in Promising Geothermal Fields (JICA.......................... 70 Fig................................... 50 Fig................................ 2005) .......... 4-3 Geographical relation between prospects and the conservation forest in Sokoria-Mutubusa and Oka-Larantuka......... 3-9 Hydrothermal mineral zonation in Ulumbu (revised Kasbani........ 3-12 Location of exploratory wells in Mataloko (Muraoka et al... 5-1 Development Flowchart.......................................................................................................... 2-10 International Oil Price............................. 81 Fig.................................... 2005) .....List of Figure Fig..................... 2005)........ 74 Fig........ 3-16 Prospect Area in Tulehu (JICA............ 3-2 Map of Geothermal Area in West East Nusa Tenggara (DGMCG... 2007)............. 4-6 Geographical relation between prospects and the conservation forest in Jailolo.................................................. 3-7 Geological map in Wai Sano (after JICA....... 58 Fig............................................... Brotheridge et al..... 2000)....................... 44 Fig..................... 57 Fig.............. 5-3 Layout of Back Pressure Turbine Generator Set (5................... 2005) ................................................... 76 Fig........... et al................. 73 Fig................... 2-5 Electricity Demand Outlook in Eastern Provinces.................................. 2007)....................... 102 Fig................................. 2-1 Geothermal Development Road Map ............. 66 Fig................... 49 Fig............................ 57 Fig....... 74 Fig............................................................ 2005)....... Brotheridge et al.................. 93 Fig..................... 2000)............... 3-1 Map of Geothermal Area in West Nusa Tenggara (DGMCG......................... 2-11 Concept of Best Energy Mix in Eastern Provinces .... 53 Fig................ 2-4 Electrification Ratio in Eastern Provinces (2006)................................................................... 50 Fig. 2-6 Installed Capacity of PLN (2006) ........... 59 Fig.................................................. 92 Fig. 5-2 Photographs of Suginoi Hotel flash steam unit....................................................................................................... 4-1 Geographical relation between prospects and the conservation forest in Huu Daha and Wai Sano............ 3-17 Geothermal model in Jailolo (after VSI)........ 44 Fig............. 2-3 Electricity Sales in Eastern Provinces (2006) ...... 3-4 Map of Geothermal Area in Maluku (DGMCG.................................................................... 2-9 Generation Cost by Energy Type (2006)......................... 3-6 Geothermal area of Hu’u Daha (after J.................................................... 4-5 Geographical relation between prospects and the conservation forest in Tonga Wayana and Tulehu ................................... 3-14 Prospect Area in Sokoria Mutubusa (J.............. 80 Fig.... 105 .... 2-7 Comparison of Power Plant Mix between Whole Nation and Eastern Provinces (2006) .......... 51 Fig............... 67 Fig............ 47 Fig.. 96 Fig...... 4-2 Geographical relation between prospects and the conservation forest in Ulumbu and Bena-Mataloko............ 19 Fig.............. 3-15 Geological map in Tulehu (JICA.... 2005).. 2007)................ 2-8 Increase of Diesel Generation Cost and Diesel Fuel Price .............................. 45 Fig.......... 3-10 Compiled map of geothermal activity in the Nage and Wolo Bobo areas (JICA................................................... 94 Fig................................. 93 Fig.................. 2007) ................................................................................. 4-4 Geographical relation between prospects and the conservation forest in Ili Labaleken and Atadei ............................... 48 Fig............................................... 2007) ........... 3-3 Map of Geothermal Area in North Maluku (DGMCG........................... 92 Fig.. 1997) ........... 2-2 Electricity Demand and Supply Situation in Eastern Provinces (2006).............................. 3-8 Resistivity survey result in Wai Sano (after JICA............................... 64 Fig............ 58 Fig...................................
.......................................................................... 126 Fig............................................. 5-5 Project Organization ........................ 6-6 FIRR Sensitivity to Tariff Rate ..................... 127 Fig............................................................ 119 Fig. 107 Fig.................................................................................. 8-2 Project Screening Process by DNA ........................... 6-3 EIRR Sensitivity to Fuel Cost........................................ 119 Fig........................... 108 Fig. 5-6 Project Schedule (Tentative) ............................................................................................................... 8-4 CO2 Emission by Steam Production ......... 5-4 Typical Schemes of Geothermal Power Development in Indonesia ... 109 Fig............................. 6-5 FIRR Sensitivity to Project Cost........................................................................... 6-2 EIRR Sensitivity to Project Cost............................................................. 131 .......................... 129 Fig........................................ 115 Fig.... 116 Fig............................... 8-1 CO2 Emission by Power Source......................................... 115 Fig..... 6-1 EIRR Sensitivity to Capacity Factor................. 122 Fig........ 8-3 CER’s Price......... 6-4 FIRR Sensitivity to Capacity Factor ................ 6-7 Accumulate Balance of cash flow ...........................................................Fig.................................................................................. 120 Fig.......
...................................................................................................................................... 110 Table 5-2 Terms and Conditions of Loans.............................List of Table Table 1-1 Study Team Members .......................................................................................................................................... 15 Table 2-2 National Energy Policy.......................... 52 Table 3-1 Geothermal Resource Potential (MW) in Eastern Indonesia..... 87 Table 4-5 Standards of Noise Level........ 116 Table 6-2 Financial Internal Rate of Return ........ 87 Table 4-6 Standards of Noise Level at Source............................................................. 61 Table 4-1 Environment Quality Standards for Air Pollution ............................................................. 21 Table 2-7 Diesel Power Plants in Maluku and North Maluku . 91 Table 5-1 Contents of Project Cost ................. 22 Table 2-8 Diesel Power Plants in Nusa Tenggara................ 86 Table 4-3 Environmental Quality Standard for Water (Drinking Water Usage) .............................................................................................. 120 Table 6-3 Repayment Schedule for Power Plant Project .....................................................111 Table 6-1 Economic Internal Rate of Return ............................... 16 Table 2-3 Presidential Decree on “National Energy Policy” ..... 18 Table 2-5 Outline of Eastern Provinces .................................................................................................... 88 Table 4-7 Classification of Forest Area ....................................................................... 17 Table 2-4 Geothermal Energy Law........... 46 Table 2-11 Estimation of Geothermal Development Effect in Eastern Provinces.................................... 20 Table 2-6 Electricity Demand and Supply Situation in Eastern Provinces (2006) .......................................................................................................................................... 86 Table 4-2 Gas Exhaust Standard (Stationary Source)................... 60 Table 3-2 Present Status of geothermal resource development in Eastern Indonesia.............................................. 39 Table 2-10 Electricity Demand Outlook in Eastern Provinces ........... 86 Table 4-4 Quality Standards of Liquid Waste..................... 121 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6 Table 2-1 Geothermal Power Plant in Indonesia and its Development Scheme................................................... 5 Table 1-2 Schedule of First Trip in Indonesia .............. 6 Table 1-3 Schedule of Second Trip in Indonesia................................................................................................................ 34 Table 2-9 Diesel Power Plants in Flores Island .............................................................................. 121 Table 6-4 Cash Flow Statement .............................
Coal and Geothermal : Environmental Impact Assessment : Economic Internal Rate of Return : Energy Sales Contract : Financial Internal Rate of Return : Feasibility Study : Geological Agency : Gross Domestic Product : Initial Environmental Evaluation : Internal Rate of Return : Geothermal Energy Business Permit : Japan Bank International Cooperation : Japan International Cooperation Agency : Potassium-Argon : Loan Agreement : Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources : Magneto-Telluric : Non Condensable Gas : New Energy and Industrial technology Development Organization : Operation & Maintenance : Official Development Assistance : On-the Job-Training : Project Design Document .Abbreviations AMDAL BAPPENAS BPPT CDM CER CGR CO2 DGEEU DGMCG EIA EIRR ESC FIRR FS GA GDP IEE IRR IUP JBIC JICA K-Ar LA MEMR MT NCG NEDO O&M ODA OJT PDD : Analysis Mengenai Dampak Lingkungan : National Development Planning Agency : Baden Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi : Clean Development Mechanism : Certified Emission Reduction : Center for Geological Resources : Carbon dioxide : Directorate General of Electricity & Energy Utilization : Directorate General of Mineral.
PERTAMINA (Persero) : Project Information Note : PT. Perusahaan Listrik Negara (Persero) : Rencana Umum Ketenagalistrikan Nasional : Rencana Usaha Penyediaan Tenaga Listrik : Time Domain Electro Magnetic : Ton of Oil Equivalent : Value Added Tax : Weighted Average Cost of Capital . PETRAMINA Geothermal Energy : PT.PERTAMINA PIN PGE PLN RUKN RUPTL TDEM TOE VAT WACC : PT.
the Indonesian economy has shown a great improvement after the crisis due to the results of various policy reforms and supported by the inflow of investment from foreign and domestic sources. geothermal energy production is extremely steady with less fluctuation caused by weather or by seasonal condition.000 GWh in 2025. Indonesian government worked out "National Energy Policy (NEP)" in 2002. it is necessary to reduce oil dependency in energy source in order to reduce generation cost and to secure stable energy supply. the power plant development in this system is most important.222GWh. The National Electricity Development Plan 2005 (RUKN 2005) estimates that the peak power demand of the country will increase at the average annual rate of 7. It also estimates that the energy demand will increase at almost same rate and will reach 450. For this purpose.1% increase from the previous year. Necessity of Geothermal Power Development in Eastern Provinces Background of Geothermal Power Development in Indonesia Indonesia suffered the largest impact among ASEAN countries in the Asian economic crisis in 1997. the government put the important role on geothermal energy which exists affluently in the country. Indonesian Government’s Intention on Geothermal Power Development The utilization of geothermal energy has already a long history and more than 8. 2. However. In the light of high oil price. the development of power plants which meets these demand is one of the urgent issues of the Indonesian power sector. Another urgent issue that the Indonesian power sector faces is the diversification of energy sources. The peak power demand of the whole country reached 20. Thus.5% and will reach 79. the 5. the Indonesian economy is expanding steadily.2%of the total country. To achieve this target.000 MW capacity of geothermal energy has been exploited in the world.354 MW in 2006 and showed the 5. The geothermal energy can be used for social development i . Notwithstanding one form of natural energy.Executive Summary 1.900 MW in 2025.1% increase from the pervious year. The amount of energy demand in 2006 also records 113. Since the demand in the Java-Bali system accounts for 77. In order to secure stable energy supply. The study and planning were carried out in consideration of application for Japanese Yen Loan in the next Japanese fiscal year. Maluku and North Maluku Provinces. But the power development in other system is also very crucial because the power demand will increase rapidly due to the expansion of the rural electrification and rural economy. and the electric power demand is also increasing rapidly. Objectives The purpose of the study is to survey geothermal resources and formulate a practical development plan making best use of the resource for substitution of geothermal power generation with existing and planned diesel powers in West Nusa Tengara. East Nusa Tengara. and set the target of supplying 5% or more of the primary energy by renewable energy by 2020.
although this capacity is the forth largest in the country-ranking in the world. the geothermal development can contribute to world community for preventing global warming by reduction of carbon dioxide gas emission. However. “Basic Strategy for Geothermal Field Development in Remote Islands. The Government worked out "National Energy Policy” (NEP) in 2002. geothermal power plants exist in seven fields in Indonesia.500 MW by 2025 is set. ii . which aimed to study the concrete strategy to attain Road Map of Geothermal Development. the Government enacted "Geothermal Energy Law" in 2003 to promote the participation of private sector in geothermal power business. Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (MEMR) worked out "Road Map Development Planning of Geothermal Energy" (Road Map) to materialize the National Energy Policy in 2004. In addition. Moreover. The development of geothermal energy has a great significance for the national economy and the people’s life in Indonesia. Moreover. In September 2007.000 MW by 2020 and 9. Today. and set a target of supplying 5% or more of the primary energy by renewable energy by 2020. a basic framework for geothermal energy development has been formulated and the Government has started its efforts to attain these development targets.000 MW and is though to account for more than 40% of world total potential. Thus. In this Road Map. which was estimated as more than 27. In remote islands geothermal power plant is the most economic advantageous power source. because other power plants can not utilize the scale-merit in construction cost. and (iii) The governmental development activities are indispensable to promote small geothermal energy resources in remote islands in the eastern regions since private investors are unlikely to promote these small geothermal resources in these regions. the report proposed the following way. since geothermal energy is global-environmentally friendly. the development of geothermal power has been strongly expected in order to supply energy to the increasing power demand and to diversify energy sources. and the total capacity reaches 857 MW. Therefore. a high development target of 6.in rural areas by introducing multipurpose utilization. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has submitted the final report on "Mater Plan Study for Geothermal Power Development in the Republic of Indonesia”. Having been urged by such situation. (i) the economic incentives such as the ODA finance for Pertamina and the increase of purchase price for private investors are necessary to promote the Rank A fields (the most promising fields). Indonesia has not fully utilized this huge geothermal potential yet. This study has evaluated 73 of promising geothermal fields in Indonesia and makes the following proposals. the Indonesian Government decided to promote geothermal energy development. As for how to promote geothermal fields in remote eastern islands. (ii) the preliminary survey by the geothermal promotion survey which includes test drilling by the government is necessary to promote private investors participation in the Rank B and the Rank C fields (the promising fields without test drilling holes). It is said that Indonesia has the world-biggest geothermal energy potential.
and accounts for 1. several fields developments. The possibility to utilize Yen Loan for the project finance was investigated in this study.949 billion Rupiah (Rp) in 2004. In a general way. However. In such fields. geothermal development in such small systems should be positively promoted in order to decrease the fuel cost of diesel power plants. the North Maluku province. based on the above-mentioned proposal. To supply electric power to this demand.2% of the whole Indonesian land. However. the Maluku province.Therefore. PLN or by local government company may be easy if the government succeeds to drilling steam wells in the survey and transfers the wells to the power plant operator. which consists of small islands. and the East Nusa Tenggara province are target islands for this project. as the development scale is small. The generated energy in this area in 2006 was iii .000 according to the national population estimation for 2005. the West Nusa Tenggara province. and accounts for 8. because of inflationary cost rise of fossil fuel for the diesel power generation and long term development of geothermal power plants of 186 MW until 2025. which promotes geothermal energy development in the eastern provinces in Indonesia by the Indonesian Government. General Status of Eastern Indonesia The surveyed area in this study is the eastern part of Indonesia. The regional Gross Domestic Production (GDP) of these four provinces totals 41. development of power plants of 186 MW in total in the eastern provinces was planned based on the existing resource data. Therefore. in such remote islands. The governmental survey and development are highly expected in remote islands. the Government should play the central role of developing geothermal energy fields in remote islands. and it accounts for 1.157 km2.8% of the whole Indonesia. power output and development program in each geothermal field should be decided after resource data collection by preliminary resource studies described later. Particularly. Considering commencement of operation of geothermal power plants by 2016.639. since urgent commencement of geothermal power development in the eastern provinces is considered to be necessary and pilot project of geothermal power development should be started as soon as possible. The total area of these four provinces is 153.9% of the entire Indonesian population. there is 469 MW installed generation capacity in the area. the support by ODA Yen Loan is considered to be sufficient for construction of 35 MW geothermal power plants as pilot projects. Therefore. The total population of these four provinces was 10. the development by private developers cannot be expected because the project scale is too small for business scale. Present Status of Power Sector and Economy of Power Generation in Eastern Indonesia The total maximum electric power demand in these four eastern provinces in 2006 was 270 MW. the construction of a small power plant by PT. there is a possibility of converting succeeded exploration wells into production wells.3% of total Indonesia. and it accounts for 4. to formulate a project. were decided to be developed using ODA Yen Loan. In Geothermal Master Plan. which include geothermal fields where geothermal resources were confirmed by the studies or an urgent need of substitution by geothermal power exists. “ The main purpose of this study is.
1,273 GWh, and it accounts for 1.2% of the whole country. The electrification ratio of each province is; 51.6% in Maluku and North Maluku provinces, 28.8% in the West Nusa Tenggara province, and 21.8% in the East Nusa Tenggara province. The electrification ratio in this area is considerably low compared with the national average. It is estimated that the electricity demand in these provinces will increase at an annual average of 7.4% and maximum electric power will reach 1,065 MW in 2025. Given that a reserve margin is expected to be 30-40%, it is expected that the necessary capacity of electric power facilities will reach 1,491 MW in 2025. The energy source mix of entire nation is well diversified. However, the eastern provinces completely rely on diesel power generation only. This is because the electric system in this area is small-scale due to isolated islands. However, the diesel power generation becomes extremely expensive under the current international oil price hike. The price of diesel fuel (HSD) was predicted to become 0.62 US$/litter in 2006 from 0.07 US$/litter in 2000, showing the expansion of as much as some 9 times more. As a result, the generation cost of diesel power plant of PT. PLN was predicted to become approximately 17.6 cents US$/kWh in 2006, making diesel power generation the most expensive one as well as gas turbine generation. In contrast, the generation cost of geothermal power plant in 2006 was 6.3 cents US$/kWh. The diesel generation cost was 2.8 times higher than that of geothermal power generation and there was the cost deference of 11.5 cents US$/kWh between both the costs. The international oil price was 66 US$/barrel in 2006, and it has been continuously increasing afterwards and has exceeded 110 US$/barrel in 2008. Due to this oil price increase, the price of diesel oil is also rising continuously. The price of diesel oil for industrial use in the eastern provinces which PT. PERTAMINA announced on March 1, 2008 becomes 0.936 US$/litter. Based on this new diesel oil price, the fuel cost of diesel generation in the eastern provinces is estimated as high as approximately 26 cents US$//kWh. This high fuel cost is a great heavy burden on the financial foundation of PT. PLN . The volume of diesel oil used in the eastern provinces was about 347,000 kilo litter in 2006. The cost of this diesel fuel is estimated as much as 325 million US$ based on the current diesel oil price (0.936 US$/litter). Therefore, if the base-load demand is supplied by geothermal power plant instead of diesel power plant, about 214,000 kilo litter of diesel fuel, which accounts for about 62% of total fuel consumption, can be saved in one year. The value of this fuel saving is about 200 million US$ based on the current diesel oil price. There is a great justification to promote geothermal energy development to substitute diesel power plant in the eastern provinces. There is no doubt that the geothermal power development in the eastern provinces as substitutes of diesel power contributes to inhabitation of financial deterioration of the Government and PT. PLN . Prevention of Global Warming Geothermal power development is generally expected as effective countermeasure against the global warming for conservation of global scale environment due to carbon dioxide gas emission of very low content from the power plants. Indonesia has a plenty of untapped geothermal-resources and remarkable reduction effect of the CO2 emission even in the eastern provinces can be expected, if the geothermal power is used as alterative energy of fossil fuel.
Most of all geothermal power developments in the eastern provinces must be regarded as the excellent CDM project. Carbon credits produced from these geothermal projects are necessary for not only developed country and Indonesia but also countries of the world for preventing the global warming. 3. Geothermal Resources in Eastern Indonesia Indonesia is blessed with abundant geothermal resources. The 253 geothermal areas were identified in Indonesia. The total potential was estimated as approximately 27,791 MW (DGMCG, 2005). In the eastern provinces (Nusa Tenggara and Maluku provinces), 37 geothermal fields were identified by DGMCG (2005), which total potential was estimated as 1,914 MW. Only two fields in the eastern province, Ulumbu and Mataloko have been studied by well-drilling to confirm reservoir conditions. Promising geothermal resources were confirmed by well discharges from high temperature reservoir. The other fields have been investigated at various levels commensurate with the development perspectives of each field. In 9 fields, Huu Daha, Wai Sano, Ulumbu, Bena-Mataloko, Sokoria-Mutubusa, Oka-Larantuka, Atadei, Tulehu and Jailolo, geothermal resource potentials had been evaluated by JICA (2007) based on some geoscientific data of reconnaissance studies or detail study data, and the data and the study results in these fields were reviewed in this study. Electricity of 110MW was planned to be generated by geothermal development of these 9 fields in the Master Plan study and 20 MW geothermal power development was recommended in the feasibility study of geothermal development in Flores. Except of 9 fields as listed above, exploration statuses are not clarified because available geoscientific data in these fields could not be obtained in this study. Except for Ulumbu and Mataloko, the present status of geothermal resources development is reconnaissance study level. These data allow estimating probable prospect area and probable heat source, and also allow establishing the sequence and geoscientific methods to use in the next stages of development. However, the data and information of geology, geochemistry and geophysics in the fields are not enough to make geothermal reservoir model and to evaluate generation power capacity of their fields. Therefore, geoscientific studies for clarification of characteristics and structure of the geothermal resources should be conducted as resource feasibility study in the fields in the eastern provinces except for Ulumbu and Mataloko. After the geoscientific surface study, exploratory well drilling and well test should be conducted to confirm geothermal resource existence and to evaluate its capacity. The current practical plans for geothermal development/expansion projects were confirmed through interviews during a mission trip to Indonesia. In the two fields of Ulumbu and Mataloko, small-scale power developments have been planned by PT. PLN . In addition, PT. PLN has actual plan of resource development in Hu’u Daha, Jailolo, Tolehu and Sembaiun. Development priority of these fields is regarded to be high, because resource existence in some of fields were confirmed and development risk at initial stage must be relatively low.
4. Necessary Assessment and Current Information of Environmental Aspect Necessary environmental study for construction of power plants and present status in and around the promising fields in the eastern provinces were checked in this study, for considering the feasibility of the geothermal power development projects. Regarding environmental regulations on geothermal power projects, environmental condition and impact in the objected area of the geothermal power project, whose capacity is more than 55MW, should be checked by application of Environmental Impact Assessment (AMDAL). The AMDAL in specific geothermal power projects in and around legally protected areas should be prepared, even if their development capacity is less than 55MW. In case that AMDAL is not nessesary, Environmental Management Effort (UKL) and Environmental Monitoring Effort (UPL) should be submitted according to the requirement of the ministry decree No. 86/2002. Geothermal power development activity can be conducted in the forest restricts in special circumstances. Government Regulation No.2/2008 approves geothermal power development activity in protection forest and production forest in exchange for tariff or government income on using forest area. Geothermal power development activity in kinds of the conservation forest is not allowed according to government regulation No.41/1999. The project implementation body should pay attention about the location of prospect which may be included in conservation forest. There are 37 geothermal prospects in the eastern province according to the data of Geological Agency of MEMR. 11 of 37 prospects were checked the geographical relation between prospects and the conservation forest. There are no serious environmental problems to precede the projects in the objected areas at present. However more detailed information on environment should be collected before starting the project. The forest condition of the other 26 prospects should be confirmed when the project areas are selected. 5. Implementation Plan Since urgent commencement of geothermal power development in the eastern Indonesia is considered to be necessary and pilot project of geothermal power development should be started as soon as possible, because of inflationary cost rise of fossil fuel for the diesel power generation, small scale geothermal power plant of 35MW in total is proposed to MEMR as appropriate project scale and period. Considering commencement of operation of geothermal power plants as soon as possible, the support by ODA Yen Loan is considered to be sufficient for construction of 35 MW geothermal power plants as pilot projects. Based on the discussion among the MEMR, Ministry of Finance(MOF) and National Development Planning Agency(BAPPENAS), the procedure for registration of Blue Book will be started by MEMR as a project of PT. PLN . Project Preparation Based on information such as location of diesel power plant and transmission/ distribution line,
Geological Agency). Necessary resource studies should be conducted in the project for securing geothermal steam. However. the reservoir simulation for getting reasonable results on resource output capacity requires state of the art. Highly capable drilling supervisors should be hired for smooth drilling works. This study should be entrusted to geothermal consulting firm.14 prospects in the eastern Indonesia. the company will be selected through international bidding. Usually geothermal consultant firm can dispatch such supervisors. if possible. After conducting the necessary surface resource studies. Center for Geological resources. The wells. Some material and equipment for drilling will need to be procured through international bidding. These studied should be entrusted to consulting firm of geothermal development. this work should be preferably conducted before starting the project by preliminary surface studies.consumer power demand. Since special technologies and experiences are necessary for these studies and the studies for securing steam are the most important in the geothermal power development. these studies should be entrusted to consulting firm of geothermal development. The design of geothermal power plants will be conducted on the basis of characteristics of geothermal fluid and development plan. data collected from these studies will be summarized using the database software. For deciding detailed description and program of the project. the optimum development plan of available power output will be formulated. Geothermal Power Plant Construction Based on the results of the geothermal resource evaluation carried out before plant construction stage. Well drilling will be undertaken by drilling company (or the government institute. delineation of the geothermal reservoirs and decision of exploration drilling targets. Resource Development for Securing Geothermal Steam Surface resource survey such as geology. The detailed planning and power plant design should be entrusted to experienced geothermal-consulting firm. An Integrated analysis will be carried out using the database for preparing the geothermal conceptual model. twenty-eight exploratory wells will be drilled at 10. geochemistry and geophysics will be carried out at selected geothermal prospects for the purpose of confirmation of resource existence. Moreover. In case of employment of private drilling company. all geoscientific data will be consolidated into a conceptual model. vii . which will be succeeded in steam production. as described later. will be used as production wells. After well drilling and test. promising areas of geothermal power development will be selected for diesel power substitution and the detailed project program of each field development will be prepared. these studies are desired to be conducted as preparation study by support from Japan. seven reinjection wells will be drilled and wastewater will be injected under the ground through these wells. Based on the results of surface survey. and the evaluation of the geothermal potential will be conducted through the application of numerical modeling techniques using this conceptual model (reservoir simulation). potential and characteristics.
PLN can undertake the once-through power development. for smooth project management. insulators. and distribution lines. Project Schedule and Cost viii . test and commissioning. PLN has ample experiences in implementation of the construction projects of the geothermal power plants. CT.8(t-CO2/MWh) in case of the generation capacity bigger than 200kW. the GHG emission reduction by this project will be estimated and the procedure for registration of CDM project will be started. circuit breakers. Since geothermal power development from geothermal resource development to power plant construction requires special technologies. supply. the project executing agency. The contractor will be selected through international bidding. 7 power stations will be constructed at least. arrestor. This project promotes the efficiency and diversification of power supply of in the eastern provinces. because the following background was considered for realizing the project. PT. PLN is believed to have enough capacity to develop geothermal power plants in the eastern provinces. PT. PLN . PLN as Implication Agency of Geothermal Power Development in Eastern Indonesia PT. substation.Small scale power plants of 35MW in total will be constructed after the resource survey and the well drilling. PLN can assign their geothermal specialists as the key person for implementation of the development project from resource survey to power plant construction. procurements. PLN was nominated as the executing agency of this project by MEMR. VT. substations and distribution lines. and this project is composed of the small scale geothermal power construction projects utilizing renewable geothermal energy. transmission line. The effect of GHG (Green House Gas) emission reduction is 0. transmission and distribution. and PT. PLN is responsible for power supply in Indonesia. If adequate power output of each plant is estimated 5MW in the project preparation study. PT. PT. The transmission line and substation system will include transmission line from main transformer to a substation. bus. which are composed of the remote and isolated islands. supporting structure.e. Based on the results of geothermal reservoir simulation and conceptual design of geothermal power plant. will employ a consulting firm that has sufficient experience in all the stages for geothermal resource development and construction of geothermal power plant. the power plant will be constructed on "single package full-turnkey" basis in which a sole contractor will undertake engineering. the transmission lines. Substitution of diesel power by geothermal power is very auspicious as the CDM project. i. disconnecting switches. In order to shorten the construction period. installation. PT. protective relay board and ancillaries. the whole scope of the project from the geothermal resource development to the power generation. PT.
which was announced as adequate value in the private project by the Government. This enables to export fossil fuel instead of domestic consumption and to acquire foreign currencies.5 % while the hurdle rate is 12 %. A FIRR method was applied to this project for evaluation of the project economy. the construction of power plants in various fields was regarded as one project of 35 MW and general values of each components of geothermal power development were used for cost estimation of the geothermal power plant construction including steam development. This period should be changed depending on the planning in the preparation study. in order to obtain EIRR. an internal rate of return to equalize the cost (investment and operating costs) and revenue by sales of energy generated for the project life were calculated.A tentative implementation schedule of the project is prepared. the project cost of each power plant construction could not be calculated. US$ 1. In this study.356. Most of all private companies in Indonesia are considered to aim FIRR of 16%. It is assumed that JBIC will participate as financier under the Yen Loan scheme. It was revealed that the private companies would suffer from a deficit of more than 50 ix .81 million in total for the period of project life. The capacity factor was assumed to be 85 % in this evaluation. Therefore. If this project starts in November 2008. Since programs on the power plant construction in various fields could not be prepared due to shortage of resource potential data. and net present value of costs for the geothermal project was compared with that for the alternative project for project life. the possibility of introduction of private sector into geothermal power business in the eastern province was discussed in this study. As this value much exceeds the WACCs at 2. Using the FIRR method and the results of the Mater Plan study. Economic Assessment of Planned Projects The economic viability of the planned project was evaluated by an EIRR method in this study.95 %. Although initial investment for geothermal power project is much higher than the alternative. An alternative power project that is capable to give the same services (salable energy) as geothermal power was assumed. the project completion will be in July 2015.35 %. PLN is responsible for procuring the financial resources needed for the implementation of the project. a diesel power was selected. The fuel cost will be saved as much as USD 45. The calculated FIRR value was 11. The project takes 81 months after commencement of the project (Loan Agreement Effectiveness) for resource survey for the first power plant until the commercial operation start of the last power plant. the project is judged to be financially feasible under present conditions. the geothermal can generate electric energy without using fuel. The project economy of the geothermal power projects in the eastern province was calculated using conditions clarified in the previous studies and assumed in this study. Assuming FIRR of 16%.23 million every year. Total project cost is estimated to be 161miliom USD. As the alternative power source. 6. The obtained rate was compared with the opportunity cost of capital. adequate electricity tariff was calculated and cash flow of the project was checked in this study. The project could dominate the alternative project as the project EIRR stands at 39. PT.
Since emission reduction factor of AMS I.million USD every year. because FIRR desired by them is low and they can use ODA soft loan such as Yen Loan etc. Potential of CDM Projects The geothermal power generation is considered that the amount of the CO2 emission at the life cycle is less than that of other power supplies. 7. Moreover. The small scale geothermal power development activity of SSC is categorized as Type-I in the CDM program. even if the tariff and the FIRR were relatively high. bigger than the other renewable energy.8(t-CO2/MWh) is applied to the power plant of bigger than 200kW. compared with those in main islands such as Java.D for small scale geothermal power generation is difficult to estimate using the installed capacity and utilization rates. Project Preparation The first development target was decided to be power plants construction of 35 MW in total in the meeting among MEMR. the reduction factor of 0. the effect of the emission reduction of 208. BAPPENAS. the Government or the government owned corporation can conduct more economical management of the geothermal power projects in the eastern provinces. the geothermal power plant generates an electric power that is high utilization rates. In case of the small scale geothermal plants of 35MW. the Government’s burden for electricity supply to these provinces is believed to be reduced remarkably. the geothermal power development projects by the private sector as substitutes of diesel power are under difficult condition of economy. The small scale geothermal power plant of the project is connected to a grid so that the methodology will be applied for AMS I.5 (kt-CO2/year) is expected. However. Therefore. this project can bring about the maximum reduction effect of subsidy by the Government for electricity power business in the eastern provinces.D is used for renewable electricity generation for a grid. the project is attractive as the CDM project. The debt for working funds will be heavy load for private company. Therefore. since a big effect of the CO2 emission reduction by the geothermal project can be expected. Type-I is recognized as renewable energy project activities with a maximum output capacity equivalent to up to 15 MW (or an appropriate equivalent). the project must meet the requirements of the ODA Yen Loan project such as x . As described above. The support by the Japanese ODA Yen Loan is strongly expected for avoiding a deficit in the project economy. considering power demand in the eastern provinces and project support from Japan. because costs of construction and operation of geothermal power plants in remote islands of the eastern ss are relatively high. Since adequate tariff rate was obtained to be 14 cent/kWh in case of FIRR of 12 % for government’s or government owned corporation’s project. 8. Sumatra and Sulawesi. If they conduct geothermal power development in the eastern provinces. PLN on 12 March 2008. AMS I.D. MOF and PT.
before starting the main project. environmental constraints etc. The Government and PT. it is desired that the preparation study is conducted using JBIC scheme of SAPPROF (Special Assistance for Project Formation). Since it takes a considerable amount of time and cost to conduct whole surface surveys including geophysical survey. existence of high potential geothermal resources and necessity of geothermal power projects in the eastern provinces can understood from the existing data. Regarding geothermal power development in the Flores Island.information on project feasibility including estimation of geothermal resource potential. PLN . About geothermal areas other than the Flores Island. For realizing the development projects by the Japanese ODA Yen Loan. As described in this report. study program and development plan of each field should be prepared based on the geothermal resource data by preliminary geological survey and geochemical study. these study projects have concentrated on the Flores Island. geological data and geochemical data for revealing the resource characteristics and potentials are generally collected by the surface surveys in consideration of reduction of the project cost and risk. However. but adequate and capable power output and characteristics of geothermal resources in each field have not been revealed. Collection and analysis of the geoscientific data and programming are indispensable before starting the project. the resource data should be collected by the preliminary geological survey and geochemical survey and development program should be prepared. since data and information on the feasibility study of geothermal fields in the eastern area have been partially collected. there is no adequate data for preparation of geothermal power development plans. When the geothermal power development including the steam development is planned. some parts of development plan should be modified in accordance with present development policy by PT. Since the project contains the entire development plans in various islands. project feasibility of the geothermal development in each field should be clarified on the basis of data of geothermal resource. if these preliminarily resource surveys and project planning are conducted before start of the development project supported by Yen Loan. It is thought that a more certain project becomes possible despite of containing of securing steam in resource development study. PLN have studied geothermal power development in eastern provinces and the Japanese Government supported their activity through the research study by NEDO and the feasibility study by JETRO. Therefore. these detailed surveys in the selected fields should be conducted in the main project. If the project is supposed to be supported by ODA Yen Loan. detailed program of geothermal power development in each field could not be prepared in this study. development program. future power demand and environmental constraints. before starting the development project. and data and information of predicted future power demand and environmental constraints. At present. xi .
Understanding that the substitution of diesel power with geothermal would greatly contribute to curtailing the consumption of fuel oil. to stable power supply and global warming gas (CO2) reduction. the Indonesian Government tries to develop nationwide geothermal development positively. So far. and oppressed both the PLN’s financial conditions and the Government electricity subsidiary budget. and enacted the Geothermal Law to implement the plan. more than ten (10) times of the so far developed capacity. The Master Plan Study report was highly evaluated as it may contribute to hastening the geothermal power development in the country. and found out the possibility to substitute the diesel power with fuel cost-free geothermal power. reduction of the government subsidies. So. the geothermal development in these areas would be led by the central or regional government. the by-laws of the Geothermal Law has been promulgated and in major geothermal fields in Java. The electricity in archipelago in the eastern part of Indonesia heavily relies on diesel power. The Master Plan also pointed out the fact that the inflationary cost of the fuel caused the distress of the Government.500 MW. The intention has been forwarded to JBIC from the DGMCG of MEMR. The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (MEMR). the generating cost of which has been doubled by soaring fuel cost and transportation cost. PT. By the Master Plan Study. the Japan Government extended the technical assistance of the Geothermal Master Plan study in Indonesia by JICA. Thus. etc. the geothermal power scale may probably be a total capacity of less 10 MW per site that is too small to give incentives to a private sector. 1 . It formulated a geothermal power development plan of 9. Under the circumstances above. the Government tries to accelerate the geothermal power development making use of Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) scheme. the Government has started with the study for implementation. environmental conditions. Based on the Master Plan Study results. no feasibility study except for some fields in Flores has been done for this purpose. Owing to limited power demand in isolated islands. PLN and private sector launched several large scale geothermal power development project. by the year 2025. and proposes assistance from Japan. were surveyed in geothermal fields in the whole Indonesia.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. PERTAMINA. In November 2007. through the Master Plan Study. The MEMR headed by the Minister considers that the diesel substitute geothermal undertaking at the eastern provinces is the most significant project of the projects needing the Government assistance. and moreover. Sumatra and Sulawesi. and then corresponding geothermal power development programs were formulated. the geothermal power resource potential. PT. the Japanese Yen Loan in particular.1 Outline of Study Facing the soaring fossil fuel oil cost and for contribution to the global environmental preservation. fully understands features of a geothermal power and its high potential in these areas. required power demand.
latest price inflation of oil. The utilization of local primary energy places priority on utilization of renewable energy in view of environmental safety. small scale geothermal power development by the Government or PT.2. The geothermal development master plan formulated by the MEMR based on the JICA Master Plan is consist of a) A large scale development by PT. PERTAMINA /PLN and private sectors at the geothermal fields where the transmission grids in Java. the mission of power sector outside Java is outlined as follows: • To prioritize power generation with renewable energy in remote and isolated local areas where small scale power is required The policy of using primary energy for power generation consists of both the measures utilizing local primary energy sources and new/renewal energy sources. fuel transportation cost. Bali.1 Project Identity in Government Geothermal Development Plan Under the order of the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources in RUKN (April 2005). if the study for geothermal development in the eastern regions and coordination among the agencies in Indonesia could be attained. and low availability factor of facilities) has caused severe profit losses year by year. With this Assistance Services by ECFA. In addition. the Indonesian Government has tried to convert it to other renewable energy power sources. and the coordination with the relevant agencies about the prepared draft planning are indispensable to attain the Government objective. because diesel power generation emits greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. the national policy is clearly stated that energy utilization with geothermal. To promote utilization of renewable energy for power generation. 1. main power sources rely on mostly diesel power. The development of geothermal power would greatly contribute to substitution of the fossil energy consumption and to prevention of global warming. 2 . biomass and hydro shall be over 5% in 2020 in Indonesia. the economic assistance from Japan would be realized and the small scale geothermal power development to substitute diesel power could be forwarded as the Indonesian Government earnestly has been expecting. In remote island far from the national grid.2 Background 1. PLN . The utilizing local energy measures means to utilize fossil energy and non-fossil energy. and those high operation and maintenance costs (fuel purchase cost. technical possibility and economic efficiency.the study for the program preparation needed for application of the Yen Loan. Sumatra and Sulawesi are accessible: and b) Independent.
021 MW (27.4%) for public use. and the peak demand at 20. The entire load is supplied by isolated power sources.9%) for industrial use.727 MW (10.6%) for commercial use. Maximum electric power demand in 2006 was 83 MW. 9 GWh (3. 63 GWh (18. which breaks down as 226 GWh (66. it is a significant and important energy development project for promotion at the economically deterred areas. Net system energy demand was 508 GWh in 2006.467 GWh.529 MW (14. In addition. and geothermal units are under construction in Sulawesi.3%) for commercial use. and 807 MW (3.2. The power mix of PLN was. and a large scale geothermal power development has been planned in Sumatra. 10 GWh (2.2%) by geothermal. No practical geothermal development project has been planned in the eastern part of Indonesia.2 Power Situation and Rural Electrification In 2006 statistics.8% 3) Maluku Island The Maluku Island is divided into Maluku Province and North Maluku Province. The electrification rate of the province in 3 . and generated output was 382 GWh. and generated output was 313 GWh.8%. Net system energy demand was 341 GWh in 2006. which breaks down as 333 GWh (65. The following are the electric power situations in the objective provinces: 1) West Nusa Tenggara The peak demand in the year 2006 was 1116 MW and total power generation 579 GWh in scattered power systems. which breaks down as 178 GWh (63. 2) East Nusa Tenggara Maximum electric power in 2006 was 72 MW. The total installed capacity of PLN was 25. 2. 1.8%) by combined cycle. and 43 GWh (15. 7. but the electric supply is made by PLN as one region in the name of Maluku Region.220 MW (32.2%) for public use. 6 GWh (1.5%) by thermal.2%) for public use.354 MW.610 GWh. This geothermal power development in the eastern part of Indonesia aiming at substitution of diesel power is a high priority project as MEMR’s own project and advocated by the Minister of MEMR himself. 8. The electrification rate of the province in 2006 reached 28.941 MW (11.258 MW with a generation of 104. 2.0%) for industrial use. the power demand (sold energy) recorded at 112. The electrification rate of the province in 2006 reached 21. Net system energy demand was 280 GWh in 2006.8%) by gas-turbine. 3. 113 GWh (22.3%) for household use.5%) for household use.9%) for commercial use.0%) by hydro. 50 GWh (17.6%) by diesel.The geothermal power development in the eastern part of Indonesia is identified corresponding to the later one above.6%) for household use. Most of the geothermal units are located in Java.2%) for industrial use. and 45 GWh (13. the enegy of 28.640 GWh was received from power generator other than PLN. and 55 GWh (10. The entire load is supplied by isolated power sources. As this project has been clearly and frequently identified and mentioned at the government seminar (BAPPENAS) and other government publications.
Maluku and North Maluku.4 Scope of Work The following studies will be carried out in the Study: Present situation of energy and geothermal development Geothermal resources in the eastern provinces Environmental and social aspects Development program of geothermal resources Economic and financial evaluation Action plan for JBIC ODA Loan Project potential for CDM 1.3 Objectives The purpose of the study is to survey geothermal resources and formulate a practical development plan making best use of the resource for substitution of geothermal power generation with existing and planned diesel power in West Nusa Tengara. As the Indonesian Fiscal is to start January. PLN ). the assistance of the Government 4 . the generating cost may be comparatively higher than the large-scale development. Indonesia 1. the geothermal power capacity per site may be approximately less than 10 MW.6%.6 Future Initiative In this geothermal development plan aiming at substituting diesel power. the start of resource survey may be from January to March 2009. (partly from 2008) and the geothermal power units is to commission in 2016 to 2018.5 Study Area West and East Nusa Tenggara. 1. East Nusa Tengara and Maluku and North Maluku Provinces. the introduction of JBIC ODA Loan with a very soft loan conditions will become significant. According to the Master Plan published at open workshop in August 2007 by DGMCG-JICA.2006 reached 51. Due to economy of scale. In consideration of the fact above. The study and planning is carried out in due consideration of application for Japanese Yen Loan in the next Japanese fiscal year. So. Though the Master Plan specifies the bidding for actual implementation for power generation facilities in these areas. the development should be undertaken mainly by the Government or the Government owned corporation (PT. 1. a few years will be taken for confirmation of steam production. and then. the geothermal power development in these areas is to start with resource survey (resource exploration and exploratory well drilling) from 2010.
Development Planning Power Sector Analysis Resource Potential Evaluation and Power Generating System Environmental and Social Analyses Geothermal Resources Evaluation Evaluation Geothermal Resources Evaluation and Economic 1. 2008. This project is the development of a renewable energy resource and applicable for a small scale CDM specified by the Kyoto Protocol.8 Study Schedule Two trips to Indonesia were conducted for this study. 5 .7 Study Team Persons in charge of the study are listed below. Table 1-1 Study Team Members No. 2008. contents of the study and existing feasibility study report does not seem to be enough to start the development project. the project will be appraised by JBIC within 2008. 1. a list of the projects which the Government is to make application for Japanese Yen Loan. The first survey was conducted from February 10. Then. Name Specialty 1 2 3 4 5 6 Kan’ichi SHIMADA Masahiko KANEKO Hiroshi NAGANO Hiroyuki TOKITA Toshimitsu MIMURA Yoshio SOEDA Team Leader. it is possible to start the undertaking of the project in the year 2010. and if the Loan for the project should be committed by the end of 2008. Detail activities of the surveys in Indonesia are shown in Tables 1-2 and 1-3.or PT. However. 2008 to March 14. it is recommended that preliminary resource study and preparing of the project should be conducted before starting the project. 2008 to February 16. Both of the surveys were to have a meeting with institutions concerned and responsible persons and gather relevant information. The second survey was carried out from March 9. PLN becomes necessary once the JBIC ODA Loan should be extended for the project. The project is signification not only for Indonesia but also for Japan. The ultimate purpose of this study is that the project should be included in the Government Blue Book by March 2008.
Date Schedule Stay 1 10-Feb-08 Sun Traveling: Fukuoka to Jakarta Jakarta 2 11-Feb-08 Mon Meeting with Center for Geological Resources. Geological Agency Meeting with Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology 12-Feb-08 Tue Metting with Directorate General of Mineral. Coal and Geothermalo.Table 1-2 Schedule of First Trip in Indonesia No. 10-Mar-08 Mon MEMR Meeting with PLN 11-Mar-08 Tue Meeting with Directorate General of Electricity & Energy Utilization Team Meeting Meeting with National Development Planning Agency Meeting with Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology Jakarta 2 Jakarta 3 Jakarta 4 12-Mar-08 Wed Jakarta 5 Meeting with JICA Meeting with JBIC 13-Mar-08 Thu Meeting with PLN Traveling: Jakarta to Fukuoka/Tokyo 14-Mar-08 Fri Traveling: Jakarta to Fukuoka/Tokyo Fly Overnight 6 - 6 . MEMR Traveling: Jakarta to Fukuoka Jakarta 3 Jakarta 4 Jakarta 5 14-Feb-08 Thu Jakarta 6 15-Feb-08 Fri Fly Overnight 7 16-Feb-08 Sat Traveling: Fukuoka to Jakarta - Table 1-3 Schedule of Second Trip in Indonesia No. Date Schedule Stay 1 09-Mar-08 Sun Traveling: Fukuoka/Tokyo to Jakarta Metting with Directorate General of Mineral. Coal and Geothermal. Coal and Geothermal. MEMR 13-Feb-08 Wed Meeting with PLN Meeting with Directorate General of Electricity & Energy Utilization Meeting with Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology Team Meeting Metting with Directorate General of Mineral.
But the power development in other system is also very crucial because the power demand will increase rapidly due to the expansion of the rural electrification and rural economy. since it is a domestically produced energy. In addition. Another urgent issue that the Indonesian power sector faces is the diversification of energy sources. the Indonesian economy is expanding steadily. geothermal energy has little environmental impact such as air 7 . 2. since geothermal energy does not use fuel in its operation. geothermal energy production is extremely steady with less fluctuation caused by weather or by seasonal condition. and the electric power demand is also increasing rapidly. the exploitation of geothermal energy also contributes to the national economy through acquisition of foreign currency in payment. Notwithstanding one form of natural energy. In the light of high oil price. For this purpose. Thus.1% increase from the previous year.000 MW capacity of geothermal energy has been exploited in the world.222 GWh. In addition. Since the demand in the Java-Bali system accounts for 77. In a country which exports energy.1% increase from the pervious year.2 Significance of Geothermal Energy Development The utilization of geothermal energy has already a long history and more than 8. geothermal energy greatly contributes to the national energy security. It also estimates that the energy demand will increase at almost same rate and will reach 450. the exploitation of geothermal energy favorably contributes to the national economy through the saving of the foreign currency.900 MW in 2025. the government put the important role on geothermal energy which exists affluently in the country.000 GWh in 2025. in a country which largely depends on imported energy.Chapter 2 Necessity of Geothermal Development in the Eastern Provinces 2. Indonesian government worked out "National Energy Policy (NEP)" in 2002.354 MW in 2006 and showed the 5. the development of power plants which meets these demand is one of the urgent issues of the Indonesian power sector. The amount of energy demand in 2006 also records 113. In order to secure stable energy supply. the 5. and set the target of supplying 5% or more of the primary energy by renewable energy by 2020. the power plant development in this system is most important. Moreover. However. From environmental viewpoint. it is insusceptible to the fuel price increase caused by increase of international oil price or depreciation of currency exchange rate.1 Background of Geothermal Power Development in Indonesia Indonesia suffered the largest impact among ASEAN countries in the Asian economic crisis in 1997. The peak power demand of the whole country reached 20. the Indonesian economy has shown a great improvement after the crisis due to the results of various policy reforms and supported by the inflow of investment from foreign and domestic sources. To achieve this target.2%of the total country. The National Electricity Development Plan 2005 (RUKN 2005) estimates that the peak power demand of the country will increase at the average annual rate of 7. it is necessary to reduce oil dependency in energy source in order to reduce generation cost and to secure stable energy supply.5% and will reach 79.
As a result. Additionally. Darajat. Kamojang.pollution because there is no combustion process in geothermal power plant. i. although this capacity is the forth largest in the country-ranking in the world.3 Current State of Geothermal Energy Development in Indonesia It is said that Indonesia has the world-biggest geothermal energy potential. Today. and enhanced the NEP from ministerial level policy to the presidential level policy.500 MW by 2025 is set. the development of geothermal power has been strongly expected in order to supply energy to the increasing power demand and to diversify energy sources.5/2006) in 2006. geothermal power plants exist in seven fields in Indonesia. Therefore. and set a target of supplying 5% or more of the primary energy by renewable energy by 2020. Sibayak in north Sumatra. and has been continuously expanding in these years. Thus. Indonesian economy has showed a good recovery from the Asian economic crisis. The total power generation capacity reaches 857 MW. it is a global-environmentally friendly energy because the CO2 exhaust is also extremely little from geothermal power plant. the Government promulgated the “Presidential Decree on the National Energy Policy” (PD No. 2. the Government enacted "Geothermal Law" for the first time in 2003 to promote the participation of private sector in geothermal power generation. Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources worked out "Road Map Development Planning of Geothermal Energy" (hereafter “Road Map") to materialize the national energy plan in 2004. a basic framework for geothermal energy development has been formulated and the Government has started its efforts to attain these development targets. Indonesia has not fully utilized this huge geothermal potential yet. Having been urged by such situation. a high development target of 6. 2. On the other hand.e. which is estimated as more than 27. This study has evaluated and classified 73 promising geothermal fields in Indonesia into the range of “rank A” to “rank N”.000 MW by 2020 and 9. On the other hand. which aims to study the concrete strategy to attain the Road Map of Geothermal Development. In this Road Map. Salak in west Java. the oil supply has decreased due to depletion of existing oilfields or aging of the production facilities. Moreover. Accordingly the domestic energy demand is also expanding. the Indonesian Government decided to diversify energy sources and to promote domestic energy sources in order to lower oil dependency. and Lahendong in north Sulawesi. In addition. Dieng in Central Java. geothermal energy can contribute to regional development through utilization of hot water from the power plant. The Government worked out "National Energy Policy” (NEP) in 2002. Moreover. and has proposed the method of promoting each field in the 8 . Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has submitted the final report on "Mater Plan Study for Geothermal Power Development in the Republic of Indonesia”. Indonesia changed its status form an oil-export country to an oil-import country in 2002. Wayang-Windu. However.000 MW and is though to account for more than 40% of world total potential. The development of geothermal energy has a great significance for the national economy and the people’s life.4 Methodology to Promote Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern Provinces In September 2007.
B. which consists of small islands. The outlines are as follows. geothermal development in such small systems should be positively promoted in order to decrease the generation costs. In such fields. the Government should play the central role of development. the West Nusa 9 . However. the geothermal development is also desired to promote rural electrification in such small islands. “Basic Strategy for Geothermal Field Development in Remote Islands There are some geothermal fields in remote islands in rank A. “ 2. geothermal power plant is the most economic advantageous power source. Therefore. to formulate a project which promotes geothermal energy development in the eastern provinces in Indonesia by the Indonesian Government. because other power plants can not utilize the scale-merit in construction cost. in such remote islands. the construction of a small power plant by PT. the North Maluku province. the report proposes the following wat as for how to promote geothermal fields in the remote eastern islands. as the National Energy Plan aims at 90% of nationwide electrification or more by 2020. (i) the economic incentives such as the ODA finance for Pertamina and the increase of purchase price for private investors are necessary to promote the Rank A fields (the most promising fields). and C. The surveyed area in this study is the eastern part of Indonesia. development of geothermal resources will be small-scale because the power demand in the system is not so large. It also surveyed the possibility to utilize Yen Loan for the project finance. and (iii) The governmental development activities are indispensable to promote small geothermal energy resources in remote islands in the eastern regions since private investors are unlikely to promote these small geothermal resources in these regions. In such remote islands where private sector is unlikely to participate. (ii) the preliminary survey by the geothermal promotion survey which includes test drilling by the government is necessary to promote private investors participation in the Rank B and the Rank C fields (the promising fields without test drilling holes). as the development scale is small. Moreover. there is a possibility of converting succeeded exploration wells into production wells. Therefore. In these fields. PLN or by local government company may be easy if the Government succeeds to drilling steam wells in the survey and transfers the wells to the power plant operator. the development by private developers cannot be expected because the project scale is too small for business scale. based on the above-mentioned proposal. The governmental survey is highly expected in the fields in the table below. Specifically. the area is the Maluku province. Speciffcally.5 Social Situation of the Eastern Provinces The main purpose of this study is. In such small systems.future.
All the Maluku Islands formed a single province of Indonesia from 1950 until 1999. The Dutch. The population of North Maluku is one of the least populous provinces in Indonesia. The regional Gross Domestic Production (GDP) of these four provinces totals 41. and accounts for 8. At the time. broadly. on Lombok. Most of the population lives in Lombok. Clove trees have since been transported and replanted all around the world and the demand for clove from the original spice islands has ceased.949 billion Rupiah (Rp) in 2004.6% of the entire nation). PLN province and North Maluku province have been treated as one service region.9% in East Nusa Tenggara. with a minority Balinese population. In the PT.4% in North Maluku. The situation by the province is as follows. Lombok is mainly inhabited by the Sasak ethnic group. West Nusa Tenggara has 4. greatly reducing North Maluku's international importance. The total population of these four provinces is 10. North Maluku covers the northern part of the Maluku Islands. and East Nusa Tenggara has 4. Maluku province has 1.000 (0.9%). and the East Nusa Tenggara province. Mataram. 12.157 km2. and it accounts for 4. and Sumbawa is inhabited by Sumbawa and Bima ethnic groups.048 billion Rp (0. but the current capital and largest population center is the island of Ternate.594 billion (1. service. The main city and capital of Maluku province is Ambon on the small Ambon Island. the southern part of the Maluku Islands (also known as the Moluccas. 10 .4% in West Nusa Tenggara. and accounts for 1. The province is administratively divided into seven regencies and one municipality. and 27.0%). these eastern provinces have been greatly behind the development compared with the other provinces in Indonesia.356. In 1999 the Maluku Utara Regency and Halmahera Tengah Regency were split off as a separate province of North Maluku.8% of the whole Indonesia.938 billion Rp (0. RGDP of North Maluku is 2. Portuguese. which are split between it and the province of Maluku.368 billion Rp (0. RGDP of West Nusa Tenggara is 22.9% of the entire Indonesian population.6%). The planned provincial capital is Sofifi. Each of these groups has a local language associated with it as well.266. (Table 2-5). the islands of North Maluku were the original "Spice Islands".127. and RGDP of East Nusa Tenggara is 12.7% of the Indonesia average.000 according to the national population estimation for 2005.1% in Maluku. the province was the sole source of cloves.000 (1.1%).4%). This is mainly due to the geographic characteristic of remoteness of these provinces. and local kingdoms including Ternate and Tidore fought each other for control of the lucrative trade in these spices. 32. is the capital and largest city of the province. North Maluku has 890. Molucca Islands or Moluccan Islands).000 (2. 25.2% of the whole Indonesian land. The regional GDP of Maluku province is 4. Spanish.000 population (0. As these numbers show. on Halmahera.2% of the entire nation). In the sixteenth and seventeenth century.Tenggara province. West Nusa Tenggara is a province in south-central Indonesia.639. Maluku comprises. The two largest islands in the province are Lombok in the west and the larger Sumbawa Island in the east. except for Bali. It covers the western portion of the Lesser Sunda Islands.0%). Maluku The total area of these four provinces is 153. The poor population ratio over the total population in these provinces exceeds 16.
8% in the West Nusa Tenggara province.1 Maluku and North Maluku Maluku Island was separated into Maluku Province and North Maluku Province. which breaks down as 333 GWh (65. and generated output was 579 GWh. Given that a reserve margin is expected to be 30-40%. Semau. Menipo. The electrification ratio in this area is considerably low compared with the national average. Sumba. (Table 2-5) It is estimated that the electricity demand in these provinces will increase at an annual average of 7.2% of the whole country. 63 GWh (18.6. there is 469 MW installed generation capacity in the area. 28. but is dominated by the three main islands of Flores. The provincial capital is Kupang. To supply electric power to this demand. and generated output was 382 GWh. Savu. 11 .273 GWh. it is expected that the necessary capacity of electric power facilities will reach 1. and it accounts for 1. but the service of PT.6% in Maluku and North Maluku provinces. The entire load is supplied by isolated power sources.6%) for household use. Given that a reserve margin is expected to be 30-40%.6%) for commercial use. Ende. The entire load is supplied by isolated power sources. (Table2-6) The detail in each province is as follows: 2. PLN (Persero) covers these two provinces as one service area called the Maluku province. and Solor.6 Electricity Supply and Demand Situation in the Eastern Provinces The total maximum electric power demand in these four eastern provinces in 2006 is 270 MW. Other islands include Adonara.6%. The generated energy in the area in 2006 was 1. Net system energy demand was 508 GWh in 2006. 2. Alor.4% and maximum electric power will reach 1. and West Timor. The eastern part of Timor is the independent country of East Timor. the western half of the island of Timor.8% in the East Nusa Tenggara province. Rote Island (the southernmost island in Indonesia). Komodo.3%) for 1 According to the outlook of RUKN 2005. Maximum electric power demand in 2006 was 83 MW.065 MW in 20251. which breaks down as 226 GWh (66. and 21. 51.East Nusa Tenggara is located in the eastern portion of the Lesser Sunda Islands. Existing diesel power plants in Maluku and North Maluku is shown in Table 2-7. it is expected that the capacity of electric power facilities will reach 257 MW in 2025. The electrification ratio of each province is.9%) for industrial use. including West Timor. It is estimated that the electricity demand in these two provinces will increase at an annual average of 4.3% of total Indonesia. The province consists of about 550 islands. 6 GWh (1. located on West Timor.2 North Nusa Tenggara Maximum electric power demand in 2006 was 116 MW. Lembata. Rincah. The electrification rate of the province in 2006 reached 51.491 MW in 2025. and 45 GWh (13.6. and it accounts for 1. 2.3%) for household use. Net system energy demand was 341 GWh in 2006.3 % and maximum electric power will reach 184 MW in 2025. 113 GWh (22.2%) for public use.
8. This is because the electric system in this area is small-scale due to isolated islands.5 centsUS$/kWh between both the costs. The electrification rate of the province in 2006 reached 21.commercial use. 2. (Fig. Existing diesel power plants in Nusa Tenggara is shown in Tables 2-8 and 2-9. (Fig. 10 GWh (2.7 Necessity of Geothermal Energy Development in the eastern Provinces The total installed power generation capacity of PT. the price of diesel fuel (HSD) becomes 0. 2. 2-7) However.941 MW of diesel. the generation cost of geothermal power plant in 2006 is 6. As Fig. and 55 GWh (10. it is expected that the amount of electric power facilities required in 2025 will reach 439 MW. The electrification rate of the province in 2006 reached 28.07 US$/litter in 2000. The diesel generation cost is 2.3 centsUS$/kWh. The price of diesel oil for industrial use in the eastern provinces which PT.936 12 . and the breakdown is as follows. PLN becomes approximately 17.0%) for industrial use.258 MW as of 2006. 2. making diesel power generation the most expensive one as well as gas turbine generation.2%) for industrial use. 3. the eastern provinces completely rely on diesel power generation only. It is expected that population growth up to 2025 will average 0. However. electricity demand in this province is expected to be 795 MW. the price of diesel oil (HSD oil) is also rising continuously. which breaks down as 178 GWh (63. (Fig.2%) for public use. showing the expansion of as much as some 9 times more. Due to this oil price increase. and 43 GWh (15.021 MW of combined cycle.8%.8 times higher than that of geothermal power generation and there is the cost deference of 11. 2008 becomes 0. and 12 MW of others. 2-9) In contrast. It is expected that maximum electric power will reach 568 MW by 2025.9%) for commercial use. Given that a reserve margin is expected to be 20-45%. 50 GWh (17. Given that a reserve margin is expected to be 20-50%. As a result. (Fig.62 US$/litter in 2006 from 0. Net system energy demand was 280 GWh in 2006.4%) for public use. the generation cost of diesel power plant of PT.8% It is expected that maximum electric power will increase in incremental steps and reach 313 MW in 2025.5%) for household use.6 centsUS$/kWh in 2006.529 MW of hydro power. and generated output was 313 GWh. PERTAMINA announced on March 1. 9 GWh (3. and it has been continuously increasing afterwards and has exceeded 110 US$/barrel in 2008. the diesel power generation becomes extremely expensive under the current international oil price hike.3 East Nusa Tenggara Maximum electric power in 2007 was 72 MW. The entire load is supplied by isolated power sources.220 MW of steam. 807 MW geothermal. PLN is 25. 2.2-10) The international oil price was 66 US$/barrel in 2006.2-8 shows.8% annually and regional economic growth is 7% a year. 7.6. 2-6) The power source mix is well diversified as an entire nation.727 MW of gas turbine.
The cost of this diesel fuel is estimated as much as 325 million US$ in a year based on the current diesel oil price (0. the cost is fur less than the current diesel generation cost. On the other hand. There is a great justification to promote geothermal energy development to substitute diesel power plant in the eastern provinces.273 l/kWh （average fuel consumption in diesel plant in the eastern provinces） ×0.6. According to report by DGEEU (Director General of Electricity and Energy Utilization). 2.936 US$/litter).6￠/kWh.3 cents US$/kWh which is shown in Fig. (Fig. micro hydro and biomass power plants as same as geothermal power.8ＭＷ and minimum demand was 5. about 214. the minimum demand is estimated as some 89 MW. Regarding micro hydropower. Currently these are 100 villages supplying themselves with energy of 0. the Government has developed electric power plants for rural areas. Based on this new diesel oil price. The projects are aimed for disadvantaged villages throughout Indonesia. 2. The target of these power developments is supposed to be rural electrification. the ratio between minimum demand and maximum demand in the eastern provinces is estimated to be about 1/3 from the load curve example of Flores island system3.8ＭＷ in the peak demand day in Flores island system in 2005. This project’s target is not substitution of diesel power but the rural electrification. Since the maximum demand in the eastern provinces is 270 MW. The Government does not only promote small-scale power plants but also increase energy self-reliant villages.8 Small Scale Power Generation Development of Other Energy Sources The Government is promoting the development of small-scale electricity power generation through solar. but the development in the eastern islands was not included in this development program. the base load demand is estimated to account for approximately 62 % of the total energy demand.936 US$/litter). The value of this fuel saving is about 200 million US$ based on the current diesel oil price (0.936$/l = 25. PLN with a large amount of subsidy to alleviate its financial predicament under the current high oil price situation. 2-10 due to the smallness in the generation capacity. the fuel cost of diesel generation in the eastern provinces is estimated as high as approximately 26 cents US$//kWh2. (Table 2-10) The Indonesian Government is providing PT. This high fuel cost is a great heavy burden on the financial foundation of PT. PLN . 30.000 panels of solar were supplied to these villages for introducing solar home system (SHS) and each household was expected to be received a 50-80 watt by the SHS unit. 3 Peak demand was 17. If this base load demand is supplied by geothermal power plant instead of diesel power plant. Therefore.000 kilo litter of diesel oil can be saved in one year. It is thought that the above-mentioned diesel oil saving has a great effect to reduce this subsidy. PLN Although the geothermal generation cost in the eastern provinces may be estimated to be slightly higher than 6.6) 2 13 . where many people need electricity and are difficult to reach or far from electricity supply by PT. The volume of diesel oil used in the eastern provinces is about 347.000 kilo litter in 2006.US$/litter.
These projects are expanding step by step but substitution of the existing diesel power generation by these power developments seems to be difficult. This number of the villages is too small compared with whole villages through the country. hydro and geothermal should be categorized by energy source existence and power demand. However. 14 . if a major target of the power development in the eastern provinces is substitution of diesel power by renewable energy. geothermal power development is the most suitable because of ample reserve of geothermal resources and relatively large generation capacity of each geothermal resource. Adjustment between these developments and geothermal power development in the eastern provinces is necessary and the small-scale power developments by solar.non-bio fuel and 40 villages of bio fuel in 81 regencies. The projects are aimed for disadvantaged villages throughout Indonesia for electrification.
S. Magma Nusantara is a wholly owned subsidiary of Star Energy.7MW 55MW 90MW 20MW 2MW 110MW 60MW 857MW 1994 1999 2001 2000 2000 2002 （Break Down） Pertamina/Amoseas Indonesia Inc. through Government of Indonesia in 2002.(AI) (*2) PLN （Source：PERTAMINA. *5 Renovated in 2005 PT Geo Dipa is a joint venture of PERTAMINA and PLN. is a subsidiary of U.7MW 66. 2004. Star Energy acquired W’ayang-Windu in Nov. 15 . Amoseas Indonesia Inc. Dieng Plant was transfer to PT Geo Dipa from California Energy.-based Chevron Texaco. 2005 .2 Unit-3 Unit-1 Unit-2 Salak West Java Unit-3 Unit-4 Unit-5 Unit-6 Darajat Lahendong Sibayak Wayang-Windu Dieng West Java North Sulawesi North Sumatra West Java Central Java Total Unit-1 Unit-2 Unit-1 Unit-1 Unit-1 Unit-1 Capacity(MW) 30MW 55MW 55MW 60MW 60MW 60MW 66.Table 2-1 Geothermal Power Plant in Indonesia and its Development Scheme Power Plant Location Unit No.1 Kamojang West Java Unit.(AI)(*2) PERTAMINA PERTAMINA Pertamina / Magma Nusantara Ltd (MNL) (*3) Geo Dipa (*4) PLN Power Plant （395MW) IPP Power Plant （462MW） PLN 1997(*5) PERTAMINA / Chevron Geothermal of Indonesia(*1) 1994(*5) 1988 Start of Operation 1983 PERTAMINA PLN Steam Developer Power Generator PERTAMINA/ Chevron Geothermal of Indonesia (*1) PLN Pertamina / Amoseas Indonesia Inc.7MW 66. “PERTAMINA Geothermal Development（Resource ＆ Utilization）”） (Note) *1 *2 *3 *4 Chevron took over Unocal (Union Oil Company of California). who was the original developer. Unit. who was the original developer of Salak on Aug.
Table 2-2 National Energy Policy
The National Energy Policy (NEP) Stable energy supply is essential for achieving social and economic development in any nations. In most countries including Indonesia, domestic energy demand is met mostly from fossil energy sources, particularly for oil while proven reserve of oil is limited in the world. In Indonesia, the contribution of oil was approximately 88% in 1970. Although the share of oil has gradually decreased to 54% in 2002, the total oil consumption is relatively high with the growth rate of 6.1% per year. This higher growth is attributed to the economic growth and population growths. However, the per capita energy consumption was relatively low or about 311.6 KOE (kilo gram of Oil Equivalent) per capita, while the energy intensity is 108.3 KOE/thousand US$ (at 1995 US$). On the other hand, the renewable energy of Indonesia has very big potential. However, the development is not well developed compared to this big potential. Realizing present energy condition, the government launched the National Energy Policy (NEP) in 2002. The vision of this policy is “to guarantee the sustainable energy supply to support national interest”; while the missions are: (a) guaranteeing domestic energy supply, (b) improving the added value of energy sources, (c) managing energy ethically and sustainable way and considering prevention of environment function, (d) proving affordable energy for the poor, and (e) developing national capacity. The targets of NEP are: (a) improving the role of energy business toward market mechanism to increase added value, (b) achieving electrification ration of 90% by the year 2020, (c) reaching renewable energy (non large hydro) energy shares in energy mix at least 5% by 2020, (d) realizing energy infrastructure, which enable to maximize public access to energy and energy use for export, (e) increase strategic partnership between national and international energy companies in exploring domestic and export energy resources, (f) decrease energy intensity by 1% per year therefore to the elasticity to be 1 by 2020, and (g) increase the local contents and improving the role of national human resources in the energy industries. To reach this energy targets, strategy have to be taken namely: (a) restructuring energy sector, (b) implementing market based economy, (c) developing regional empowerment in energy sector, (d) developing energy infrastructures (e) improving energy efficiency, (f) improving the role of national energy industry, (g) improving national energy supporting activities (service and industries), and (h) empowering community. To ensure the achievement of the targets, the policy measures to be pursued are: (a) intensification measure is taken to increase the availability of energy in parallel with the national development and population growth, (b) diversification measure is taken to increase coal and gas shares, which have a larger potential than oil and to increase renewable energy shares, which has a huge potential and clean , (c) conservation measures is taken to improve energy efficiency by developing and using energy saving technology both in upstream and down stream sides. In line with the strategies, several action plan have to be done: (a) upstream side(oil, gas, coal, geothermal, hydro power, other renewable energy resource, nuclear energy, other new energy resources), (b) downstream side (petroleum, gas pipeline, gas fuel, and LPG, electricity), (c) energy utilization (household, and commercial sector, industry sector, transportation sector) , (d) human resources development , (e) research and development , and (f) community development in supplying energy to empower the local society.
Table 2-3 Presidential Decree on “National Energy Policy”
Presidential Decree on “National Energy Policy” (PD No.5 / 2006) In 2006, the National Energy Policy (NEP) was enhanced to be a higher level of national policy by Presidential Decree. Specifically, the President of Indonesia issued the Presidential Decree of "The National Energy Policy (PD No.5/2006)” on 25, January, 2006, in order to “guarantee the stable energy supply to the domestic market for sustainable socio economic development”. This Presidential Decree clarifies the concrete target of national energy policy such as : (a) Energy elasticity (the ratio between the rate of energy consumption increase and the rate of economic growth) should be less than 1 by the year of 2025. (Fig.3.2.3-1) (b) Achievement of the following energy mix in 2025 (Fig.3.2.3-2) 1) Oil 20% or less 2) Gas 30% or more 3) Coal 33% or more 4) Bio-fuel 5% or more 5) Geothermal 5% or more 6) Other new and renewable energy (especially, biomass, nuclear power, hydro power, photovoltaic, wind power etc.) 5% or more 7) Liquefied coal 2% or more Moreover, the decree states that this policy target will be achieved by the main policies and the support policies, and that the main policies are: (a) Energy supply policies to secure stable energy supply to domestic market and to optimize energy production, etc. (b) Energy utilization policy to improve energy efficiency and to diversify energy sources, (c) Energy price policy to aim at economic price (although some support to the poor people will be considered.), and (d) Environmental policy to apply sustainable development principle. As for the supporting policies, the decree indicates the following four policies (Article 3): (a) Energy infrastructure development, (b) Partnership between government and business society, (c) Empowerment to people, and (d) Research & development and educational & training. In addition, the decreed states that the government may support the development of the specified alternative energy sources and may grant the incentives to the developers of the energy sources (Article 6). The setting of clear target in the level of presidential decree provides the people concerned to geothermal energy with high expectations for further development of geothermal energy in Indonesia.
Table 2-4 Geothermal Energy Law
The Geothermal Energy Law (Law No.27/2003) On October 23, 2003, the Indonesian government enacted "Geothermal Energy Law (No.27/ 2003)" which consisted of 44 Articles in 15 Chapters. This regulation provide certainty of law to the industry because the huge potentials of Indonesia’s geothermal resources and its vital role to ensuring Indonesia’s strategic security of energy supply, and its ability to add value as an alternative energy to the fossil fuel for domestic use. This law regulates the upstream of geothermal business. The downstream business that engages in electric power generation is to be subject to the Electric Law No. 20/2002. This law has the following Vision, Mission and Objectives: <Vision> Geothermal energy plays an important role as a renewable natural resource of choice among the variety of national energy resources to support sustainable development and to help bring about a prosperous society. <Mission> To manage geothermal energy resource development as mandated by the law: To encourage and stimulate geothermal energy activities for the sustainable fulfillment of national energy needs. To reduce dependency on oil-based fuels, thereby conserve oil reserves <Objectives> To control the utilization of geothermal energy business activities to support sustainable development and provide overall added value Increase revenue for state and the public to support national economy growth for the sake of increased public prosperity and welfare. It is thought that the enactment of this geothermal power law has the following meaning. (a) The procedure of the geothermal development is clarified, and becomes transparent in the following actions: (i) Designation of the Working Area for geothermal development, (ii) Issuance of Geothermal Energy Business Permit (IUP), and (iii) Tendering for Working Areas etc. (b) The system to spur development is built-in in the following actions: (i) Setting the period of IPU, (ii) Obligation to return IPU in case that the development does not finish within a certain period after obtaining IPU, and (iii) Obligation to report the development plan to the authority and the administrational order to change the development plan if necessary by the authority etc. (c) The role of state government and regional government is clarified in such areas: (i) Management of geothermal resources and geothermal data, (ii) Management of balance between the amount of resource and the amount of development, (iii) Preparatory investigations, (iv) Issuance of IUP, and (v) The possibility of participation in geothermal development by state-run enterprises
Fig. 2-1 Geothermal Development Road Map
Table 2-5 Outline of Eastern Provinces
Region Capital Area (km2) (*1) Population ('000) (*2) Population Growth Rate (*3) Density (people/km2) Regional GDP (Billion Rp) (*4) Percentage of population below poverty line (*5) Regency／City (*6) Maluku Ambon 47,350 (2.5%) 1,266 (0.6%) 1.66% 26.7 4,048.3 (0.2%) 32.1% Ambon, Kota Buru Maluku Tengah Maluku Tenggara Maluku Tenggara Barat Seram Bag. Timur Seram Bag. Barat Kep. Aru North Maluku Ternate 39,960 (2.1%) 890 (0.4%) 1.78% 22.3 2,368.4 (0.1%) 12.4% Halmahera Tengah Kota Ternate Halmahera Barat Halmahera Utara Halmahera Selatan Kep. Sula Halmahera Timur Kep. Tidore. Kota Bima Dompu Lombok Barat Lombok Tengah Lombok Timur Mataram Sumbawa Sumbawa Barat Bima, Kota West Nusa Tenggara Capital Mataram 19,709 (1.1%) 4,356 (2.0%) 1.67% 221.0 22,593.9 (1.0%) 25.4% East Nusa Tenggara Kupang 46,138 (2.5%) 4,127 (1.9%) 1.54% 89.4 12,938.4 (0.6%) 27.9% Alor Balu Ende Flores Timur Kupang Kupang Kota Lambata Manggrai Ngada Sikka Sumba Barat Samba Timur Timor Tengh Selatan Timor Tengh Utara Manggarai Barat Rote Ndao Piet Alexander Tallo 69.5 41,949.0 (1.8%) 153,157 (8.2%) 10,639 (4.9%) Sub-total of Eastern regions Total Indoensia Jakarta 1,860,360 (100.0%) 219,205 (100.0%) 1.34% 117.8 2,303,031.4 (100.0%) 16.7%
Governor (*7) Ethnic Group (*7)
Karel Albert Ralahalu Significantly mixed ethnicity; Melanesian, Malay, Ambonese, Bugis, Javanese, Chinese Christianity, Islam
Sasak (68%), Bima Atoni Metto (15%), (13%), Sumbawa (8%), Manggarai (15%), Balinese (3%) Sumba (13%), Dawan (6%), Lamaholot (5%), Belu (5%), Rote (5%), Lio (5%) Islam (96%), Hindu Catholic (53,9%), (3%), Buddhist (1%) Protestant (33,8%), Islam (8,8%), Other (3,5%)
(Note) *1 by Statistics Indoensia 2005/2006. *2 by 2005Indonesia population projction by Statistics Indonesia 2005/2006. *3 growth during 2005-2000 *4 at 2004 current price by Statistics Indonesia 2005/2006. *5 at 2004 by Statistics Indonesia 2005/2006. *6 by ATLAS Indoensia & Dunia Terlengkap (2006) *7 by Wkipedia information
Table 2-6 Electricity Demand and Supply Situation in Eastern Provinces (2006)
Item Installed Capacity Peak Load Generated Energy Energy Sold (MW) (MW) (GWh) (GWh) Maluku & North Maluku 196.7 <0.79%> 82.7 <0.41%> 381.5 <0.37%> 341.0 <0.30%> 196.7 West Nusa Tenggara 149.7 <0.60%> 116.0 <0.57%> 579.2 <0.55%> 507.8 <0.45%> 149.7 0.9 East Nusa Tenggara 123.0 <0.49%> 71.6 <0.35%> 312.6 <0.30%> 280.1 <0.25%> 123.0 1.1 Sub Total of Eastern Region 469.3 <1.89%> 270.4 <1.33%> 1,273.3 <1.22%> 1,128.9 <1.00%> 469.3 (100.0%) 2.0 (0.4%) 0.0 (0.0%) 0.0 (0.0%) 0.0 (0.0%) 0.0 (0.0%) 467.3 (99.6%) 0.0 (0.0%) 1,273.3 (100.0%) 3.1 (0.2%) 0.0 (0.0%) 0.0 (0.0%) 0.0 (0.0%) 0.0 (0.0%) 1,270.3 (99.8%) 0.0 (0.0%) 1,128.9 (100.0%) 736.9 (65.3%) 25.6 (2.3%) 226.7 (20.1%) 43.6 (3.9%) 50.3 (4.5%) 45.9 (4.1%) Outside Jawa 6,430.7 <25.88%> 4,954.6 <24.34%> 24,559.4 <23.51%> 25,691.2 <22.81%> 6,430.6 (100.0%) 1,119.7 (17.4%) 900.0 (14.0%) 662.5 (10.3%) 877.9 (13.7%) 20.0 (0.3%) 2,838.2 (44.1%) 12.4 (0.2%) 24,559.4 (100.0%) 4,076.3 (16.6%) 4,800.7 (19.5%) 1,560.4 (6.4%) 5,226.9 (21.3%) 166.0 (0.7%) 8,533.7 (34.7%) 195.4 (0.8%) 25,691.2 (100.0%) 13,058.6 (50.8%) 5,046.8 (19.6%) 5,309.0 (20.7%) 677.3 (2.6%) 602.9 (2.3%) 996.7 (3.9%) 51.5 PLN Total 24,846.2 <100.00%> 20,354.4 <100.00%> 104,468.6 <100.00%> 112,609.8 <100.00%> 25,258 (100.0%) 3,529 (14.0%) 8,220 (32.5%) 2,727 (10.8%) 7,021 (27.8%) 807 (3.2%) 2,941 (11.6%) 12 (0.0%) 104,468.6 (100.0%) 8,758.6 (8.4%) 47,764.3 (45.7%) 5,031.2 (4.8%) 30,917.8 (29.6%) 3,141.4 (3.0%) 8,659.9 (8.3%) 195.4 (0.2%) 112,609.8 (100.0%) 43,753.2 (38.9%) 43,615.5 (38.7%) 18,415.5 (16.4%) 2,603.6 (2.3%) 1,807.9 (1.6%) 2,414.1 (2.1%) 58.8
Installed Capacity by Type Hydro Steam Gas turbine Combined Cycle Geothermal Diesel Others Energy Production by Type Hydro Steam Gas turbine Combined Cycle Geothermal Diesel Others Energy Sold by Type Residential Industrial Business Social Government Street Lighting Elecrification Rate (Source: PLN Statistics 2006)
(MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (MW) (GWh) (GWh) (GWh) (GWh) (GWh) (GWh) (GWh) (GWh) (GWh) (GWh) (GWh) (GWh) (GWh) (GWh) (GWh) (%)
341.0 226.2 6.4 63.3 10.3 25.9 8.9 51.6
507.8 332.9 10.1 113.1 18.8 9.8 23.0 28.8
280.1 177.8 9.0 50.2 14.5 14.6 14.0 21.8
Table 2-7 Diesel Power Plants in Maluku and North Maluku NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 NAMA PLTD HATIVE KECIL 1 HATIVE KECIL 2 HATIVE KECIL 3 HATIVE KECIL 4 HATIVE KECIL 5 HATIVE KECIL 6 POKA 1 POKA 2 POKA 3 POKA 4 POKA 5 POKA 6 AIR BUAYA 1 AIR BUAYA 2 AIR BUAYA 3 AIR BUAYA 4 AIR BUAYA 5 AMARSEKARU 1 AMARSEKARU 2 AMARSEKARU 3 BANDA 1 BANDA 2 BANDA 3 BANDA 4 BANDA 5 BANDA 6 BULA 1 BULA 2 BULA 3 BULA 4 BULA 5 BULA 6 GESER 1 GESER 2 GESER 3 GESER 4 GESER 5 GESER 6 GESER 7 GESER 8 CABANG AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON TAHUN OPERASI 1978 1978 1983 1986 1991 1978 1998 1998 1998 2004 2004 1978 1988 1992 1992 1996 2004 1994 1994 1990 1983 1983 1990 1994 1997 2003 1984 1984 1994 1999 2003 2004 1988 1992 1981 1994 1995 1997 2004 2004 kW 2.296 3.400 4.400 6.296 2.040 200 6.400 6.280 6.560 7.700 4.700 400 140 40 40 100 100 40 40 40 117 117 220 220 280 500 117 117 220 184 280 250 40 40 40 40 40 100 250 250 22 .
NO 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 NAMA PLTD HARUKU 1 HARUKU 2 HARUKU 3 HARUKU 4 HARUKU 5 HARUKU 6 HARUKU 7 HARUKU 8 KESUI 1 KESUI 2 KESUI 3 KESUI 4 KAIRATU 1 KAIRATU 2 KAIRATU 3 KAIRATU 4 KAIRATU 5 KAIRATU 6 KAIRATU 7 KAIRATU 8 KAIRATU 9 KAIRATU 10 KAIRATU 11 KIANDARAT 1 KIANDARAT 2 KIANDARAT 3 KIANDARAT 4 KOBISONTA 1 KOBISONTA 2 KOBISONTA 3 KOBISONTA 4 KOBISONTA 5 KOBISONTA 6 KOBISONTA 7 KOBISONTA 8 KOBISONTA 9 KOBISONTA 10 LABUHAN 1 LABUHAN 2 LABUHAN 3 LABUHAN 4 CABANG AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON TAHUN OPERASI 1986 1986 1995 2003 2003 1981 2004 2004 1994 1994 1999 1993 1986 1966 1993 1986 1992 1997 1997 1995 2003 2003 2004 1993 1993 1999 2003 1993 1993 1998 1998 1998 1999 1999 1999 2001 2003 1983 1993 1996 1999 kW 432 432 220 500 500 100 720 250 20 20 40 40 260 260 740 560 220 528 200 500 720 280 500 100 40 112 250 100 100 40 40 100 250 250 250 250 720 117 40 100 100 23 .
NO 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 NAMA PLTD LABUHAN 5 LABUHAN 6 LAIMU 1 LAIMU 2 LAIMU 3 LAIMU 4 LAIMU 5 LAIMU 6 LEXSULA 1 LEXSULA 2 LEXSULA 3 LEXSULA 4 LIANG 1 LIANG 2 LONTHOR 1 LONTHOR 2 LONTHOR 3 LONTHOR 4 LUHU 1 LUHU 2 LUHU 3 LUHU 4 LUHU 5 LUHU 6 LUHU 7 MANIPA 1 MANIPA 2 MANIPA 3 MANIPA 4 MAKO 1 MAKO 2 MAKO 3 MAKO 4 MAKO 5 MAKO 6 MAKO 7 MAKO 8 MAKO 9 MASAWOY 1 MASAWOY 2 MASAWOY 3 CABANG AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON TAHUN OPERASI 2004 2004 1991 1991 1997 1999 2003 2004 1987 1988 1996 2003 1995 1995 1985 1994 1997 2004 1984 1984 1981 1995 2000 2003 2004 1994 1994 1999 2003 1991 1991 1993 1995 1996 2003 2003 2004 2004 1994 1994 1994 kW 250 250 100 100 100 100 280 250 140 40 16 280 100 280 140 100 180 280 100 100 100 220 100 280 500 40 40 40 100 100 100 100 100 100 280 100 500 250 20 40 40 24 .
420 1.250 500 720 720 720 117 40 100 184 184 140 140 100 100 184 250 250 117 260 220 220 526 280 400 500 500 500 500 500 500 140 140 40 250 25 .420 1.NO 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 NAMA PLTD MASOHI 1 MASOHI 2 MASOHI 3 MASOHI 4 MASOHI 5 MASOHI 6 MASOHI 7 MASOHI 8 MASOHI 9 MASOHI 10 MASOHI 11 MASOHI 12 WAHAI 1 WAHAI 2 WAHAI 3 WAHAI 4 WAHAI 5 NUSA LAUT 1 NUSA LAUT 2 NUSA LAUT 3 NUSA LAUT 4 NUSA LAUT 5 NUSA LAUT 6 NUSA LAUT 7 NAMLEA 1 NAMLEA 2 NAMLEA 3 NAMLEA 4 NAMLEA 5 NAMLEA 6 NAMLEA 7 NAMLEA 8 NAMLEA 9 NAMLEA 10 NAMLEA 11 NAMLEA 12 NAMLEA 13 ONDOR 1 ONDOR 2 ONDOR 3 ONDOR 4 CABANG AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON TAHUN OPERASI 1986 1986 1994 1986 1985 1995 1995 2001 2002 2003 2003 2003 1984 1984 1995 2000 2000 1987 1983 1995 2000 2002 2003 2004 1982 1986 1993 1994 1997 1997 1978 1978 2002 2003 2003 2004 2004 1986 1986 1993 2003 kW 432 432 220 140 140 1.
NO 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 NAMA PLTD ONDOR 5 ONDOR 6 ONDOR 7 ONDOR 8 ONDOR 9 ONDOR 10 ONDOR 11 PIRU 1 PIRU 2 PIRU 3 PIRU 4 PIRU 5 PIRU 6 PIRU 7 SAPARUA 1 SAPARUA 2 SAPARUA 3 SAPARUA 4 SAPARUA 5 SAPARUA 6 SAPARUA 7 SAPARUA 8 SAPARUA 9 SAPARUA 10 SAPARUA 11 TANIWEL 1 TANIWEL 2 TANIWEL 3 TANIWEL 4 TANIWEL 5 TANIWEL 6 TANIWEL 7 TANIWEL 8 TANIWEL 9 TANIWEL 10 TANIWEL 11 TEHORU 1 TEHORU 2 TEHORU 3 TEHORU 4 TEHORU 5 CABANG AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON TAHUN OPERASI 2000 1997 1981 2000 1997 2004 2004 1983 1983 1992 1985 1997 2000 2003 1983 1983 1981 1983 1983 1985 1986 2000 2003 2004 2004 1988 1988 1986 2001 2001 1985 1993 1993 1997 2003 2004 1984 1983 1995 1995 1997 kW 250 100 100 184 140 500 250 117 117 220 140 280 500 500 40 40 100 432 432 220 560 250 528 720 100 20 40 140 192 100 140 100 100 100 250 100 117 117 220 220 280 26 .
NO 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 NAMA PLTD TEHORU 6 WAIPIA 1 WAIPIA 2 WAIPIA 3 WAIPIA 4 WAIPIA 5 WAIPIA 6 WAIPIA 7 WAIPIA 8 WERINAMA 1 WERINAMA 2 WERINAMA 3 WERINAMA 4 WERINAMA 5 WERINAMA 6 WERINAMA 7 WAIPANDAN 1 WAIPANDAN 2 DOBO 1 DOBO 2 DOBO 3 DOBO 4 DOBO 5 DOBO 6 DOBO 7 DOBO 8 DOBO 9 DOBO 10 DOBO 11 DOBO 12 ADAUT 1 ADAUT 2 ADAUT 3 ELAT 1 ELAT 2 ELAT 3 ELAT 4 ELAT 5 ELAT 6 ELAT 7 ELAT 8 CABANG AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON AMBON TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TAHUN OPERASI 1997 1988 1988 1994 1995 1995 1981 1997 2003 1988 1993 1986 1996 1999 2004 2004 1999 1999 1994 1993 2003 2000 1982 1982 2000 1996 1992 1998 2004 2004 1994 1994 2000 1985 1984 1984 1992 2003 1997 2000 2004 kW 280 40 40 20 40 100 184 280 100 40 40 20 100 184 280 100 40 40 220 220 500 165 117 117 250 250 220 500 100 500 40 40 100 100 100 100 40 250 100 200 250 27 .
NO 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 ELAT 9 JEROL 1 JEROL 2 JEROL 3 NAMA PLTD CABANG TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TAHUN OPERASI 2004 1994 1994 2000 1985 1985 1995 1995 2001 2001 1991 1991 1998 1995 1986 2003 1984 1984 1986 1995 1986 2001 2000 2002 2003 2004 2004 2004 1997 1997 2000 1991 1993 1996 1998 2004 1991 1993 2001 2000 1985 kW 250 40 40 125 100 100 100 100 250 250 40 40 40 40 140 500 117 117 140 220 250 200 250 200 500 250 500 700 40 40 129 40 40 40 100 250 40 40 250 100 440 LARAT 1 LARAT 2 LARAT 3 LARAT 4 LARAT 5 LARAT 6 LETWURUNG 1 LETWURUNG 2 LETWURUNG 3 LETWURUNG 4 SAUMLAKI 1 SAUMLAKI 2 SAUMLAKI 3 SAUMLAKI 4 SAUMLAKI 5 SAUMLAKI 6 SAUMLAKI 7 SAUMLAKI 8 SAUMLAKI 9 SAUMLAKI 10 SAUMLAKI 11 SAUMLAKI 12 SAUMLAKI 13 SAUMLAKI 14 SEIRA 1 SEIRA 2 SEIRA 3 SERWARU 1 SERWARU 2 SERWARU 3 SERWARU 4 SERWARU 5 TEPA 1 TEPA 2 TEPA 3 TEPA 4 LANGGUR 1 28 .
WETAR 1 KAYU MERAH 1 KAYU MERAH 2 KAYU MERAH 3 KAYU MERAH 4 KAYU MERAH 5 KAYU MERAH 6 KAYU MERAH 7 KAYU MERAH 8 KAYU MERAH 9 BACAN 1 BACAN 2 BACAN 3 BACAN 4 BACAN 5 BACAN 6 BACAN 7 BACAN 8 BACAN 9 BACAN 10 BACAN 11 BACAN 12 BERE-BERE 1 BERE-BERE 2 BERE-BERE 3 CABANG TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TUAL TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TAHUN OPERASI 1985 1982 1986 1986 1984 1997 2000 2000 2003 2003 2003 2003 1988 1993 1988 2003 2004 1983 1983 1991 2000 2000 1997 1983 2004 2002 1991 1977 1978 1986 1996 2000 2000 2002 1978 2004 2004 2004 1991 1991 1997 kW 440 1130 561 561 1051 1420 1250 1250 500 600 500 600 40 40 147 250 120 3280 3280 3542 3000 3000 100 250 4700 250 748 536 536 260 250 500 500 300 536 500 500 720 40 40 116 29 .NO 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 NAMA PLTD LANGGUR 2 LANGGUR 3 LANGGUR 4 LANGGUR 5 LANGGUR 6 LANGGUR 7 LANGGUR 8 LANGGUR 9 LANGGUR 10 LANGGUR 11 LANGGUR 12 LANGGUR 13 WONRELI 1 WONRELI 2 WONRELI 3 WONRELI 4 P.
NO 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 NAMA PLTD BERE-BERE 4 BERE-BERE 5 BOBONG 1 BOBONG 2 BOBONG 3 BOBONG 4 BOBONG 5 BOBONG 6 BOBONG 7 BOBONG 8 BICOLI 1 BICOLI 2 BICOLI 3 BICOLI 4 BICOLI 5 BICOLI 6 BICOLI 7 BICOLI 8 DARUBA 1 DARUBA 2 DARUBA 3 DARUBA 4 DARUBA 5 DARUBA 6 DARUBA 7 DARUBA 8 DARUBA 9 DOFA 1 DOFA 2 DOFA 3 DOFA 4 DOFA 5 DOFA 6 DOFA 7 IBU 1 IBU 2 IBU 3 IBU 4 IBU 5 IBU 6 IBU 7 CABANG TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TAHUN OPERASI 2004 2004 1986 1988 1994 1996 1988 1988 2002 2004 1988 1994 1995 1994 1999 2002 2004 2004 1988 1988 1988 1995 1996 2002 2004 2004 2004 1986 1988 1995 1995 2003 2003 2004 1984 1984 1983 1997 1993 2001 2004 kW 140 40 40 104 40 40 288 100 40 40 125 250 200 200 250 250 140 140 140 260 288 400 250 250 250 140 20 40 104 250 250 250 117 117 117 280 100 288 500 30 .
NO 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 NAMA PLTD JAILOLO 1 JAILOLO 2 JAILOLO 3 JAILOLO 4 JAILOLO 5 JAILOLO 6 JAILOLO 7 JAILOLO 8 JAILOLO 9 JAILOLO 10 KAYOA 1 KAYOA 2 KAYOA 3 KAYOA 4 KAYOA 5 KEDI 1 KEDI 2 KEDI 3 LAIWUI 1 LAIWUI 2 LAIWUI 3 LOLOBATA 1 LOLOBATA 2 MABA/BULI 1 MABA/BULI 2 MABA/BULI 3 MADOPOLO 1 MADOPOLO 2 MADOPOLO 3 MAFFA 1 MAFFA 2 MAFFA 3 MAFFA 4 MALIFUT 1 MALIFUT 2 MALIFUT 3 MALIFUT 4 MALIFUT 5 MALIFUT 6 MALIFUT 7 MALIFUT 8 CABANG TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TAHUN OPERASI 1983 1983 1986 1991 1996 1986 1999 1999 2004 2004 1988 1988 1983 1995 2004 1991 1997 1997 1985 1986 2004 1988 1994 1986 1996 2004 1982 1983 2004 1986 1995 1983 1999 1988 1988 1986 1997 1995 1998 2001 2001 kW 117 117 260 748 508 260 480 480 500 720 20 40 117 100 250 40 40 40 117 117 250 140 40 140 104 250 117 117 250 100 140 140 100 140 140 140 280 280 500 288 288 31 .
NO 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 NAMA PLTD MALIFUT 9 MANGOLI 1 MANGOLI 2 MANGOLI 3 MANGOLI 4 MANGOLI 5 MANGOLI 6 MANGOLI 7 PATANI 1 PATANI 2 PATANI 3 PATANI 4 PAYAHE 1 PAYAHE 2 PAYAHE 3 PAYAHE 4 PAYAHE 5 SAKETA 1 SAKETA 2 SAKETA 3 SAKETA 4 SAKETA 5 SAKETA 6 SAKETA 7 SAKETA 8 SANANA 1 SANANA 2 SANANA 3 SANANA 4 SANANA 5 SANANA 6 SANANA 7 SOA-SIU 1 SOA-SIU 2 SOA-SIU 3 SOA-SIU 4 SOA-SIU 5 SOA-SIU 6 SOA-SIU 7 SOA-SIU 8 SOA-SIU 9 CABANG TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TAHUN OPERASI 2004 1995 1995 1982 1994 2000 2004 2004 1988 1988 1994 2004 1988 1989 1985 1996 2004 1988 1992 1992 1992 1983 1999 2004 2004 1982 1986 1991 1996 1996 2004 2004 1986 1986 1991 1982 1994 1994 1997 2003 2004 kW 500 100 100 117 280 280 280 250 140 140 220 250 140 40 140 100 100 20 20 40 40 117 100 100 250 140 260 748 508 508 720 500 432 432 748 117 220 220 1430 250 500 32 .
NO 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 NAMA PLTD SOA-SIU 10 SOFIFI 1 SOFIFI 2 SOFIFI 3 SOFIFI 4 SOFIFI 5 SOFIFI 6 SOFIFI 7 SOFIFI 8 WEDA 1 WEDA 2 WEDA 3 SUBAIM 1 SUBAIM 2 SUBAIM 3 SUBAIM 4 SUBAIM 5 SUBAIM 6 SUBAIM 7 TOBELO 1 CABANG TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TERNATE TAHUN OPERASI 2004 1988 1986 1994 1997 1996 2003 2004 2004 1986 1983 2004 1991 1995 1996 1995 1986 2000 2004 1977 kW 500 140 140 220 280 104 240 250 720 140 117 250 100 100 280 250 140 288 250 432 33 .
Table 2-8 Diesel Power Plants in Nusa Tenggara NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 NAMA PLTD LABUHAN 1 LABUHAN 2 LABUHAN 3 LABUHAN 4 LABUHAN 5 LABUHAN 6 LABUHAN 7 LABUHAN 8 LABUHAN 9 LANTUNG 1 LANTUNG 2 LANTUNG 3 LUNYUK BESAR 1 LUNYUK BESAR 2 LUNYUK BESAR 3 LUNYUK BESAR 4 LUNYUK BESAR 5 LUNYUK BESAR 6 LEBIN 1 LEBIN 2 LEBIN 3 SEBOTOK 1 SEBOTOK 2 LABUHAN HAJI 1 LABUHAN HAJI 2 KLAWIS 1 KLAWIS 2 BUGIS MEDANG 1 BUGIS MEDANG 2 BUGIS MEDANG 3 BUGIS MEDANG 4 EMPANG 1 EMPANG 2 EMPANG 3 EMPANG 4 EMPANG 5 EMPANG 6 EMPANG 7 EMPANG 8 EMPANG 9 CABANG SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA TAHUN OPERASI 1979 0 1976 1985 1987 1987 1989 2000 2000 1987 1987 1995 1989 1987 1983 1987 0 0 1997 1986 1998 1995 1995 1995 1994 1998 0 1999 1999 1987 0 1985 0 1976 0 1982 1998 1996 0 1993 kW 346 508 536 500 1224 1224 3000 3035 3035 40 40 100 40 40 100 100 250 250 20 40 100 20 20 20 20 50 20 20 20 40 100 100 100 336 528 108 560 100 200 120 34 .
NO 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 NAMA PLTD EMPANG 10 ALAS 1 ALAS 2 ALAS 3 ALAS 4 ALAS 5 ALAS 6 ALAS 7 SEKOKANG 1 SEKOKANG 2 SEKOKANG 3 SEKOKANG 4 SEKOKANG 5 SEKOKANG 6 SEKOKANG 7 TALIWANG 1 TALIWANG 2 TALIWANG 3 TALIWANG 4 TALIWANG 5 TALIWANG 6 TALIWANG 7 TALIWANG 8 TALIWANG 9 TALIWANG 10 BIMA 1 BIMA 2 BIMA 3 BIMA 4 BIMA 5 BIMA 6 BIMA 7 BIMA 8 BIMA 9 BIMA 10 BIMA 11 BIMA 12 NIU 1 NIU 2 SAPE 1 SAPE 2 CABANG SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA SUMBAWA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA TAHUN OPERASI 0 1978 1986 1982 1985 1998 1976 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 2000 1999 0 0 1978 1998 1998 1977 1977 1986 0 0 1996 1989 0 1987 1987 1985 1997 1997 0 0 1999 1999 0 0 kW 200 536 250 100 100 560 336 192 100 100 100 120 100 250 250 700 428 720 700 336 576 528 777 777 200 40 336 2800 3000 20 1224 1224 500 1100 1100 508 20 2800 2800 336 280 35 .
NO 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 SAPE 3 SAPE 4 SAPE 5 NAMA PLTD CABANG BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA TAHUN OPERASI 1996 1987 1999 1982 0 1984 1987 0 1993 1993 1993 0 1995 1992 0 1993 1993 1978 1982 1978 1976 1996 1977 0 1977 0 0 1984 1982 1998 1993 1996 0 1993 1984 1993 0 1993 1993 1993 1994 kW 525 250 384 108 100 100 100 250 20 20 20 40 100 220 100 20 20 336 270 336 336 560 560 645 270 700 700 100 100 320 20 100 40 100 100 20 20 20 20 20 20 TAWALI 1 TAWALI 2 TAWALI 3 TAWALI 4 TAWALI 5 KOLO 1 KOLO 2 KOLO 3 KOLO 4 NIPA 1 NIPA 2 NIPA 3 PAI 1 PAI 2 DOMPU 1 DOMPU 2 DOMPU 3 DOMPU 4 DOMPU 5 DOMPU 6 DOMPU 7 DOMPU 8 DOMPU 9 DOMPU 10 KEMPO 1 KEMPO 2 KEMPO 3 MELAYU 1 KORE 1 KORE 2 KORE 3 KORE 4 SAI 1 SAI 2 SAI 3 KWANGKO 1 KWANGKO 2 KWANGKO 3 36 .
NO 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 NAMA PLTD PEKAT 1 PEKAT 2 PEKAT 3 PEKAT 4 PEKAT 5 PEKAT 6 PEKAT 7 BAJOPULO 1 BAJOPULO 2 BAJOPULO 3 BONTO 1 NGGELU 1 NGGELU 2 SAMPUNGU 1 SAMPUNGU 2 KUTA MONTA 1 KUTA MONTA 2 KUTA MONTA 3 KUTA MONTA 4 KUTA MONTA 5 MONT SAPAH 1 MONT SAPAH 2 GILITRAWANGAN 1 GILITRAWANGAN 2 GILITRAWANGAN 3 MARINGKIK 1 MARINGKIK 2 GILI INDAH 1 GILI INDAH 2 GILI INDAH 3 GILI INDAH 4 GILI MENO 1 GILI MENO 2 TAMAN 1 TAMAN 2 TAMAN 3 TAMAN 4 TAMAN 5 AMPENAN 1 AMPENAN 2 AMPENAN 3 CABANG BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA BIMA MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM TAHUN OPERASI 0 1998 1985 0 1984 1999 0 1995 1995 1995 1993 1999 1993 1987 1993 0 0 0 0 0 1986 1996 1996 0 0 1995 1994 1998 1997 1997 1987 0 0 1974 1974 1979 1979 1981 1987 1987 1987 kW 100 220 100 160 100 100 100 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 40 100 20 20 20 20 20 304 400 280 20 20 40 100 100 40 250 100 1040 1040 1038 1038 5400 6368 6368 6368 37 .
NO 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 NAMA PLTD AMPENAN 4 AMPENAN 5 AMPENAN 6 AMPENAN 7 AMPENAN 8 PAOKMOTONG 1 PAOKMOTONG 2 PAOKMOTONG 3 PAOKMOTONG 4 PAOKMOTONG 5 CABANG MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM MATARAM TAHUN OPERASI 1988 1994 1994 1995 1995 1982 0 0 0 0 kW 5500 7600 7600 7600 7600 2500 6368 6368 6368 6368 38 .
Table 2-9 Diesel Power Plants in Flores Island NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 NAME OF DIESEL POWER PLANT MAUTAPAGA 1 MAUTAPAGA 2 MAUTAPAGA 3 MAUTAPAGA 4 MAUTAPAGA 5 MAUTAPAGA 6 MAUTAPAGA 7 MAUTAPAGA 8 NDORIWOY 1 NDORIWOY 2 WOLOWARU 1 WOLOWARU 2 WOLOWARU 3 MAUROLE 1 MAUROLE 2 MAUROLE 3 NDETUNDORA 1 KOTA BUA 1 KOTA BUA 2 KOTA BUA 3 WELAMOSA 1 WELAMOSA 2 WELAMOSA 3 WELAMOSA 4 WELAMOSA 5 RAPORENDU 1 RAPORENDU 2 KABIRANGGA 1 KABIRANGGA 2 KABIRANGGA 3 WONDA 1 WONDA 2 WOLOWARANG 1 WOLOWARANG 2 WOLOWARANG 3 WOLOWARANG 4 WOLOWARANG 5 WOLOWARANG 6 WOLOWARANG 7 WOLOWARANG 8 BRANCH ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE START OPERATION 1978 1978 1979 1982 1978 1997 1997 1997 1984 1985 1984 1996 1997 1987 1992 1994 1993 1993 1993 1992 1994 1994 1994 1995 1975 1995 1994 1995 1991 1987 1999 1994 1986 1986 1986 1984 1996 1997 1997 1997 CAPACITY (KW) 336 336 346 270 536 1100 1250 1250 100 100 100 305 560 40 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 104 20 20 20 20 20 40 20 561 561 561 1050 500 560 250 1200 39 .
NO 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 NAME OF DIESEL POWER PLANT WOLOWARANG 9 BOLA 1 PEMANA 1 PEMANA 2 PEMANA 3 PEMANA 4 PEMANA 5 PEMANA 6 RUBIT 1 RUBIT 2 TALIBURA 1 WAEGATE 1 WAEGATE 2 WAEGATE 3 WAEGATE 4 NEBE 1 NEBE 2 MAGEPANDA 1 MAGEPANDA 2 MAGEPANDA 3 LARANTUKA 1 LARANTUKA 2 LARANTUKA 3 LARANTUKA 4 LARANTUKA 5 LARANTUKA 6 LARANTUKA 7 LEBATUKAN 1 LEBATUKAN 2 LEBATUKAN 3 LEBATUKAN 4 ADONARA TIMUR 1 ADONARA TIMUR 2 ADONARA TIMUR 3 ADONARA TIMUR 4 HADAKEWA 1 ADONARA BARAT 1 ADONARA BARAT 2 ADONARA BARAT 3 BORU 1 BORU 2 BRANCH ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE START OPERATION 1997 1987 1992 1992 1995 1988 1994 1992 1994 1994 1987 1993 1993 1994 1993 1994 1994 1994 1994 1999 1978 1982 1978 1978 1994 1997 1998 1997 1993 1996 1997 1994 1996 1993 1997 1994 1987 1989 1993 1985 1997 CAPACITY (KW) 1200 20 20 20 20 40 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 100 20 20 20 20 20 336 270 336 336 500 560 560 160 100 305 560 250 305 100 560 20 20 40 100 100 40 40 .
NO 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 NAME OF DIESEL POWER PLANT ILEAPE 1 SOLOR TIMUR 1 SOLOR TIMUR 2 SOLOR TIMUR 3 SOLOR TIMUR 4 SOLOR TIMUR 5 WITIHAMA 1 WITIHAMA 2 WITIHAMA 3 NAGAWUTUN 1 NAGAWUTUN 2 SOLOR BARAT 1 SOLOR BARAT 2 OMESURI 1 OMESURI 2 OMESURI 3 OMESURI 4 ILEBOLANG 1 ILEBOLANG 2 LEWOLAGA 1 TANJUNG BUNGA 1 TANJUNG BUNGA 2 TANJUNG BUNGA 3 BAJAWA 1 BAJAWA 2 BAJAWA 3 BAJAWA 4 BAJAWA 5 BAJAWA 6 BAJAWA 7 BAJAWA 8 BAJAWA 9 BAJAWA 10 BAJAWA 11 BAJAWA 12 BAJAWA 13 BOAWAE 1 BOAWAE 2 BOAWAE 3 BOAWAE 4 SAWU 1 BRANCH ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE START OPERATION 1988 1989 1989 1996 1984 1996 1992 1993 1996 1993 1993 1994 1994 1994 1994 1991 1993 1995 1995 1995 1995 1997 1994 1982 1979 1981 1987 1996 1996 1984 1986 1986 1979 1993 1987 1986 1984 1996 1994 1984 1979 CAPACITY (KW) 20 20 20 100 100 100 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 100 20 20 20 20 20 20 100 346 160 250 560 560 220 250 250 560 100 20 250 100 100 120 100 110 41 .
NO 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 NAME OF DIESEL POWER PLANT SAWU 2 SAWU 3 AIMERE 1 AIMERE 2 AIMERE 3 AIMERE 4 DANGA 1 DANGA 2 DANGA 3 NANGARORO 1 NANGARORO 2 NANGARORO 3 RIUNG 1 RIUNG 2 RIUNG 3 RUTENG 1 RUTENG 2 RUTENG 3 RUTENG 4 RUTENG 5 RUTENG 6 RUTENG 7 RUTENG 8 WAIGARIT 1 REO 1 REO 2 REO 3 REO 4 LABUHAN BAJO 1 LABUHAN BAJO 2 LABUHAN BAJO 3 LEMBOR 1 LEMBOR 2 LEMBOR 3 LEMBOR 4 LEMBOR 5 MBORONG 1 MBORONG 2 MBORONG 3 MBORONG 4 LEMBUR 1 BRANCH ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE START OPERATION 1995 1993 1987 1995 1995 1995 1983 1993 1983 1991 1990 1996 1994 1994 1995 1986 1979 1995 1995 1995 1995 1997 1997 1974 1984 1984 1996 1985 1985 1996 1997 1993 1994 1987 1995 1995 1983 1993 1993 1995 1994 CAPACITY (KW) 120 100 20 20 120 120 100 100 100 20 20 20 20 20 20 250 346 600 600 600 600 560 560 120 100 100 305 100 100 305 560 100 20 40 100 120 100 100 120 120 20 42 .
NO 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 NAME OF DIESEL POWER PLANT BENTENG JAWA 1 BENTENG JAWA 2 GOLOWELU 1 POTA 1 POTA 2 POTA 3 PAGAL 1 PAGAL 2 PAGAL 3 PAGAL 4 BRANCH ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE ENDE START OPERATION 1994 1994 1994 1995 1995 1994 1994 1996 1996 1997 CAPACITY (KW) 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 40 100 40 43 .
2% Eastern Region Other Outside Jawa Jawa.1% 77.Bali （Source：PLN Statistics 2006） Fig. 2-2 Electricity Demand and Supply Situation in Eastern Provinces (2006) Total of Eastern Region East Nusa Tenggara West Nusa Tenggara Maluku & North Maluku 0 200 400 600 Energy Sold (GWh) 800 1000 1200 Residential Industrial Business Social Government Street Lighting （Source：PLN Statistics 2006） Fig.0% 24.9% 1.8% 74.Bali Eastern Region Other Outside Jawa Jawa.Installed Capacity (2006) Energy Sold (2006) 1. 2-3 Electricity Sales in Eastern Provinces (2006) 44 .0% 21.
70 60 Elecrification Ratio (%) 50 40 30 20 10 0 Maluku & North Maluku West Nusa Tenggara East Nusa Tenggara Outside Jawa PLN Total （Source：PLN Statistics 2006） Fig. 2-4 Electrification Ratio in Eastern Provinces (2006) 45 .
639 8.3% 964 239 12.0% 671 2016 2.901 426 9.) GWh 345 － % GWｈ 382 83 ＭＷ － 197 ＭＷ 2012 353 0.6% 196 2016 678 9.783 568 8.608 610 8.5% 55% 881 184 4.5% 55% 488 102 2.5% 878 2020 3.) Ｉｔｅｍ Energy Demand GWh 508 Growth － Energy Generation GWｈ 579 Peak Power Demand 116 ＭＷ Growth － Required Generation Capacity 150 ＭＷ 2012 868 9.334 7.316 8.491 (Note : The projections during 2012-2025 are based on RUKN 2005) 46 .361 331 11.135 Growth － Energy Generation GWｈ 1.4% 5.065 7.1% 142 2020 571 3.215 9.530 772 7.) GWh 282 － GWｈ 313 72 ＭＷ － 123 ＭＷ 2012 496 9.1% 1.3% 996 214 8.1% 116 2016 441 2.3% 2.1% 300 2025 1.5% 1.7% 55% 633 132 3.412 7.7% 795 Ｉｔｅｍ Energy Demand Growth Energy Generation Peak Power Demand Growth Required Generation Capacity NTT System Unit 2006(Act.5% 2.908 453 9.1% 439 Eastern Region Total Unit 2006(Act.1% 1.4% 1.3% 257 NTB System Unit 2006(Act.103 2025 4.273 Peak Power Demand 270 ＭＷ Growth － Required Generation Capacity 469 ＭＷ 2012 1.4% 185 2025 796 4.300 8.4% 3.8% 1.256 1.7% 618 2025 2.) Ｉｔｅｍ Energy Demand GWh 1.069 7.4% 256 2020 859 8.7% 1.592 313 8. Muluku System Ｉｔｅｍ Energy Demand Growth Annual Road Factor Energy Generation Peak Power Demand Growth Required Generation Capacity Unit 2006(Act.1% 480 2020 1.8% 550 131 10.Table 2-10 Electricity Demand Outlook in Eastern Provinces Maluku & N.4% 54% 394 83 0.8% 359 2016 1.1% 759 177 9.717 7.
000 1.000 3. 2-5 Electricity Demand Outlook in Eastern Provinces 47 .Peak Demand and Energy Demand Outlook (Eastern Region Total) 6.000 Energy Demand (GWh) 1.000 0 20 07 20 08 20 09 20 10 20 11 20 12 20 13 20 14 20 15 20 16 20 17 20 18 20 19 20 20 20 21 20 22 20 23 20 24 20 25 Energy Demand Peak Power Demand Peak Demand (MW) Outlook 1.000 2.200 1.000 800 600 400 200 0 Peak Demand (MW) 4.000 5.200 1.000 Peak Demand (MW) 800 600 400 200 0 20 07 20 08 20 09 20 10 20 11 20 12 20 13 20 14 20 15 20 16 20 17 20 18 20 19 20 20 20 21 20 22 20 23 20 24 20 25 Maluku & North Maluku West Nusa Tenggera East Nusa Tenggera （Source：MEMR RUKN2005） Fig.
000 2.000 8.000 3.000 807 12 0 1. 2-6 Installed Capacity of PLN (2006) C 48 G O th er s .Installed Capacity of PLN Total (2006) 9.000 4.000 Installed Capacity (MW) 6.941 3.000 5.021 7.000 7.000 bi ne yd ro yc le eo th er m al ie se l ea m tu r H St C D om bi ne d G as （Source：PLN Statistics 2006） Fig.220 8.529 2.727 2.
Installed Capacity Mix of PLN (2006) 12% 3% 0% 14% Hydro Steam Gas turbine Combined Cycle 28% Geothermal 32% Diesel Others 11% Installed Capacity Mix of Eastern Region (2006) Hydro Steam Gas turbine Combined Cycle Geothermal Diesel Others 100% （Source：PLN Statistics 2006） Fig. 2-7 Comparison of Power Plant Mix between Whole Nation and Eastern Provinces (2006) 49 .
10 0.20 0.3 ￠/kWh 5.5 8. 2-9 Generation Cost by Energy Type (2006) 50 Diesel Generation Cost (centUS$/kWh) 17.0 9.60 0.30 0.07 2000 0.90 0.8 18.7 ￠/kWh 10.70 0. 2-8 Increase of Diesel Generation Cost and Diesel Fuel Price Generation Cost of PLN (2006) 25.7 0.0 0.0 9.40 0.00 0.20 10.8￠/kWh CentsUS$/kWh 15.9￠/kWh 20.3 ￠/kWh 4.0 2.20 0.0 Diesel Fuel Price (US$/litter) .Increase of Diesel Generaiton Cost and Diesel Fuel Price 1.80 20.0 0.6 ￠/kWh 0.0 16.0 21.0 1.0 8.0 17.15 2.00 HSD Price (LHS) Diesel Gen Cost (RHS) （Source：PLN Statistics 2006） Fig.2 7.62 12.09 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 0.0 6.0 0.29 4.2 9.5 0.0 Hydro Steam Diesel Gas Turbine Geothermal Combined Cycle Fuel Maintemnance Depreciation Other Expenses Personnel （Source: PLN Statistics 2006） Fig.0 0.0 6.50 0.0 14.0 4.
WTI Spot Price (FOB) 80 70 60 US Dollar per Barrel 50 40 30 20 10 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 （Source：USDOE http://tonto.gov/dnav/pet/hist/rwtca. 2-10 International Oil Price 51 .htm） Fig.eia.doe.
7 116.6 1.9% 59.1 38.3 57.Table 2-11 Estimation of Geothermal Development Effect in Eastern Provinces Item Installed Capacity Peak Load Energy Production by Diesel Fuel Consumption by Diesel Specific Fuel Consumption by Diesel Cost of Diesel Fuel Alternative Geothermal Capacity Alternative Geothermal Generation Alternative Geothermal Generation Share Fuel to be saved by Geothermal Value of Fuel to be Saved (Source: PLN Statistics 2006) (MW) (MW) (GWh) (kl) (l/kWh) (m$) (MW) (GWh) (%) (kl) (m$) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (i) (j) (k) (l) Maluku & West Nusa North Maluku Tenggara 196.3 239.273 .6 270.857 152.546 0.ditto 88.3 as of 2006 71.ditto 0.6 207.1 142.5% 213.3 335.ditto 309.7 149.632 347.270.4 .8 (d) x @0.6 61.936 $/l 52 .286 0.7 82.3 .3 '= Minimum Demand ((b) x 33%) (g) x 8.2 62.324 82.0 469.277 0.0 381.9% 88.034 .1 66.527 200.361 62.7% 66.8 27.2 781.285 55.936 $/l 23.263 99.7 East Nusa Eastern Remarks Tenggara Region Total 123.0 324.2 105.ditto 83.5 89.5 579.760h (i)/(c) (d) x (j) (k) x @0.
0 14.0 16.0 8.0 0.8MW at 8:30 Peak Load Supplier De isel Maximum Demand 17.0 6.0 2.0 Load (MW) 10.0 4. 2-11 Concept of Best Energy Mix in Eastern Provinces 53 .8MW at 19:00 0: 00 1: 00 2: 00 3: 00 4: 00 5: 00 6: 00 7: 00 8: 00 9: 00 10 :0 0 11 :0 0 12 :0 0 13 :0 0 14 :0 0 15 :0 0 16 :0 0 17 :0 0 18 :0 0 19 :0 0 20 :0 0 21 :0 0 22 :0 0 23 :0 0 Fig.Demand Curve in Flores Island and Best Mix of Energy Sources (Maximum Demand Day in August 2005) 20.0 12.0 Base Load Su pplier Ge oth ermal Minimum Demand 5.0 18.
Chapter 3 Geothermal Resources in Eastern Indonesia 3. Tonga Wayana. 3. only 9 fields among the 11 fields in the eastern Indonesia were evaluated in terms of resource characteristics and capacity in the JICA study (Fig. Kamojang. Hulu Lais Tambang Sawah.2 Present Exploration Status in Eastern Indonesia Only two fields in the eastern provinces (Nusa Tenggara and Maluku provinces). whose resources have not been used for electricity so far. Sungai Penuh. Suryantoro et al. Sallura. 54 . 37 geothermal fields were identified by DGMCG (2005). PERTAMINA. Ili Labaleken. In the eastern Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara and Maluku provinces). However. which total potential was estimated as 1. Wai Sano. These 21 areas are: Sibayak. All the high temperature systems are found within the Sumatra. Lahendong. Darajat.914 MW (Figs. Located in the western side of Circum Pacific Volcanic Belt.791 MW (DGMCG.. are operated by PT. The objective fields of the JICA study were selected as seventy three (73) promising geothermal fields which include eleven (11) geothermal fields in the eastern provinces: Huu Daha. which lies over an active subduction zone in western side of Circum Pacific Volcanic Belt. Wayang Windu. Patuha.1 Overview of Geothermal Resources in Eastern Indonesia Indonesia is made up of more than 17. PERTAMINA own or with its contractors for electricity generation. Lumut Balai. Oka-Larantuka. 3-1 to 3-4. and Eastern Island Volcanic Zone. Sokoria-Mutubusa. Java. 3-5 and Table 3-1). The other fields have been investigated at various levels commensurate with the development prospect of each field. and Kotamobagu. and 21 areas of high temperature geothermal systems with electricity-generating capabilities exist and are being developed. Bena-Mataloko. Atadei. Iyang Argopuro. Sulawesi. PLN. because of the lack of sufficient geoscientific data. JICA (2007) conducted the Master Plan Study for geothermal resource development in Indonesia. Karaha. The 253 geothermal areas have been identified in Indonesia. Kawah Cibuni. where resources are used for electricity generation of 857 MWe operated by PT. Table 3-1). Promising geothermal resources were confirmed by well discharges from high temperature reservoir. Tulehu. Ulumbu. and Ulumbu. 2005). which are outside of PERTAMINA’s activities. Mataloko. Bedugul. The total potential is estimated as approximately 27. and Dieng. this country is blessed with abundant geothermal resources (S. The 170 areas of Indonesia have high temperature geothermal resources. Ulumbu and Mataloko have been studied by well-drilling to confirm reservoir conditions. 2005). Tulehu and Jailolo. Ulubelu. and currently are under developing by PT.000 islands. Salak.
(However. ：The existence of a reservoir is inferred from a variety of geoscientific information. Oka-Larantuka. because of the lack of sufficient geoscientific data. Tolehu and Sembaiun (Table 3-2). For geothermal resource evaluation relating to development priority. Except of 9 fields as listed above. The evaluated fields were classified into 4 ranks listed below according to the likelihood of reservoir presence. In the two fields (Ulumbu and Mataloko). As shown in Table 3-2. Bena-Mataloko. Wai Sano. Tulehu and Jailolo.As mentioned above. PLN. 55 . The current practical plans for geothermal development/expansion projects were confirmed through interviews during a mission trip to Indonesia. and the existence of geothermal reservoir was confirmed. Jailolo. However. it is supposed that these geothermal fields are at the initial stages of exploration in geothermal development. Huu Daha. some geoscientific data of reconnaissance studies are published in websites of VSI and JICA (2007) and published papers. exploration statuses were not clarified because available geoscientific data in these fields could not be obtained in this study. only 50 fields among the 73 fields could be evaluated in terms of resource characteristics and capacity. detailed surface exploration study and well drillings have been done in Ulumbu and Mataloko. the possibility of a power plant project utilizing low enthalpy fluids remains. 1 2 ：The reservoir is ascertained by well drilling(s) (including already developed fields). In addition. Sokoria-Mutubusa. ：The existence of a reservoir is inferred mainly from appropriate geothermometry using chemical data concerning hot springs and fumarolic gases. only a low temperature reservoir may exist. Ulumbu. PT. JICA (2007) assessed the likelihood of the presence of a geothermal reservoir accompanied by high enthalpy fluids. including geological and geophysical survey data and the occurrence of high temperature manifestations. JICA (2007) assessed geothermal resource characteristics in each of 73 promising fields (70 fields originally planned by JICA plus 3 fields proposed by CGR). The presence of a reservoir is extremely likely.) In addition to the 4 ranks given above. However. or if there is one. 3 Low ：The presence of a reservoir is unlikely. Atadei. geothermal fields where sufficient geoscientific data is not available were classified as ‘NE’. small-scale power developments have been planned by PT. PLN has actual plan of resource development in Hu’u Daha. geoscientific studies or existing data collection for clarification of characteristics and structure of the geothermal resources should be conducted. In these fields. In 9 fields.
However. the present status of geothermal resources development is still reconnaissance study level. and also allow establishing the sequence and geoscientific methods to use in the next stages of development.3 Necessary Study for Future Geothermal Resource Development As described above. These data allow estimating probable prospect area and probable heat source. Jailolo and Tolehu as Rank C and Tonga Wayaua and Ili Labaleken as ‘NE’ (Table 3-2). 56 . Ulumbu and Mataloko are classified as Rank A. geochemistry and geophysics in the fields are not enough to make geothermal reservoir model and to evaluate generation power capacity of their fields. Sukoria. Hu’u Daha. Atadei. the data and information of geology. A description of the surface thermal activity. many geothermal fields exist in the eastern provinces. 3. However. exploratory well drilling and well test should be conducted to confirm geothermal resource existence and to evaluate its capacity. Oka-lle Ange. After the geoscientific surface study. geoscientific studies for clarification of characteristics and structure of the geothermal resources should be conducted as resource feasibility study in the fields in the eastern provinces except for Ulumbu and Mataloko. except for Ulumbu and Mataloko. estimated resource potential (MW) and the exploration status of the above mentioned 9 geothermal fields in the eastern provinces are given in Chapter 3. Wai Sano. Therefore.As a results of JICA study.4.
2005) Fig. 3-2 Map of Geothermal Area in West East Nusa Tenggara (DGMCG. 2005) 57 . 3-1 Map of Geothermal Area in West Nusa Tenggara (DGMCG.Fig.
2005) Fig. 3-4 Map of Geothermal Area in Maluku (DGMCG. 2005) 58 . 3-3 Map of Geothermal Area in North Maluku (DGMCG.Fig.
955 MW B. 3-5 Map Showing the Resource Potential in Promising Geothermal Fields (JICA. Wayang . Karang 20MW Cosolok – Cisukarame 180MW G. Sekincau 900MW Lumut Balai 620MW Marga Bayur 170MW Ulubelu 440MW Wai Ratai 120MW Citaman – G. Karaha – G.870 MW G. Talang 30MW Muaralabuh 240MW Sungai Penuh 355MW Lempur / Kerinci 60MW : Presence of concrete plan for development or expansion : Possible additional or new power capacity for development Lumut Balai (green) : PERTAMINA Working Area Muaralabuh (white) : Open Field Suwawa – Gorontalo 130MW Kotamobagu 220MW Lahendong . 2007) 59 . Patuha 500MW Wilis / Ngebel 120MW Ungaran 180MW Telomoyo 50MW Dieng 400MW Hu’u Daha 110MW Wai Sano 50MW Ulumbu 150MW Atadei 50MW Oka – Larantuka 90MW Sokoria – Mutubusa 90MW Bena – Mataloko 30MW Rajabasa 120MW Tangkubanperahu 20MW Ije n 1 2 0 M W Bedugul 330MW NUSA TENGGARA 570 MW MALUKU 80 MW JAVA-BALI 3.Tompaso 380MW Merana 200MW Jailolo 40MW SUMATRA 5.Iboi-Jaboi 20MW Seulawah Agam 600MW Lau Debuk-Debuk / Sibayak 160MW Sipaholon – Tarutung 50MW Sarula – Sibual Buali 660MW S. Salak 500MW G. Merapi – Sampuraga 500MW G. Telagabodas 400MW Objective Area Fig.Windu 400MW Darajat 330MW Kamojang 320MW G. Gedung Hulu Lais / Tambang Sawah 910MW SULAWESI 930 MW Tulehu 40MW Suoh Antatai – G.
5 1.5 54 63. Reserve (MW) Possible Probable Proven Installed (MW) JICA Master Plan Study (2007) Exploitable Resource Potential (MW) 650 1914 Not studied in JICA (2007) 60 . West Nusa Tenggara 161 162 163 Sembaiun Marongge Huu-Daha Sub Total (MW) East Nusa Tenggara 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 Wai Sano Ulumbu Wal Pesi Gou-Inelika Mengeruda Mataloko Komandaru Ndetusoko Sukoria Jopu Lesugolo Oka-Ile Ange Atadei Bukapiting Roma-Ujeiewung Oyang Barang Sirung (Isiabang-Kuriaii) Adum Alor Timur Ili Labaleken Sub Total (MW) North Maluku 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 Mamuya Ibu Akelamo Jailolo Keibesi Akesahu Indari Labuha Tonga Wayaua Sub Total (MW) Maluku 246 247 248 249 250 251 Larike Taweri Tolehu Oma Haruku Saparua Nusa Laut Sub Total (MW) Ambon Ambon Ambon Central Maluku Central Maluku Central Maluku 25 25 25 25 25 125 125 225 540 Total (MW) 1016 476 884 0 898 14 0 0 100 100 0 100 0 0 40 40 North Halmahera West Halmahera North Halmahera West Halmahera West Halmahera Tidore South Halmahera South Halmahera South Halmahera 25 25 25 25 25 125 242 309 7 110 117 42 25 67 0 67 0 0 40 NE 40 Manggarai Manggarai Manggarai Ngada Ngada Ngada Ende Ende Ende Ende Ende East Flores Lembata Alor Lembata East Flores Alor Lembata Alor 100 190 290 643 1266 90 28 5 10 11 145 16 48 353 33 187.5 10 25 5 45 40 40 27 6 37 36 609 0 623 12.Table 3-1 Geothermal Resource Potential (MW) in Eastern Indonesia DGMCG (2005) No Area Regency/City Resources (MW) Spec.5 14 0 460 NE 90 50 90 30 50 150 East Lombok Sumbawa Besar Dompu 0 6 114 6 6 39 69 108 0 108 0 0 110 110 Hypo.
but the field number defined by DGMCG (2005) is unclear.Table 3-2 Present Status of geothermal resource development in Eastern Indonesia Confirmation of geothermal reservoir by well drilling Exist Development Plan by PLN Development Priolity defined by JICA (2007) *2 No. 61 . *1 Area Regency/City West Nusa Tenggara 161 Sembaiun 162 Marongge 163 Huu-Daha East Nusa Tenggara 164 Wai Sano 165 Ulumbu 166 Wal Pesi 167 Gou-Inelika 168 Mengeruda 169 Mataloko 170 Komandaru 171 Ndetusoko 172 Sukoria 173 Jopu 174 Lesugolo 175 Oka-Ile Ange 176 Atadei 177 Bukapiting 178 Roma-Ujeiewung 179 Oyang Barang Sirung 180 (Isiabang-Kuriaii) 181 Adum 182 Alor Timur North Maluku 237 Mamuya 238 Ibu 239 Akelamo 240 Jailolo 241 Keibesi 242 Akesahu 243 Indari 244 Labuha 245 Tonga Wayaua Maluku 246 Larike 247 Taweri 248 Tolehu 249 Oma Haruku 250 Saparua 251 Nusa Laut Ili Labaleken *3 East Lombok Sumbawa Besar Dompu Manggarai Manggarai Manggarai Ngada Ngada Ngada Ende Ende Ende Ende Ende East Flores Lembata Alor Lembata East Flores Alor Lembata Alor North Halmahera West Halmahera North Halmahera West Halmahera West Halmahera Tidore South Halmahera South Halmahera South Halmahera Ambon Ambon Ambon Central Maluku Central Maluku Central Maluku Lembata ○ ○ C C A ○ ○ ○ ○ A C C C ○ C N ○ C N *1: Area Number defined by DGMCG (2005) *2: Development Priolity defined by JICA (2007) A B C L N Existing Power Plant or Existing Epansion/Development Plan High Possibiity of Existing Geothermal Reservoir Medium Possibility of Existing Geothermal Reservoir Low Possibility of Existing Geothermal Reservoir Not Enough Data for Evaluation *3: Ili Labaleken is located in Lembata.
Dacites and some andesitic intrusives occur to the north of the thermal area but there is no clear heat source for the system. 2008). close to the shoreline. The resource potential is estimated as 110 MW by JICA (2007). and at Limea at 100 m. 2005).s. Surface geoscientific surveys (geological. The hottest springs also occur at Limea. and some hot or old altered ground. in the Sungai Neangga river valley on the southwestern slopes of Doro Pure.s. geoscientific data in Hu’u Daha is reviewed as follows. et al. Johnstone.chloride outflows. and the temperatures are between 37 and 80° C.a. JICA (2007) and published papers. geochemical and geophysical surveys recognized a geothermal prospect area located in the up-flow system of the Hu’u geothermal area.l.3 l/sec) and the waters have properties expected in sulphate. Geological. Most thermal features occur in an area surrounding the NW-SE trending fault (Fig.3. The distribution of the surface features occurs at elevations between 90 to 500 m above sea level. D. Based on the description. fumaroles and altered rocks. Geology: The geology of the Hu’u Daha area is dominated by Miocene. volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks.l. They surround Doro Toki .4.1 HU’U DAHA The Hu’u Daha geothermal area is located in the southeastern part of the middle Sumbawa Island. predominantly andesitic.a. Fumaroles exist at two locations: at approximately 500 m. The geoscientific description in Hu’u Daha is published by the Volcanological Survey in Indonesia (VSI) and published papers. There may be some interference from sea water but the analytical quality is not good enough for any definite ideas to be formed. Surface geothermal manifestations and Geochemistry: The Hu’u Daha has a number of thermal features. All the other hot springs are at 40oC or less and are grouped in three locations. The prospects covers an area of about 10 km2 recognized by mercury and CO2 richdistribution (H. 3. Temperatures range between 81oC and 86oC. geochemical and geophysical surveys) have been carried out by CGR. The surface features presumably indicate the potency of geothermal resources beneath the area. Sundhoro. The valley floor is strongly altered and there are a number of sulphur deposits. The hottest occur on 62 .Doro Pure volcanic complex and consist of warm and hot springs and fumaroles. The active volcano of Sangeang Api is 90 km to the north of Huu with an older chain of Quaternary volcanoes along the north coast of Sumbawa about 45 km distant (R.4 Geothermal Resources in Each Fields Following are the review of geothermal resources in each field based on the data of VSI. 3-6). These features include hot springs. on the southern slopes of the same mountain. flows are low (<0.
The resistivity measurements comprised overlapping soundings. The results were presented in Andan (1984).g. averaging 8 km in length. generally to AB/2=2000m. The Huu hot springs occur at 100 m.a. which contain the main thermal manifestation in the prospect (Limea hot springs near the coast). Flows are similar to those at Limea.Pilar indicate significantly higher resistivities (typically ~30 ohm-m) at depth. 2008). and therefore hot fluids are not expected at depth (i.Pure.the western slopes of Doro Pure in the Sungai Huu river valley and on the northwestern slopes of Doro Toki. At higher elevations (in the southwest).a. E 6500). and its proximity to the thermal ground on D.s. allowing for the standard of analysis.Pure.e.Pure was situated at the southwest end of the lines. near the eastern end of the slopes of Doro Pilar (1030 m. However on the lines at lowest elevation. They all occur at approximately 300 m. The general pattern on the resistivity maps is decreasing resistivity towards the southwest end of the survey area.Pure. The survey comprised 7 parallel lines.s. there is only a marginal increase in resistivity at the largest current spacings (e. below 1km) in this area (based on description of VSI). neutral bicarbonate waters with temperatures approximating 40oC. The survey lines closest to D. the most interesting part of the prospect probably lies beneath the ridge of D. flows are around 1. the apparent resistivity increases strongly with increasing AB/2 value (after passing through a relatively shallow zone of low resistivity).s. and are neutral bicarbonate waters. and approximately following constant elevation. geochemical and geophysical surveys recognized a geothermal prospect area located in the up-flow system of the Hu’u Daha geothermal area. In view of the low resistivity at depth in the young volcanic host rock (<5 ohm-m). The springs at Daha are also low flow. An apparent resistivity map at AB/2=1000m was also drawn up for the assessment discussed here. This area can be only accessible by boat. or on the south side of D.5 to 8) (based on description of VSI).l. 63 . and the thermal ground on D.l. and on some curves. The prospects covers an area of about 10 km2 recognized by rich distribution of mercury and CO2 (H. the low resistivity is generally deeper. Prospect area: Geological.a. the elevated location of the southwest end of line E. Sundhoro et al. Some iron oxide deposits and carbonate sinters exist surround the springs. The warm springs of Huu and Daha lay within the survey area.5 kg/sec and the waters are of bicarbonate type. and have similar chemistries..l. No resistivity measurements were made on the south side of the volcanoes. Geophysics: A Schlumberger resistivity survey was carried out during 1984 on part of the southern area of Sumbawa.) and Doro Puree. The third set of springs occurs at Parado where temperatures approximate 30oC. Chloride content levels are lower than those at Daha or Huu and the pH is more alkaline (7.
Slightly acidic springs are found at the main Wai Sano thermal area and at Wai Bobok slightly further south on the lake shore. The resource potential was estimated as 50 MW by JICA (2007). there are many features of the topography suggesting that volcanism is not that old and certainly likely to be less than 1 Ma (Fig.2 Wai Sano Wai Sano is a 2. About 2 km further 64 . JICA (2007) and published papers. The spring fluids have high salinity attested by the presence of salts encrusting the spring margins. In both these areas the alteration is reminiscent of very acidic fluids and fumarolic activity with sulphur and H2S smell in common. pH 6 . The geoscientific description in Wai Sano is published by the Volcanological Survey in Indonesia (VSI). A group of warm bicarbonate type springs occur to the north east of Wai Sano in the Wai Werang and Wai Rancang valleys. which has a temperature of 45oC. Based on the descriptions. 3-6 Geothermal area of Hu’u Daha (after J. Wai Sano is an upper Quaternary andesitic volcano resting on the older Quaternary andesites of Pegunungan Geliran.7 with only a small outflow. About 10 km to the east near the main road is the Namparmacing spring. 3-7). Wai Sano on the SW corner of Flores Island.Fig.. Brotheridge et al. Geology: G. Surface geoscientific studies (geological. 2000) 3. Activity here was much greater in the past with this spring lying within a sinter sheet about 30 by 70 m. However. Surface geothermal manifestations and Geochemistry: Thermal activity at Wai Sano is centered on the Crater Lake which is elongated NW–SE and about 3 km long at an elevation of 620 m.4. geochemical and geophysical surveys) have been carried out by CGR. Some pumiceous debris is incorporated in the Wai Sano pyroclastics. The hottest thermal features (98oC) are found along the edges of the lake but associated thermal activity covers an area of about 100 km2.5 km diameter Crater Lake in the center of G. geoscientific data in Wai Sano is reviewed as follows. Wai Sano is regarded as an older Quaternary volcano since no historic eruptions have been recorded.
There is a possibility that the hydrothermal alterations are developed in the volcanic crater (Fig. possibly arising from previous volcanic activity near G. Contain significant magmatic water.NE there is an even more impressive sinter sheet about 250 m long and 100 m wide draping over the river terrace and down the sides of a small gorge into the Wai Rendong river. Only small flow warm springs were present in 1995. Sanongoang). The low resistivity zone coincides with the volcanic crater (D. D. 3-8. Wai Sano. Spring water geothermometries suggest a reservoir temperature around 200-250oC or higher (JICA. 2007). The elevation of the boiling springs on the shores of Wai Sano suggests the presence of a significant geothermal reservoir at depth (R. 65 . Geophysics and Prospect Area: Possible area is defined based on low resistivity zone (Schlumberger <10 ohm-m (AB/2=1000m)). Johnstone. Main fluid flow pattern is from Wai Sano to north and northeast. JICA. 2007). 2005).
Fig. 2007) 66 . 3-7 Geological map in Wai Sano (after JICA.
with assistance from GENZL and the New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 1997). Test results suggested that at least 15MWe could be generated by the three wells (Kasbani et al. Scattered over a large area to the east. Followings are summary on the geothermal resources in Ulumbu based on published papers.3 Ulumbu The Ulumbu geothermal field is located on the south western flank of the Poco Leok volcanic complex. The spectacular fumarole field in the Wai Kokor valley (650 m) dominates the thermal activity at Ulumbu and contributes to the dominant proportion of the estimated 100 MW thermal natural surface heat flow from the system. Preliminary scientific surveys were mostly conducted by the VSI. west and south of the fumaroles are a number of warm bicarbonate type springs with low chloride contents. 3-8 Resistivity survey result in Wai Sano (after JICA.Fig. Although pre-feasibility and feasibility studies were carried out funded by the New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MFAT). 67 .4. 2007) 3. the available data is limited. about 13 km SW of the active volcano Anak Ranaka near the provincial capital of Ruteng. The resource potential was estimated as 150 MW by JICA (2007). Exploration/production drilling was carried out by PT PLN.
Surface geothermal manifestations and Geochemistry: Most thermal features in the Ulumbu geothermal field occur over an area of about 28 km2 within the crater and on the western and southwestern flanks of the Poco Leok complex.Geology: Flores Island forms part of the Banda Island arc system that comprises Upper Cenozoic volcanic rocks with volcanogenic and carbonate sediments (Hamilton. Features include hot springs. Most of the Schlumberger measurements were in the form of soundings to AB/2=2000 m. mud pots and steaming ground. The surveys appear to have delineated a potential geothermal reservoir area which includes the Wai Kokor thermal area. 1997). The lines were concentrated in a 100 km2 area centered on Wai Kokor. along surveyed lines. the low resistivity anomaly extends to around Wai Mantar in the north. silicic andesites and dacite domes that overlie rocks of the Poco Rii volcano which erupted lavas and breccias. The most recent volcanic event in the region was the 1987 eruption of a dome of silicic andesite . but the contour may be indicative of the total area of lowest resistivity. The springs are mostly characterized by high concentrations of sulphate. basaltic andesites. Very low resistivities. No chloride waters discharge at the surface. 1979). about 10 km north east of Poco Leok (Sjarifudin & Rakimin. It was not possible to ascertain whether or not there is a surface thermal anomaly in this area. but low resistivity near-surface. Geographically. The survey results are summarized in VSI website as follows. 1989). The zone of lowest resistivity appears to be roughly delineated by the 10 ohm-m apparent resistivity contour on the AB/2=1000 m spacing map. but the estimate is clearly poorly controlled in several places. which were found at 68 . a survey line which extended further east across the Mesir. Significantly. This is of the order of 10 km2. This may mean the Lunggar area is now almost cool. fumaroles.dacite (Anak Ranakah). Geophysics: Schlumberger resistivity surveys were carried out over the Ulumbu prospect in 1982 and 1985. The youngest rocks outcrop approximately 7 km north of Poco Leok.. (Simanjuntak 1982 and 1985). very low chloride content and low pH (-3). et al. particularly in the region of higher topography to the north.. although some additional lines were also measured further north (around Ruteng). The underlying geothermal system probably has a simpler shape than shown by this contour. but some are of neutral pH . These are andesites. The volcanic rocks are dominantly of mafic and intermediate calc-alkaline composition and are unconformably underlain by Tertiary sediments. The Ulumbu field occurs on the southern flank of the Poco Leok volcanic complex and is about 650 m above sea level (KRTMERT. The oldest rocks exposed are of Middle Miocene age (Koesoemadinata et al. "thermal" area indicated generally higher resistivities at depth (10 ohm-m). and possibly to Wai Garit in the south. 1981). 1988) (Kasbani. or Lunggar.bicarbonate type. dominated by andesitic to basaltic andesite lithologies. and there is only an alteration zone near surface which is contributing to the low resistivity.
. 69 . The measured temperatures are up to 240°C with a productive steam zone at 750 m (Fig. D.depth 2 km further south. 1997. One is vertical and the others deviated. ULB-02 is directionally drilled to the NE and was the main producer with about 12 MW of dry steam. PT. The deepest well (ULB-01) encountered Quaternary volcanics to a depth of 838 m with Tertiary sediments below this to the well bottom. Kasbani et al. Grant el al. PLN continues to pursue the options for installation of a power plant (Kasbani. Exploratory Well Study: Three deep wells were drilled from the same drill pad in 1994 – 1995 less than 100 m away from the fumaroles. at 1887 m. in the region of higher topography. 2005). 1997. Johnstone. may be influenced by conductive sediments beneath the volcanic pile. The most attractive target area based on geophysical survey results was proposed as the north of the Wai Kokor thermal area. et al... 3-9. R. 1997).
Fig. et al. 1997) 70 .. 3-9 Hydrothermal mineral zonation in Ulumbu (revised Kasbani.
crystobalite and quartz). The N-S structure pattern is represented by an existence of volcanic lineaments that are probably strongly affected by a combination of normal and strike slip fault systems. they are divided into alunite-illite. SW-NE and N-S direction. East Nusatenggara. geochemical. The resource potential was estimated as 30 MW by JICA (2007). Generally the thermal discharges are associated with structure or fracture system passing through SE-NW. Based on these descriptions. The alunite-illite zone is located in the inner part. CSAMT (Control Source Audio Magneto Telluric).e. geophysical surveys and 103 m depth well-drilling. interpreted as a fracture type geothermal system dominated the Bajawa geothermal area (JICA. quartz. and GSJ (Geological Survey of Japan) in FY 1998 i. The NE-SW Nage alteration zone is characterized by silicification-argilitization (Pyrophilite. The outer zone is montmorilonite. It has good accessibility and high rain fall (±1750 .2250 mm/year). kaolinite and montmorilonite zones. Schlumberger resistivity and Gravity methods. JICA (2007) and published papers.4 Bena-Mataloko The Mataloko (Bajawa) Geothermal area (500-1.4. indicated by trend of hot springs and alteration zone distributions. deducing as a caldera and post caldera forming eruption products. After NEDO study. which probably influenced by the tectonic driving from the South. alunogen. The large geothermal distribution along that trending fault direction. thick pyroclastic. cropping out in Mataloko and Bajawa areas.l) is located in Ngada regency. The geothermal resource in Bena-Mataloko was summarized by VSI. escarpment and triangular facets in some places. The SE-NW Waeluja normal fault is a major control structure of thermal channel fluids of he Mataloko geothermal area.s. geothermal resources in Bena-Mataloko are summarized as follows (Figs.3. The SE-NW trending fault systems are occupied by regional structures of Central Central Flores.121°05' E latitude 08°48'30" . and gypsum). The kaolinite zone is characterized by kaolinite. additional wells have been drilled and constructed 2. The comprehensive survey had been conducted by VSI. Surface geothermal manifestations: The Waeluja alteration zone characterized by an NW-SE strongly argilitic alteration (natroalunite. In the lateral order.5 MW geothermal power plant. 2007).08° 53'30" longitude. NEDO (New Energy Development Organization)-Japan. geology. quartz and montmorilonite which are probably affected by acidic and weak acidic solutions. which is probably associated with the first episode condition (affected by strongly sulphuric acid 71 . 3-10 and 3-11). alunite. probably affected by a strongly sulphuric acid and high temperature solutions which are indicated by alunite mineral. The geophysical consist of MT (Magneto Telluric). which is possibly driven from a weathering process as well. The SW-NE Boba normal fault is characterized by an old topographic lineation. Geology: The Mataloko andesite and the volcanic of Bajawa composed of fresh to weathered lavas. crystobalite.400 m a. and lies between 121°00' .
kaolinite and crystobalite clay alterations (probably affected by a strongly sulphuric acid solution of high temperature condition). the Mataloko area is entirely underlain by a low resistivity layer (<10 Ohm-m) in the shallow zone. The 2-D resistivity model shows that generally a thin high resistivity surface layer except the manifestation zone. Geochemistry: The chemical analysis of thermal discharges that represents high sulphate. The CSAMT data shows the discontinuity resistivity structures near manifestation zone which is interpreted as fractures zone. The shallow steam-dominated reservoir is likely to be derived from deep liquid-dominated hot reservoir. Main thermal manifestations in Mataloko are fumaroles and steam-heated acid hot springs. is indicating the sulphate type water. This is interpreted as a clay-rich zone which corresponds to ca layer of the geothermal reservoir system. After the flow-test.087 Ma and less than 0. The thickness of the conductive layer becomes larger to western part of the Mataloko area. A large-high resistive layer is interpreted below this cap layer in the Mataloko surface manifestation zone. while the Head On represents that the normal fault yields a dipping 70°to the North. sodium. Bobo. From fumarolic and well discharge gas geothermometries. but less conductive. high subsurface temperatures of hydrothermal system are probably still existing (based on description of VSI).solution). reservoir temperature is estimated to be 190-230oC at the shallow reservoir and 270-300oC at the deep reservoir. low chloride. This project was successfully completed with the flow-test steam production of 15 tons per hour from the well MT-2 at the depth of 162. Teh west flank of Bobo young volcanic cones (1400 m asl) represent a fumarolic field which consists mainly of alunite. The high sulphate suggests that the volcanic gases particularly H2S oxidize closed to the surface.35 m. and very low. as low as 1 Ohm-m. 3-12 and 3-13). this well was deepened to182. The Thermo-luminescence dating of quartz from Waeluja and Nage alteration minerals represents ages of 0. Therefore. influencing shallow ground water (based on description of VSI). Geophysics: The very comprehenship geophysical survey was conducted to provide integrated information on the electrical resistivity distribution of the Mataloko.2 Ma respectively. and calcium contents. Shallow Exploratory Wells Study: Three shallow exploratory wells MTL-1. MT-1 and MT-2 have been drilled in the Mataloko geothermal field in this project. Below it. and Nage manifestation areas. near the manifestation zone.02 m (Figs. 72 . They probably indicate the thermal history of the preliminary Waeluja and Nage faults. Reservoir fluid originates essentially in meteoric water.
3-11 Compiled map of geothermal activity in the Mataloko Area (JICA. 3-10 Compiled map of geothermal activity in the Nage and Wolo Bobo areas (JICA.Fig. 2007) Fig. 2007) 73 .
3-13 Photograph of the flow twist of NEDO MT-2 well (Muraoka et al. 2005) 74 .Fig. 2005) Fig.. 3-12 Location of exploratory wells in Mataloko (Muraoka et al..
200 m asl) (Mutubusa and Mutulo’o). and geothermal reservoir fluid of neutral pH. The age of volcanism in the Ndete Napu area is not known precisely. Surface thermal activity covers an area of about 100 km2 centered on the Kelimutu volcano.5 Sokoria-Mutubusa The Sokoria-Mutubusa geothermal field in central Flores and the association of the geothermal activity with the volcanism at Kelimutu is reported R. and lower elevation (<900 m asl) springs with a wide variety of chemical compositions. In addition. 1951) based on its thermal activity (JICA. 2005). D. In the lowest elevation area. and possibly up to 320oC from gas and Na/K geothermometries (JICA. Springs on the south side of the complex occur along the trace of the near vertical Lowongolopolo Fault (R. Preliminary scientific survey was mostly conducted by the CGR. Hot springs in Sokoria may be derived from various kinds of fluids including shallow condensate. located at 750 m elevation along the Lowomelo river valley in central Flores Island. and chloride type. deep reservoir water and outflow containing magmatic fluid. but it was included in the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (Neumann van Padang. being interpreted as mixtures of groundwater. 75 . East Nusa Tenggara. MT/TDEM survey was conducted by JICA (2007). 3-14). neutral pH springs at Detu Petu and Landukura and acid springs at Jopu exist. with magmatic .geothermal steam condensate. NE of Iya volcano is of 8 km in diameter (Fig. 2007). The resource potential is estimated as 90 MW by JICA (2007). The Ndete Napu fumarole field. In 1932 it contained mud pots and high-pressure water fountains. Reservoir temperature was estimated higher than 180oC at least. Drilling of slim shallow wells was carried out by CGR.4. A feature of the thermal activity at Sokoria is the existence of fumaroles at high elevations (1. 2007).3. Johnstone. Spring waters in Roga and Jopu at the south foot of Keli Mutu may be derived from outflows from the mountain side and contain some magmatic fluid. originated during 1927-29. A small fumarolic area on the western flank contains several vents that eject geyser-like water columns with a smell of hydrogen sulfide. Reservoir fluid originates essentially in meteoric water. D. The southern caldera wall is very irregular. Geochemistry: Surface manifestations around Keli Mutu volcanic complex are spread over a wide area. A 750-m-high northern caldera wall rises above the village of Sokoria in the center of the caldera. The temperature estimated by the method of Giggenbach (1988) indicated a trend towards equilibrium temperatures of 200 – 250oC. The poorly known Sokoria caldera in central Flores Island. Geology: Sokoria-Mutubusa geothermal prospect is located 30km north of Ende. Occurrence of fumaroles in Mutubasa suggests existence of another up flow center of hot fluid there besides the Keli Mutu system. Johnstone (2005) and JICA (2007).
resistivity discontinuity probably reflects a Caldera rim. based on low resistivity zone (Schlumberger <5 ohm-m). 2000) 76 . and is likely to reflect a fault structure. The survey results of JICA study are summarized as follows: Three resistivity discontinuities were detected. In the central portion along the of resistivity discontinuity. Brotheridge et al. the zone along resistivity discontinuity is likely to be a promising zone for geothermal development in the Sokoria field. Hence the area along resistivity discontinuity at depth is possibly indicative of a higher temperature zone at depth. JICA (2007) conducted geophysical survey (MT/TDEM method) in the Master Plan STudy. In addition. 2007). Considering the geological survey results. underlying the low resistivity zone along the discontinuity. a relatively higher resistivity zone of greater than 30ohm-m possibly reflecting reflects high temperature alteration products such as illite and/or chlorite is detected.. Reservoir extent was estimated in Caldera structure.Geophysics: Schlumberger method was conducted by CGR. surface manifestation and geologic structure trending NNW-SSE (JICA. Therefore it is highly probable that the central portion of resistivity discontinuity reflects a part of the fault-like structure where geothermal fluid may circulate at depth in the Sokoria field. Fig. 3-14 Prospect Area in Sokoria Mutubusa (J. a low resistivity zone of less than 5ohm-m probably reflecting reflects low-temperature hydrothermal-alteration minerals (smectite etc) acting as the cap-rock of the reservoir is recognized. Based on these facts.
and notable thin salt layer coating the rocks surrounding the pool. or have been modified significantly before reaching the surface.3. The anomalies of Hg and CO2. Results of surface geoscientific surveys are summarized as follows based on R. Thermal features on the eastern end of Flores occur in three clusters. The field situated about 45 km southeast of Lewoleba city as the capital city of Lembata District. Kawalawu hot springs on the north western side of the island. with a flow of about 3 l/s. steaming ground (96-98°C) and altered rock. and East Nusa Tenggara Province. 1979) is about 10 km to the SW.4. Young craters occur about 6 km to the east and NE of the springs and the active Ili Leroblong volcano (Kusumadinata. Silica geothermometers give temperatures of about 170oC for both springs and although the springs fall in the immature field of Giggenbach (1988) the trend line points towards temperatures of 250oC. Watuwawer and Mauraja normal faults of NE-SW trend and Waibana normal fault of NW-SE. But these are now covered with rocks and sand. and a flow of about 3 l/s. Total flow from the Oka area is estimated at about 15 l/s. D. 77 . Other springs are reported to have occurred to the east and west of the present springs prior to the 1991 earthquake.which is almost the same with those of resistivities. The surface manifestation consists of hot springs (32-45°C). The slight acidity is reflected in elevated sulphate contents of the springs suggesting that these waters have undergone a moderate steam heating process. There are significant differences in the chemistry between the two springs indicating that they either originate from different parent fluids. fumaroles (80-96°C).6 Oka-Larantuka Preliminary geoscientific survey was mostly conducted by the CGR. Both spring groups are slightly acid with pH 5 . extend in the south to southeast of the Atadei geothermal field. The Atadei geothermal field is composed of Quaternary old and young volcanic rock unit and the geological structures are characterized by Watuwawer and Bauraja calderas.2oC.1oC. The preliminary works were conducted by the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia.4. The hottest spring is 60. and the Riang Kotang alteration area in the saddle between Ili Padang and Ili Waikerewak hills.7 Atadei The Atadei geothermal field belongs to Atedei Subdistrict. 3. between the two sets of coastal springs. Several springs are found at Oka over a 200 m interval inland from the seashore. The volcanic rocks in the area are Pliestocene to recent.6. Johnstone (2005).. forming a poorly dissected group of coalescing volcanic cones up to about 1. District of Lembata.240 m high. has a temperature of 51. but it has not been developed yet. around the Watuwawer village. The resource potential was estimated as 90 MW by JICA (2007). Oka hot springs on the south eastern side of the island. The location of the springs provides little evidence for an association with a particular volcanic heat source. At Kawalawu the main spring occurs just above high tide level.
Mt.Based on the study results by F. 78 . 1. The Quaternary volcanic rocks consist of lava and pyroclastic deposits. where Mt. However. some samples taken from the western flank at Mt. The oldest rocks are of Miocene age and exposed on northern part of the island. Features include hot spring. The steaming/hot grounds have near surface temperatures up to 98°C and occur with in the Watukaba caldera. Ilikoti and eastern flank of Mt. characteristics of the geothermal resource in Atadei are summarized as follows.25 km2 with electrical potential of 1-2 MW and Waru. Surface geothermal manifestations: Most thermal features in the Atadai geothermal area occur over area boundaries by a couple of NE-SW trending faults: Kowan and Lewo geroma faults in the North and South. Geology: Lomblen Island is a part of the Banda Island arc system which comprises Upper Cenozoic volcanic rocks with volcanogenic and carbonate sediments. approximately 6 km South East of the surveyed area. Hobal. The geoscientific description in Atadei is published by the Volcanological Survey in Indonesia (VSI). Mt. The youngest rocks in the area in relation with the most recent volcanic event in the island occur on Mt. Benolo. there are three prospect areas Watuwawer 4. Ili Werung and Mt. on the western flank of Mt. Nadlohyert al (2003). The later is a very recent deposit due to slope instability of intensively altered volcanic rocks and buried the former sub district capital town of Atadai with about of 500 peoples died in 1979.5 km2 with the electrical potential of 20-30 MWe. The volcanic rocks are dominantly of mafic to intermediate calc-alkaline composition and are uncomfortably underlain by the Tertiary rocks. No chloride waters discharge at the surface. The secondary deposits are alluvial and debris avalanches deposits. Lewo Kebingin. Watukaba. The resource potential was estimated to be 50 MW by JICA (2007). steaming/hot grounds and altered rocks. The NW-SW one likely controls the volcanism and the volcanic vents presumably moved from the NW to the SE. The intensive alteration mostly occurs in area boundaries the couple of NE-SW normal faults: Kowan and Lewogeroma. The Watuwawer prospect area is the most prospective area for the development of the Atadei geothermal field in the future. Ilikoti show that the rocks have been pervasively altered by neutral pH fluid (based on description of VSI). The springs have temperature up to 35°C and are mostly characterized by nearly neutral pH and bicarbonate type. which were mostly erupted from the vents of Mt. there are deictic rocks exposed on a narrow area at the north Watukaba caldera wall. The area photograph interpretation shows that there are two main trending structures/lineaments: NW-SE and NE-SW. The volcano-stratigraphy study and thermal manifestation suggest that the heat source for the Atadai geothermal area is beneath the Atalojo crater and Watukaba caldera. Benolo and Mt. These rocks are dominantly of basaltic andesite composition. Iliwerung is the youngest (based on description of VSI). however. Watulolo. Atalojo. respectively.5 km2 with electrical potential of 7-10 MW. Based on the description. 0. but some are of high sulphate content. very low chloride content and low pH.
Geology: The area is located at the east coast of Ambon Island. Detailed fluid flow pattern is not clear.8 Tulehu The geoscientific description in Tulehu was compiled by JICA (2007). Geochemistry: Reservoir fluid originates in meteoric water and seawater. PLN (Fig. 3-15). Reservoir temperature is estimated around 230oC or higher. PLN based on the low resistivity zone. 79 . The geological units are divided by several NE-SW trending faults and warm springs are situated along these faults (Fig.4. The resource potential was estimated as 40 MW by JICA (2007).3. characteristics of geothermal resources in Tulehu are summarized as follows. geologic structure and geochemistry. surface manifestation. The resistivity data and geologic structure indicate the possibility that the possible area become wider than that defined by PT. Prospect Area: Possible area was defined by PT. Based on the description. 3-16).
2007) 80 .Fig. 3-15 Geological map in Tulehu (JICA.
9 Jailolo The geoscientific description in Jailolo is published by the Volcanological Survey in Indonesia (VSI). and have temperatures lower than 45oC and flows up to 10 l/s. 3-16 Prospect Area in Tulehu (JICA.Fig. Jailolo in the Teluk Bobo-Kailupa area. on the south side of Manjonga hill (78oC) and springs (84oC) on the coast SW of Manjonga hill.Toada.Toada (east of Teluk Jailolo) and to the SW of G. Based on the description.75 km diameter crater further to the east at Idamdehe (based on description of VSI). 81 .Jailolo followed by andesite which were erupted from the vicinity of a 1. The resource potential was estimated as 40 MW by JICA (2007). The oldest rocks in the area are Tertiary. The Jailolo Volcanics overlie these older units and consist of basalts erupted from G. Geology: Thermal features of this field occur mainly around the flanks of G.Jailolo and at Todowangi to the NW of G. The remaining 33 known springs are around the edges of G. Surface geothermal manifestations: The highest temperature of thermal features in Jailolo are in the eastern part of the field with steaming ground inside the Idamdehe crater (97oC). Early Quaternary eruptive centers are situated at G. Jailolo which forms a small peninsula on the west coast of central Halmahera Island. with andesites and basalts overlain by a deictic ignimbrite which outcrop to the east of the thermal features on an uplifted fault block.4. characteristics of geothermal resources in Jailolo are summarized as follows. 2007) 3.
and most of the soundings were up to AB/2=1000 m.s. None of the soundings centered above 250 m. Geochemistry: There are a number of thermal features within this prospect. west and south sides by sea.s. A further piece of steaming ground (78oC) is located at 125 m.).l.s.Jailolo. Evidence of a possible high temperature (>180oC) resource is indicated by silica deposition at the two hottest seepages at Sorogogo (84oC) and Arugani (75oC) respectively and both have flows less than 0. 1982). and 14 soundings were carried out in the Jailolo prospect area during 1982 (Simanjuntak.. Low resistivities occur beneath the eastern flanks of G.a. In situ resistivities of <10 ohm-m are suggested here.e. Geophysics: Approximately 75 Schlumberger traversing stations. A circular area of radius 1 km 82 .s. imply very low resistivity at depth (i. 3-17). With only one traversing survey line across this area.l. so most of the sounding curves are steeply descending. the relatively high apparent resistivity (>50 ohm-m) at AB/2=1000 on most traversing stations. G. there are broad areas of low-lying swamp which are likely to contain unknown thicknesses of conductive sediments and fluids. <10 ohm-m). and these extend sufficiently inland to be mostly likely caused by the presence of thermal fluids.Jailolo.a. 3 km south-west of Idamdehe at Bukit Manjanga. It is considered that the eastern part of the field around Kawah Idamdehe is the most promising for obtaining a geothermal resource if one of significance exists (Fig. The traversing measurements were at the standard AB/2 spacings of 500 m and 1000 m.l. and the Ca/Mg ratio and elevated chloride sulphate and bicarbonate may indicate an influx of seawater rather than a diluted outflow from a cool source.l.Jailolo is surrounded on its northwest. Thus low resistivities are to be expected at low elevation around G. On the north and east sides.a.Jailolo.Jailolo flanks which have been sunk to supply hot water (based on description of VSI).a. To the west of G. the boundaries of the low resistivity zone are poorly delineated. the other thermal manifestations (springs) are at low elevations surrounding the flanks of G. However the upper parts of G.l. suggests there is not an extensive geothermal system beneath G. and in all soundings at elevations above 250 m.Jailolo.. Despite this uncertainty.. and there is some uncertainty about how low the resistivity is at great depth (>1 km depth). With the exception of the small Idamdehe kawah at an elevation of 205 m.l.a.s.Jailolo at Idamdehe within a small collapsed structure and at 175 m. there is some very hot (97oC) steaming ground.s.a. Only one near-complete analysis is available. There are a number of wells around G. and the critical question is whether the low resistivity extends a significant distance beneath the higher parts of the mountain (peak elevation of 1130 m.Jailolo have a very high resistivity.The springs cover an area of about 75km2. Only two hot springs are recorded with flow rates greater than 6 l/second and these occur at Balesoan (50 l/sec) and Gamtala (10 l/sec). especially along the survey line that is the closest to the Idamdehe kawah. Hot outflows occur at six locations but at sea level.5 l/second.
(area 3 km2). 3-17 Geothermal model in Jailolo (after VSI) 83 . centered near the Idamdehe kawah has been assumed (based on description of VSI). Fig.
29/1986 regarding the Environmental Impact Assessment was promulgated. local government has right to act for preservation of the environment based on paragraph 3 article 18 of Act of the Republic of Indonesia concerning environmental management. “regulation regarding Environmental Impact Assessment” Government Regulation No. 51/1993 was enacted. AMDAL Kawasa.1 Environmental Assessment System The Ministry of Development and Environment (PPLH) was established in 1978 in Indonesia and takes charge of environmental administration. ”General committee of environmental impact assessment” is organized for enforcing the environmental impact assessment of the project.23/1990. which are under the authority of a single authorized government agency. which has not only one authority concerned. Considering the results of many developments. AMDAL KegiatanTerpadu/Multisektoral.Chapter 4 Environmental and Social Aspect 4. KLH was demergered and LH was established in March 1993. For strengthening the function of KLH. which national environmental administration issues were described. where that business or activity is located in a single ecosystem type and also involves more than one authorized government agency. AMDAL is categorized into three types according to the intensity and extent of the proposed development. the significant impacts of a proposed integrated business or 84 . BAPEDAL transformed its structure and strengthened the function by Degree of President No. the Government Regulation No. AMDAL Regional.4/1982).77/ 1994. are capacitated enforcement of environmental impact assessment. They organize the “committee of environmental impact assessment” for prescreening and examining AMDAL report. and BLH of each province enforces the environmental issues. which brushed up the system on implementation of countermeasures for preservation of the environment and public hazards. PPLH transformed into the Ministry of Population and Environment (KLH) in 1982. BEPEDAL administrates coordination of environmental impact assessment study. the significant impacts of a proposed integrated business or activity located in a single ecosystem type. Act of the Republic of Indonesia concerning environmental management (act No. To reflect the article 16 of Act of the Republic of Indonesia concerning environmental management. In Indonesia Environmental Impact Assessment is called as Analysis Mengenai Dampak Lingkungan (hereafter AMDAL). was promulgated. Authority concerned and provinces. which have jurisdiction over project. the Environmental Management Agency (BAPEDAL) was established as an implementation agency for environmental administration based on Degree of President No. the significant impacts of a proposed integrated business or activity on the environment. According to central government policy.
aerial extent. and impact significance is determined by 7 parameters (number of affected people.2 Legislation. Kep-056/1994. but Environmental Management Effort (UKL: Upaya Pengelolaan Lingkungan) and Environmental Monitoring Effort (UPL: Upaya Pemantauan Lingkungan) should be submitted according to ministry decree No. Standards and Regulations Relating to the Environment (Geothermal Development Related) 85 . 84 activities) Environmental Impact Statements called as Analysis Dampak Lingkungan (hereafter ANDAL) and it is a detailed and in-depth research study on the significant impacts of a proposed business or activity. reversibility / irreversibility) in “decree concerning guidelines for the determination of significant impacts” decree No. And also the management plan and monitoring plan shall be prepared in order to manage and monitor the significant impacts of proposed business and activity. intensity. number of other affected environmental components. 17/ 2001. the kind and scale of the business and activities were revised by “decree of sate minister for environment on types of business or activities required to prepare an environmental impact assessment”. The significant impacts are fundamental changes to the environment.activities located in a single ecosystem type in a development planning area as defined by the regional spatial plan. 86/2002. decree No. duration.called as RPL (Rencana Pemantauan Lingkungan Hidup) in Indonesia The geothermal power generation smaller than 55MW and transmission line smaller than 150kV are no necessary to prepare AMDAL. (14 sectors. cumulative nature. Environmental Management Plan Lingkungan Hidup) in Indonesia --called as RKL (Rencana Pengelolaan Environmental Monitoring Plan --. which involves more than one authorized government agency as part of the decision-making process. decree No. The details of activity and its scale were once announced by “decree concerning types of business or activities required preparing an environmental impact assessment”. which result from a proposed business or activity. Types of business and activity that may cause the significant impacts on the environment are specified in 14 kinds sectors. 4. Kep-11/Menlh/3/1994.
5 0.2.03 (= 42μg/m3) Enclosure III. Temperature 6. Table 4-1 Environment Quality Standards for Air Pollution Item Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) Source: Number: KEP – 02 / MENKLH / I / 1988 Date: January 19. Odor 2. MENTERI NEGARA LINGKUNGAN HIDUP TENTANG. 1. Standards for the discharge of hydrogen sulfide from stationary sources were revised in 1995. ±3 15 0. Arsenic 8.5 – 8.000 5 Remark No odor No taste Atmosphere temp.05 Mini－Max PERATURAN PEMERINTAHREPUBLIK INDONESIA 86 . Taste 5. and the new geothermal power plant (January 1.05 250 6. Total Dissolved Solid Substances (TDS) 3. Chloride 9.2 Water The environmental quality standards for water. 25ppm) KEPUTUSAN. 13 / MENLH/ 3 / 1995 Unit mg/ m3 Standard value 35 (approx. Color 7. Source: Unit mg/l NTU Scale degree TCU Scale mg/l mg/l mg/l Maximum concentration 1. Table 4-3 Environmental Quality Standard for Water (Drinking Water Usage) No Item .2.4. Turbidity 4. which should be related to geothermal development. Decree of State Minister of Population and Environment Table 4-2 Gas Exhaust Standard (Stationary Source) Item Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) (Total Reduced Sulfur) Source: Number: KEP. Standard value (ppm) 0.1 Air The environmental quality standard for hydrogen sulfide in air is as shown in Table 4-1. PH 10 Sulfide as H2S . are as indicated in Table 4-3. 1988 Measuring condition Value of 30 min. BAKU MUTU EMISI SUMBER TIDAK BERGERAK 4. 2000 onwards) will be regulated in the manner shown in Table 4-2.
KEP – 42 / MENLH / 10 / 1996 October 9. 20/1990. DEPUTUSAN MENTERI : KEP – 48 / MENLH / 11 /1996 NEGARALINGKUNGAN HIDUP dB (A) 55 70 65 50 70 60 70 70 60 55 55 55 87 . Industry 6. Table 4-5 Standards of Noise Level Items a.005 0.0 4. Special Airport Train station Shipyard National Port b. Activity Area 1.5 45 5. Open Green Area 5.0－9. Area Usage 1. Kep-42/MENLH/10/1996. The quality standards of liquid waste for geothermal exploration and production activities are in Table 4-4.Number: 20. Hospital 2. 1990 The quality standards of liquid waste from geothermal activity was not clear in Government Regulation No. Government and Public facility 7. Recreation (Resort) 8. Office and Trade 4.2. Table 4-4 Quality Standards of Liquid Waste Item Dissolved sulphide acid (as H2S) Dissolved ammonia (as NH3) Mercury Arsenic Temperature PH Source: Date: Attachment III. it was revised by decree of state minister of Environment “Quality standards of liquid waste of natural and gas as well as Geothermal activities” decree No.3 Noise Standards for noise according to type of land use and activity area are shown in Table 4-5. 1996 Unit mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l degree － maximum 1 10 0. Place for pray / Church / Temple / Mosque Source Number : LAMPIRAN I. Residential 2. School 3. Commercial 3.
2. maintain hydrological system. Commercial 4. even if its capacity is less than 55MW. should be checked by application of AMDAL.41/1999. erosion control. Protection Forest and Production Forest. Production forest is classified into permanent production forest. In geothermal power projects in and around the following legally protected areas. whose capacity is more than 55MW. it lies under an obligation to prepare AMDAL. Protection Forest is a forest area designated to serve life support system. and convertible production forest. The 88 . 41/1999. In accordance to the Act on Forestry No. Government Regulation No. for which is defined as in Table 4-7. Geothermal power development activity can be conducted in the forest restricts in special circumstances. Measurements are to be taken at nose receptors located outside the Project property boundary. forest area is categorized as Conservation Forest. 86/2002. prevent of flood. seawater intrusion.Date : 25 NOVEMBER 1996 Noise abatement measures should achieve either the levels given in Table 4-6 below or a maximum increase in background levels of 3 decibels (measured on the A scale) [dB (A)]. and maintain soil fertility. Conservation Forest is a forest area having specific characteristic established for the purposes of conservation of animal and plant species and their ecosystem.2/2008 approves geothermal power development activity in protection forest and production forest in exchange for tariff or government income on using forest area. Environmental Management Effort (UKL) and Environmental Monitoring Effort (UPL) should be submitted according to the requirement of the ministry decree No. Production forest is a forest area designated mainly to promote sustainable forest production. Table 4-6 Standards of Noise Level at Source Maximum allowable log Equivalent (hourly measurements). Geothermal power development activity in kinds of the conservation forest is not allowed according to government regulation No. Institutional. Educational Industrial. In case that the AMDAL is not necessary. in dB (A) Day Night (07:00 – 22:00) (22:00 – 07:00) 55 70 45 70 Receptor Residential. limited production forest.4 Subject for Environmental Impact Assessment Environmental conditions and impacts in the objected area of the geothermal power project.
The prospect area is located in production forest and possibly includes protection forest. On the bases of the collected information so far. There are 37 geothermal prospects in the eastern provinces according to the data of Geological Agency. (2) Wai Sano The Waisano prospect is located at Nara. Regency of Ende in East Nusa Tenggara (Nusa Tenggara Timur) Province. (1) Huu Daha The Huudaha prospect is located at Parado and Tenu Tenawo village of Monta district. The prospect area is located in non-forest area and possibly includes conservation forest. Regency of Manggarai in Jambi Province. Regency of Manggarai in East Nusa Tenggara (Nusa Tenggara Timur) Province. Rawe and Nanggali village of Sononggoang district.project implementation body should pay attention about the location of prospect where is included conservation forest or not. The prospect area is located in non-forest area. (5) Sokoria Mutubusa The Sokoria or Mutubusa prospect is located at Ende village of Ende district. 89 . (4) Bena Mataloko The Bena Mataloko prospect is located at Bodo and Boawai village of Mogomang Ulewa district. Regency of Ngada in East Nusa Tenggara (Nusa Tenggara Timur) Province. 11of 37 prospects are checked the geographical relation between prospects and the conservation forest. These results are shown in Figs. Regency of Bima in Nusa Tenggara Barat Province. (3) Ulumbu The Ulumbu prospect is located at Ruteng. The prospect area is located in non-forest area and possibly includes protection forest. The forest condition of the other 26 prospects should be confirmed when the project areas are selected. and Poco Ranakah village of Sataramese district. The prospect area is located in production forest and possibly includes protection forest and non-forest area. 4-1 to 4-6. forest conditions were checked as follows.
The prospect area is located in protection forest and possibly includes non-forest area. (10) Tulehu The Tulehu prospect is located at Liang village of Salahutu district.(6) Oka Larantuka The Oka Larantuka prospect is located at Wutuwiti village of Larantuka district. Regency of Central Maluku in Maluku Province. Regency of South Halmahera in Maluku Province. (9) Tonga Wayana The Tonga Wayana prospect is located at Babang and Wajaua village of Bacan district. However more detailed information on environment should be collected before starting the project. (8) Atadei The Atadei prospect is located at Labla and Hadakewa village of Atadei district. (11) Jailolo The Jailolo prospect is located at Hokuhokukie village of Jailolo district. Regency of Lembata in East Nusa Tenggara (Nusa Tenggara Timur) Province. The prospect area is located in protection forest and possibly includes non-forest area. The prospect area is located in non-forest area. The prospect area is located in conservation forest and possibly includes production forest. Regency of Lembata in East Nusa Tenggara (Nusa Tenggara Timur) Province. 90 . The prospect area is located in non-forest area and possibly includes protection forest. there are no serious environmental problems to proceed to the project in the objected areas. According to the information collected so far. Regency of West Halmahera in North Maluku Province. Regency of Florest Tiur (East Flores) in East Nusa Tenggara (Nusa Tenggara Timur) Province. The prospect area is located in production forest and possibly includes protection forest and non-forest area. (7) Ili Labaleken The Ili Labaleken prospect is located at Watalolong village of Nagawulan district.
Table 4-7 Classification of Forest Area Forest Area (Kawasan Hutan) Conservation Forest (Hutan Consavasi) Sanctuary Reserve area (Kawasan suaka alam) Strict Nature Reserve (CA: Cagar Alam) Wildlife Sanctuary (SM: Suaka Margasatwa) Nature conservation area (Kawasan pelestarian alam) National Park (TN: Taman Nasional) Grand Forest Park (THR: Taman Hutan Raya) Nature Recreation Park (TWA: Taman Wisata Alam) Game Hunting Park (TB: Taman Buru) Protection Forest (Hutan Lindung) Production forest (Hutan produksi) Permanent production forest (HP: Hutan Produksi Tetap) Limited production forest (HPT: Hutan Produksi Terbatas) Convertible production forest (Hutan Produksi yang dapat dikonversi) 91 .
Fig. 4-2 Geographical relation between prospects and the conservation forest in Ulumbu and Bena-Mataloko 92 . 4-1 Geographical relation between prospects and the conservation forest in Huu Daha and Wai Sano Fig.
4-4 Geographical relation between prospects and the conservation forest in Ili Labaleken and Atadei 93 . 4-3 Geographical relation between prospects and the conservation forest in Sokoria-Mutubusa and Oka-Larantuka Fig.Fig.
Fig. 4-5 Geographical relation between prospects and the conservation forest in Tonga Wayana and Tulehu Fig. 4-6 Geographical relation between prospects and the conservation forest in Jailolo 94 .
the procedure for registration of Blue Book will be started by MEMR as a project of PT. because of inflationary cost rise of fossil fuel for the diesel power generation. PLN . Ministry of Finance and National Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS). and the stages will consist of the following eight major components. which are shown in Fig. Based on the discussion among the MEMR. small scale geothermal power plant of 35MW in total is proposed to MEMR as appropriate project scale and period. Mineral and Resources (MEMR). the support by ODA Yen Loan is considered to be sufficient for construction of 35 MW geothermal power plants as pilot projects. Surface Survey Stage Selecting Geothermal Prospect Surface Resource Survey Drilling Survey Stage Exploration Well Drilling Geothermal Reservoir Simulation Conceptual Design for Geothermal Power Plant Application Study of CDM Plant Construction Small Scale Power Plant Construction Transmission/ Distribution Line Construction 95 .Chapter 5 Implementation Plan 5.1 Project Composition The diesel power of 89MW. Since urgent commencement of geothermal power development in the eastern Indonesia is considered to be necessary and pilot project of geothermal power development should be started as soon as possible. exploitable resource potential of 650 MW in total in the eastern provinces was reported based on the existing resource data. The Eastern Indonesia Geothermal Development Project will be divided into three stages. 5-1. Considering commencement of operation of geothermal power plants as soon as possible. Ministry of Energy. In Geothermal Master Plan Study by JICA. On the other hand. which is base load in the eastern Indonesia. estimated the potential of the geothermal resources as same as 1914MW in the eastern provinces. is possible to be substituted geothermal power.
Prediction Conceptual Design for GPP. Geothermal Binary System Geothermal Power Plant Operating Fig. Production Geothermal Reservoir Simulation Evaluating Resource Potential 3D Geothermal Model. 5-1 Development Flowchart 96 . Well Logging. CDM Drilling Survey (Tendering Prospect) Plant Construction Small-Scale GPP Construction Back-Pressure Turbine. Geochemistry.THE PROJECT Selecting Geothermal Prospect Surface Survey Surface Study Estimating Resource Distribution Geology. Geophysics Exploration Well Drilling Confirming Resource Slim Hole Drilling. History Matching.
5. if possible. However. relation between rock units and structure elements of the geology will be written down. delineation of the geothermal reservoirs and decision of exploration drilling targets. Furthermore mapping of hydrothermal alteration zone can be identified a relation between fracture-controlled permeability and fluid flow.1 Selecting Geothermal Prospect (Preparion of the Project) Based on information such as location of diesel power plant and transmission/ distribution line. Identification and location of the volcanic rock units in the area will be done and geological mapping will be carried out. and Thermo-Luminescence (TL) dating on the rocks and minerals will be done. age dating and crystal morphology analysis.1. However. a relation between fault movement and geothermal activity. the history of geothermal activity can be constructed. Understanding the geological evolution of the geothermal area. And petrological analysis. All the information will be integrated to formulate the conceptual model of the geothermal system.1. In the previous resource study. Integration of the results of X-ray analysis and a distribution of the alteration zones will be carried out.5. During the field survey. Following resource studies should be conducted in the project for securing geothermal steam. and orientation of the fractures and faults will be conducted. existing geological data of the surveyed area and vicinities are insufficient to quantitatively evaluate the geothermal potential. and formation mechanism from the above data can suggest where subsurface heat sources and permeable zones may be found. In this study. potential and characteristics geothermal prospect adequate areas of geothermal power development will be selected for diesel power substitution.2 Surface Resource Survey Surface resource survey such as geology. These studied can be entrusted to consulting firm of geothermal development. size. In the field samples of rocks and minerals will be collected. Geochemical survey will be carried out to obtain information about the geothermal fluid in the survey area for selecting the sites of exploration well drilling and for planning the geothermal power development. as described later. documentation of the frequency. Based on history of the volcanism and alteration age. geochemistry and geophysics will be carried out at selected geothermal prospects for the purpose of confirmation of resource existence. In the map. this work should be preferably conducted before starting the project by preliminary surface studies (geology and geochemistry). consumer power demand. X-ray analysis. fission Track (FT) dating. and thus the relation between the geothermal system and its history will be disclosed. All of the above data will suggest that thermal structure and fluid characteristics in geothermal system. the selection of fields is included in the main development project. these studies are desired to be conducted as preparation study by support from Japan. In order to ascertain the geochemical model constructed by 97 .
The planning and design of the geothermal fluid transportation system will be undertaken by the consultant on the basis of close technical discussions with PT. etc. Center for Geological resources. which will be required for well drilling. supplemental sampling and analysis of hot spring waters and fumarole gases and review of the existing geochemical information will be carried out. therefore it is highly expected that the results of this survey will be decisive to define the drilling targets. These studies can be entrusted to consulting firm of geothermal development. seven reinjection wells will be drilled and condensed water will be injected into these wells. construction of new access road. 98 . Geological Agency).the existing geochemical data. and fumarolic and/or bubbling gases) sampling and analysis will be carried out in and around the survey area to obtain chemical component data and isotope data. site preparation and preparation of storage area in front of base camp. data collected from these studies will be summarized in the database.3 Exploration Well Drilling Based on the results of surface survey. surface waters. and ancillaries including valves and the instrumentation & control system. heating mechanism. will be prepared by contractors for civil works. Grading of access road. subsurface temperature. twenty-eight exploratory wells will be drilled at 1014 prospects in the eastern Indonesia. The resistivity distribution is very useful in precisely delineating the location of fracture systems. mixing and flow pattern of the thermal fluid system in the survey area will be revealed with constructing the geochemical model. The wells. A geothermal fluid transportation system (FCRS) consists of steam pipeline from the production wells to the power plant.1. will be used as production wells. Furthermore. PLN and the consultant. Some material and equipment for drilling will need to be procured through international bidding. Well drilling will be undertaken by drilling company (or the government institute. PLN . Geothermal fluid (hot spring waters. After conducting all surface resource studies. Moreover. An Integrated analysis will be carried out using the database for preparing the geothermal conceptual model. which will be succeeded steam production. Supply and installation will be done by a contractor under supervision of PT. Magneto-telluric (MT) survey will be carried out as geophysics with a dense number of stations is to disclose the subsurface resistivity distribution that consolidated to the results of other surface surveys would permit the delineation of promising drilling targets. It is estimated that beneath the area to be explored with this method. water supply system. 5. pipeline for carrying wastewater from the power plant to the reinjection wells. The data obtained in the survey will be analyzed and interpreted concerning origin.
well geochemical survey and those of the surface exploration have been consolidated into a conceptual model. Since even at this moment. the demand situation will become tighter when the project is executed. etc. steam-hot water ratio (enthalpy). In order to shorten the construction period. non-condensable gas.). 5.6 Application Study of CDM Substitution diesel power by geothermal power is very auspicious as the CDM project.). power demand forecast. The ultimate objective will be to determine the sustainable maximum potential of the reservoir and the most adequate scheme to exploit this resource.1. Taking this into consideration. the power plant will be 99 .5 Conceptual Design for Geothermal Power Plant.1.7 Small Scale Power Plant Construction Small scale power plants of 35MW in total will be constructed after the resource survey and the well drilling. CDM Based on the geothermal resource evaluation carried out before plant construction stage. wellhead pressure. 5. etc. turbine type. chemical composition of well discharge. Based on the results of geothermal reservoir simulation and conceptual design of geothermal power plant. The design of geothermal power plants can be entrusted to geothermal consulting firm. development effect. development schedule.5. generation type and method will be focused in the project.4 Geothermal Reservoir Simulation Once the results of drilling.8(t-CO2/MWh) in case of the generation capacity bigger than 200kW.1. the evaluation of the geothermal potential can be conducted through the application of numerical modeling techniques. 5. the GHG emission reduction will be estimated and the procedure for registration of CDM project will be started. the unit capacity and total output shall be determined so that objective plant will not give adverse environmental effect to the surrounding areas. power generation capacity (unit capacity and total output). This survey can be entrusted to geothermal consulting firm. As results of study on well characteristics. This plan will be formulated upon thoroughly studying the characteristics of geothermal wells (steam flow. demand and supply balance in the objective power supply area. economy to formulate the geothermal development scale. the power demand has been increasing annually at 8%.1. The effect of GHG (Green House Gas) emission reduction is 0. the optimum development plan of available power output will be formulated. The power output shall be determined in well coordination with the existing power facilities (diesel power.
The special technique and the know-how are necessary for manufactures of geothermal turbine-generator. Because corrosive chemical components are contained in the geothermal fluid. The type of the turbine generator will be decided considering the characteristic of the geothermal resource. it is assumed that the flash steam system or binary cycle system is introduced and the construction plan is prepared based on the installation of these plants. its reliability and economy are favorable in power plant construction and operation. stable and trouble-free power plants should be installed. who do not have enough expertise in geothermal power generation. The advantages of flash steam systems in small applications include the relative simplicity and low cost of the plant in contrast to binary plants. generator. Recent installation of binary cycle systems as small geothermal power system seems to be stronger in number. it is necessary to select material of geothermal turbine-generator carefully. communication facilities. procurements. test and commissioning. installation of mist separator. Since mechanism of the dry steam plant is very simple. 5. main transformer. The power plant construction stage will include steam piping. supply. Since operators. (2) Advantages of Small Geothermal Power Plants The advantages of the small power plants were summarized by Vimmersted (1998). Basically. because the binary system can be applied to utilization of geothermal fluid of relatively low temperature. electrical equipment. Dry steam systems are unlikely to be used in small geothermal plants because dry steam resources are thought to be very rare. For understanding advantages of small geothermal development. and related civil and architectural works. administration building and warehouse. instrument and control equipment. compared with the flash steam systems. because of no secondary working fluid. probably operate the geothermal power plants in the remote areas as off-grid power plants. installation.8 Small Geothermal Power System (1) Type of Geothermal Turbine-Generator Flash steam system and binary cycle system are commonly used for small geothermal power plants. ancillary equipment.1.constructed on "single package full-turnkey" basis in which a sole contractor will undertake engineering. dry steam systems should be applied in consideration of cost and reliability of the plant. steam turbine. hot-well pumps. If vapor dominated type fluid is obtained by tapping geothermal reservoir by production wells. this descriptions are introduced 100 .
Injection well costs can be relatively low. For small systems. Geothermal direct-heat applications can be attached to these electric systems inexpensively.de/egec-geothernet/prof/small_geothermal_power. The plants can be built on a single skid that fits in a standard trans-ocean container.geothermie. rarely will there be a need to inject the fluid back into the production reservoir. with plant performance monitored and controlled remotely through a satellite link. but these do not contain chlorine or fluorine and are non-greenhouse gases. Any shallow aquifer not used for drinking water could be used for reinjection. including low-instantaneous loads ranging from 0 to 25 percent of the installed capacity. (http://www. on the order of 98 percent. The system releases no greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. substantially reduce the cost of special features needed to ensure that power is always available. The demand for electric capacity per person at off-grid sites will range from 0. (3) Example of Small Geothermal Power Plants Although the small size geothermal power plants are not so popular. because the geothermal flow rates are relatively small. The plants are small and very transportable. The advantages are considered to be the projects in the Eastern Indonesia.2 kW to 1. Only semi-skilled labor is needed to monitor plant operation. At very remote sites.steam plants usually prove less expensive than binary plants. Power plant designs emphasize a high degree of computer-based automation.0 kW. All wells could be drilled by truck-mounted rigs. 212 to 300oF (100 to 150oC). compared to large size 101 .htm). Field piping costs are low. The very high availability factors for geothermal systems. either heavy-duty water-well rigs or light-duty oil/gas-well rigs. All wellheads are located near the power plant module. Binary power plants can accommodate a wide range of geothermal reservoir temperatures. Critical backup need is estimated to range from one to five percent of the installed geothermal capacity. If the fluids are clean enough to be disposed of on the surface. both drilling rig and power system equipment can be transported by helicopter. then the disposal costs can be quite low. Small critical loads such as medical refrigeration or pumps for drinking water could be supported against brief unscheduled outages by a diesel engine or by small amounts of battery storage. on a part-time basis.as follows. Applications needing temperatures not higher than 150 F (65 C) might be attached (cascaded) in series to the power-plant fluid outlet line. including self starting. Complete unattended operation might also be possible. The design of the power plants and their interactions with the wells includes provisions for handling fluctuating loads. There may be very small leakages of the binary-cycle working fluids. Inexpensive plastic or carbon steel pipe is used to connect wells. Above 300oF (150oC) flashed.
5-2 Photographs of Suginoi Hotel flash steam unit 102 . Geothermal turbine-generators used at various geothermal power stations in Japan are introduced as follows for the purpose of reference.9 MW and was furnished by Fuji Electric Co. the United States etc. turbine generators. However. Kyushu. Beppu.geothermal power plants. of Japan. small geothermal turbine-generators are provided by some manufacturers of Japan. The power output of the new generator is 1.. it is advisable that reliable and well-established turbine generators provided by prestigious manufacturers should be introduced into relatively large scale power plants such as 3-5MW. Powerhouse Generator Turbine Control panel Fig. which were made in China. BPPT is developing small size geothermal power plants for domestic production. Recently the turbine generator was exchanged for the new model of high efficiency. Japan The plant of 3MW was installed in 1983. The steam and water (143 C) from geothermal wells of about 400 meters depth are used for power generation and the waste fluid is supplied to the hotel for space heating and baths. Ltd. (a) Suginoi Hotel flash steam unit (condensing). were installed. Power facilities are shown in Fig. In some geothermal fields. 5-2.
The condensing unit of 2MW was installed at this hotel and dry steam form geothermal wells are used for power generation. The unit has a gross output of 3. and provides 30 to 60% of the hotel load according to the season and time of day.de/ 103 . Hot water from the separator is used for outdoor bathing. In Indonesia. The steam temperature at the turbine inlet is 133 C at 3. Tokyo. Kagoshima. the small power plant were installed in Indonesia is introduced as follows (John W. of Japan. Recently new binary turbine generator of maximum capacity of 220kW was installed at the hotel. Power generation is carried out using steam from geothermal wells of 70.geothermie. The flow rate is 30 tons/h with 1. Ltd. (d) Hachijojima Island flash steam unit (condensing).0 bars. Oita.21 bars. Ltd. The steam temperature at the turbine inlet is 170 C at 8. heating of a sauna bath and for two indoor baths. Japan The plant was installed in 1998. The unit was 100-kW non-condensing flash unit.300 meters depth.. Kyushu. The electricity from the unit is used for the base load in the hotel such as sewage water treatment.300 kW and parasitic load of 9% of the gross output with the non-condensable gas abatement system in operation. The turbine exhaust pressure is 0.2 bar. lighting in the hallway and lounge. in this case at the cooling tower cell.1 ppm. Japan The plant was complete in early 1999. and 7% with the abatement system shut down. Hachijojima is a remote island with power supplied from several diesel power plants. The steam flow supplied from two small production wells is 23 tons/h with 2. (c) Kokonoe Kanko Hotel flash steam unit (condensing). Japan The plant was installed in 1983. space heating and cooling.56% by weight of non-condensable gas. Simplicity of maintenance of the turbine was one of reasons to be selected the non-condensing unit.45 bars.. Tonya "Toni" Boyd “Geo-Heat Center” http://www. The plant is equipped with a hydrogen sulfide abatement system to comply with the regulation of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government which prescribes the concentration of 0.(b) Kirishima International Hotel flash steam unit (back pressure) and binary unit. The unit was furnished by Fuji Electric Co. Kyushu. It is expected that the fuel transportation cost will be drastically reduced once the plant has been in operation. and an inlet temperature is 127 C at 2. Lund. The plant was supplied by Fuji Electric Co. hot-water supply. Steam of 6 tons/hour from two wells runs through a separator.0% by weight of non-condensable gas. kitchen refrigerators.
0-MWe unit. This monoblok weighting 30 tons was then moved by PT. PERTAMINA of Indonesia to the Sibayak geothermal site in North Sumatra. Two skid-mounted General Electric turbine generator modules have been utilized in Indonesia supplied by Geothermal Power Company of Elmira. skid mounted steam turbine and generator with switch gear and control system all mounted in one package. 5-3. (f) Representative Layout of Geothermal Power Unite of 5MW (Back Pressure) The layout of the geothermal power station of 5.htm) (e) Geothermal Power Monobloks. The second. New York. Central Java and in 1981. where it was installed as the first geothermal power plant on that island. 104 . Indonesia The plant was installed in 1978 and 1981. a 2. The first.5MW provided Japanese Plant Manufacturer is shown in Fig. a 250-kWe unit. was installed at Dieng. was installed at Kamojang in West Java. These units were non-condensing.egec-geothernet /prof/small_geothermal_power. The skid mounted package has a stainless steel outer covering for protection from corrosion due to the H2S gas in the steam.
bus. PLN in planning.1. 5-3 Layout of Back Pressure Turbine Generator Set (5. and supervision of contractor’s works. disconnecting switches. the transmission line and substation system will be procured on "single package full-turnkey" basis. procurements. PT. In order to shorten the construction period. contracting. 105 . design. supporting structure. supply.Fig. protective relay board and ancillaries. CT. and a consultant will assist PT. PLN will be the project implementation body for this system.5 MW) 5. VT. and a sole contractor will undertake engineering. arrestor.9 Transmission/ Distribution Line Construction The transmission line and substation system will include transmission line from main transformer to a substation. procurement. insulators. test and commissioning. installation. circuit breakers.
PT. PLN. which contains both UPSTREAM and DOWNSTREAM or one of these. PLN in planning. PLN has ample experiences in implementation of the construction projects of the geothermal power plants. PLN . PT. with single bus bar because of one unit operation. The typical schemes of the Indonesia geothermal power development are illustrated in the following chart (Fig. and distribution lines. This project promotes the efficiency and diversification of power supply in the eastern provinces which is the remote and isolated islands. drawing review. PT. 5. PLN can select the project scheme. preparation of bid documents. The consultant will also undertake study/analysis and preparation of recommended plan for optimum utilization of the geothermal resource in prospects. transmission line. the consultant will assist PT. The consultant will be selected through competitive bidding by nominated firms. bid evaluation.The switchyard needs to include two feeders: one for a generator and one for transmission line.2 Consultant Service The Project Executing Agency. the whole scope of the project from the geothermal resource development to the power generation. in conformity to the rule currently applied to the other power plant. PLN is responsible for power supply in Indonesia.3 Project Implementation Organization 5. will employ a consulting firm that has sufficient experience in all the stages for geothermal resource development and constructing of geothermal power plant. PLN . Transmission and distribution system will be handled by PT. 5-4). PLN will undertake the once-through power development. PT. construction supervision. transmission and distribution. PLN will assign their geothermal specialists as the key person for implementation of the drilling of exploration wells which supply geothermal steam to the power plant. and PT. the transmission lines. substations. bidding. which includes UPSTERAM and DOWNSTREAM. 106 . and this project is the small scale geothermal power project utilizing renewable geothermal energy. the case of Type-A is studied in this report. For each stage works.3. PLN will be the executing agency of this project because of the following background. 5. Therefore. Private company can handle freely geothermal power project. PT. substation. design. and commissioning. Based on the consultation of MEMR and PT. contracting.1 Project Implementation Bodies PT. Voltage transformers and current transformers for metering are to be installed near the high voltage side terminals of generator step-up transformers. i.e. and distribution lines.
Consumer s TYPE -B UPSTREA M Steam Field Developme nt and Operation PERTAMIN A or Private Companies SSC PLN or Private Companies ESC PLN STEA DOWNSTREA M Power Plant Construction and Operation Electricity ELEC. Transmission and Distribution ELEC. Consumer s SSC：Steam Supply Contract ESC：Energy Sales Contract Fig. 5-4 Typical Schemes of Geothermal Power Development in Indonesia 107 .TYPE -A TOTAL PROJECT UPSTREA M Steam Field Developme nt and Operation ESC PERTAMINA or Private Companies PLN STEA DOWNSTREA M Power Plant Construction and Operation Electricity ELEC. Transmission and Distribution ELEC.
and commissioning in line with rules and guidelines of the Indonesia Government. and power plant construction.5. PLN head office shall communicate and coordinate with the central government BAPPENAS and Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources. contracting. the consultant will conduct geoscientific survey and exploratory well drilling using drilling contractors and assist bid document preparation. design review.3.2 Project Organization The project executing agency. the PLN project office with the local governments. and in the local. 5-5. PLN (Persero) Consultant Well Drilling Contractor Power Plant Contractor Transmission/ Distribution Line & Substation Contractor Fig. bid evaluation. JBIC. PT. PLN will employ a consultant to assist resource study and development. PT. PT. Borrower: Government of Indonesia MOF Loan Agreement Financial Agency: JBIC Sub-Loan Agreement Project Executing Agency: PT. supervision of construction. The resource development including well drilling is the most important works in the geothermal power development. Namely. PLN will establish the project implementation organization as described in the Fig. PLN own and. The Project shall be consistent with the development programs of the central government and the local government. 5-5 Project Organization 108 . The consultant will conduct them responsibly and also conduct supervision of the power plant construction works.
contracting will be executed in the July 2010. the project completion will be in July 2015.4. and plant construction works will be executed in 45 months after the November 2011.4 Development Schedule A tentative project implementation schedule is shown in Fig. contracting will be executed in the October 2011. 5-6 Project Schedule (Tentative) 109 . If this project starts in November 2008.4.3 Plant Construction Bidding for plant construction will be started in the November 2010.4. and surface survey will be executed during 37 months after the August 2009. 5.2 Drilling Survey Bidding for the drilling will be started in the July 2009.1 Surface Survey Bidding for deciding consultant for conducting the surface resource survey and the construction works will be conducting during 8 months from the November 2008. contracting will be executed in the June 2009.5. and drilling works will be executed in 41 months after the August 2010. 12 months warranty period is included for each power plant after commissioning. 5. It is considered to take 81 months after commencement of the project (Loan Agreement Effectiveness) until the commercial operation start of the last geothermal power plant of the project. 5-6. Year 08 JBIC appraisal 2009 L/A 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Loan Agreement 0 Overall Schedule 81 months 0. 5.1 Advanced work (8) months (selecting the prospects) Consultant Drilling Contractor Plant T/L Contractor Surface Survey 1 Procurement 18 months 2 Surface Survey 37 months 3 Drilling Suvey 41 months Drilling Survey 4 Plant Construction 45 months Plant and Transmission Line Construction Fig.
6 Project Cost Estimate Table 5-1 shows project cost estimation. PLN .5.03 35.54 3.83 13.5.93 2.33 16.44 11. Table 5-1 Contents of Project Cost Foreign Million USD 49.3 Transmission/Distribution Line Since the dedicated transmission and distribution lines for the existing units and the substation have been operated and maintained by PT.95 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Steam Field Development Power Plant Transmission Line Physical Contingency Consultant Fee Administration Cost IDC TOTAL 110 .16 2.40 125.93 2.2 Geothermal Power Plant Based on ample experience of O&M at other geothermal power plants’ O&M.00 0. PLN will establish the O&M organization for small scale geothermal power development project. circuit breakers of step-up transformer operation authority should only be given to power plant operator.44 160.16 5.5. and geothermal fluid transportation system). PT. For facilitate operation of power plant especially for synchronization of generator to the grid. PT. PLN owns and operates steam supply system (production wells. PLN will carry out O&M after completion and handover of the project. 5. 5. PLN has experience and established operational organization for operation and maintenance of steam supply system.60 13.50 14.5. 5.87 20. PLN as well.68 1.01 Local Million USD 1.1 Steam Supply System PT. reinjection wells. PT.45 52. operation and maintenance of new transmission and distribution lines will be operated and maintained by PT.75 6.70 45.94 Total Million USD 51. 5.70 5.5 Operation and Maintenance Organization for operation and maintenance of steam supply system and power plant system is planned as mentioned below.46 0.
The assumption also includes the participation of other banks. Interest of the Yen Loan will be determined by CIRR (Commercial Interest Reference Rate) and a country risk premium at making a loan agreement. which can apply for the facility provided by Japanese supplier. 5.65% 10 30 Commercial Bank 12. PLN is responsible for procuring the financial resources needed for the implementation of the project. Table 5-2 Terms and Conditions of Loans Financing Condition JBIC ODA Yen Loan 0. 5.Due to the recent inflationary cost of raw materials in the world and difficulty to secure those materials in a certain period.1 Finance of the Project It is assumed that JBIC will participate as financier under the Yen Loan scheme.7. Table 5-2 shows terms and conditions of JBIC Yen Loan and the other bank or reference only.00% 0 6 Interest Rate Grace Period(year) Repayment(year) *) These values of interest were derived from a trial calculation by West JEC.7 Financial Arrangement Plan PT. the figures shown here would be reviewed and changeable at the time of project implementation. 111 .
5% : 85 % : 31% : 30 years : 1100 USD/kW : 7. Power plant Operating condition Unit capacity No.1.1 Methodology The economic viability of the eastern Indonesia geothermal development project is evaluated by an economic internal rate of return (EIRR) method. and net present value of costs for the Project and the alternative are compared for the project life in order to obtain EIRR. The obtained EIRR is compared with the hurdle rate (12 %) to evaluate the economic viability of the project. sensitivity of the EIRR value to some important parameters is tested to check economic vulnerabilities of the project. Besides.1. 6. of unit House service load Transmission and distribution loss Capacity factor Generating Efficiency Plant life Construction cost O&M cost : Diesel power plant : Base load : 35 MW : 1 : 7% : 8.5 cent/kWh 112 . An alternative power project that is capable to give the same services (salable energy) is assumed.Chapter 6 Economic Assessment 6. a diesel power plant is selected in consideration of power sources in the eastern provinces (2) Operating conditions and cost Operating conditions and costs of the alternative project are as follows.2 Alternative (1) Selection of alternative As an alternative power source.1 Economic Evaluation 6.
Fuel Fuel Price : HSD(High Speed Diesel Oil) : 20. 28 production wells will be drilled during the construction period together with geothermal fluid transportation system.5 cent/kWh 113 . : : : : : : : : 35 MW 7% 85 % 8.4 cent/liter (4) Construction period and plant life adjustment The construction period of the alternative diesel power plant is assumed 12 months. Since the project duration is 30 years. It is noted that 14 production wells will be used at the commissioning. of unit House service load Capacity factor Transmission and distribution loss Capacity factor Plant life Construction cost O&M cost (3) Project cost Project cost is shown in Table 5-1.1. transmission lines and substation facilities Unit capacity No.5% 85 % 30 years 1100 USD/kW 7.3 Project (1) Steam production facilities To secure operation of 35MW total small scale geothermal power units. (2) Power plant. no adjustment of the investment cost handling becomes necessary. based on assumption of success rate 50%. 6. same as that of the alternative. (4) Exchange rates The following exchange rates are used throughout this economic and financial evaluation.(3) Fuel Fuel data used for the calculation is as follows.
EIRR will be still higher than 12 %. Diesel power plant (alternative) EIRR : 39. Even if the capacity factor goes down to 30 %.000 = IDR 75. The result of EIRR calculation is as follows. If the investment can be reduced.5 % while the hurdle rate is 12 %.356. However. Since geothermal energy is renewable and emit almost zero CO2 gas. In this case. the economic viability will be further more increase if the CDM credit transaction could be achieved.1. EIRR will go up more as shown in Fig.81 million within a period of project life. it is possible to mark more than 85 % capacity factor if the Project is well engineered and prepares sufficient spare parts to shorten the annual maintenance period. 6-1.0133 6. the geothermal can generate electric energy without using fuel.0 = JPY 0. both resource development and power plant facilities. This enables to export fuel instead of consuming in the country and to acquire foreign currencies.4 Conclusions (1) EIRR The calculating processes are shown in Table 6-1. (b) Investment It is specialty of the geothermal project that the initial investment becomes relatively high. (2) Sensitivity of EIRR (a) Capacity factor of geothermal power plant Geothermal power plant is usually operated as base load plant and the capacity factor is assumed to be 85 % in this evaluation. The fuel cost will be saved as much as USD 45. 114 . The project could compete with the alternative project as the project EIRR stands at 39.23 million every year. As this economic evaluation does not include the CDM credit.USD 1 USD 1 JPY 1 IDR 1 = JPY 120 = IDR 9. USD 1. this Project will be of benefit to the country and worth to pursue.5 % Although initial investment for geothermal power project is much higher than the alternative.
to acquire foreign currency by export of fossil fuel. 6-1 EIRR Sensitivity to Capacity Factor Project Cost 100% 125% 150% 175% 200% 250% 300% EIRR 39. 6-3.3% 50% 40% EIRR 30% 20% 10% 0% 100% 150% 200% Project Cost Change 250% 300% Fig. 6-2 EIRR Sensitivity to Project Cost 115 . However. even if the fuel price should drop 0. The Project should be considered favorable from the standpoint of the national economy.9% 12. However.5% 29. EIRR will be lower than the hurdle rate of 12% (Fig.2% 27.5% 23. if the project cost is increased by 300%.2 US$/liter.9% 32. 6-2).8% 19.EIRR will go up.7% 23.2% 50% 40% EIRR 30% 20% 10% 0% 20% 30% 40% 50% Capacity Factor 60% 70% 80% Fig.e. Capacity Factor 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% EIRR 8.5% 37.5% 13.7% 18. (c) Fuel price The change of fuel price for alternative thermal power plant also gives influence on the Project EIRR. i.8% 16. EIRR will be still higher than the hurdle rate of 12% as shown in Fig.9% 10.
15 0.0 85.23 45.0 85.22 2.0 85.23 45.22 2.0 85.0 85.51 EIRR = 39.0 85.77 221.22 2.66 49.22 2.0 85.77 6.51 66.44 4.77 221.77 221.77 221.77 221.0 85.04 MW 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 % 85.44 47.77 221.356.652.0 GWh 221.51 2.44 4.23 45.0 85.0 85.22 2.33 MW 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 GWh 221.77 221.66 49.22 2.0 85.0 85.44 4.44 4.51 66.51 66.44 4.77 221.77 221.23 45.0 85.81 MM$ 4.23 45.51 66.50 116 .77 221.51 66.66 1.0 85.22 2.51 66.5% 40.66 49.0 85.44 4.44 47.77 221.77 221.22 2.0 85.0 85.0 85.22 2.66 49.77 221.66 49.22 2.23 1.22 2.66 49.44 4.53 Supple.77 221.0 85.22 2.0 85.51 66.77 221.0 85.0 85.77 221.0 85.22 2.22 2.30 0.77 221.0 85.22 225.51 66.66 49.22 2.66 49.66 49.51 66.44 47.652.66 49.44 47.44 4.44 4.23 45.23 45.23 45.23 45.50 0.44 4.44 47.23 45.51 66.66 49.22 2.0 85.44 133.51 66.23 45.77 221.40 0.22 2.0 85.303.44 47.0 85.66 49.77 221.22 2.44 47.77 221.66 49.22 2.0 O&M Cost MM$ 2.51 66.22 2.77 221.44 47.22 2.77 221.0 85.23 45.77 221.23 45.44 47.51 66.77 221.77 221.22 2.51 66.22 2.51 66.44 4.44 47.44 47.22 2.66 49.0 85.23 45.44 47.44 47.77 221.51 66.44 4. 6-3 EIRR Sensitivity to Fuel Cost Table 6-1 Economic Internal Rate of Return Model: Eastern Indonesia 35MW Total GPP PROJECT Year Project Cost MM$ -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 158.77 221.0 85.77 221.6% 18.995.44 4.77 221.77 221.77 221.0 85.06 38.44 47.44 47.0 85.23 45.22 2.23 45.0 85.51 66.51 66.23 45.23 45.22 2.44 47.0 85.20 0.77 221.0 85.0 85.77 221.44 47.22 2.51 66.51 66.77 6.23 45.77 221.0 85.77 221.44 47.22 2.22 2.44 4.22 2.44 47.51 1.0 85.77 221.2% 9.22 2.22 2.77 221.44 4.60 0.4% 29.22 2.77 221.0 85.77 221.44 47.0 85.51 66.66 49.77 221.22 2.10 0.66 49.51 66.44 4.77 221.44 4.37 Cost Balance MM$ -120.6% 50% 40% ($/ton) 0.77 221.23 45.77 221.23 45.22 2.51 66.22 2.01 47.98 MM$ 45.66 49.22 2.66 49.44 4.44 47.77 221.0 85.22 2.0 85.44 47.0 85.66 49.44 47.0 85.0 85.44 4.44 4.51 66.66 49.0 85.44 47.22 2.77 221.77 221.44 47.23 45.22 2.23 45.Fuel Price EIRR 6.44 4.22 2.20 0.22 2.22 2.50 Fuel Cost O&M Fuel (Fuel Cost Consump.22 2.22 2. Save) Mil. Total Drilling Cost Cost MM$ - Alt.23 45.66 49.0 85.51 66. Annual Capacity Project Capacity Salable Factor Cost Energy MM$ 38.70 EIRR 30% 20% 10% 0% 0.77 221.44 1.22 2.22 2.0 85.0 85.77 221.0 85.22 2.66 49.22 2.98 MM$ 158.22 2.10 0.77 221.44 47.66 49.77 221.51 66.0 85.66 49.66 49.44 4.44 4.44 4.44 47.44 4.0 85.44 4.0 85.0 85.44 47.53% ALTERNATIVE : Capacity [Diesel Power Plant] Efficiency % 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 Annual Capacity Salable Factor Energy % 85.44 4.30 0.528.77 221.22 2.0 85.5% 12.77 221.23 45.0 85.44 4.44 47.44 4.22 2.77 221.77 221.51 158.22 2.23 45.51 66.23 45.66 49.22 2.31 Total Cost MM$ 38.22 2.0 85.66 49.77 221.23 45.22 2.51 66.50 0.23 45.22 2.77 221.77 221. Kg 66.77 221.51 66.66 49.70 Fuel Price ($/ton) Fig.22 2.22 66.50 49.0 85.66 49.
6.1 Methodology A financial internal rate of return (FIRR) method will be applied: an internal rate of return to equalize the cost (investment and operating costs) and revenue by sales of energy generated for the project life will be calculated. The other currency portion will be prepared by the project implementation body at an interest of 12. 6.2.3 Project Outgoing Cash Flow (1) Disbursement schedule Project cost is assumed to be disbursed in a year.35 % 117 . 6. Project WACC (3) Electricity tariff The electricity tariff is calculated 14 cent/kWh under the condition of the target FIRR 12% for PT.2 Financial Evaluation 6.00 %. PLN (government) project. WACC for this project is as follows. Interest Repayment Grace period : 0.65 % : 40 years : 10 years (2) Opportunity cost of capital The opportunity cost of capital of this project will be a weighted average cost of capital (WACC) between foreign and local costs. The obtained rate will be compared with the opportunity cost of capital. 2.2.2 Project Income Cash Flow (1) Fund procurement The currency portion of 85% of the project will be procured from the Yen Loan extended by JBIC with the following terms and conditions.2.
6-5).95 % WACC 2. the less FIRR becomes as shown in Fig. This financial evaluation. the project financial viability may offset between tariff rate decrease and inclusion of CDM credit transactions. and if the transaction should be included. Due to brisk economic activities in Asia. the Project becomes financially feasible with the conditions assumed at present. As this value exceeds the WACC at 2. which is still feasible. FIRR registers 6. however.35 %. (c) Tariff rate In case of the tariff rate decreases to 7 cent/kWh. respectively. In case of capacity factor goes down to 45 %.(2) Operation and maintenance cost The operation and maintenance cost is assumed at 2. the FIRR will be 5. 118 . (b) Project cost In case of the project cost becomes 140 % higher. FIRR becomes 8.35 % (2) Sensitivity of FIRR (a) Capacity factor of geothermal power plant The lower capacity factor power plant operates at. which becomes infeasible as shown in Fig. 6-6. The power plant construction cost estimated at the present value may increase and that may adversely affect financial viability (Fig. the market prices of metal and non-metal materials are sharply increasing. 6. China and India in particular.41 %. 6-4. Table 6-3 to Table 6-4 shows Repayment schedule and Cash flow statement.34 % and which became infeasible.68 %.4 Conclusions (1) FIRR The FIRR value registered 11.22 million USD annually (1 cent/kWh).95 % as shown in Table 6-2. FIRR 11.2. does not include the CDM credit transaction.
08% 8. The Government of Indonesia can reduce the maximum reduction effect of subsidy for electricity.85% 9.34% 7. but the electricity tariff should be higher for private project. In case the project execute scheme Case-1.68% 6.53% 6.95% 8% 4% 0% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Capacity Factor Fig. 16% 12% FIRR Capacity Factor 40% 45% 50% 55% 65% 75% 85% FIRR 5.58% 6.94% FIRR 8% 4% 0% 100% 120% 140% 160% 180% 200% Project Cost Change Fig. The debt for working funds will be heavy load for private company.28% 10. 6-7 shows the calculation results of tariff rate for government and private project. private company should finance more than 50 million USD as operating annual working funds. 6-7 shows accumulate balance of project cash flow.68% 7. Fig.95% 10. 6-5 FIRR Sensitivity to Project Cost 119 . 6-4 FIRR Sensitivity to Capacity Factor 16% 12% Project Cost 100% 120% 140% 160% 180% 190% 200% FIRR 11.30% 5. Fig.11% 7. In case of the project is implemented by private company as total project (both up-stream and down-stream).64% 11.(3) Sensitivity of Tariff Rate Since the obtained tariff rate 14 cent/kWh in case of target FIRR 12 % for government project. Private company is considered to aim target FIRR 16%.
48 19.05 31.22 2.22 2.48 19.99 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 158.00 9.77 221.42 0.55 15.05 8.77 221.34 13.77 221.77 221.44 9.78 20.54 15. of Supplem.77 221.22 2.37 13.43 11.15 19.27 10.22 2.78 20.05 31.05 31.35 15.27 10.51 0 14.05 31.45 19.35 9.38 19.36 19.05 31.41 19.0 12.70 19.05 31. (w/o IDC) INVESTMENT No.05 31.77 221.78 20.39 12 [10-11] 0.22 66.42 9.77 221.78 20.22 2.77 221.05 31.05 31.37 11.22 2.05 31.83 703.78 20.22 2.83 28.80% 4.00 0.05 8.27 10.27 10.41% 7.39 19.53 15.3 M$/well] REVENUE COSTS NET INCOME TAX NET INCOME CASH FLOW MW GWH SALE Total 1 [GWh] 221.00 FIRR 2.22 2.49 15.33 13.39 11.77 221.95 Electricity Price WACC of Project: 2.77 221.42 19.53 %/year 8.00 TOTAL REVENUE 5 [14 ￠/kWh] 31.05 31.22 0.78 20.83 28.01 8.33 11.0 9.R.05 31.22 2. 4 [2+3] 158.33% 11.13 9.43 389.46% 9.77 221.22 2.22 2.28 13.48 19.05 931.05 31.27 10.51 0.27 10.22 2.29 13.77 221.35 9.78 20.43 19. 11.46 19.22 2.I.05 31.0 Electricity Tarif f (UScent) Fig.83 28.00 13.27 2.22 2.46 8.43 387.05 31.05 8.83 28.41 9.05 8.50 15.77 221.36 11.30 13.22 2.24 8.26% 5.83 28.77 221. Wells INVEST.78 20.05 8.77 221.77 221.35 9.78 20.22 2.22 2.05 8.05 8.77 221.30 15.05 8.22 2.51 15.0 10.05 8.27 10.87 11.55 FREE CASH FLOW 13 [-4+7+8+12] -158.05 8.77 221.05 31.93 158.53 15.05 31. 3 [1.35 9.22 2. SUPPLM.39 13.0 13.38 9.27 10.0 7.78 20.R.22 2.00 6.51 15.47 9. WELL TOTAL NET DEPN.78 20.40 9.78 20.46 15.77 221.10 11.22 2.0 8.95% 120 .78 20.652.51 Escalation 160.77 221.27 10.22 2.59 20.22 2.00 11.22 2.35% Project F.51 20.22 2.05 8.22 2.27 10.77 221.78 20.77 221.05 10.41 11.05 31.43 11.05 31.36 13.44 15.43 11.05 8.22 2.47 15.00 12.22 2.77 221.65 11.05 31.27 10.77 221.35 9.05 8.27 10.48 19.27 10.22 2.22 2.05 8.31 13.43 11.05 31.78 20.27 10.55 12.77 221.78 20.22 2.05 31.05 31.78 20.22 2.05 8.00 20.34 11.00 227.22 2.05 31.55 15.40 11.44 15. 6-6 FIRR Sensitivity to Tariff Rate Table 6-2 Financial Internal Rate of Return [MM $] Year OUTPUT SALES INITIAL INV.77 221.27 10.05 31.40 316.27 10.77 6. EXPENSES INCOME 8 9 10 [6+7+8] [5-9] [After Tax] 11 [ 47% ] 8.50 15.77 221.10% 16% 12% FIRR 8% 4% 0% 6.48 19.Tariff (￠/kWh) 5.05 31.77 221.98 Total 2 TOTAL INVEST.22 2.46 15.48 0.48 13.05 8.78 28.91 9.47 15.0 ￠/kWh] DEPRECIATION 7 SUP.37 20.32 12.00 （￠/kWh） 2.77 12.32 11.22 2.51 158.00 OPER COST 6 [1.49 15.45 9.00 7.92 19.05 8.22 2.05 31.43 11.83 28.27 10.05 8.83 28.78 20.22 2.82 20.77 221.05 31.37 9.78 20.27 10.05 8.05 31.22 2.68 8.83 28.83 28.0 11.27 10.54 15.
81 4.04 5.88 0.76 121.96 4.29 9.13 9.78 20.78 20.97 14.12 82.83 28.88 0.38 0.91 4.49 4.88 0.78 20.49 4.81 4.37 9.93 4.49 4.86 67.12 53.39 4.49 4.78 4.79 0.49 4.64 0.34 18.88 5.55 10.18 14.96 3.63 10.26 2.35 9.41 0.50 0.79 10.91 9.05 8.61 0.32 89.88 5.49 4.78 20.60 14.05 8.99 4.96 3.76 121.34 80.36 0.08 15.10 5.49 4.64 0.62 357.49 4.60 18.52 158.88 0.43 0.49 4.37 13.50 0.74 134.88 0.05 15.49 4.52 10.30 13.06 15.47 0.52 0.77 112.55 10.39 Profit 5 [2-3-4] 0.79 103.31 13.99 4.91 40.49 4. Inv.78 20.56 241.40 44.05 8.32 0.50 10.99 185.86 5.56 10.29 0.22 6.36 0.25 10.12 13.49 4.87 4.74 6.49 4.96 3.85 0.86 67.59 10.84 76.39 227.88 0.74 134.35 9.78 20.88 0.38 9.09 15.05 8.78 20.96 3.78 20.83 85.83 28.88 0.74 134.01 15.44 9.49 4.07 5.82 0.31 1.49 4.79 0.12 319.85 0.99 68.78 28.60 10.34 5.49 4.74 134.49 4.74 134.84 4.49 4.00 4.32 32.32 0.49 4.49 4.49 4.78 4.95 0.78 20.19 5.00 158.28 5.16 5.38 0.40 316.38 18.49 4.51 0.49 4.96 3.78 20.88 0.52 154.49 4.67 0.74 130.34 5.78 - 2.66 18.84 18.64 18.61 0.74 - 0.74 134.49 4.05 8.25 125.76 0.93 - 3.88 170.31 5.83 703.49 4.59 146.05 8.35 9.74 134.79 5.12 14.05 8.73 3.78 20.19 5.47 9.37 62.81 94.99 15.49 4.96 4.74 14.76 0.12 121 .61 10.35 0.60 18.04 9.88 0.88 0.88 0.56 10.49 317.78 20.00 9.88 0.00 15.04 5.02 4.05 8.78 23.90 49.44 0.78 20.49 4.32 382.78 20.16 284.77 112.03 15.60 18.14 14.44 33.27 5.20 14.49 4.13 134.58 10.52 4.49 4.99 15.49 4.73 3.49 4.28 5.35 71.70 0.88 0.83 28.00 0.74 134.69 7.49 4.88 0.30 98.13 5.83 28.68 8.53 0.05 160.33 13.99 6.51 3.67 0.50 101.10 5.69 18.96 3.00 13.49 158.88 0.96 4.69 14.00 0.26 32.26 2.05 8.88 0.05 8.39 0.49 4.28 107.49 4.05 8.88 0.42 35.49 4.63 142.29 10.49 4.13 14.96 3.49 4.35 9.49 4.19 361.90 1.17 Total 8 [1+5+6+7] 158.81 6.96 3.64 0.55 0.28 107.70 134.74 134.90 4.23 14.49 40.96 0.96 3.49 4.60 18.28 13.49 4.22 14.05 15.49 4.96 23.59 17.49 4.44 0.75 157.39 13.48 9.00 13.55 10.93 - Table 6-4 Cash Flow Statement Model: Eastern Indonesia 35MW Total GPP Cash Inflow Cash Flow from Operating Activities Borrowing [MM $] Balance Cash Outflow Depreciation Add'nal Initial Inv.24 8.35 71.49 4.27 116.05 8.74 134.74 372.49 4.55 10.74 134.61 18.96 3.95 270.49 4.96 3.39 53.81 94.77 23.24 213.88 0.01 15.52 - 3.15 14.22 5.85 2.60 18.54 10.44 0.49 4.32 0.51 158.96 3.37 5.49 134.34 13.60 18.90 49.41 0.71 18.88 0.51 404.42 9.39 298.09 18.89 7.74 23.40 44.82 15.51 17.84 4.49 4.83 28.05 8.13 340.05 8.03 Year 13 [8-12] 0.34 5.41 9.36 13.49 4.74 130.10 119.78 2.64 10.49 4.51 10.58 0.74 134.72 18.83 1.26 22.78 20.29 156.13 5.25 5.49 4.30 98.64 309.38 8.51 158.93 3.96 3.58 0.45 9.91 40.49 4.49 4.83 28.73 0.32 89.05 8.88 58.88 0. 6 7 Initial Additional Repayment Per Year (w/o IDC) 1 EBIT 2 Interest 3 Tax 4 [ 47% ] 8.68 18.38 0.83 28.88 0.69 138.82 0.88 0.74 134.00 15.55 0.54 9.73 0.60 18.60 18.49 4.05 8.37 62.49 4.37 13.12 26.78 158.47 0.75 255.74 134.49 4.25 125.38 7.02 4.67 138.49 4.35 9.61 0.09 17.78 20.31 1.88 58.49 4.74 134.53 0.49 4.11 355.22 5.70 0.55 10.48 13.83 28.49 158.88 0.37 5.00 0.06 15.60 10.68 10.63 18.25 5.10 14.47 0.34 80.73 0.88 0.49 4.39 53.49 4.Table 6-3 Repayment Schedule for Power Plant Project model: LOAN (w/o IDC) Year JBIC （MM $） Local Bank （MM $） Total （MM $） Principal Repayment（JBIC）（MM $） Repayment During Construct Interest Repayment Balance Principal Repayment（Local Bank）（MM $） Repayment During Construct Interest Repayment Balance Principal Repaymen t During Construct Eastern Indonesia 35MW Total GPP Total (MM$) Interest Repayment Balance -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 134.56 150.49 4.49 4.41 0.07 5.58 0.11 199.96 4.78 2.50 0.83 85.49 4.03 15.85 11.88 0.08 15.67 0.53 0.88 0.51 0.05 8.49 4.93 4.35 0.05 8.49 4.76 0.96 3.97 14.88 0.49 4.29 0.87 4.62 330.00 20.49 4.93 3.35 0.49 4.88 0.79 0.90 393.79 103.05 8.96 3.38 1.90 158.83 28.70 0.49 4.33 17.48 10.01 8.88 0.78 20.84 76.60 Accumulate 14 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 158.88 0.87 14.75 190.96 - 3.31 5.11 674.49 4.46 8.96 3.49 4.96 3.78 19.96 3.85 0.96 3.29 13.04 10.96 3.82 0.49 4.49 4.78 20.16 5.66 10.49 4.95 0.40 9.63 Investment 9 Investment 10 Capital 11 Total 12 [9+10+11] 158.49 4.57 10.49 4.88 0.49 4.49 4.49 4.42 35.78 20.63 13.65 351.09 15.88 0.83 1.27 116.90 4.55 0.17 14.00 3.
Case 1-1 Up-Stream (Steam Production) Down-Stream (Power Generation) WACC Target FIRR % 2.35 12 7.12 16 12.00 (16) 600 500 Case1:G-G(PLN) 400 Case2:G-P Case3:P-P 300 Accumulate Balance(millionUS D) 200 100 0 -1 1 -100 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Year 200 150 Case1:G-G(PLN) Accumulate Balance(millionUS D) Case2:G-P 100 Case3:P-P 50 0 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 -50 -100 Year Fig.35 12 PLN Government Case1-2 PLN Case2 Government (Case3) (Private) PLN Private (Private) 2. 6-7 Accumulate Balance of cash flow 122 .
PLN have studied geothermal power development in the islands and the Japanese Government supported their activity through the research study by NEDO and the feasibility study by JETRO. future power demand and environmental constraints. before starting the development project. As described previously. environmental constraints etc The Government and PT. The geothermal power plant construction has not been realized even in the Flores Island so far. project feasibility of the geothermal development in each field should be clarified on the basis of data of geothermal resource. Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource (MEMR) of the Indonesian Government intends to substitute the diesel power generators by the geothermal power turbine-generators. geothermal development is expected to contribute to social development in the rural areas by introducing multipurpose utilization of geothermal energy. The Government and PT. there is no adequate data for preparation of geothermal power development plans. In addition. This geothermal project is strongly expected as a countermeasure against faltering economy of rural power supply business by PT. The support by the Japanese ODA Yen Loan is strongly expected for improvement of the project economy. The project must meet the requirements of the ODA Yen Loan project such as project feasibility including estimation of geothermal resource potential. If the financial support cannot be obtained from Japan. PLN on 12 March 2008. BAPPENAS. geological data and geochemical data for revealing the resource characteristics and 123 . PLN have a bigger economic burden for power supply to the rural areas. these study projects have concentrated on the Flores Island.Chapter 7 Preparation of Geothermal Power Development Project 7.1 Necessity of Preparation Study In the project of geothermal power development in the eastern remote islands. due to lacking of adequate financial support and development organization. power business by the diesel power generation in the rural areas has confronted difficulty in economy due to recent inflationary price of fossil fuel. For realizing the development projects by the Japanese ODA Yen Loan. Since economy of the diesel power generation has deteriorated day by day. development program. When the geothermal power development including the steam development is planned. The first development target was decided to be power plant construction of 35 MW in total in the meeting among MEMR. MOF and PT. considering power demand in the eastern area and project support from Japan. it is difficult to realize the development project. About geothermal areas other than the Flores Island. However. the Government and PT. PLN decided to promote geothermal power development as substitute of the diesel power generation. PLN.
If supporting the project by ODA Yen Loan is supposed. if these preliminarily resource surveys and project planning are conducted before start of the development project supported by Yen Loan. It is thought that a more certain project becomes possible despite of securing steam in resource development study. data and information on the feasibility study of geothermal fields in the eastern area have been partially collected. but those of most fields are insufficient. (1) Study Content. Necessary supplementary studies are summarized as follows. MT survey as one of geophysical surveys is executed in the field. Provided that integrated interpretation on the geothermal resource and structure is conducted. some part of development plan should be modified in accordance with present development policy by PT. study program and development plan of each field should be prepared based on the geothermal resource data by preliminary geological survey and geochemical survey. drilling target of the exploratory wells can be decided. Regarding geothermal power development in the Flores Island. about 20 fields' data should be collected before starting the project. and the geothermal structure and the extent of the geothermal reservoir are clarified in this survey. At least. At present. the resource data should be collected by the preliminary geological survey and geochemical survey and development program should be prepared.2 Supplementary Study and Project Planning The Government desires to study development possibility of 37 geothermal fields in the eastern area for substitution of diesel power generation. (a) Selection study of development sites Geological survey 124 . Namely. Since it takes a considerable amount of time and cost to conduct whole surface surveys. Present information and data of some fields in the area can be used for judgment of the project feasibility and the project planning. In addition.potentials are generally collected by the surface surveys in consideration of reduction of the project cost and risk. Since the only geothermal potential and possibility of power development in the listed areas can be understood. and data and information of predicted future power demand and environmental constraints. where the project will be started. it is desired that the preparation study is conducted using JBIC scheme of SAPPROF (Special Assistance for Project Formation). feasibility study report from steam development study to power plant construction of all geothermal fields is required. the detailed surface surveys should be conducted in the main project. Since the project contains the entire development plans in various islands. PLN. before starting the main project. 7.
(c) Economic and financial evaluation Economic and financial evaluation of project CDM project (2) Study sites. transmission lines etc. 125 .Geochemical survey Geothermal structure modeling and resources potential assessments (power output estimation) Location analysis and environmental study Study for future power demand and substitution of existing power plants by geothermal power plants Development site selection (b) Project Planning Geothermal resource survey and development (steam development and wastewater treatment) (including well drilling) Construction of surface facilities such as power plants. 5 months Using collected data during this study and those in other reports. 20 fields in the eastern provinces (3) Study period. the project feasibility of each field will be judged and detailed program for geothermal power development in each field in the eastern provinces will be prepared.
0 CO 2 Emission Factor (t-CO 2 /MWh) Source: Modify Denchuken News No.5 0. the coal-fired generation exhausts 65 times CO2 compared with the geothermal power generation (Fig. the house of Representative of the Republic Indonesia passed the law on ratification of the Kyoto Protocol on June 28.608 0. and Indonesia submitted the Kyoto Protocol ratification instrument to UN on December 3.022 Geothermal 0.7 0. 2005.015 Facility/Operation Fuel for Power Generation Mini Hydro 0. bigger than the other renewable energy.742 0. 2004 and it was authorized at the plenary assembly of UN on March 3.2 CDM Institution in Indonesia After the singing of Kyoto Protocol in 1997.053 Wind 0.1 0.519 LNG T hermal 0.6 0.1 CO2 Emission by Power Source The geothermal power generation is considered that the amount of the CO2 emission at the life cycle is less than that of other power supplies (CRIEPI. 2004.408 Solar 0. a big effect of the CO2 emission reduction can be expected.8 0.3 0. 8-1 CO2 Emission by Power Source 8. Coal T hermal 0.975 Oil T hermal 0.088 0.130 0. 2004. 2000).478 Power Source LNG Combined 0. For instance. it is attractive as the CDM project.Chapter 8 Project Potential for CDM 8.338 (CRIEPI.011 0. the geothermal power plant generates an electric power that is high utilization rates. The detail CDM system procedures were 126 .111 0.9 1.2 0. Moreover.038 0.887 0. 8-1).2000) Fig. 17/2004 on July 28. Therefore.029 Nuclear 0.0 0.704 0. The secretary of state issued Law No.4 0.
Regarding adoption of CDM to geothermal power project in Indonesia. 2005. These attempts for CDM realization. PT. 47 CDM projects have been approved by Indonesian DNA. PLN also participated in the application with Unocal and PT.3 Geothermal Project Today. Unocal had filed applications with the Dutch Government to adopt CDM to geothermal projects in Sarulla and Wayang-Windu in the past.described in the decree of Minister of Environment No. PERTAMINA. For the Sarulla project. 206 of 2005 issued on July 21. 8-2. 8-2 Project Screening Process by DNA 8. Project proponent Secretariat receives NC-CDM Internal meeting within 21 days Expert evaluation Within 6 days Technical team evaluation Sectoral working group Secretariat receives evaluation within 3 months Stakeholder forum special meeting Application data requirement NC-CDM Decision meeting Proposal does not meet criteria Document completion Approval letter Fig. Approval process by National Commission for Clean Development Mechanism (Designated National Authority: DNA) by decree is given in Fig. 127 .
000 kcal/kg 2. resubmitted the application. which is substituted diesel power. seem to make no progress probably due to the transfer of ownership of the projects. However. based on the amount of total small scale geothermal power generation. but it was failed due to the poor expression and unfamiliarity with CDM documents related barriers and baseline settlement (July 2005. the current owner of Darajat project.however.99×44/12 Where. which is prepared by PT.646 kcal/kWh Conversion to unit of energy (heating unit: TJ) 128 . ① Energy substitution effect (crude oil conversion ktoe/y） Heating value conversion of crude oil Heating value conversion of electricity ② ③ ④ ⑤ Conversion factor 42. the Project Design Document (PDD) prepared by Amoseas had been reviewed by the UNFCC panel. 8.4 Effects of Environmental Improvement It is hardly to grasp the effects of environmental improvement by this project quantitatively.62×20×0. NM0055). hydrogen sulfide. CO2 Conversion Volume (emission factor) = crude oil conversion of energy substitution (ktoe/y) ×42. That is to say. The environmental improving effect of this project is the reduction of carbon dioxide emission from electricity generation using renewable geothermal energy comparing with others fossil firing power generation. and heavy metal components.62 TJ/kt Conversion to base unit of carbon discharge Base unit factor of carbon discharge 20 tC/TJ Correction of incomplete combustion portion Oxidation rate factor of carbon Conversion to CO2 0. PDD of Kamojang geothermal Projects. For Darajat-III geothermal project. carbon dioxide. The emission reduction is estimated as potential of oil substitution effort of crude oil. Darajat project have been registered to Executive Board in June 2006 as a first geothermal power project for CDM in Indonesia. pollute the air and water near site at present. PLN. It is sure that generation of such contaminants will be suppressed by using geothermal energy.99 10. but the quantitative evaluation method of suppress has not yet established. Chevron-Texaco. have been evaluated by the Technical Committee of DNA CDM Indonesia now. which have been discharged from fumaroles.
Molecular weight ratio
From above formula, CO2 conversion volume (emission factor) is calculated 0.819(tCO2/MWh). The amount of the emission reductions of each field are presumed from the following formula by the annual power generation assuming the utilization rates of the geothermal plant to be 85%.
Annual power generation (MWh/year) = Development resource potential (MW) × 24(h/day) × 365 (day) × utilization rates (%) Annual emission reduction(kt-CO2/year) ＝ Emission factor (t-CO2/MWh) × annual power generation (MWh/year)
The effect of annual CO2 emission reduction of the 10MW geothermal power plant is 61 (ktCO2/year). In case of the 35MW total small scale geothermal plant will be constructed, the effect of the emission reduction of 213.5 (kt-CO2/year) is expected. If the value of CER is 10 (US$/t-CO2) under the emission factor 0.8(t-CO2/MWh), earning of 0.8(cent/kW) is obtained when the geothermal power generation is executed as CDM business in Indonesia (Fig.8-3). This is one of the incentives of the geothermal power development.
1.8 1.6 1.60 1.44 1.28 1.12 0.96 0.80 0.64 0.48 0.32 0.16 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 CER's Unit Price (US$/t-CO2) 18 20 22
CER's Unit Price (cent/kWh)
(Emission Factor 0.8t-CO2/kWh)
1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0
Fig. 8-3 CER’s Price
8.5 Small scale geothermal power development as Small Scale CDM 8.5.1 Indicative simplified baseline and monitoring methodologies for SSC project activity The small scale geothermal power development activity of SSC is categorized Type-I. Type-I is Renewable energy project activities with a maximum output capacity equivalent to up to 15 MW (or an appropriate equivalent). The small scale geothermal power plant of the project is connected to a grid so that the methodology will be applied for AMS I.D. AMS I.D is used for renewable electricity generation for a grid. Emission reduction factor of AMS I.D, which is different according to the installed capacity and utilization rates, for small scale geothermal power generation bigger than 200kW uses 0.8(t-CO2/MWh). In case of the 35MW total small scale geothermal plant will be constructed, the effect of the emission reduction of 208.5 (kt-CO2/year) is expected. 8.5.2 Additionality for SSC project activities Project Participants shall provide an explanation to show that the project activity would not have occurred anyway due to at least one of the following barriers: Investment barrier, Technological barrier, Barrier due to prevailing practice or other barriers. 8.5.3 Emission from Source Geothermal power generation produces low concentration of CO2 and CH4 in NCG (non-condensable gas) with the geothermal vapor. It is necessary to pay attention to the concentration of NCG. Because if the concentration of CO2 and CH4 higher, the GHG emission reduction effect become lower (possible to be zero!). Fig. 8-4 shows the relation between CO2 concentration in steam and CO2 emission. This figure is drawn under the condition of steam-electricity conversion 7 tone/MWh and emission factor of diesel power is imposed on the figure. When the concentration of CO2 goes up to 10wt%, the amount of emission reduction goes down to zero. The average CO2 concentration at the existing geothermal power plant shows around 1wt%, thus the emission reduction effect is expected sufficiently. The concentration of CH4 should be checked because of which concentration is smaller than 1/100, but the GHG effect is 21 times of CO2.
CO2 Emission by Steam Production (t-CO2 /MWh)
0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0.0%
Small Scale Geothermal P/P Emission Factor 0.8
CO2 Concentration in Steam (wt%)
Fig. 8-4 CO2 Emission by Steam Production
8.6 CDM project in a ODA project Immediate cooperation of CDM and ODA granting is prohibited by regulations, but in case of the CDM project selected as ODA project, which ODA granting has negotiated with developing country, in results is excluded. (wind power project in Egypt is approved by EB on June 22nd, 2007 that is supporting by JBIC)
インドネシア東部地熱発電計画予備調査 和 文 要 約 .
5%の増加により 2025 年には 79.1%）を記録している。 国家電力総合計画（2005 年）によると、今後、最大電力需要は年平均 7.2%を占めているが、今 後、ジャワ・バリ系統以外の地方部においても地方電化の推進などから堅調な需要の拡 大が予想されており、地方部における電源開発も重要な課題となっている。 インドネシア電力セクターの抱えるもう一つの課題は電源多様化の推進である。国際 石油価格の急騰の中で、電源構成の石油依存度を低減させ、安定供給と発電コストの低 減が急がれている。このため、政府は 2002 年に「国家エネルギー計画（National Energy Policy: NEP） 」を策定し、2020 年までにエネルギー利用の 5%以上を再生可能エネルギー により供給することを目標とした。この中で、国内に豊富に存在する地熱エネルギーに も再生可能エネルギーのひとつとして大きな役割を果たすことが期待された。 地熱エネルギーは、再生可能エネルギーの中では既にその利用技術が確立しており、 世界各国で 8.7%） と初めて 20.000MW を越え、電力需要量も 113.900MW に、また、電力需要量も同じく 7.１．調査の目的 本調査の目的は、インドネシア国東部地域（西ヌサテンガラ州、東ヌサテンガラ州、 マルク州及び北マルク州）において、ディーゼル発電代替電源としての地熱発電開発の 可能性を明らかにすることである。 本調査では、 ディーゼル発電代替事業の実施により、 地方への安価で安定した電力供給が可能となるとともに、政府の経済的負担の軽減を図 ることが可能となるように、さらに、発電に伴う炭酸ガス発生量を削減し地球温暖化防 止に貢献できるように、開発計画を策定する。 業務実施にあたっては現地調査を十分に行い、円借款の利用による開発を視野に入れ た当地域に適用可能な小規模地熱発電プロジェクトを提案することした。 ２．東部地域における地熱開発の必要性 地熱発電事業促進の背景 インドネシアは 1997 年のアジア通貨危機において ASEAN の中で最大の経済的影響を受 けたが、その後、各種改革の実施や内外の投資に支えられ経済は大きく回復し、近年の 経済は概ね堅調に推移している。順調な経済発展を受け、国内の電力需要も着実に拡大 を続けている。2006 年のインドネシア全国の最大需要電力は 20.000MW 相当であり、 全世界の地熱ポテンシャルの 40%を占め るとの試算も報告されている。このため、地熱エネルギーの開発は、増大する電力需要 への対応、エネルギー源の多様化の観点から強く期待されてきた。今日、インドネシア 国内の地熱発電は 857MW に達している。この発電能力は世界第４位ではあるものの、膨 大なポテンシャルを考慮すると、 この恵みを十分活かしているとは言えない状態にある。 要約-1 .5%の増加により 2025 年には 450.000MW を越える利用実績がある。また、自然エネルギーを利用するにもか かわらず、天候、季節変動がなく極めて安定して発電が行える高い供給信頼性を有する エネルギーである。さらに、地球環境にも優しいエネルギー源であるとして昨今注目を 集めており、その開発はインドネシアにとって大きな意義を有している。 インドネシアは世界最大の地熱ポテンシャルを保有していると言われている。同国内 の地熱ポテンシャルは約 27.354MW（前年比＋5.222GWh（前年比 5.000GWh に達すると想定されており、 これに対応する電源設備の整備が喫緊の課題と なっている。現在、ジャワ・バリ系統が国全体の電力需要の 77.
インドネシア国政府の地熱発電開発計画 インドネシア政府は積極的な地熱開発促進を図ることとし、2002 年の「国家エネルギ ー計画」につづき、2003 年には「地熱法 No27/2003」を制定し、地熱開発ための法制度 を明確化している。さらに、エネルギー鉱物資源省（MEMR）では国家エネルギー計画を 具体化するため、2004 年、 「地熱開発 Road Map（Road Map Development Planning of Geothermal Energy） 」を策定し、2020 年に 6.000MW、2025 年には 9.500MW の地熱発電を 行う高い開発目標を設定した。このように、同国の地熱開発は新たな開発推進の枠組み が整備され、積極的な開発に向けてそのスタートが切られた。 2007 年 9 月にまとめられた JICA による「インドネシア国地熱発電開発マスタープラ ン調査」においては、全国 73 箇所の地熱地域の評価が行われ、有望地域の評価結果は分 類され、各地域に適した開発や支援の方法が提案された。この分類では（i）最も有望性 の高い地域（ランクＡ地域）においては、PERTAMINA GE(国営石油会社地熱エネルギー部 門)に対する円借款等の ODA 資金の供与や民間企業に対する買電価格の引き上げ等の経 済インセンティブの賦与等により開発の促進を図ること、 (ii) 有望性は高いもの調査井 による資源確認が行われていない地域（ランク B、C 地域）に対しては民間企業の参入促 進のため国による調査井掘削を含む調査の実施、 (iii)その他の東部地域をはじめとする 離島等の遠隔地においては民間事業者の参入は期待できないため政府が主体となって開 発を行うことなどが、提案されている。 本調査の対象とした東部地域をはじめとする遠隔離島における地熱開発の進め方とし ては、この調査では次のように提言されている。 遠隔離島における地熱開発は、他の発電方式であっても規模の経済性が得られないた め、地熱発電が経済的には最も有利な発電形態と考えられる。内燃力燃料費の低減等の ために積極的な開発が期待されている。しかしながら、開発規模が小さい上、遠隔離島 という地理的な問題から、民間事業者の参入は期待できない可能性が高い。このため、 このような地域の地熱資源は政府が主体となって開発を行う必要がある。政府が調査井 掘削を伴う促進調査を実施し、その成果（蒸気噴出に成功した調査井など）を PLN(国営 電力会社)や州政府系企業に引き継がせ、 地方電化用の小規模発電所を建設させることが 望まれる。 本調査では、上記の提言を受け、インドネシア東部地域の遠隔離島における地熱開発 を政府が中心となり推進する方策を調査検討した。資金調達としては円借款が事業の性 格から考えて最も適切と考えられた。 東部地域の地熱発電開発は、地熱開発マスタープランでは、2015 年までに 186MW の発 電所建設を行うことで計画されている。しかし、最近の原油高騰に伴うディーゼル燃料 確保のための政府・PLN の過大な経済的負担を軽減するために、早期に地熱開発を進め ることが必要と、 大臣を含めエネルギー鉱物資源省 （MEMR） では考えている。 MEMR、 PLN、 BAPPENAS、MOF（財務省）等との打合せ（2008 年 3 月）により、2016 年頃までの事業の 実現及び円借款による資金的支援の一般的規模等を考慮して、ディーゼル代替で利用す る場合にベースロードで必要な電力の約 30％を賄える地熱発電事業(35MW 分；約５MW 発 電所７機)を、 パイロット的に円借款事業で行うことで、 事業計画を作成することとなっ た。 要約-2 .
8 倍にのぼり、両者には 11.6 cents$/kWh にもなっている。PLN においてディーゼル 発電はガスタービン発電と並んで最も高い発電方式となっている。これに対し、同年の PLN の地熱発電の発電コストは 6.914MW 相当と算出されている。 JICA(2007)は， これら 253 箇所のうち有望な 73 地域を対象に地熱発電開発マスタープラ ン調査を実施した。 東部地域については 11 地熱地域を調査対象として地熱資源評価等が 実施されている。 要約-3 .639 千人であり、インドネシア全体の 4.9%を占めてい る。当該４州の州 GDP は 2004 年の時価で合計 41.000 kL(kilo litter)である（2006 年） 。この燃料費は現在の燃料価格（0.8%、東ヌサテンガラ州 21.8%である。 東部地域の 2006 年の最大電力は 270MW であった。これはインドネシア全体の 1.2%となっている。なお、当該地域の電化率は、 マルク諸島 51.2%を占める 153.3%に あたる。これに対し同地域の発電設備量は 469MW である。また、2006 年の発電電力量は 1.8%であり、全国平均 に比して低いものとなっている。 今後の電力需要は年平均 7.4%の増加があると想定され ており、最大電力は 2025 年には 1.157km2 となる。2005 年の人口推計 によると、当該４州の人口は 10.5 cents US$/kWh の価 格差が生じている。 2006 年時点での国際石油取引価格は１バレル約 66US$であったが、その価格はその後 も値上がりが続いており、 2008 年に入ってからは１バレル 110US$を越える事態も出現し た。これに同調して、ディーゼル燃料価格（HSD 油）も上昇を続けている。本年 3 月１ 日に PERTAMINA が発表した産業用ディーゼル燃料価格は東部地域では 0.東部地地域の一般事情及び電力事情 本調査の対象地域である、マルク州、北マルク州、西ヌサテンガラ州、東ヌサテンガ ラ州の面積はインドネシア全土の 8.6%、西ヌサテンガラ州 28.491MW に達することが期待されている。 東部地域の電力供給は大部分をディーゼル発電に頼っている。これは、当地域が島嶼 部であり、それぞれが極めて小規模の系統で構成されていることによるものである。し かしながら、現下の国際石油取引価格の高騰により、ディーゼル発電は極めて高コスト 発電となっている。燃料のディーゼル価格は 2000 年の 0.3 cents US$/kWh とされている。そのため、ディーゼ ル発電の発電コストは地熱発電の約 2.62US$/litter へと約９倍の値上がりとなった。この結果、PLN のディーゼル発電の 発電コストは 2006 年時点で 17.936US$/litter）を前提と すると、年間約 325ｍUS＄にも上ると推計される。ベースロード用の発電をディーゼル 発 電 か ら 地 熱 発 電 に 転 換 し た 場 合 、 年 間 の デ ィ ー ゼ ル 燃 料 費 の 62% に 相 当 す る 約 214.949 billion Rp であり、インドネシア 全体の 1.936US$/litter にもなっている。この価格を前提にするとディーゼル発電は燃料費のみでも約 26 cents US$/kWh にもなっていると推定される。この多額の燃料費は PLN 及び政府の財政を大幅 に逼迫している。 東部地域におけるディーセル発電燃料使用量は年間約 347.065MW に達するとみられている。必要予備率を 30～ 40%と仮定すると 2025 年には発電設備容量は 1.000kL の燃料費の節約が期待できる。ディーゼル発電からの地熱発電代替は、年間 約 200ｍUS＄程度の燃料費節約効果があると考えられる。 ３．東部地域の地熱資源及び地熱開発調査の現状 エネルギー鉱物資源省（MEMR）は国内の 253 箇所の地熱地域を抽出している。そのう ち 37 箇所が東部地域に位置し、 それらのポテンシャルは 1.273GWh であり、インドネシア全体の 1.07 US$/litter から 2006 年に は 0.
Jailolo.41/1999 では森林を生産林、 保護林や保全林に分類しており、 保全林の一部では地 熱発電開発が実施できないところがある。プロジェクト実施にあたっては開発予定地域 要約-4 . 86/2002 としてまとめられて いる。 地熱発電開発を森林法上の森林内で実施する場合、活動が制限される場合がある。政 令 No. 17/2001 で、地熱発電所については出力が 55MW 以上 のものが環境影響評価（AMDAL）の対象となっている。ただし、55MW 未満の地熱発電所 であっても保護地域に立地する場合には環境影響評価を義務付けられている。AMDAL に 係わる政令 No. 27/1999 において、AMDAL が義務付けられない業種活動を行うものには UKL（環境管理活動（UKL）と環境モニタリング活動（UPL） ）を提出することが義務付け られ、その実施要領に係わるガイドラインは環境省令 No.東部地域では、 Ulumbu 及び Mataloko の２地域において、 PLN により詳細な地熱資源調 査がすでに実施され、坑井掘削により有望な地熱貯留層の存在が確認されている。両地 域の調査では 20MW の発電所建設が検討されている。 一部の地熱地域では、 必要な調査の すべてではないが地表調査（地質・地化学・物理探査など）が実施され、地熱資源賦存 の可能性が把握されている。しかし、その他の地域では地熱の存在把握だけを調査する いわゆる概査が実施されているだけである。このために、現段階では、定性的に数 10MW 程度の地熱発電可能な資源賦存量があるとは判断できるものの、ディーゼル代替電源開 発を行いたい地域のすべてをカバーできる地熱発電事業が可能かの定量的判断はできな い。このように東部地域では、地熱資源開発の段階としては初期の段階（予察調査また は概査段階）にある地域が多い。 地熱発電開発を計画するにあたっては、賦存する地熱資源量に対応した開発規模や開 発方法等の発電所建設計画に必要な条件を把握しなければならない。このためには、地 熱構造モデル構築や資源評価を実施する必要がある。これまでの地表調査、いわゆる概 査により得られている地質・地化学・物理探査データからだけでは、これらの必要な条 件を把握することはできない。 したがって、 今後、 地熱開発を進め事業化するためには、 地熱資源に関する精密調査が必要である。また、その結果に基づき調査井を掘削し、地 熱流体を噴気させる坑井試験を行い、地熱貯留層の存在の確認と地熱資源量(出力)評価 を実施する必要がある。 これらの調査から開発 発電所建設に至る一連の事業を MEMR は PLN に実施させるとし ・ ている。前述のとおり、現在 PLN は Ulumbu 及び Mataloko において小規模地熱発電開発 を進めており、ほかにも、Hu'u Daha. Tolehu 及び Sembalun において開発を 進める計画も持っている。PLN は東部地域の小規模地熱開発の推進に意欲的である。 MEMR は、東部における地熱発電事業の推進を前述の 11 地域のみならず多くの地域で 進めようとしていることから、それらの地域での電力需要、ディーゼル発電代替の可能 性、地熱資源賦存等を調査し、それぞれに開発計画を策定する必要がある。これらの調 査は、後述する約 7 地域での円借款事業の詳細計画立案にも必要であると同時に、その 後の東部地域開発促進にも不可欠なものである。 MEMR は地熱発電所建設のための円借款 事業の中で、地熱発電事業の可能性のあるすべての地域における調査・計画立案を行い たいとしている。 ４．環境影響について 東部地域の地熱発電開発において課題となる可能性ある環境規制について調査を行っ た。法規制としては、環境省令 No.
2/2008 では、地熱 発電開発のために保護林や生産林を使用することが国に使用料を納めることで認められ ている。 MEMR の調査によると東部地域には 37 の地熱地域があると報告されている。 そのうち、 マスタープラン調査で情報が収集できた 11 地域については保全林との地熱地域の地理 的関係が確認できた。その結果、地熱発電開発を不可能にするような深刻な問題がある 地域はないことがわかった。しかしながら、開始後のトラブルを避けるためには、詳細 な自然・社会環境規制情報をプロジェクト開始前に充分に収集しておくべきと考える。 現在までに情報収集ができていない残り 26 地域の状況についてはプロジェクト実施地 域選定の際に確認する必要がある。 ５．実施計画 ディーゼル発電用燃料の高騰による政府及び PLN の財政状況の悪化に対応するために、 インドネシア政府は東部における地熱発電開発を急ぐ必要があるとしている。本調査に おける同国政府（MEMR、BAPPENAS、MOF）や関係機関 PLN との打合せに基づき、実現性の 高いあるいは緊急性のある地域におけるパイロット的地熱発電開発プロジェクトとして、 発電事業規模や開発期間を考慮して、 合計 35MW の小規模地熱発電所建設事業が計画され た。打合せ時の各関係機関の意向により、東部における地熱発電事業の早期実現のため には円借款による支援を受けることが望ましいとされ、 PLN プロジェクトとして MEMR が ブルーブック登録手続きを行うこととなった。 地熱発電開発事業 本プロジェクトは、地熱開発マスタープラン調査（JICA.2006）等の結果に基づき、東部地域の地熱発電開発を実施するも のである。事業には地熱資源調査から、調査の一部としての地熱資源確認ための、また 蒸気確保のための坑井掘削、さらには発電所建設まで含まれる。 プロジェクト対象地域の選定：ディーゼル発電所の設置地点、 送配電線、 電力消費量、 地熱資源の特性や開発可能量（初期地表調査と地熱資源量評価）を基に、ディーゼル発 電代替事業に適切な地熱地域を選定する。選定された地域の資源開発・発電所開発計画 を策定する。一部の地域については、資源の評価や開発計画が立案されているが、開発 が期待される地域(約 7 地域) すべてについての計画は策定されていないことから、 初期 地表調査として、本格プロジェクト開始前に行うこの調査を行い、計画をより具体化さ せる必要がある。 地熱資源調査（精密地表調査）：開発対象地熱地域において、地熱資源の賦存、地熱 貯留層の広がりの把握及び地熱蒸気確認・確保用の坑井掘削ターゲット選定のために、 地質、地化学、物理探査などの精密地表調査を実施する。精密地表調査の実施後、調査 によって収集されたデータをデータベース化し、これを用い地熱概念モデル構築し、地 熱資源量算出等の総合解析を行う。この結果に基づき、地熱資源開発計画を必要があれ ば修正を行い、地熱概念モデルを精緻化する。 坑井掘削による資源確認及び蒸気確保：精密地表調査の結果に基づき、インドネシア 東部の約 14 地熱地域において 28 本の調査井を掘削する。噴出に成功した調査井は生産 井として使用する。さらに、廃熱水等を還元するために 7 本の還元井を掘削する。 要約-5 .2007）・フローレス島地熱発 電事業化調査（JETRO.に保全林が含まれるかどうか、事前に把握する必要がある。政令 NO.
地熱資源量(出力)評価：調査井の試験結果を精密地表調査結果とともに地熱概念モデ ルに反映させる。この概念モデルを数値モデル化し、地熱貯留層数値シュミレーション 等による地熱資源量評価を行い、 最適開発出力を明らかにする。 この調査結果に基づき、 資源開発計画を必要があれば修正し、発電所建設計画を策定する。また、発電所の概念 設計を行い、送電計画を作成する。 以上の地熱資源調査・開発について、 等のインドネシア国側の能力を考慮すれば、 PLN 坑井掘削を含めた地熱資源開発は地熱開発特有の技術と経験が必要なことから、豊富な 経験・能力を有する地熱開発コンサルタントを雇用して事業を推進する必要がある。 地熱発電所建設：各地熱地域の地熱資源調査と坑井掘削後に合計 35MW の小規模発電 設備を建設する。発電設備は本プロジェクトの早期完成を考慮し、各地域の発電所建設 をまとめて、単一コントラクターによる設計・資機材供給・据付・試運転調整渡し（一 括フルターンキー方式）とすることが望ましい。なお、送変電設備には発電所主変圧器 の高圧側端子から構内開閉所までの送電線、構内開閉所の遮断器、断路器、母線、CT、 VT、避雷器、支持鉄構、碍子、保護継電器盤、その他付属設備、附帯土木建築工事等一 式を含むものとする。 発電所建設については、PLN は充分な経験をもつが、従来より実施しているようにコ ンサルタントの技術的助勢を受け実施されるものと思われる。 CDM 化 地熱発電によるディーゼル発電代替事業は CDM プロジェクトとして最適である。温室 効果ガス削減効果は 200kW 以上のディーゼル発電代替の場合、0.8(t-CO2/MWh)とされて いる。貯留層数値シミュレーションで開発出力を算出し発電設備概念設計結果を参照す れば、温室効果ガス削減量は推定でき、CDM プロジェクトの登録手続きを始めることが 可能である。 事業実施者としての PLN PLN は以下の背景・経緯から本プロジェクトの実施主体となりうると考えられる。 東部地域を含む島嶼地域の電力供給は PLN が実施している。PLN には安定した電力供 給の責任があることから、本地熱発電プロジェクトを東部インドネシアの電力供給の効 率化と分散化を促進させる再生可能エネルギー開発事業と位置づけ、現在、東部地域の 幾つかの地熱地域での地熱開発の可能性を自ら調査している。 PLN は、地熱資源開発においては充分な知見を有し、発電・送配電では安定運転・安 定供給の充分な経験をもつ多くの技術者を有している。 また、 地熱資源開発についても、 専門的知識をもつ技術者を人数的には多くはないが有している。PLN は経験や能力を有 する専門家を本地熱開発プロジェクトに充てることが可能である。 PLN は内外のコンサルタント及び資源調査会社を使った地熱発電開発の経験を有し、 専門機関の能力を適切に用い地熱発電開発を推進していくことが可能と判断される。 実施スケジュールと事業コスト プロジェクト実施スケジュールでは、円借款締結から（現在計画されている 7 箇所の 発電所のうちの） 最後の地熱発電設備の運転開始まで、 ヶ月を要すると想定している。 81 この場合、プロジェクトが 2008 年 11 月に開始されれば、2015 年の 7 月に完了すること 要約-6 .
95%となり、WACC2.81 百万 US$相当を節約できるものと計算された。 削減された国内消費の燃料は 貴重な外貨獲得のために活用できると考えることも可能である。また、地熱エネルギー は CO2 をほとんど排出しない再生可能エネルギーであることから、地球環境保全面から も本プロジェクトは貢献すると考えられ、国策としても十分にフィージブルであると考 えられる。 このプロジェクトの経費（投資額と運転経費）と蒸気及び電力の販売による収益が同 等となる内部収益率を求め、プロジェクトの機会費用と比較して財務性を評価した。そ の結果、FIRR は 11.356.になる。 プロジェクトコストは 161 百万米ドル程度と推定される(インドネシア国側が坑井の 仕様の変更等を希望した場合、190 百万ドルを超えることもあり得る)。PLN はプロジェ クト実施に必要な資金調達を行う必要があり、円借款による支援を強く期待している。 ６．経済性評価 本プロジェクトの経済的実行可能性を経済的内部収益率法によって検証した。検証で は、本プロジェクトと同等の便益（売電）を提供する代替プロジェクトを選定し、本プ ロジェクトの耐用年数間のプロジェクトと代替電源との経費を現在価値にて比較し、等 価割引率を求めた。 求めた EIRR をハードルレートと比較し、 本プロジェクトの経済性を 評価した。代替電源としてディーゼル発電所を選定した。この結果、本プロジェクトの 代替電源に対する EIRR は 39.5%と算出され、 ハードルレート 12％より十分に大きく、 本 プロジェクトは経済的に見ても代替電源に充分に対抗できると判断された。 また、燃料費としてそれぞれ年平均で約 45.35％よりも十分に大きい値となった。現時点での 評価ではあるが、本プロジェクトは財務的にもフィージブルであると言える。 政府機関の実施プロジェクトとして適当とされている財務的内部収益率 12％を目標 にした場合、 この地熱発電事業による電気料金は 14 cents/kWh 程度としなければならな い。民間企業の場合は、既に政府が公認しているように財務的内部収益率の目標値を 16％とすれば、買取電気料金を 14 cents/kWh 程度とすることはできず、さらに高額にし なければ、この収益率は得られない。政府（あるいは PLN）が一貫開発（下流開発であ る発電所建設及び上流開発である蒸気(資源)開発の両方）を実施した場合、電力補助金 の削減効果は最大となる。もし、本プロジェクト民間企業が一貫開発した場合は、財務 的内部収益率が 16%あったとしても、キャッシュフローをみると運転操業資金として 50 百米ドル以上の借入をしなければ、事業は維持できない。この運転資金調達は民間事業 者にとって重い負担になると考えられる。 このように、プロジェクトの経済評価からも、民間事業者による東部の島々の地熱開 発は困難であり、ODA による支援が得られる政府機関がプロジェクトを実施するのが最 も適切であると判断される。 7．CDM プロジェクトの可能性 地熱発電は一般の他の電源に比べてライフサイクルにおける CO2 排出量が少ないとい われている。また、地熱発電所は稼働率が高く、他の再生可能エネルギーより大きな電 力を発生する。したがって、大きな CO2 削減効果が期待できるため、CDM プロジェクトと して魅力的である。 要約-7 .23 百万 US$相当、プロジェクト期間では 約 1.
5 (kt-CO2/year)が期 待される。 8.8(t-CO2/MWh)と定められている。したがって、合計 35MW の小規模地熱発電プロジェクトの場合、削減効果として 208. 東部地域小規模地熱開発プロジェクト準備 インドネシア政府及び関係機関の意向として、東部地域のディーゼル発電代替のパイ ロット的小規模地熱発電開発事業を円借款の支援を受け実施することとなったが、予定 事業の開発規模が 35MW と比較的小さいため、 本プロジェクト内で将来の地熱発電開発拡 大の見通しを立てることも、同国政府は希望していることから、次の条件を満たすプロ ジェクトを実施する必要がある。 本事業で発電所建設を行う可能性のある有望地域での地熱資源精密調査(構造及 び資源量評価) 本事業で発電所建設を行う可能性のある有望地域での調査井掘削とその後の噴気 成功井の生産井への転用、還元井掘削 本事業で発電所建設を行う有望地域での発電事業計画の策定 約 7 地域のそれぞれ約５MW の小規模地熱発電所建設の実現 東部地域の 37 地域の地熱資源評価及び将来の地熱発電開発計画策定 既存のデータ・報告書からは、データ不足のため、約 7 地域の詳細な開発計画や 37 地域の地熱資源評価や開発計画を立案することは難しい。地熱発電事業における地熱資 源調査や開発には事前に把握することの難しい不確定な要素が含まれることから、凡そ の開発計画でプロジェクトを開始し、その都度計画に修正を加えていくことで適正な事 業とする場合が多い。しかし、本地域の場合は、既存のデータに幾分かの追加情報やデ ータを加えれば、より精度の高い計画の立案が可能であることから、詳細な事業内容や 工程の立案、事業の効果等を明らかにするために、事前の準備を調査することが望まし い。 この事前に実施すべき調査では、既設発電所の設置地点、送配電線、電力消費量を調 査し、さらには地熱資源の特性や開発可能量（初期地表調査と地熱資源量評価）を把握 し、ディーゼル代替事業に適切な地熱地域を選定する。データ及び解析結果を用い、選 定された地域の資源開発・発電所開発計画を策定する。このうち有望度の高い、あるい は開発緊急度の高い約 14 地域を選定し、 一部の地域で既に実施されている地熱資源評価 や開発計画を組み入れ本事業の計画を作成する。この調査により地熱資源調査や開発時 のリスクを大幅に軽減でき、適切な開発計画を作成することが可能となる。 本準備調査には、今回のプロジェクトでの地熱発電所建設予定地域以外の地熱地域も 含まれていること、さらにプロジェクト開始以前に本調査を行うことにより、適正な計 画が立案されることが望ましいことから、可能であれば、SAPPROF を適用し、事前に調 査及び計画立案ができることが望ましい。 要約-8 .小規模地熱発電は小規模 CDM においてタイプ I に分類される。タイプ I は再生可能エ ネルギープロジェクトで 最大出力（プラントの設備容量）が 15MW 以下のものとされて いる。電力系統に接続された小規模地熱発電プロジェクトでは、方法論として AMS I.D において、設備容量、稼働率によって異なるが、200KW 以上 の小規模地熱発電では排出係数は 0.D が適用可能である。AMS I.