Lorentz transformation can simultaneously lead to Doppler frequency shift and variation of magnitude of electromagnetic field, thus the frequency and the energy of an electromagnetic wave train form a linear relationship, emulating the equation of photon energy E = h\omega. This shows that wave-particle duality of light is compatible under space time transformation.

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Lorentz transformation can simultaneously lead to Doppler frequency shift and variation of magnitude of electromagnetic field, thus the frequency and the energy of an electromagnetic wave train form a linear relationship, emulating the equation of photon energy E = h\omega. This shows that wave-particle duality of light is compatible under space time transformation.

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Guanghua Road 1#, 34-1-3-5, Yanta District, Xi’an, Shaanxi, P. R. China 710075 and

Mijiaqiao 34-1-3-5, Xi’an, Shaanxi, P. R. China 710075

We demonstrate that, under Lorentz transformation, the frequency and the energy of an electro-

magnetic wave train form a linear relationship, emulating the equation of photon energy E = h̄ω.

This shows that wave-particle duality of light is compatible under space time transformation.

Wave-particle duality is one of the most fundamental The above transformation of ﬁelds E, B will inevitably

characters of quanta and is revealed by the linear depen- lead to variation of (S, P) in diﬀerent frames.

dence between energy and frequency of a particle. In On the other hand, viewed from diﬀerent frames, the

most cases, treatment of physical entities deals only with frequency of EM wave follows the formulas of relativistic

one of the properties at a time. For photon, one of the Doppler eﬀect

basic elementary particle, the wave property is studied by

examining the few-cycle light pulses [1–5], while the par- ω ′ = γω(1 − β cos θ)

ticle property is learned by investigating the interaction sin θ

tan θ′ = (4)

of photon with other particles [6–10]. γ(cos θ − β)

Here, we demonstrate that under Lorentz transforma-

tion, the energy of an electromagnetic wave train is lin- θ is the angle between β and the wave propagation direc-

early dependent on the frequency of that same wave train. tion k observed in frame F .

Our model is based on the observation that in electro- We will show that for any given plane EM wave train

dynamics, space time transformation can simultaneously under Lorentz transformation, |P′ | = E′ ×B′ ∆t′ /µ varies

lead to both Doppler eﬀect and a change of magnitude of in the same way as ω ′ . Consequently

electromagnetic (EM) ﬁelds. Consequently, there exists |P′ | ∝ ω ′ (5)

a relationship between Doppler frequency shift and the

energy ﬂow change of plane EM wave train due to space Throughout our discussion, the Gaussian units are used,

time transformation. It turns out that this relationship, so for the electric and magnetic ﬁelds (E, B) in a plane

resulting completely from wave theory, is linear, emulat- EM wave, we have

ing the equation of photon energy E = h̄ω.

For a plane EM wave train of duration ∆t, the time |E| = |B| (6)

rate of energy ﬂow through unit area is related to the

The primed quantities are evaluated at (x′ , t′ ) in frame

ﬁelds (E, B) of the wave by Poynting’s theorem ′

F , while the unprimed quantities are evaluated at (x, t)

1 in frame F . (x′ , t′ ) and (x, t) are related by Lorentz

S= E×B (1) transformation

µ

then the total energy ﬂow of the wave train through unit t′ = γ(t − β · x)

area is γ−1

x′ = x + β(β · x) − tγβ (7)

β2

P = S∆t (2)

To prove eqn. (5), we ﬁrst discuss two special cases,

The values of (E, B) are both dependent on the se- 1) β is parallel to the propagation direction k. 2) β is

lected reference frame. The transformation of electro- perpendicular to propagation direction k. Then we gen-

magnetic ﬁelds from reference frame F to frame F ′ mov- eralize to the situation of arbitrary angle θ between β

ing with velocity v relative to F are [11] and k.

γ2 For β parallel to the propagation direction k in frame

[E′ ]x′ ,t′ = [γ(E + β × B) − β(β · E)]x,t F , as shown in ﬁg. 1, β · E = 0, β · B = 0, then from eqn.

γ+1

(3), ﬁelds in frame F ′ are

γ2

[B′ ]x′ ,t′ = [γ(B − β × E) − β(β · B)]x,t E′ = γ(E + β × B)

γ+1

v 1 B′ = γ(B − β × E) (8)

β = ,γ = √ (3)

c 1 − β2 then with eqn. (6)

E′ = γ(1 + β)E

∗ peifeng

B′ = γ(1 + β)B (9)

w@yahoo.com

2

x2 x2

F F'

F w k F' w' = wg(1+b) c D t'=c D t/g

b k'

w cDt w' = wg

x1 x1

x3 b k'

c Dt k

c D t'=c D tg(1-b) x3

x2 x2

E E'=Eg(1+b)

F F' F F' |E'|=|E|g

b E x1 b x1

B S=E H H B'=Bg S'=E' H H'

B B'=Bg(1+b)

P=S D t P'=S' D t'=Pg(1+b) P=S D t | P'|=|S'| D t'=|P| g

FIG. 1. β is parallel to wave propagation k in frame F . The FIG. 2. β is perpendicular to wave propagation k in frame

left column shows the wave train and corresponding ﬁelds F . The left column shows the wave train and corresponding

E, B in frame F , the right column shows the wave train and ﬁelds E, B in frame F , the right column shows the wave train

corresponding ﬁelds E′ , B′ in frame F ′ and corresponding ﬁelds E′ , B′ in frame F ′ . Note that the

direction of wave propagation and Poynting vector diﬀers in

the two frames.

Since the magnetic permeability µ is invariant in any

frame, the Poynting vector observed in frame F ′ is

Next is the calculation for β perpendicular to the prop-

′ E′ × B′ E×B agation direction k. For simplicity, we assume the electric

S = = γ 2 (1 + β)2 = γ 2 (1 + β)2 S(10)

µ µ ﬁeld E parallel to β. The explicit form of eqn. (3) are

The duration of the wave train in frame F ′ is E1′ = E1

E2′ = γ(E2 − βB3 )

∆t′ = γ(1 − β)∆t (11)

E3′ = γ(E3 + βB2 )

using the identity B1′ = B1

1 B2′ = γ(B2 + βE3)

γ(1 − β) = (12)

γ(1 + β) B3′ = γ(B3 − βB2) (17)

we arrive at From the conﬁguration shown in ﬁg. 2, the ﬁelds ob-

1 served in frame F ′ are

∆t′ = ∆t (13)

γ(1 + β)

E1′ = E1

The energy ﬂow of wave train through unit area ob- E2′ = −γβB3

served in frame F ′ is E3′ = 0

P′ = S′ ∆t′ = γ 2 (1 + β)2 S

1

∆t = γ(1 + β)P

(14) B1′ = 0

γ(1 + β) B2′ = 0

′

On the other hand, the Doppler frequency shift in eqn. B3 = γB3 (18)

(4) at θ = π is

with eqn. (6), it follows

ω ′ = γ(1 + β)ω (15)

|E′ | = γ|E|, |B′ | = γ|B| (19)

Eqn. (14) and (15) show an identical variation of P

and ω under Lorentz transformation. Eqn. (5) comes as The magnitude of Poynting vector is

|P′ | |P| 1 ′ 1

= = const (16) |S′ | = |E × H′ | = γ 2 |E × H| = γ 2 |S| (20)

ω′ ω µ µ

In the case that β is in the same direction of wave The duration of the wave train is

propagation k and θ = 0, we just need to replace β in

∆t′ = ∆t/γ (21)

the above equation with −β, and the same result (16)

yields.

3

unit area is ∆ω 1

′ ′ ′

= (26)

|P | = |S ∆t | = γ|P| (22) ω 2N

If the time duration ∆t of a wave train is interpreted

On the other hand, eqn. (4) shows that the Doppler

as the uncertainty in time and the spectrum breadth ∆ω

frequency shift at θ = π/2 is

as the uncertainty in frequency, we have

ω ′ = γω (23) ω∆t

∆ω∆t = =π (27)

Again, an identical variation of |P| and ω under 2N

Lorentz transformation emerges, and eqn. (5) follows With eqn. (5), the following relationship holds for a

as give electromagnetic wave train when observed in diﬀer-

|P′ | |P| ent frames.

= = const (24)

ω′ ω |∆P|∆t = const (28)

Eqn. (16) and (24) are proofs of eqn. (5) when the This emulates the uncertainty principle in quantum

angle θ between β and wave propagation k is either 0, π theory

or π/2. In the case that θ is arbitrary, the calculation can

h

be done in the following way. By decomposing β into a ∆E∆t = h̄∆ω∆t >

component βp parallel to k and a component βv vertical 2

to k, we can compute the total eﬀect as a superposition h̄∆ω h

∆p∆x = c∆t > (29)

of the parallel case of βp and the vertical case of βv . c 2

Therefore, eqn. (5) holds true for all cases. In conclusion, we have shown that under space time

Unlike other particles, which may appear at rest in transformation, Doppler frequency shift ω and the energy

some speciﬁc reference frame, the speed of EM wave train ﬂow |P| of EM wave train are related linearly, emulating

is invariant in any frame. That is, all frames are equiv- the equation of photon energy E = h̄ω. If a wave train

alent in the observation of EM wave. Therefore, for any has a ratio E/ω = h̄, then it has the same ratio in all

given wave train, the above equations show that the ratio frames, while its E and ω varies respectively. This pro-

between its frequency and energy ﬂow through unit area portional dependency reveals that the model of photon

remains constant independent of the reference frame in holds under space time transformation. Our derivation

which the EM wave train is observed. is completely from Lorentz transformation and Doppler

The proportional relationship between the frequency eﬀect. Conversely, the linear relationship between the

of a wave train and its energy ﬂow emulates the equation energy and frequency of photon implies that the speed of

of photon energy E = h̄ω. Furthermore, under Lorentz light is constant.

transformation, the frequency of an electromagnetic wave It is also noted that 1) the number of cycles of a wave

train is proportional to the magnitude of its ﬁelds. This train remains unchanged in diﬀerent frames and 2) an

can be derived from eqn. (9), (15) and eqn. (19), (23) observed ω ′ photon(wave train) resulted from Doppler

shift of an ‘original’ ω photon is indistinguishable from

ω ∝ |E|, ω ∝ |B| (25)

an ‘original’ ω ′ photon. It is then speculated that all

From wave theory and Fourier analysis, a ﬁnite length photons contain the same number of cycles.

wave train of N cycles has a frequency spectrum breadth

Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5544 (1998). [6] M. Gluck, E. Reya, and I. Schienbein, Phys. Rev. D 63,

[2] D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. 074008 (2001).

S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiﬀ, Science 288, [7] A. Donnachie, H. G. Dosch, Phys. Rev. D 65, 014019

635 (2000). (2002).

[3] M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Rei- [8] A. V. Belitsky, D. Muller, and A. Kirchner, Nucl. Phys.

der, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, B 629, 323 (2002).

M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature(London) 414, 509 [9] H. Baba, K. Sasaki, and T. Uematsu, Phys. Rev. D 68,

(2001). 054025 (2003).

[4] M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C.Vozzi, [10] R. Fiore, A. Flachi, L. L. Jenkovszky, A. I. Lengyel, and

M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, V. K. Magas, Phys. Rev. D 69, 014004 (2004).

Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003). [11] J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 3rd edition,

[5] G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Wiley, NY (1998).

Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett.

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