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SCHOOL OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING

Jiang Jize

2011/5/16

This week I fouse on a new project say, C-F, G-F measurement this measurement

is used to determine interface trapped charge density of device. The circuit model

we use is MOS-C model and the method we use to determine interface trapped charge

density is called conductance method.

Interface trapped charge: these are positive or negative charges, due to structural

defects, oxidation-induced defects caused by radiation or similar bond-breaking

processes interface. Interface trapped charge is in electrical communication with the

underlying silicon, interface traps can be charged or discharged, depending on the

surface potential.

MOS-C model: stands for metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor. The structure of

this model is shown in Figure 1. And the equivalent circuit of this model is shown in

Figure 2.

(b) simplified circuit of (a).

Here, Cox is the oxide capacitance, Cs is the semiconductor capacitance and Cit

represent the interface trap capacitance, the capture-emission of carriers is a lossy

process, represented by resistance Rit.

Conductance method: it is based on the measurement of the equivalent parallel

conductance Gp of an MOS-C as a function of bias voltage ad frequency. The

conductance, representing the loss mechanism due to interface trap capture and

emission of carriers, is a measure of the interface trap density.

Relationship between Gp and the traps density is shown in the formula below:

constant and is the rap density. Equation (1) is for interface traps with a single

energy level in the band equation (2) is for interface traps with continuously

distributed in the energy throughout the semiconductor band gap.

For most cases the traps are continuously distributed in band gap, so let me use

continuously model introduce how I get from measured . First set

From the equation we can say, when , y gets its maximum value, that

means

In order to solve this equation I use excel help me do the calculation, column A

stands for , column B stands for corresponding value and column C stands

for corresponding value. ( )

Figure 3. Excel sheet used to find where the peak value is.

From the excel sheet it is not difficult to find that occurs when , in

other words, occurs when .and at maximum we have .

Therefore, .

1. Plot Gp/ vs (or frequency) based on measured results.

2. Find the maximum Gp/ and the corresponding .

3. Determine using .

4. Determine using .

Another important part of this project is to study relationship between trap state

energy and traps density.

Trap state energy is an important parameter to determine time constant of traps,

say,

Here, stands for capture cross section of the trap states, stands for

density of states in the conduction band and stands for average thermal velocity

of the carriers. stands for trap state energy, k is Boltzmann’s constant and T is

temperature in Kelvin

Therefore the steps to determine relationship between trap state energy and traps

density are:

1. Find the maximum Gp/ and determine time constant .

2. Use to calculate trap state energy .

3. Find corresponding traps density .

4. Plot vs .

Based on this basic knowledge, we start to do the measurement and at the same

time I also write a new program use VBA to extract and analysis the measured data.

Our measurement is done on the diode structure, shown in Figure 4.

This structure helps us achieve the MOS-C model because Schokkty contact here act

as metal, Ohmic contact here is nothing but a connection of the substrate or the

semiconductor.

During the measurement, ac( ) signal is applied on the Schokkty

metal and the Ohmic is connected to ground. The bias voltage varies within

certain range to achieve various time constant and trap state energy, and ac signal will

varies from 1KHz to 5MHz, large range of measure frequency ensure there is a peak

in the G/ plot so that we can determine and from it.

Graphs below show result of our measurement.

1E-13

8E-14

G/W[F]

6E-14

4E-14

2E-14

0

1000 10000 100000 1000000

Freq[Hz]

G8-SCH2-VG-0-5_100

Figure 5.

This graph shows how G/ various with frequency. Form graph we see clearly

there is a peak exists. And my program will use this peak point determine other

important parameters.

G/w VS Freq

6E-13

4E-13

2E-13

G/W[F]

-1E-27

1000 10000 100000 1000000

-2E-13

-4E-13

Freq[Hz]

Figure 6.

Figure 6. shows how G/ various with frequency for different bias voltage say,

different . Form graph we can see that the peak G/ occur at different frequency

for different bias condition. Recall that =2, therefore that indicate time constant

are different for different bias condition, further, traps state energy are

different for different bias condition.

G8-SCH2-VG-0-3_100 2.9E-08 4.53E+11 0.000253 300 0.458526

G8-SCH2-VG-0-4_100 1.93E-08 3.01E+11 0.00016 300 0.446621

G8-SCH2-VG-0-5_100 4.1E-09 6.41E+10 1.27E-05 300 0.381144

Figure 7.

Dit VS Et

5E+11

4.5E+11

4E+11

Dit[eV-1cm-2]

3.5E+11

3E+11

2.5E+11

2E+11

1.5E+11

1E+11

5E+10

0

0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5

Et[eV]

Figure 8.

Figure 7 and 8 show how is at different trap state energy , Figure 7 is the

summary table and Figure 8 is the plot.

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