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# Report for week 16

## NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING

## Report for week 16

Jiang Jize

2011/5/16
This week I fouse on a new project say, C-F, G-F measurement this measurement
is used to determine interface trapped charge density of device. The circuit model
we use is MOS-C model and the method we use to determine interface trapped charge
density is called conductance method.

Interface trapped charge: these are positive or negative charges, due to structural
defects, oxidation-induced defects caused by radiation or similar bond-breaking
processes interface. Interface trapped charge is in electrical communication with the
underlying silicon, interface traps can be charged or discharged, depending on the
surface potential.
MOS-C model: stands for metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor. The structure of
this model is shown in Figure 1. And the equivalent circuit of this model is shown in
Figure 2.

## Figure 2. (a)equivalent circuit for MOS-C structure;

(b) simplified circuit of (a).
Here, Cox is the oxide capacitance, Cs is the semiconductor capacitance and Cit
represent the interface trap capacitance, the capture-emission of carriers is a lossy
process, represented by resistance Rit.
Conductance method: it is based on the measurement of the equivalent parallel
conductance Gp of an MOS-C as a function of bias voltage ad frequency. The
conductance, representing the loss mechanism due to interface trap capture and
emission of carriers, is a measure of the interface trap density.
Relationship between Gp and the traps density is shown in the formula below:

## Here, , f is measurement frequency, is the interface trap time

constant and is the rap density. Equation (1) is for interface traps with a single
energy level in the band equation (2) is for interface traps with continuously
distributed in the energy throughout the semiconductor band gap.

For most cases the traps are continuously distributed in band gap, so let me use
continuously model introduce how I get from measured . First set

## Find first order derivative of this equation and get

From the equation we can say, when , y gets its maximum value, that
means

In order to solve this equation I use excel help me do the calculation, column A

stands for , column B stands for corresponding value and column C stands
for corresponding value. ( )

Figure 3. Excel sheet used to find where the peak value is.
From the excel sheet it is not difficult to find that occurs when , in
other words, occurs when .and at maximum we have .
Therefore, .

## Therefore the steps to determine traps density are:

1. Plot Gp/ vs (or frequency) based on measured results.
2. Find the maximum Gp/ and the corresponding .
3. Determine using .
4. Determine using .

Another important part of this project is to study relationship between trap state
energy and traps density.
Trap state energy is an important parameter to determine time constant of traps,
say,

Here, stands for capture cross section of the trap states, stands for
density of states in the conduction band and stands for average thermal velocity
of the carriers. stands for trap state energy, k is Boltzmann’s constant and T is
temperature in Kelvin

Therefore the steps to determine relationship between trap state energy and traps
density are:
1. Find the maximum Gp/ and determine time constant .
2. Use to calculate trap state energy .
3. Find corresponding traps density .
4. Plot vs .

Based on this basic knowledge, we start to do the measurement and at the same
time I also write a new program use VBA to extract and analysis the measured data.
Our measurement is done on the diode structure, shown in Figure 4.

## Figure 4. Diode structure.

This structure helps us achieve the MOS-C model because Schokkty contact here act
as metal, Ohmic contact here is nothing but a connection of the substrate or the
semiconductor.
During the measurement, ac( ) signal is applied on the Schokkty

metal and the Ohmic is connected to ground. The bias voltage varies within
certain range to achieve various time constant and trap state energy, and ac signal will
varies from 1KHz to 5MHz, large range of measure frequency ensure there is a peak
in the G/ plot so that we can determine and from it.
Graphs below show result of our measurement.

## 1.2E-13 G/w VS Freq

1E-13
8E-14
G/W[F]

6E-14
4E-14
2E-14
0
1000 10000 100000 1000000
Freq[Hz]

G8-SCH2-VG-0-5_100

Figure 5.
This graph shows how G/ various with frequency. Form graph we see clearly
there is a peak exists. And my program will use this peak point determine other
important parameters.

G/w VS Freq
6E-13

4E-13

2E-13
G/W[F]

-1E-27
1000 10000 100000 1000000
-2E-13

-4E-13
Freq[Hz]

## G8-SCH2-VG-0-3_100 G8-SCH2-VG-0-4_100 G8-SCH2-VG-0-5_100

Figure 6.
Figure 6. shows how G/ various with frequency for different bias voltage say,
different . Form graph we can see that the peak G/ occur at different frequency
for different bias condition. Recall that =2, therefore that indicate time constant
are different for different bias condition, further, traps state energy are
different for different bias condition.

## Device_ID G/W_max Dit Tau Temp Et

G8-SCH2-VG-0-3_100 2.9E-08 4.53E+11 0.000253 300 0.458526
G8-SCH2-VG-0-4_100 1.93E-08 3.01E+11 0.00016 300 0.446621
G8-SCH2-VG-0-5_100 4.1E-09 6.41E+10 1.27E-05 300 0.381144
Figure 7.

Dit VS Et
5E+11
4.5E+11
4E+11
Dit[eV-1cm-2]

3.5E+11
3E+11
2.5E+11
2E+11
1.5E+11
1E+11
5E+10
0
0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
Et[eV]

Figure 8.

Figure 7 and 8 show how is at different trap state energy , Figure 7 is the
summary table and Figure 8 is the plot.