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SHRINKAGE TEST

INTRODUCTION
This paper descripts the results of an experimental investigation carried out to determine the
shrinkage of the high strength concrete.
To compare the shrinkage strain for in order to choose the better type of concrete in control the
shrinkage crack of concrete.

PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION

Plastic shrinkage normally occurs after the fresh concrete place during the first few days. When
the water evaporates from the surface of freshly placed concrete faster than it is replaced by
bleed water, the surface concrete shrinks. Paste of rich mixes such as high strength concrete will
be more susceptible to plastic shrinkage than normal concrete.

The drying shrinkage crack appears as the inevitable especially the under side of the desk slab.
It seems common defects for a bridge after long term. It happens after the concrete had already
attained its final set and a good portion of the chemical hydration process in the cement gel has
been accomplished.

Both shrinkages will be measure during this experiment. The dial gauge reading will be taken for
the 1st 7 days and 14, 28, 56 and 90 days. The changes in length of each specimen were
calculated from the different of final and initial dial gauge readings. Then shrinkage strain was
calculated.

ALTERNATIVE PREVENTIVES

Low shrinkage aggregate


The low shrinkage concretes may be produced by the low shrinkage aggregate which ever high
specific gravity and low absorption. It might produced by using quart, limestone, granite ,
dolomite, feldspar where as the use of greywacke, sand stone, slate , hornblende and basalts may
produce high- shrinkage concrete. Then because of the elasticity of certain aggregates such as
limestone and dolomite can be vary over wide range. Hence the effectiveness in restraining
drying shrinkage wills also varies. Somehow when an aggregate producing low shrinkage is not
economically available.
Use the lowest amount of mix water required for workability; do not permit overly wet
consistencies.
Consider using a shrinkage-reducing admixture to reduce drying shrinkage, which may reduce
shrinkage cracking. Because almost all concrete is mixed with more water than is needed to
hydrate the cement, much of the remaining water evaporates, causing the concrete to shrink.
Consider using synthetic fibers to help control plastic shrinkage cracks.

THEORY FOR PREDICTING SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE


Correction factors are applied to the ultimate value for condition other than the standard concrete
composition.
1) Loading age
2) Differential shrinkage
3) Initial moist curing
4) Ambient relative humidity
5) Average thickness of member/volume –surface ratio method
6) Temperature other than 70 F

The shrinkage can be estimated from Schoree’s formula (Concrete technology by Gambhir, M.L
Publisher-Mc.GrawHill)
Є s = 0.00125(0.95-h)
where ∈s= Shrinkage strain, h= Relative humidity expressed as a fraction.

ESTIMATION FOR DRY SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE


The principle variables that affect the shrinkage are listed at the theory of prediction of shrinkage
above. The design approach refers to the “standard condition” and correction factors. The
following general procedure is suggested for prediction shrinkage of concrete is:

(ϵsh)t=t∝f+t∝(ϵsh)u

Where f in days and α considered constant for a given member shape and size which define the
time ratio part. (ϵsh)u Indicated the ultimate shrinkage strain, and t is the time from the end of
the initial curing.

Shrinkage after age 7 days for moist cured concrete


(ϵsh)t=t35+t(ϵsh)u

In the absence of the specific shrinkage data for local aggregates and conditions, the average
values suggest for (ϵsh)u = 780γsh x 10-6 (m/m)
Where γsh=1.40-0.0102 λ, for 40< λ<80 (λ=humidity)

SHRINKAGE TEST

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME
Shrinkage of concrete was measured with the help of ‘Shrinkage Apparatus’ as shown below.
Then original Concrete beams specimens of 75mm x 75mm in cross section and 280mm length
had changed to 100mm x 100mm x 600mm in order scale up the shrinkage rate.
Then specimens were cast with 2 different concrete mixes. Both specimens are pump mix design
with Grade 40 with high workability. But one of it mixed with Daratard 45 as the retarder to
slow down the hydration of concrete.

Dial gauge

100mm

Specimen
600mm
Pin

Shrinkage measuring apparatus along with specimen


Pins were embedded at both ends of the specimens to hold them in the shrinkage apparatus.
Specimens were cured in water for 7 days before testing for shrinkage. Initial readings of the
specimens were taken with the help of dial gauge attached to the apparatus. Then the specimens
were air dried for 7, 28, 56 and 90 days. Again the final reading of each specimen was taken after
the specified period of air drying.

The change in length of each specimen was calculated from the difference of final and initial dial
gauge readings. Then the shrinkage strain was calculated and compared with the prediction of
the shrinkage strain in theory.

Theory calculation:

COMPOSIION OF MIX

0.3m³

Material Pump Mix P40 Pump Mix P40 (with retarder)


Cement (kg) 14.1 14.1
Water (kg) 3.64 3.65
Total Aggregate (kg) 51.59 51.54
Fine Agg.(kg) 20.59 (39.33%) 20.59 (39.29%)
Coarse Agg.(kg) 30.00 (60.67%) 30.00 (60.73%)
Daracem 100 (L) 0.169 0.169
Daratard 45 (L) - 0.017
Density of concrete
(kg/m³) 2317.8 2317.01
Slump Obtained (mm) 120 120
RESULTS
The results of the shrinkage strains of various concrete mixes with different mix proportion and use of admixture in order to
differences the shrinkage rate of the mixes. Observes the Change in length (∆L) in mm after Days and Shrinkage strain
(∆L/L) x 10⁴ after days.

Initial Reading
Ite Measure Reading (0.01 mm) after days
Mix Design (0.01 mm)
m
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
without 11.0 10.9 10.9 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.1 11.0 11.1
-
1 Daratard 45 4 6 4 0 1 2 4 6 8 0 8 5
with Daratard 10.9 10.6 10.5 10.4 10.4 10.3 10.4 10.3 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.1
-
2 45 0 4 6 7 7 9 0 3 6 5 7 8

Ite Change in length Δ L (0.01 mm) after days


Mix Design
m 1 day 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
without - - - - -
- - 0.08 0.10 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.00
1 Daratard 45 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.04 0.11
with Daratard
- - 0.26 0.34 0.43 0.43 0.51 0.50 0.57 0.64 0.65 0.63 0.72
2 45

Ite Shrinkage strain, (ΔL/L)x 10 ⁴ after days


Mix Design
m 1 day 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
without 1.32 1.65 0.66 0.49 0.33 - - - - -
- - 0
1 Daratard 45 5 6 2 7 1 0.33 0.66 0.99 0.66 1.82
with Daratard 4.31 5.63 7.13 7.13 8.45 8.29 9.45 10.6 10.7 10.4 11.9
- -
2 45 2 8 1 1 8 2 3 1 8 5 4
length , L for mix 2 =
length , L for mix 1 = 604mm 603mm
+ value indeicated shrinkage & - value indicated expansion for the concrete
Table 1 : Test result of the shrinkage strain measured record for Mix 1 & Mix 2
Figure 1 : Variation of shrinkage strain of concrete with Mix 1 & Mix 2 versus age (days)
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

This discussion will be separated to 2 parts, mainly discussed on the plastic shrinkage and drying
shrinkage crack. Results shown from day first to 7th days been observed for the plastic shrinkage
until the final set observed. Then remaining results shall use for extracting shrinkage strain for
drying shrinkage crack.

Mix 1 is the Pump mix with design of concrete strength G40 used of super plasticizer Daracem
100 and Mix 2 indicated the same design strength but use the admixture ( Daracem 100 and
Daratard 45)

Part 1: Plastic Shrinkage crack (1 day to 7 days)


From the results it is concluded that the shrinkage strain for Mix 1 decreases with time from then
day 1 to days 3 and it turned to negative value at days 4 to days 7, it mean then concrete shown
expansion with time after 3 days.
Mix 2 which added with Daratard 45 shown shrinkage increase with time from then 1 day to 7
days. The shrinkage strain was larger compare to mix 1.

The cement has higher-than-normal quantities of tricalcium aluminate (C3A) and calcium
sulfate. Expansion is caused by the hydration of these materials. Expansion can occur if concrete
is cured by immersing in water.. Daracem 100 allowed develops of early strength process
hydration during the 1st 3 days. Then water (H2O) need for the process hydration and after 3rd day
the water is sucked into the concrete to counteract self desiccation and to swell and hydrate the
CSH phases in Mix 1.

Cement chemist notation : C3S + H → C-S-H + CH


Standard notation : Ca3SiO5 + H2O → (CaO)·(SiO2)·(H2O)(gel) + Ca(OH)2
Balanced : 2Ca3SiO5 + 7H2O → 3(CaO)·2(SiO2)·4(H2O)(gel) + 3Ca(OH)2
Meanwhile Mix 2 with presents of admixture Daratard 45, the shrinkage strain increase with
time and gradually slower rate as show as figure 1

The retarder was used to slower the initial and final setting time of the concrete. For initial
setting, it extends the setting time by 2-3 hours at 21°C to insure sufficient delivery, placement,
vibration or compaction time, such as in hot weather concreting transit mix concrete and pre-
stressed concrete. Daratard 40 is also used in special applications, as in bridge decks where it
extends plastic characteristics of the concrete until progressive deflection resulting from
increasing loads is completed.
For final setting, Retarders help to reduce the possibility of early dry-shrink cracking and reduce
the maximum temperature rise in mass concreting, by extending the heat-dissipation period.

The superplasticiser for the high workability concrete, Daracem 100 had used as the high range
water reducer specially formulated for extended slump life. It provides improved slump retention
in flowable concrete and it is ideal for low water cement ratio concrete designed for high early
compressive and flexural strengths with exceptional workability and flow characteristics.

Daratard 45 retards the initial and final set of concrete. At the usual addition rate of 300 ml /100
kg cementitious material it will extend the initial setting time of portland cement concrete by 2 to
3 hours at 21°C. Daratard 40 is used wherever a delay in setting time is required to insure
sufficient delivery, placement, vibration or compaction time, such as in hot weather concreting
transit mix concrete and pre-stressed concrete
Daratard 40 is also used in special applications, as in bridge decks where it extends plastic
characteristics of the concrete until progressive deflection resulting from increasing loads is
completed.

SHRINKAGE PROPERTIES
Fresh concrete can shrink or expand during the curing process, depending on its formulations
and on environmental conditions. Several mechanisms are thought to be involved as discussed
below. Shrinking can cause cracking, if the shrinkage forces are greater than the developing
tensile strength (see previous section).

Chemical shrinkage is due to the fact that the volume of hydrates, produced by cement reacting
with water is less than the volume of the reactant

Antogenous shrinkage is the measured reduction in length of a concrete bar during curing,
without any migration of water into or out of the specimen. The driving forces are due to
chemical shrinkage as well as surface tension forces due to internal self desiccation.

Expansion can occur if concrete is cured by immersing in water. Water is sucked into the
concrete to counteract self desiccation and to swell and hydrate the CSH phases.

Finally, drying shrinkage is due to surface tension forces in the near-surface capillaries as water
evaporates from them. If evaporated water is not replaced by water bleeding towards the surface
from the bulk concrete, shallow surface cracking can occur.

4.1.2 Expansive cement—ASTM C 845 covers the specification for expansive cement, a
hydraulic cement that expands during the early hardening period after setting. The specification
identifies three types of expansive cements: K, M, and S, with different expansive ingredients.
Type K cements contains anhydrous calcium aluminosulfate (C4A3S), calcium sulfate, and
uncombined lime;
Type M cement contains a calcium aluminate cement and calcium sulfate; while
Type S cement has higher-than-normal quantities of tricalcium aluminate (C3A) and calcium
sulfate. Expansion is caused by the hydration of these materials. The three types (K, M, and S)
are suitable for use in shrinkage-compensating concrete. Essentially, these cements are designed
to expand during hydration, and this expansion minimizes cracking caused by the subsequent
shrinkage of the cement matrix that occurs on drying. For crack control, the expansion must be
restrained by the reinforcing steel to induce a slight compressive stress in the concrete which
then offsets the tensile stresses during shrinkage and inhibits cracking as discussed in ACI 223.
Expansive cements have been used for concrete structures where normal control joints to
accommodate drying-shrinkage cracking are undesirable, for example, floors and slabs.
Proper pre-job planning and on-site supervision, accompanied by good quality control
throughout construction, are essential elements to a successful job. If adequate moist curing is
not maintained, the desired expansion will not occur. Expansive cements should not be used in
concrete subjected to sulfate attack unless prior testing indicates satisfactory

PHOTOS
Preparation for the Equipment and fabricated of the specimens mould

Trial mix for Pump Mix G40P with Daratard 45 & without Daratard 45

Mixed for the Trial Mix and slump taken


Placed fresh concrete batched into the per-fabricated specimen mould

Fixed the dial gauge at the top of specimen and initial reading taken.
Curing with wet tower covering the specimen