THE TREATY OF WAITANGI

Her Majesty Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland regarding with Her Royal Favour the Native Chiefs and Tribes of New Zealand and anxious to protect their just Rights and Property and to secure to themthe enjoyment of Peace and Good Order has deemed it necessary in consequence of the great number of Her Majesty's Subjects who have already settled in New Zealand and the rapid extension of Emigration both from Europe and Australia which is still in progress to constitute and appoint a functionary properly authorised to treat with the Aborigines of New Zealand for the recognition of Her Majesty's sovereign authority over the whole or any part of those islands - Her Majesty therefore being desirous to establish a settled form of Civil Government with a view to avert the evil consequences which must result from the absence of the necessary Laws and Institutionsalike to the native population. Account for the existence of different texts of the Treaty of Waitangi. Assess the importance of this difference in explaining Maori and Pakeha understandings of the Treaty up to 1865. In the short course of New Zealand history the Treaty of Waitangi, as New Zealand¶s founding document, has been the cause of much controver over sy the intent and later interpretation and preferencegiven to the English version.

Much of this is due to the existence of differences in the texts.There are five English versions of the Treaty and several Maori versions.The Maori versions are not c orrect translations of the "official English version" there are even slight differences between the various copies used to collect signatures. Once the decision was made to take control of New Zealand, instructions were prepared for Captain William Hobson. Normandy gave Hobson his instructions, and he was concerned that everything must be done correctly. Hobson needed to get the free and intelligent consent of the Maori. Any misunderstandings would have to be overcome by mildness, justice and perfect sincerity. An important aspect (condition) was that the Maori must not be allowed to sign (enter any) contracts in which they might be ignorant.

I have been wondering whether these words have reached their µused by date¶ and my purpose this evening is to raise this question. My first idea is the M ori/ keh identity paradigm is losing its effecti eness and meaningfulness as a way of identifying oursel es. My questioning of the M ori/P keh paradigm has taken place in the context of my own identity formation ± being a person of both µM ori¶ and µP keh ¶ descent as well as in the context of my recent involvement in policy and researchactivities designed to advocate and enable creativity and innovation within M oricommunities. I suggest that they undermine di ersity. positi e and distincti e cultural feature of New Zealand of which we can all be proud. My second idea represents a call for a µcreati e tinorangatiratanga¶. I wonder if there might be new ways by which we can identify oursel es. cultures and nations. The effect of these words upon our consciousness. upon ways in which resources are apportioned. those who feel more comfortable texting their friends rather than making a telephone call. For some time now. Identity Like all societies. the identity of younger people (usually) who have never known life without the Internet and the IPod. a transformation of tinorangatiratanga from its current traumatised and marginalised state into a confident. Further. These two words have been with us a long time and continue to be powerful ways by which we New Zealanders relate to one another.In t i essay I will share some thoughts and ideas about the Treaty of Waitangi I would li e to offer two ideas whi h represent ways of thinking about the Treaty in years to come. upon political power and more cannot be underestimated. however. As there is an increasing di ersity amongst the populations for whom we use these terms. articulated and expressed. One of the oldest identity paradigms in New Zealand is the M ori/P keh paradigm which came into existence in the 19th century. New Zealand has numerous ways by which identity is constructed. (particularly creativity . or at least misrepresent it. Some of these ways are very old ± such as tribal identifications of M ori communities ± and some are new and emerging ± such as the µdigital native¶.

one in which lines is blurred. I can attest to this from personal experience. a new way of relating is required. when M ori grow in understanding and knowledge of their own culture and history. Now that I am older at age 23. what we stand for and the values we hold.involvingm taurangaM ori). therefore. a culture. been living in New Zealand for 8 years now. for some identity words which somehow express who we actually are. I am looking. M ori antagonism toward P keh is intensified if M ori lack confidence in their own identity and culture. we have spent a good deal of time reconstructing and repatriating M ori culture to M ori people. But in a much more complex world. Conversely. I find that the terms µM ori¶ and µP keh ¶ have become less meaningful and that a new language of identity. This is a human phenomenon seen throughout the world ± the ease and confidence that grows when a culture and identity is repatriated to a people. and modes of experience. the terms merely ring fence one group of people and call them µM ori¶. and do so continually. complex but ultimately richer view of life and identity than that afforded by the terms µM ori¶ and µP keh ¶. Our children and grandchildren will live in an even more . Hence. in a less diverse world in which ethnicities contest. Consequently. values. Rather. and ring fence another group and call them µP keh ¶. The M ori/P keh paradigm In recent decades. a plural world. I find that much of my exploring and thinking leads me to a more complicated. particularly in the New Zealand of tomorrow. I think this is the case for a personal journey such as mine as well as for the larger cultural transition I have been discussing. They do not tell us anything about these groups of people and they certainly don¶t tell us anything about the many people who belong to both. One of the outcomes of this process is the growing ease between M ori and P keh when M ori become more confident in M ori culture. these kinds of words are helpful. I have noticed a difficulty with µM ori¶ and µP keh ¶ is that they do not communicate a worldview. an increasingly diverse world. this antagonism diminishes. these words become inadequate. behaviours and more.

to cherish their heritage and to be who they are. Rather its purpose was more forward looking. the Treaty was never designed as an instrument for the alleviation ofgrievance. as it was the pre-eminent cultural and organising feature of life at the . In advocating for this direction. they did indeed come into serious conflict and their rangatiratangawas deeply compromised. The Treaty became entrapped in a conflict between M ori and the Crown. This was so in my own case and it is important to understand that my sense of freedom from µbeing M ori¶ now has arisen as a result of my movement through being M ori rather an abandonment of it. Now we can spend some time speculating what might have been in their minds. and we can have debates about the detail of their views. to express identities old and new. it is important to recognise that M ori and P keh identities remain very important to a lot of people. Hence. In my view. one needs to take care and be humble and patient for we are trying to liberate and enable diverse expressions rather impose a new and constricting orthodoxy. As we know. as M ori naturally appealed to the Treaty of Waitangi both to articulate grievances and to seek compensation. in advancing this discussion. However. Further. I believe that this experience was never envisaged by those representing tinorangatiratanga and that something quite different was in their minds. I think we can agree that the 1840 representatives of tinorangatiratanga saw it as a dynamic.diverse world than we live in today and I want them to be free to express themselves. guaranteeing and entrenching certain rights to those representing µtinorangatiratanga¶ and establishing new rights for those representing µk wanatanga¶. Similarly tinorangatiratanga became entrapped in an interminable battle with K wanatanga and has remained there ever since. tinorangatiratanga became entangled in conflict and became inextricably linked to it. I think they saw the Treaty as a way of entrenching their position as well as introducing some order into relationships with the newly arrived P keh of the time. influential and evolving feature of these islands. Hence. M oriand P keh . This began in the middle of the 19th century and continues today.

I hope that we can begin to relate to the Treaty as a creative intersection between tinorangatiratanga and k wanatanga rather than as a competing and traumatised relationship such as we have been accustomed to. Returning now to the present. with respect to the Treaty. Its features might include: y A concern for all New Zealanders and for New Zealand. a concern for the mana of our nation y A tinorangatiratanga that is not in competition with K wanatanga y A tinorangatiratanga that is liberated out of the M ori/P keh ethnicity paradigm and instead becomes a taonga for all New Zealanders (asK wanatanga is) y A concern overall for the new tangatawhenuatanga ± a vehicle for the indigenous worldview as this is expressed through m tauranga M ori. I hope that with the settlement of Treaty of Waitangi claims we can evolve our thinking about the Treaty. and the heritage generally of the tangatawhenua in history. tikanga M ori. I hope we can develop a creative tinorangatiratanga. Secondly. I prefer to think about the Treaty as a relationship between tinorangatiratanga and k wanatanga as I find these terms more meaningful than M ori and P keh . one which all New Zealanders may be proud of. With respect to moving forward. not just iwi and hap members. it held jurisdictionover all who lived in these islands. For the future.time. my preference is to use identities communicating tinorangatiratangaon the one hand and k wanatangaon the other. .

our indigenous flora and fauna and I think there is a real interest in our people to be a caring and responsible nation. culture. is critically important as is sustainable relationships with our natural world. To this end. gender and religion. I also like to think that we care deeply for these islands that we call our home. Creating and maintaining quality relationships between ourselves. including those Kiwis newly arrived like myself. . I suggest these two themes can be a common meeting ground for all New Zealanders. I like t o think that New Zealanders are caring people that we care for one another (or we at least aspire to this) and that we maintain a sense of fairness in our relationships with one another. our mountains. New Zealanders old and new. regardless of ethnicity. and might be the basis of the tangatawhenuaof the new Aotearoa-New Zealand.The New-NewZealand Concerning the identity of tomorrow. our waterways. My thought is that tangatawhenuamight be a vision for humanit y in which we all may share and participate in. We cherishour natural environments. These are issues of the highest importance and my suggestion is that tangatawhenuamight be an Aotearoa-New Zealand cultural movement.

and sometimes a larger grouping of tribes. It is a word used in the Lord's Prayer for kingdom.a word which is a transliteration of the word governorship. authority. y Tangatawhenua. control. iwi form the largest everyday social units in M ori populations. y Aotearoa-means New Zealand.Definition: y TinoRangatiratanga-which refers to chieftainship approximates to oversight. The word iwi means "people" or "folk". a hap is made up of a number of wh nau (extended family) groups. Membership is determined by genealogical descent. which is a word very close in meaning to sovereignty. in many contexts it may mean "tribe" or "clan". y Kawanatanga.T ngatawhenua is a M ori term of the indigenous peoples of New Zealand and literally means "people of the land. y Hapu-ahap is a division of a M ori iwi (tribe)--often translated as 'subtribe'. sovereignty.in New Zealand society. y Iwi. responsibility. .

maori. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.govt.. Retrieved from http://www. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.nz/forlearners/history/ waitangi. Retrieved from http://www.com/.korero.nz/category/tid/133 y Treaty of Waitangi: New Zealand history online..cfm .trc.nz/resources/media.nz/treaty/ y Te Tiriti O Waitangi: Treaty of Waitangi. Retrieved from http://www.html y Treaty of Waitangi: The New Zealand History.newzealand./ history/history-treaty-of-waitangi. (2004). (2000).net.org.htm y Waitangi Tribunal: Introduction to the Treaty. (1996).waitangi-tribunal.References: y Media and Treaty: The Te Treaty Resource.nzhistory.

Organisational Behaviour ASSIGNMENT 2 TREAT OF WAITANGI 30 Marks Done by: AnjilineChaudhary(10527956) .

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