FROM THE BEGINNING TO THE HEREAFTER Compiled by Hajjah Ihsan Ghazzawi

A Book about the First Creations, the Prophets, the Signs of the Day of Judgment, and the Day of Judgment

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Table of Contents
OUR HISTORY AND FUTURE ..................................................................... 9 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................. 15 Notes about the Arabic words and other items used in this book: ... 18 CHAPTER 1: GOD IS OUR CREATOR ................................................. 21 CHAPTER 2: THE FIRST CREATIONS ................................................. 23 God Created the Earth and the Heavens in Six Days ...................... 24 THE HONORABLE PROPHETS OF GOD, ......................................... 29 CHAPTER 3: PROPHET ADAM (ADAM), ............................................. 31 The Creation of Adam ...................................................................... 31 Adam Becomes Alive........................................................................ 33 The Objection of Satan .................................................................... 34 Adam and Eve Live in Paradise ....................................................... 36 Satan Whispered to Adam and Eve .................................................. 37 Adam and Eve Descend to Earth ..................................................... 38 Adam and Eve live in an Honorable Way ........................................ 38 The First Murder ............................................................................. 41 The Death of Prophet Adam ............................................................ 42 CHAPTER 4: PROPHET SETH (SHITH), ............................................... 43 CHAPTER 5: PROPHET ENOCH (IDRIS),............................................. 44 Enoch is the Third Prophet .............................................................. 45 The Story of Prophet Enoch and the Devil ...................................... 47 CHAPTER 6: PROPHET NOAH (NUH), ................................................ 49 Blasphemy Occurs among Humans ................................................. 49 Prophet Noah, the First Prophet to Call Blasphemous People ....... 50 The Great Flood .............................................................................. 52 We Come From the Three Sons of Noah .......................................... 54 CHAPTER 7: PROPHET HUD, ............................................................... 57 Shaddad, the Unjust ......................................................................... 57 Hud, a Prophet From His Own People ............................................ 60 Torture is Sent on Those Who Rejected Prophet Hud...................... 62 The Delegate of ^Ad ......................................................................... 65 CHAPTER 8: PROPHET SALIH, ............................................................. 69 The Many Endowments on the Tribe of Thamud ............................. 69 The Blasphemers Challenge Prophet Salih ..................................... 72 The Killing of the Camel .................................................................. 74 The Blasphemers are Warned of the Torture ................................... 75 CHAPTER 9: PROPHET ABRAHAM (IBRAHIM), ................................ 79 The Birth of Prophet Abraham ........................................................ 79 Prophet Abraham Calls his Father to Islam .................................... 80 Abraham Never Worshipped the Sun, Moon, and Stars................... 80 Prophet Abraham Smashes the Idols ............................................... 82 Prophet Abraham Confronts the Evil Nimrod ................................. 83 The Miracle of the Birds .................................................................. 84

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Nimrod Tries to Burn Prophet Abraham ......................................... 85 Prophet Abraham and Lot Leave Babylon ....................................... 87 Abraham and Sarah Go to Egypt ..................................................... 88 The Birth of Ishmael ........................................................................ 89 Abraham Receives the Good News of Isaac..................................... 90 Prophets Abraham and Ishmael Rebuilt the Ka^bah ....................... 91 CHAPTER 10: PROPHET LOT (LUT), ................................................... 94 Prophet Lot is Sent to Evil People ................................................... 94 The Origin of Sodomy ...................................................................... 96 Angels Come To Help ...................................................................... 96 The Torture of the Blasphemers ....................................................... 99 CHAPTER 11: PROPHET ISHMAEL (ISMA^IL), ................................ 102 Ishmael and Hagar are Left in Makkah ......................................... 102 An Angel Comes as a Mercy to Hagar........................................... 104 The Establishment of the City of Makkah ...................................... 105 Prophet Abraham was Ordered to Slaughter Ishmael ................... 106 The Sacrifice from Paradise .......................................................... 108 The Wives of Prophet Ishmael ....................................................... 109 Prophets Abraham and Ishmael Rebuild the Ka^bah .................... 110 One Branch of Arabs ..................................................................... 111 CHAPTER 12: PROPHET ISAAC (ISHAQ), ......................................... 113 CHAPTER 13: PROPHET SHU^AYB, ................................................... 115 Prophet Shu^ayb is Sent to Tree-Worshippers............................... 115 Prophet Shu^ayb Spoke Beautifully ............................................... 117 God Punishes Those Who Did not Follow Prophet Shu^ayb ......... 118 CHAPTER 14: PROPHET JACOB (YA^QUB), ..................................... 120 CHAPTER 15: PROPHET JOSEPH (YUSUF) AND PROPHET BENJAMIN (BINYAMIN), ......................................................................... 121 Jealous Brothers ............................................................................ 122 The Capture of Joseph ................................................................... 124 A Woman Tries to Seduce .............................................................. 125 Joseph is Put in Prison Unjustly .................................................... 129 The Dreams of the King ................................................................. 130 Joseph is Freed from the Prison, Cleared of the Accusations ....... 132 Joseph is the Treasurer of Egypt ................................................... 133 The Brothers Come to Egypt .......................................................... 133 The Brothers’ Second Trip to Egypt .............................................. 135 The Brothers’ Third Trip to Egypt ................................................. 138 Prophet Joseph is Re-united with His Blessed Father ................... 140 CHAPTER 16: PROPHET JOB (AYYUB), ............................................. 143 The Afflictions upon Prophet Job .................................................. 143 The Patient Wife of Job .................................................................. 144 CHAPTER 17: PROPHET EZEKIEL (DHUL-KIFL), ........................... 147 CHAPTER 18: PROPHET JONAH (YUNUS),....................................... 148 Prophet Jonah is Swallowed by a Whale ....................................... 149 CHAPTER 19: PROPHET AL-KHADIR, ............................................... 151

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Prophet Al-Khadir has a very Long Life........................................ 152 The Story of a Pious Man Meeting Al-Khadir ............................... 153 CHAPTER 20: PROPHETS MOSES (MUSA) AND AARON (HARUN),154 A Man is Killed .............................................................................. 157 Prophet Moses leaves Egypt .......................................................... 158 The Staff of Moses .......................................................................... 159 Prophet Moses Heard the Eternal Speech of God ......................... 160 Prophet Moses Returns to Egypt.................................................... 162 The Magicians Believe ................................................................... 163 Other Believers .............................................................................. 164 Afflictions on the Disbelievers ....................................................... 166 Prophet Moses Takes the Children of Israel out of Egypt ............. 167 Prophet Moses Goes to Mt. Sinai and Some Followers Worship the Calf ....................................................................................................... 171 The Story of the Cow...................................................................... 176 Prophets Moses and Aaron Bear Patiently with the Lost People .. 177 The Fascinating Story of Prophet Moses Meeting Prophet Al-Khadir .............................................................................................................. 181 Qarun, the Evil Cousin .................................................................. 185 Prophet Moses was Full of Merits ................................................. 188 The Death of Aaron and Moses ..................................................... 189 CHAPTER 21: PROPHET JOSHUA (YUSHA^), ................................... 191 CHAPTER 22: PROPHET ELIJAH (ILYAS) AND PROPHET ELISHA (ILYASA^), ....................................................................................................... 193 CHAPTER 23: PROPHET DAVID (DAWUD), ..................................... 195 The Evil Goliath is Killed and David Becomes King ..................... 196 The Piety of David ......................................................................... 197 The Opinion of David’s Son, Solomon ........................................... 198 The Story of the Saturday People................................................... 199 CHAPTER 24: PROPHET SOLOMON (SULAYMAN), ........................ 204 The Magnificent Reign of Prophet Solomon .................................. 204 The Real Flying Carpet.................................................................. 205 The Story of Prophet Solomon and Lady Bilqis ............................. 208 Prophet Solomon and the Angel of Death ...................................... 212 The Real Version of the Story of the Vow of Prophet Solomon...... 212 The Death of Prophet Solomon ...................................................... 213 CHAPTER 25: THE HONORABLE ANGELS, HARUT AND MARUT . 216 The Cunning Ways of the Devils .................................................... 216 Satan Lies about Prophet Solomon ................................................ 217 God Made Two Angels Descend Showing the Truth ...................... 219 CHAPTER 26: PROPHET ZACHARIAS (ZAKARIYYA) AND PROPHET JOHN (YAHYA), ......................................................................................... 221 Prophet Zacharias is the Custodian of Lady Mary ........................ 221 The Birth of Prophet John ............................................................. 223 The Unjust Killing of Prophets John and Zacharias ..................... 224 CHAPTER 27: OTHER PROPHETS, .................................................... 225

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CHAPTER 28: PROPHET JESUS (^ISA), ............................................. 227 Lady Mary is Born ......................................................................... 227 Lady Mary Becomes Pregnant with a Blessed, Father-less Child . 228 Prophet Jesus is Born .................................................................... 229 Baby Jesus Speaks to the People ................................................... 231 Jesus Follows the Torah before Receiving a New Book ................ 232 The Story of the Spread of Food from the Sky ............................... 233 Prophet Jesus is Raised to the Heavens ......................................... 237 Prophet Jesus is Still Alive and Will Come Back to Earth ............. 238 Jurayj, the Pious Follower of Prophet Jesus ................................. 240 The People of the Cave .................................................................. 242 Other Followers of Prophet Jesus ................................................. 247 THE GLORIOUS LIFE OF THE LAST PROPHET: MUHAMMAD, ......................................................................................................................... 249 O MUHAMMAD! ................................................................................... 251 CHAPTER 29: THE PARENTS AND GRANDFATHER OF PROPHET MUHAMMAD (MUHAMMAD), ....................................................................... 254 CHAPTER 30: THE STORY OF THE YEAR OF THE ELEPHANT ................. 257 CHAPTER 31: THE BIRTH OF PROPHET MUHAMMAD, ........................... 260 CHAPTER 32: THE NURSING OF PROPHET MUHAMMAD ....................... 264 CHAPTER 33: SOME EVENTS IN THE PROPHET’S EARLY LIFE ............... 267 CHAPTER 34: THE TRADING AND MARRIAGE OF THE MESSENGER OF GOD .................................................................................................................... 271 CHAPTER 35: THE CHILDREN AND HOUSEHOLD OF OUR BLESSED PROPHET AND LADY KHADIJAH ................................................................... 274 CHAPTER 36: THE REBUILDING OF THE KA^BAH................................... 277 CHAPTER 37: RECEIVING THE REVELATION ......................................... 279 CHAPTER 38: LADY KHADIJAH COMFORTS PROPHET MUHAMMAD ...... 282 CHAPTER 39: THE FIRST CONVERTS .................................................... 284 CHAPTER 40: STORIES OF EARLY COMPANIONS ................................... 286 CHAPTER 41: THE HARM OF THE BLASPHEMERS UPON ABU DHARR ..... 289 CHAPTER 42: THE PUBLIC CALL .......................................................... 292 CHAPTER 43: IMMIGRATION TO ABYSSINIA ......................................... 297 CHAPTER 44: THE BOYCOTT AND THE YEAR OF SORROW .................... 299 CHAPTER 45: THE TRIP TO TA’IF .......................................................... 301 CHAPTER 46: ABOUT THE MIRACLES OF OUR PROPHET, ...................... 304 CHAPTER 47: ISRA' (THE NIGHT JOURNEY) .......................................... 309 CHAPTER 48: MI^RAJ (THE ASCENSION), (PART 1) ............................... 313 CHAPTER 49: MI^RAJ (THE ASCENSION), (PART 2) ............................... 315 CHAPTER 50: THE PROPHET MEETS WITH SOME OF THE PEOPLE OF MADINAH ..................................................................................................... 318 CHAPTER 51: THE HIJRAH (MIGRATION) TO MADINAH ......................... 320 CHAPTER 52: THE CITY OF MADINAH ................................................... 324 CHAPTER 53: THE FASCINATING CONVERSION OF THE TOP JEWISH SCHOLAR..................................................................................................... 326

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CHAPTER 54: GOOD CONFRONTS EVIL AT BADR (PART 1) ................... 329 CHAPTER 55: GOOD CONFRONTS EVIL AT BADR (PART 2) ................... 332 CHAPTER 56: REFLECTIONS ON OUR BLESSED PROPHET AND HIS HONORABLE COMPANIONS ......................................................................... 336 CHAPTER 57: DEALING WITH BANU QAYNAQA^ .................................... 339 CHAPTER 58: EVENTS IN THE FIRST PART OF THE THIRD YEAR AND THE ENEMIES OF TRUTH COME TO UHUD (PART 1) ............................................ 341 CHAPTER 59: THE ENEMIES OF TRUTH COME TO UHUD (PART 2) ........ 346 CHAPTER 60: THE AGGRESSION OF AL-AHZAB (THE ALLIED FACTIONS) .................................................................................................................... 353 CHAPTER 61: EVENTS BETWEEN THE BATTLE OF KHANDAQ (TRENCH) AND THE SIGNING OF THE TREATY OF HUDAYBIYAH .................................... 358 CHAPTER 62: THE TREATY OF HUDAYBIYAH ......................................... 362 CHAPTER 63: LETTERS SENT TO RULERS ............................................. 366 CHAPTER 64: JUSTICE AT KHAYBAR ...................................................... 369 CHAPTER 65: APPROACHING THE DESERT BEDOUINS .......................... 374 CHAPTER 66: BRAVE MEN GO TO MU'TAH ........................................... 376 CHAPTER 67: OPENING OF MAKKAH (PART 1) ...................................... 380 CHAPTER 68: THE OPENING OF MAKKAH (PART 2) ............................... 383 CHAPTER 69: EVENTS AT HUNAYN (PART 1) ......................................... 385 CHAPTER 70: EVENTS AT HUNAYN (PART 2) AND EVENTS BEFORE TABUK .................................................................................................................... 388 CHAPTER 71: MORE MIRACLES OF PROPHET MUHAMMAD, ................. 391 CHAPTER 72: OFF TO TABUK ................................................................ 394 CHAPTER 73: EVENTS UPON THE RETURN FROM TABUK AND THE FAREWELL PILGRIMAGE.............................................................................. 398 CHAPTER 74: EVENTS OF THE YEAR 11 H AND THE DEATH OF OUR BELOVED PROPHET, .................................................................................... 402 CHAPTER 75: EVENTS AFTER THE DEATH OF PROPHET MUHAMMAD ... 406 THE COMING DAY OF JUDGMENT ................................................ 410 CHAPTER 76: SMALL SIGNS OF THE COMING OF THE DAY OF JUDGMENT .................................................................................................................... 412 The Guided One is Coming ............................................................ 413 A Great Battle to Come.................................................................. 415 CHAPTER 77: THE TEN MAJOR SIGNS OF THE COMING OF THE DAY OF JUDGMENT .................................................................................................. 417 The Imposter .................................................................................. 417 Prophet Jesus Will Come Back to Earth ........................................ 418 The Appearance of Gog and Magog .............................................. 419 The Sun will Rise from the West, and an Animal will Appear ....... 419 A Fog ............................................................................................. 420 Three-Earth Splits .......................................................................... 420 A Spreading Fire............................................................................ 420 CHAPTER 78: THE DAY OF JUDGMENT ................................................. 423 CHAPTER 79: THE QUESTIONING (AL-HISAB) ....................................... 427

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CHAPTER 80: THE BALANCE (AL-MIZAN) ............................................. 433 CHAPTER 81: THE BRIDGE (AS-SIRAT) .................................................. 436 CHAPTER 82: INTERCESSION (SHAFA^AH) ............................................. 438 CHAPTER 83: THE BASIN (AL-HAWD) ................................................... 440 CHAPTER 84: HELLFIRE (JAHANNAM) ................................................... 441 CHAPTER 85: PARADISE (AL-JANNAH) .................................................. 443

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From The Beginning To The Hereafter

Our History and Future
Listen dear people as we relate history, Events of the past, told as they ought to be. Before God created and made things arranged, He was as He is. He does not change. The first thing He created (and He has no needs) Is water, and from it comes all other things. Then He made the Throne, the largest creation, Paradise, Hellfire, Angels and Jinn. In six days He created the Earth and the heavens, Then animals and plants, without seeds to be planted. On the end of the sixth day, which was a Friday, He created the first man in such a good way. An angel came down to take soil from the Earth. Dark, light, soft and hard were all taken up. This soil was mixed with the water of Paradise. From this clay Adam was made so nice. From Adam’s rib God made Eve, The first woman who would conceive. She had many children from Adam, her husband. Their children married. More children came then. All were believers; no human blasphemed. But some of the humans did sins that were mean. After Adam, two more Prophets were seen. After the third, humans blasphemed.

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They worshipped idols instead of God. Then Noah came saying, “Don’t do this wrong!” All the idol worshippers died in the flood. The new humans came from Noah’s three sons. After time again, men worshipped unrightly, And Abraham came, whom they took lightly. They hurt Abraham and Sarah his wife. They rejected his message and threatened his life. Abraham had two sons, peace be upon them, Ishmael and Isaac, and Prophets came from them. From Isaac came Jacob, called Israel. Israel is a Prophet, guided so well. From Israel came twelve male children. Joseph and Benjamin are Prophets from him. From the descendants of Israel came a Prophet named Moses, Saving the children of Israel from injustice. Moses taught the same Prophetic creed, And received new laws his people would need. Prophets David and Solomon ruled with the same laws, Great laws from God that had no flaws. Zacharias came, then John and Jesus, Teaching the creed that greatly pleases us. Jesus never said that he was God’s son. He said to worship God, and God is One. Jesus is like Abraham and Moses, A Prophet of God, performing true worship.

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He was born from dear Mary and had no father. Jesus loved his mother and was so good to her. After Jesus grew and became a man, Some hateful ones made a plan to kill him. But the man they killed was one who looked like him, And God brought Jesus up to the heavens. So the truth is that Jesus did not yet die. To say he is crucified is saying a lie. After Jesus went up, more than five hundred years passed, Then born was the Prophet who was last. He came from the children of Prophet Ishmael. And he was an Arab, born on Makkan soil. He was the one all other Prophets told of, The seal in this great line we spoke of. His beliefs were not new; Jesus had them, The same beliefs as Moses and Adam. All the Prophets taught only one Religion. To submit to God was their blessed mission. The name of the last Prophet is Muhammad. The meaning of his name is “the praised one”. When he called, the head Jew heeded his message, And the Christian king knew he was well guided. Both Christian and Jew became Muslim believers. They submitted to God, the only Creator. On the Day of Judgment they will be saved. They accepted the truth, not lies that were made.

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They knew well that God does not need to rest, And that God has no son; they passed the great tests. After the death of Muhammad, so many believed. The true Religion was so well received. It spread across Arabia, Persia and Egypt, Across Africa and east to Indonesia. The land of the believers was truly shining, While the reign of the blasphemers was greatly declining. The glitter of Persia and Rome would not last, For the worship of false gods will ruin man fast. No man will prosper who worships a fire. He must submit to God and not be a liar. After the state of Islam was well established, Men from Europe came to the land of the Prophets. They called it a Crusade to take the land of Jesus. They need the belief that really saves us. They saw an empire so fine, so inspiring. They looked well around; they were really admiring. They went back to Europe and started to trade. They couldn’t forget the great Empire made. Since Muhammad so many years have passed. We live in a time near the days that are last. Soon, the believers will be led by a man. He’s called “The Guided”; his mission is grand. He will spread justice, for now injustice is spread. He will help many people. Keep these words that we said.

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While the Guided is helping, then comes the impostor. He is called antichrist and great evil he’ll foster. Before the Guided leads some good ones in prayer, Prophet Jesus will come back down through the air. Prophet Jesus will kill that evil liar, The impostor calling many to the fire. The guided one and the other believers Will gather with Jesus, who will never deceive us. They will live in his guidance right here on this Earth. So much we love Jesus; we know his great worth. When Gog and Magog break down the wall, God supports Jesus and the believers all. With Jesus among us great peace will be spread. This time will continue until he is dead. After Jesus dies, then so will all the believers. Then this Earth will be filled with ugly deceivers. Blasphemers will roam on the Earth When the horn that is blown, is blown at first. All who are living, they will die, Then the angel who blows, will be revived. The angel will blow a second time. Then all who lived will rise up alive. We will be assembled on that Day, On this same Earth that will be changed. All the people will be of three types. Two will be saved, but one has great fright.

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The best type will be happy on that Day, And thousands of years will pass in a good way. The second type are those who believed, But were careless to follow the laws received. They will find this great Day hard to endure. They will wish they had followed when they felt secure. But the third type is really the worst type of all. They rejected the Prophets; don’t they know of the fall? For towards the end of this Day, to a bridge we will come. It crosses Hellfire, the dreadful home of some. Yet those Muslims who will fall into Hell Will finally get out of that place so dreadful. Then they will enter the blessed land With a new body that does no bad. We call this great land Paradise. It is the Heaven mentioned that is so choice. Paradise is light without needing a sun. It is the reward for the patient believing ones. The best humans will never fall in Hell, But will swiftly pass to Paradise to dwell. Strive, O listeners, listen well. You would never enjoy a stay in Hell. Hold on tight, dear friends, ask your Lord for the best things. For after your death, you’ll know this was a short time. Make your life a good part of this history. Stand firm against evil, and blessings you’ll see.

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Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim

INTRODUCTION
We praise God and thank Him. We ask God to raise the rank of Prophet Muhammad and protect his nation from that which he fears for them. This book was written to give the English speaker a sound, full view of history and what we know will inevitably occur in the future. We began this work asking for God’s help in this endeavor. The most important knowledge is the knowledge about our Creator, praise and thanks to Him. Hence, this book begins with this supreme knowledge. After that, the knowledge about the Prophets is of utmost importance, as well as knowledge about the angels, the Books, and the Day of Judgment. We ask God to keep us firm in our correct belief. This book tells about your history as a human. All humans come from one first man, Adam. Adam was a great man, a Prophet and Messenger. From this first man came all the humans of this Earth. After the death of this great man, God made other men Prophets and Messengers as well. Prophets and Messengers receive Revelation from God. God made many men Prophets until the last Prophet was born. He is Prophet Muhammad (Muhammad). No Prophet will be born after the birth of Prophet Muhammad. The Holy Book, the Qur’an that God gave

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to Prophet Muhammad, is the book for all people until the Day of Judgment. Let us narrate about our Creator, the first things God created, and the glorious stories of the best of creation: the righteous, pious Prophets of God. We conclude with the true teachings about our future. Prophet Muhammad, (we ask God to raise his rank and protect his followers from that which he fears for them), was made a Prophet when he was forty years old, about the year 610 in the western calendar. From that time, until now Prophet Muhammad is the “Prophet of the time” and this continues until the Day of Judgment, a great event that will happen in the future. God revealed the Qur’an to Prophet Muhammad and many other things as well. Prophet Muhammad patiently and diligently told his Companions the things that God revealed to him. The recorded sayings from Prophet Muhammad are in the tens of thousands. Concerning the stories of the Prophets before Prophet Muhammad, we know them from what was revealed from God to Prophet Muhammad. No Prophet lived too long ago for us to know about, for God knows all things, and revealed to Prophet Muhammad whatever He willed. We are narrating what God revealed about these Prophets, to Prophet Muhammad, translating it into the English language. We did not go to any untrustworthy book and add information to what our Prophet said. If some of the stories seem similar to the stories of the Christians and the Jews, we say, “God willed it”. But what we present in this book is not from any of the books of the Christians

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or the Jews. We present what God revealed to Prophet Muhammad. The books of the Jews and Christians nowadays are not the real books given to Moses and Jesus, so we do not use them as a reference at all. The Jews and Christians both degrade God and His Prophets. Any Westerner who is truthful will see that what we present is pure and free of ugly attributions to God and His Prophets. We ask our merciful Creator to make this book of lasting benefit. Amin.

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Notes about the Arabic words and other items used in this book: Arabic is the best language, the language of the last and best Prophet, the language of the Qur’an, and the language the people will speak in Paradise (we ask God to enter it). No matter what the mother tongue of the believer is, the good Muslim loves to learn the Arabic language. Yet, we understand that there are people searching for the knowledge in this book, who do not yet speak Arabic. With this consideration in mind, and in the hopes that this book will be of benefit to the most English-speaking people possible, the amount of Arabic words is limited. When an Arabic word is used, or any word that is not an English word, the word is in italics. If the author knows the corresponding word in English, then the English word is used most frequently. Concerning the Arabic words in italics, we are following a consistent transliteration system, consistently assigning the same English letter or symbol for the Arabic letter we wish to represent. The key to this system is located in the back of this book for your reference. If a person has more that one name, the author takes the liberty to interchange names while relating a story, but the reader is first informed of the multiple names for one person. Although this text basically adheres to Standard English, some changes were made. In the dictionary you do not find the word “Prophethood” and yet we use it, 18

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hoping that the reader would quickly understand that this means “the state of being a Prophet”. Also, although in English the words “Prophet” and “Messenger” are not capitalized, even when referring to these religious figures, we have taken the liberty to capitalize them. This is out of respect to the status referred to, and to distinguish their meaning from the mundane usages of the same words. Some Islamic terms and concepts do not have oneword equivalents in English. One example is the Arabic word “Zakah”. We keep the word Zakah in Arabic and explain the meaning to you. Zakah is a specific obligatory payment upon certain Muslims who own a certain amount of wealth. As well, those whom they pay are specific, and not all of them are poor. Another is the Arabic word “salaf”. This refers to the Muslim followers of Prophet Muhammad who lived in the first three Islamic centuries after the immigration of the Prophet. A third Arabic word used very often is the word “AshSham”. Ash-Sham is the region of the Earth that is now made up of Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian areas and what is called Israel. In the past all these areas were considered one area called Ash-Sham. In the text you will find many references to the Holy Qur’an. We chose to keep the transliterated spelling for our Holy Book because the word ‘Koran’ is far from the proper pronunciation. The Qur’an has 114 chapters, each with a name or names. A chapter in Arabic is called a “surah”. Each surah is made up of verses (ayahs) that are numbered. Hence, when we make a specific reference to the Holy Qur’an, we refer to the surah by name, and then the number/s of the verse/s.

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When citing the chapter and verses of the Qur’an, we are not encouraging you to go to various “translations” of the Qur’an in English. The reason being is that, at this writing, there is no reliable translation of the meaning of the whole Qur’an in English on the market. The books on the market typically mislead the reader to believe that the Qur’an likens God to His creation, degrades the Prophets, and contains other atrocities. We ask God that a reliable book, with the true meaning in English of the Holy Qur’an will be forthcoming. In the mean time, you will find this book you are holding containing the meanings of part of the Holy Qur’an.

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Chapter 1: GOD IS OUR CREATOR
Someone might write all of the following: God (Allah) exists with no beginning. He always existed. No one created God. God is the Creator. God brought into existence you, us, and created everything. God is not created, glory to Him. God is not made up of atoms. Everything other than God is God’s creation. You and we are creations. We must worship God, our Creator and obey Him. We know what God orders, by learning what God revealed to the Prophet of our time. God is not a body taking up space, nor is God a body not taking up space. God existed before creating places, and after creating places God is, as He was. God exists without being in, or needing places. We cannot imagine God. We imagine by thinking about ourselves or other creations we have seen or sensed in some way. God is not similar to us in any way, (Suratul-Ikhlas, verse 4 and Suratush-Shura, verse 11). God is not like anything we have seen. God is not similar to humans, or any other creation. Our Prophet Muhammad (Muhammad) said that God existed and there was no thing else. Hence God does not need any of the creation, considering that He existed before creating anything. Hence, God does not take up places, because He existed before He created places. If the person says, “I cannot imagine that”, to him we say, “Yes, the Creator is the One Who cannot be imagined”, because the Creator Whom we worship is not like any creation in any way. 21

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We know about God and His attributes, but there is no such thing as a creation “experiencing the condition of being God” or having God’s attributes. Hence we do not find any similarities between the Self of God and ourselves, nor do we find any similarities between our attributes and the attributes of God. We are not similar to our Creator in any way, Glory be to Him.

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Chapter 2: THE FIRST CREATIONS
Many, many years ago, God created the first creation, without it coming from something. The first thing God created was the original water. From this water, God created everything else, without God needing that water. With that first creating, time was created and started. The next thing God created was what is called the Great Throne (Al-^Arshil-^Adhim). It is presently existing, high above us, beyond ‘outer space’. Although is called ‘The Throne’ it is not a place for any one to sit. It is much bigger than Paradise and only part of it serves as the ceiling of Paradise, with part of it extending past Paradise. The Throne is the largest creation, and only God knows the boundaries of this limited creation. The Throne, with its gigantic size, gives us an indication of the Power of God. God has full Power over this Throne, keeping it from falling down upon us. Obviously, since God has control over this gigantic creation, God has Power over everything smaller than it. The Throne has four pillars. An angel holds each pillar. It would take a fast flying bird 700 years to fly from the earlobe of one of these angels to his shoulder. The next thing that God created is the High Pen. This Pen is in the form of light. After this Pen, God created the Guarded Tablet. This Tablet is very large. It is one giant pearl surrounded with rubies. God has the Power to create a pearl without an oyster before. The height of the Guarded Tablet is the distance between the Earth and the 23

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first heaven. Some scholars said that the Guarded Tablet is above the Throne, and some said that it is below it. God ordered the High Pen to write on the Guarded Tablet. The Pen wrote all that would occur until the Day of Judgment. The Pen wrote, with no one holding it. The Pen wrote for 50,000 years. God created light and darkness. He created Paradise and Hellfire. Another huge creation is called the “Chair” (Kursiyy). The Prophet said that the size of the seven heavens compared to the size of the Kursiyy, is like the size of a ring compared to the size of a vast open land. The size of the Kursiyy, compared to the ^Arsh, is like the size of a ring compared to a vast open land. God Created the Earth and the Heavens in Six Days God created the Earth and seven heavens above it. Under our Earth where we reside, there are six more earths, (Suratut-Talaq, 12). These six earths have water, insects, plants, jinn, but no humans on them. Under the seventh earth is Hellfire. After God created the Earth and six others, God created the seven heavens. Each of these heavens is a solid body held up without pillars. Each of these heavens is separated from the other. From one heaven to another is a traveling distance of 500 hundred years. Each heaven has a gate, by which our Prophet Muhammad entered into the interior of the heaven. The blue that we see of the sky is the outside of the first of these seven heavens. The sun, moon, stars, and planets 24

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that we see are all below the first heaven and are not contained within it. Prophet Muhammad ascended through the sky and had to gain admittance from an angel in order to enter into the first heaven. Then, our Prophet exited from the first heaven and entered into the second heaven and so on until he had entered and exited from each of the seven heavens. Some people call the everlasting dwelling place of the Muslims “Heaven”. When we say “heavens” we are not talking about the everlasting dwelling place of Muslims in the Hereafter. The name we will give to the everlasting dwelling place of Muslims in the Hereafter is “Paradise” (Al-Jannah). The seven heavens (sab^u samawat) we are telling you about are places under the land of Paradise. These seven heavens may also be referred to as “the seven skies”. Each of the seven heavens is created as a solid material. The stars, sun and moon are created as decorations to the first heaven. Each heaven is full of angels praying. Some are in the standing position of prayer, some are in the bowing position, and some are in the position of prostration. You will not find a space of four fingers width in the heavens, except there is an angel worshipping God. The heavens are the residence of the angels, and the Earth is the residence of the humans and jinn. Surat Fussilat, verse 12 means God created the heavens as seven heavens in two days. Also in Surat

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Fussilat is the information that this Earth was created in two days. God created the Earth and the seven heavens in six days. Each of these particular days was equivalent to 1000 years that we know. In Suratu Qaf, God says that He created the seven heavens and the Earth and what is in between them in six days, after which God did not get tired. In Suratul-Hajj, verse 47, God says that one of those days is equivalent to 1000 years that we know and count. In Suratul-‘A^raf, verse 54, God says that He created the heavens and Earth in six days, and He has full control over the Throne. This last verse cited does not mean that God then went on the Throne after the creating the Earth and the heavens. This is how we talk about a changing creation. This is not how we talk about God. God created the Earth in two days, the first two of the six, Sunday and Monday. On the next two days, Tuesday and Wednesday, God created the seven heavens. Then on Thursday and Friday, God created the landmarks of this Earth upon which we live, like the mountains, rivers, valleys, the trees, and other things. In Suratun-Nazi^at, verse 30 God said that [after creating the Earth and heavens] He made the Earth suitable for the residence of humans, making rivers and springs, and what we need. God created the oceans, in which He placed fish as food for us. God created the mountains. The mountains hold the Earth in place so that it does not shift. In Suratun-Nahl, verse 15 is the information that God created the mountains as stakes that hold the Earth in position, so that it does not turn around while you are on

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it. In Suratun-Nazi^at, verse 32, God said He laid down the mountains as holding pillars. God has the Power to create the heavens and Earth in less time than He did. The wisdom of God creating the Earth and the seven heavens in six days is to teach the people to be patient. It teaches us to take time in our affairs, and not to rush into doing things. In verse 82 of Suratu Yasin, God told us that if He willed to create something, it should come. Nothing delays His Creating. God does not need to say a word in order to create. Creating is easy for God. God creates every thing, as God knew it would be created, and as God willed it would be created. On the last of these six days, Friday, close to its beginning, God created angels. All the angels were created at the same time, from light. They are extremely numerous, and only God knows their number. Also, on the sixth day, God created Iblis, (the devil known as Satan), the first of the jinn. This first jinni was created from the pure flame of fire (that does not produce smoke). Satan was not an angel that went bad, as some people say. No angel “goes bad”. Satan was always a jinni, a totally different creation from an angel. The first man was created towards the end of the sixth day. In one of his traditions (hadiths) Prophet Muhammad said that the creation of Adam was finalized in Paradise on Friday. It started when an angel gathered a mixture of soils of the Earth. Then the mixture of soils was taken to Paradise. In Paradise, the soil was kneaded with the water of Paradise. Then, the soul was put into Adam, after which he became a living human.

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The Honorable Prophets of God,
God’s blessings and peace be upon all of them

The Honorable Prophets of God

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Chapter 3: PROPHET ADAM (ADAM),
blessings and peace be upon him Adam (Adam) is the first human God created. He was a Prophet. God favored the human kind over the other kinds of creations. However, that does not mean that all humans are better than all other creations. It means that from the humans, God made some of them Prophets. The Prophets are better than any other creation. All Prophets have the best human attributes. They are Muslim all their lives. They never blaspheme, lie, cheat, betray, or commit any other major sins, both before and after receiving Prophethood. The only sin that is possible for them to commit is a small sin without meanness in it. If a Prophet committed one of these non-mean sins, he immediately repented of this sin before others followed him in it. Hence, the Prophets were and are the perfect examples for us to follow. They all are our guides, showing us the way. The Creation of Adam The creation of Adam occurred in the last hour of the last of the six days, a Friday. Our Prophet, Muhammad, said that Friday is the best of the days; it is the day Adam was created. God ordered an angel to gather soil from the Earth, different colors, white, black, red, and yellow, and types, soft, firm, good and bad, and what is in between. This 31

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made the children of Adam come like the soil, black, white and what is in between, and have their natures, hard and soft and what is in between. The Prophet, as reported by Ibn Hibban, said this. The angel took the soil to Paradise and it was kneaded with the water of Paradise until it became clay. God made the form of Adam from the clay. God created Adam as an adult, not as a baby. Adam is called “Adam” because he was created from the soil of the Earth, which is called adimul-ard in Arabic. It is narrated that Adam had a swarthy complexion, as opposed to a white complexion. God created Adam in the form that is honorable to God. Saying that Adam was created having “God’s image” means that Adam was created with an image that God created and made honorable. God owns this image, so it belongs to God. It does not mean that God Himself has an image and man’s image looks like it. Adam was sixty cubits high, and was seven cubits wide, as Abu Hurayrah heard from Prophet Muhammad, which is reported in the Musnad of Ahmad. The people of Paradise will have this height and width. Mankind did not come from an ape that developed. To say that man came from apes is sheer blasphemy. When Adam’s form dried in Paradise, the first jinni (Satan) was in Paradise and went around the form of Adam. At that time, Satan was still a believer. Imam Ahmad in his Musnad said that the Prophet said, “Verily God created the form of Adam as He willed. He left him for the period of time that God willed, and the first jinni went around the form of Adam. The first jinni noticed that the body had cavities in it. It was not solid.” Adam was not like angels, who have no hollow parts and do not 32

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sleep, eat, or drink. This jinni wondered why God created this creation. This jinni deduced that this type of creation would not survive without support from others things, like food and drink. Abu Ya^la said that the Prophet said that Satan would pass by the form of Adam and say “God created you for an important matter.” This jinni had hollow parts, thus he needed food, water and other things for survival and sustenance. Satan (a jinni) then was a Muslim, worshipping God. Satan saw himself as great and objected to the order of God. Satan was made out of the pure flame of fire. The name of Satan, before he became a disbeliever was ^Azazil. When he disbelieved his name became Iblis, which means the one who is driven away from goodness. Adam Becomes Alive God made the soul go into the form of Prophet Adam, after which he became alive, with blood and flesh. He was an unimpaired human. Immediately, he became sane (^aqil). God endowed Prophet Adam with a lot of knowledge, without Adam learning from a teacher. The first thing that Adam did was that he sneezed. The first thing that he said was, “Al-Hamdulillahi Rabbil^Alamin” (praise and thanks to God, the Lord of the worlds). God ordered the angels to prostrate to Adam, and they all did. The prostration of the angels to Adam was not a prostration of worship, but one of salutation and honoring. 33

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All of the angels submitted to the order of God, but they did ask God a question, for the sake of understanding, and not out of objection. They asked about why God assigned the children of Adam the responsibility of being on Earth, to benefit from the things that God created for them on Earth, and to live their lives according to certain norms. The angels asked God about the wisdom behind giving the humans that role, when they are going to shed blood and do ill doings on Earth. God ordered the angels to ask Adam about the names of everything. The angels realized that they did not have that knowledge, and that Adam was given that knowledge. God ordered Adam to tell the angels about the names of things. This is how the angels knew that Prophet Adam was better than their kind. The scholars said that the Prophets and Messengers are better than all the angels. The special angels like Gabriel (Jibril) and Michael (Mika’il) are better than the highly righteous beings (awliya’), among the Muslim humans and jinn. Awliya’ are better than the other angels who do not have a special rank. The Objection of Satan Satan, who is a jinni, was ordered to prostrate with the angels. However, he refused. God told us in the Qur’an in Suratul-Kahf, verse 50 that He ordered the angels to prostrate to Adam and they did. However, Satan the jinni, who was among them and was ordered, refused to prostrate. Satan not only did not do what God ordered, 34

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but Satan objected to God making the order itself. This was the first blasphemy Satan committed. From Suratul-‘A^raf, 12, we know that God sent an angel to convey from Him to Satan, “What stopped you from prostrating when I ordered you to prostrate?” Satan said to God, “I am better than him. You created me from the pure fire and You created him from clay”. After Satan was damned, being taken away from goodness, he asked God to let him live until the Day of Resurrection. However, God did not grant him that. God granted him life until the time angel Israfil blows the first blow in the horn. At this first blow, Satan will taste death, as well as all others from the humans and jinn who are still alive. Imam Muslim and others narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said, “The son of Adam may recite an ayah of sujud (when a person recites the Qur’an there are times when he prostrates) and prostrates to God, and for that prostration he earns Paradise. At that Satan is alienated and cornered crying. Satan will say to himself, ‘I shall expect a severe punishment. The son of Adam was ordered to prostrate and he did. For that he will be rewarded with Paradise, whereas I was ordered to prostrate and I refused. I earned for myself Hellfire.’” God created Eve (Hawwa’) the wife of Adam, from the shortest left rib of Adam. This was narrated in the hadith in the books of Al-Bukhariyy and Muslim, from Ibn ^Abbas and Abu Hurayrah. God did not create Eve as a baby either. God created Eve as an adult, suitable in height to the height of Adam.

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Adam and Eve Live in Paradise Adam stayed in Paradise from the early afternoon to sunset. This was one hundred thirty years by our measure, because back then, a day was 1000 years long. God had ordered Adam and Eve to live in Paradise, the same Paradise the believers will enter on the Day of Judgment. God made Eve married to Adam when He created her. When Satan blasphemed, God ordered him to leave Paradise. Satan did not leave immediately, and stayed for a period of time whispering to Adam and Eve, so they would disobey God and leave Paradise. God allowed Adam and Eve to eat from the fruits of Paradise, drink from its waters, and enjoy the pleasures of Paradise without hardships, tiredness, or toil. However, God ordered them not to eat from one specific tree. God gave them a warning about the enmity of Satan and his whispers. It is not cited in the Qur’an or in a sahih hadith the type of this tree. Hence, scholars hold a difference of opinion about it. An apple, fig, palm tree, among others were cited. Adam and Eve moved from one tree to another, picking fruits, eating them and drinking from the rivers of Paradise. However, Adam disobeyed God by eating from the forbidden tree.

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Satan Whispered to Adam and Eve Satan whispered to Adam and Eve. Satan wept and said, “I feel pity for you because God ordered you not to eat from that tree. If you do eat from that tree, you will be immortal.” Lady Eve encouraged Adam to eat from that tree, and they both ate from it. Then, their private parts appeared because they lost their clothes of light. They started covering these parts with the leaves of Paradise. God punished them for that sin, in this life only, by making them descend from Paradise to Earth. This sin occurred before Adam became a Prophet. Adam became a Prophet after leaving Paradise. Both Adam and Eve repented of that sin immediately, before anyone followed them in it. It was neither a great sin, nor was it a small sin with meanness. Prophets never commit great sins or small sins with meanness, both before and after Prophethood. The Christians claim that Adam committed an enormous sin, the consequence of which remained a burden on his offspring, and that Prophet Jesus came to save the people from these consequences. Their claim is a fabrication. Prophet Adam's sin was a small sin of which he rushed to repent. Adam’s offspring do not bear any sin as a consequence of that.

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Adam and Eve Descend to Earth God made Adam, Eve, and Satan descend onto Earth. The descent of Adam was in Sri Lanka. The place where Prophet Adam landed remains a very fragrant, healthy place. After that, God gave him the Revelation, sending him as a Prophet and a Messenger to his wife and their children. Eve conceived many times, each time carrying twins, a boy and a girl, except for Seth (Shith). At that time, it was permissible for the man to marry his sister, but not his twin. The brother was allowed to marry his sister from another delivery. The laws revealed to Prophet Seth, the son of Adam, abrogated this law. Adam and Eve live in an Honorable Way God imparted to Adam the knowledge of all languages. However, most of his conversations with his children were in the Syriac language. From him, the people learned cultivation, planting, harvesting, kneading, baking, and making clothes. Prophet Adam taught even the coining of money, the dirham and dinar. They made these coins from gold and silver. Adam and his children had the first monetary system. Adam did not stay in Sri Lanka, but went to different places on Earth. When Adam was in the location of ^Arafah (near Makkah), God took from his back the souls of all the people. God shaped them in a size as small as

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ants, however, with human forms. God gave these small bodies comprehension. All of them testified and admitted that God was our Lord, both the souls of the Muslims and the souls of the blasphemers. We all made the oath to believe and stay steadfast. An-Nasa’iyy, Al-Hakim, Imam Ahmad, and Ibnu Jarir reported that Ibn ^Abbas narrated that the Prophet said, “God brought all the offspring of Adam from his back, in ^Arafah, and God took the oath from the people. Then he said verse 173, of Al-‘A^raf that has the meaning that God said, ‘Am I not your Lord?’ They took the oath saying, ‘Yes, You are our Creator’.” God said “Alastu bi Rabbikum (Am I not your Lord?)” Hence, it is called the Yawm (day) Alastu. Another name for that day is “Yawmudh-Dharr”. Dharr is the small particle. God brought the offspring of Adam from Adam’s back and shaped them into very small bodies, like small particles. When the souls join the body in this life, people forget that event. Then, after death and on the Day of Judgment, the veil is lifted. We then remember the event of making that oath. Imam ^Aliyy and other scholars said, “The people are sound asleep; when they die, they wake up.” After the soul is separated from the body in death, then the person remembers the oath that he took. On the Day of Judgment, the blasphemers will not be able to say, “O God, if you had sent us Messengers, we would have followed them”, because God did send the Messengers and Revelation to them. The Prophet said that every child is born with fitrah; meaning that every child is born with the readiness to believe in God, in accordance to the oath that one took. Then, the parents of the child train him and teach him. 39

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Those taught by their parents the correct belief, grow with the correct belief, and those taught Judaism, or another false belief, adopt that. This is in general. Even though some Prophets were born to blasphemers, they never adopted the blasphemy of their parents, and were Muslims their entire life, like all the other Prophets. Also, some people who are not Prophets are born to blasphemous parents, but reject their parents’ blasphemy and embrace Islam, like the Companion of Prophet Muhammad, ^Aliyy. During Adam's time, the Ka^bah in Makkah was built for the first time and Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem was built forty years after it. Adam had a beard, but his body did not have hair. He did not have a single hair on his body, totally unlike what the ignorant liars say is the “first man”. He who holds the conviction that humans originated from an ape or a similar animal has belied the Qur'an, the hadith, the consensus of the Muslims, and belied a matter that is equally known to the knowledgeable and the layman among the Muslims. This is blasphemy. Adam had a beautiful shape, as it is cited in SuratutTin, verse 4. This verse means that God created the humans in the best of forms. The fact that Adam was the first of the Prophets is well established in the Religion, and its evidences can be taken from the texts of the Qur'an, the hadith and the unanimous agreement of the Nation.

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The First Murder The first murder that happened on the Earth was the murder of Abel (Habil) by Cain (Qabil), both sons of Prophet Adam. Cain was a farmer, and Abel was a shepherd. One day they were ordered by God to give an offering. Cain gave fruit that was not of good quality, and Abel gave his best lamb. God accepted the offering of Abel, but not the offering of Cain. Also, Cain could not marry his twin sister and Abel could marry that girl because she was not his twin. All of this made Cain jealous of Abel. Cain decided to kill Abel. Cain said, lying to his brother Abel, “I have a surprise for you. It is over there.” Once Abel turned his back, Cain hit him in the back of the head. A lot of blood flowed and Abel died. Cain left the body of Abel for some time. Then a crow came and scratched on the Earth, to show him to hide the dead body of his brother. Cain said, “Woe to me, am I not even able to be as this crow, to hide the dead body of my brother?” Cain did not the regret the killing. However, it is related that he missed his brother and felt bad that he did not think to bury him. This sin of murder did not make Cain a blasphemer, but it was a great sin. Cain bears the weight of that sin, and because he was the first to do that sin, he set the example for all the others who murdered after him. Hence, every time someone murders another, they are following the example of Cain, and number of Cain’s bad deeds increases.

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The Death of Prophet Adam Prophet Adam lived on Earth for eight hundred seventy (870) years, thus completing one thousand (1000) years (when you add to it the 130 years that he lived in Paradise). He did not die until he saw forty thousand (40,000) of his offspring. The location of Adam’s burial is not confirmed and is a case of difference in opinion. Some said that he was buried in a cave in Mount Abu Qubays in Makkah, and others said something else. It is narrated that Eve lived one year after him. Then she was buried next to him in the same cave.

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Chapter 4: PROPHET SETH (SHITH),
blessings and peace be upon him Seth (Shith) was born to Adam and Eve, after Cain killed Abel. God gave the Revelation to Seth after the death of Adam. God revealed 50 booklets to Seth, as narrated by Ibn Hibban that Abu Dharr al-Ghifariyy heard this from Prophet Muhammad. Seth conveyed the message of Islam to the people, telling the people the correct belief in God and the way to perform acceptable worship. All the humans were Muslim at that time, but still God gave the Revelation to Seth, and he taught and reminded the people. Seth received a new ruling from God, different from the time of Prophet Adam. This ruling was that it is forbidden for the brother to marry his sister, whether she is his twin sister, or his sister who is not his twin. Prophet Adam was ill for eleven days before he died. Prophet Adam passed a will to his son Seth, ordering him to keep it sealed from Cain and Cain’s son, due to their envy. Prophet Seth lived in Makkah and performed Hajj and ^Umrah (a pilgrimage with some similarity to Hajj) and stayed there until he died. Seth passed on the will to his child, Anush, and Anush passed the will to his son, Qaynan. Qaynan passed it to his son Mahlayil, and then to his son Yard, and then to his son Akhanukh, also known as Enoch (Idris).

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Chapter 5: PROPHET ENOCH (IDRIS),
blessings and peace be upon him In Surah Maryam, verses 56 and 57 there is praise of Prophet Enoch (Idris) that he was highly upright, pious, and that God raised him to a high place. Some said this place was the fourth heaven and some said the sixth. What is confirmed is that Prophet Enoch then came back to Earth after being raised to the heavens. He came back to Earth and died on Earth. Enoch was a Prophet and Messenger, confirmed in the Qur’an. We must have a firm belief that Enoch was a Prophet of God and that he conveyed the message from God. There is a difference in opinion about the lineage of Enoch, but the famous one is the one we said. He was given the name “Idris” with the root of “Idris” coming from the Arabic word “dirasah” which means lengthy studying. He is called Idris because he studied a lot what was revealed to Prophet Adam and Prophet Seth. As to his physical appearance, Al-Hakim said in his Mustadrak, copying from Samurah, the son of Jundub, that Enoch was tall, with a white complexion. He had a wide chest. Enoch had little body hair, and a lot of hair on his head. He had a light discoloration on his chest, different than skin diseases like leprosy. When injustice and enmity occurred among people on the Earth, God raised Enoch to the heavens. It was cited that Enoch was the first to use the pen after Adam (Adam had the knowledge of how to use the pen.) and the first to cut material and sew it. Ibn Hibban said in his book As44

The Honorable Prophets of God

Sahih, from Abu Dharr, that the Prophet said, “O Abu Dharr, four among the Prophets spoke a language called Syriac: Adam, Seth, Akhanukh (Enoch), the first to use the pen (after Adam) and Noah. Enoch is the Third Prophet Enoch is the third of the Prophets. There is difference of opinion as to his place of birth. Some said he was born in Babylon and some said Egypt. The correct saying is that he was born in Babylon, in Iraq. In the first years of Enoch, he followed the knowledge spread by Adam and Seth. Then God made him a Prophet and Messenger. God revealed 30 short booklets (suhuf) to Enoch, as stated in the hadith, narrated from Abu Dharr, by Ibn Hibban. Enoch taught the people about God, and called them to implement the rules of the Religion. He emphasized that the only One Who deserves worship is God. All the people were Muslim during the life of Prophet Enoch. Some people were disobedient in following certain rules of the Religion. Enoch made the decision to leave Iraq and go to Egypt. When Prophet Enoch became in sight of the great Nile river of Egypt, he started to think of the great power of God. He praised God, as he looked pensively at the Nile. Prophet Enoch stayed in Egypt with his people for a period of time, calling people to follow the rules of the Religion. It is said that he lived 82 years on Earth. Then God raised him to the heavens. Then he descended and died on Earth. 45

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There are several wise sayings known about Prophet Enoch. Prophet Enoch called the people to be good Muslims, following all the rules of the Religion revealed to him. He called the people to a non-luxurious life, as our Prophet Muhammad did also. Prophet Muhammad told Mu^adh ibnu Jabal, “Leave luxury alone, the righteous are not people who live luxuriously.” Prophet Enoch told his people to be just with each other. He told them to perform the prayers and showed them how to pray. They were ordered to fast certain days every month. They were ordered to pay Zakah (an obligatory payment from some to help others who deserve it) from their money to help the poor. He was very strict about teaching the people about taharah (specific ablutions) and to clean one’s self after having sexual intercourse. He made it clear that alcohol was forbidden. At the time of Enoch, the people spoke 72 languages. God made Enoch know all the 72 languages, so that he could teach all of the people in their own language. Surah Ibrahim, verse 4, states that, “God did not send a Messenger except that he spoke the language of his people, in order to make the teachings clear to them.” God gave Prophet Enoch the knowledge of sciences, which he taught the people. God gave him the knowledge of Astronomy. He was the first to look into the science of medicine. He was the first to warn that a flood would come as a punishment (as it did come in the time of Noah). Enoch was the first to set down the rules of city planning. It is said that Prophet Enoch built the two famous pyramids of Egypt.

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Among his famous wisdoms were that he said, “Being patient, while believing in God, leads one to victory.” This was engraved on the stone of his ring. He said to have a sincere intention when you make a supplication to God, pray, and fast. Enoch told the people not to swear by God when lying, and not to lie. The Story of Prophet Enoch and the Devil Abu Ishaq al-Isfarayiniyy, in his book At-Tartib fi ^Usulil-Fiqh, (The Order in the Matters which Pertain to the Fundamentals of Fiqh) said that the first to present the concept of an “intellectual impossibility” was Prophet Enoch. He narrated the following incident: Satan came to Prophet Enoch, who was sewing. Prophet Enoch was saying “Subhanallah” (God is free of imperfections) each time he put the needle through. Each time he took it out he would say “Al-Hamdulillah” (praise and thanks to God). Satan came to him and brought a peel. Satan said “Does God have the power to put this entire universe in this small peel?” Prophet Enoch said, “If God willed, He has the power to make this entire universe be inside of the opening of this needle I am using for sewing.” Then Prophet Enoch poked the eye of Satan with the needle. Satan became one-eyed. Abu Ishaq explained the meaning of the saying of Prophet Enoch to Satan: If God willed to make the entire universe tiny enough to go inside the eye of a needle, then God has the power to do it. However, if one is talking about taking the entire universe with the size that

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it has, and putting it through the eye of a needle, with the size that it has, then this is intellectually impossible. Abu Ishaq said that Prophet Enoch did not give the details of that to Satan because Satan was a stubborn creature. Satan only posed the question to confuse. Satan did not want a correct answer. He only asked the question to be evil, and in a fruitless endeavor to take Enoch out of the Religion. Abu Ishaq said that this concept did not spread very widely at the time of our Prophet, but later the understanding of this became so widespread that it cannot be refuted. Al-Ash^ariyy took from the answer of Prophet Enoch a lot of judgments about things which are intellectually impossible.

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Chapter 6: PROPHET NOAH (NUH),
blessings and peace be upon him After the death of Prophet Enoch several events occurred over time that led to humans committing the first human blasphemy. There were five pious people who had died. Their names are cited in Surat Nuh, verse 23. They were Wadd, Suwa^, Yaghuth, Ya^uq, and Nasr. Satan came to the people in the shape of a man and told them to build statues of these five men. Building statues of men was permissible in the rules given to Prophet Enoch. Later this was abrogated. In the rules of Prophet Muhammad, it is forbidden to build a statue of a living thing. The people responded to the whispers of the devil and built these statues to remember and honor these five good men. After a long period of time Satan reappeared. Ignorance had spread widely and many tribulations had occurred among the people. The statues had become very common among the people. Blasphemy Occurs among Humans When Satan came again, to a later generation, he ordered the people to worship these idols unrightfully, becoming blasphemers. Satan told them to put the statues in the places that people used to worship properly. He told them to worship the statues instead, and they did. Satan told them that their ancestors had worshipped the 49

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statues, which was a lie. All this took place after the death of Prophet Enoch. At that time, there was no Prophet among the people. This first blasphemy occurred one thousand years after Prophet Adam died. Surah Nuh, verse one, means that God sent Prophet Noah (Nuh) to his people and ordered him to warn them to return to Islam and leave out this blasphemy, before a severe torture would befall them. Noah was the son of Lamak, the son of Mattushalakh, the son of Enoch. The time span between Enoch and Noah is one thousand years, that being the first era of ignorance. In these years, the first blasphemy was committed and spread among humans. Noah was the first Prophet and Messenger God sent to the blasphemers. There were sins during the time of Adam, Seth and Enoch, but no blasphemy among the people. These three Prophets dealt with Muslims only. When it is said that Prophet Noah was the first Messenger, it means the first Messenger to blasphemous people. Definitely, Prophet Adam is the first Prophet, not Prophet Noah. Prophet Noah, the Blasphemous People First Prophet to Call

God sent Prophet Noah to the blasphemers to call them to the true Religion, with its true and valid worship. In Suratul-‘A^raf, verse 65, God said that Prophet Noah said, “O my people worship God, He is the only God Who deserves to be worshipped. Be God-fearing.” He said, “I fear for you a day that will bring a severe torture, if you do not leave blasphemy”. Prophet Noah 50

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endeavored during the day and night. He spoke to them of the great rewards of being Muslims, the rewards of the Hereafter, about Paradise and all the rewards prepared for the pious, and the severe tortures of Hellfire. He used many methods and spent a lot of time calling them back to Islam. Most did not respond to his call, and did not come back to Islam. In fact they has an extreme hatred for Prophet Noah and his few followers. Prophet Noah stayed among the people for 950 years, teaching the people Islam. Only about 80 believed in Prophet Noah. Surah al-^Ankabut, verse 14 means, “He stayed among them for one thousand years less fifty.” The people were extremely harsh to Prophet Noah, and inflicted a lot of harm on him. They were so nasty that they tried to strangle him, until he fainted. Each century exercised more enmity to Prophet Noah and his followers. Prophet Noah eventually told them (Hud, 34) that God is the One Who guide to the light of Islam whomever He willed. God is the One Who makes people misguided. Noah said, “My role is to convey, but God is the only One Who creates the guidance in the hearts of the people.” Prophet Noah did not get desperate, even though so few people responded to his call. It was when God revealed to Noah that those who believed have believed, and no one else of his people would believe, that Prophet Noah made a du^a’ (supplication) to God for their destruction.

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The Great Flood Prophet Noah asked God not to leave any blasphemers on the Earth. God answered the request of Noah and revealed that He would drown them all in a great flood. God ordered Prophet Noah to built an ark. Prophet Noah gathered the wood, tar, and iron for that ark. The people mocked Prophet Noah on account that he was making an ark on dry land, away from water. Those blasphemers got worse and worse. God ordered Noah that when he saw a sign to start loading the ark. The sign was seeing water flowing out of an oven made of stones that belonged to Lady Eve. God made the skies rain. As a result God made the beasts gathered near the ark. Prophet Noah took a male and female pair of each kind of animal. The believers also went on the ark. Water sprang out of Earth in large quantities. The rain fell for a long time and it was cited that it was for 40 days. After lifting up on the water, the ark went to the location of where the Ka^bah was and circled around that location seven times. After being on the water for a long time, the ark went to a mountain in Mosul, Iraq, called al-Judiyy, where it rested. God protected Prophet Noah and his believing followers, and inflicted the punishment on the blasphemers. All the blasphemers drowned including the son of Noah, Kan^an. Kan^an rejected the teachings of his father Noah. He did not respond to the warning of his father that the flood would drown the disbelievers. Kan^an said, “I will climb 52

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the mountain and escape the flood”. Prophet Noah said that there was no way to escape the flood if one was a disbeliever. The water kept rising until it covered the peak of the mountain Kan^an was on, then he drowned. In Surah Hud, 42-43, God said that Noah told his son, “Ride with us on the ark and do not stay with the blasphemers. Become Muslim and come on board the ark.” Kan^an told his father “I will resort to a mountain that will protect me from the water”. Noah told his son “Today there shall be no one to protect you from the torture of God, except for whomever God willed mercy.” The waves separated Noah from Kan^an, and Kan^an drowned. The waves were very high, like mountains. Noah’s wife also died as a blasphemer. Noah’s wife is cited in the Qur’an in Suratut-Tahrim. Noah’s wife betrayed him by not believing in him. She would tell the people that her husband was crazy. However, she did not commit adultery. No wife of a Prophet betrayed her husband with adultery. It is said that the name of this wicked woman is Walighah. God told us the details of the water coming from the sky, springing from the Earth, and the ark floating, in Surat Al-Qamar, verses 11-14. God told us that He ordered the gates of the sky to open up, so that pouring water would come down. God ordered the Earth to release its water within itself. Both water from the sky and water that sprang out from the Earth met together. God lifted Noah and his companions on planks of wood and nails (the ark) and rescued them. God said that the ark ran and floated under His protection. The ark moved and floated on waves as high as mountains (Hud, 42).

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We Come From the Three Sons of Noah The three sons of Noah on the vessel were Sam, Ham, and Yafith. God willed that only those three sons of Noah would have children, and that no one else on the ark would have children. Surah As-Saffat, verse 77, means that God made the children of Prophet Noah the ones from whom the people come. All the people nowadays go back to those three sons. Imam Ahmad Ibn Hambal narrated from the route of Samurah, the son of Jundub that the Prophet said, “Sam is the forefather of the Arabs, Ham is the forefather of the Abyssinians, and Yafith is the forefather of the first Romans (Greeks).” Sa^id the son of Musayyab said that the three sons of Noah each gave birth to three. As to Sam, he gave birth to the Arabs, Persians and Romans. He said that Yafith gave birth to the Turks, Sicilians, and Gog and Magog. He said that Ham gave birth to the Copts of Egypt, the Sudanese and the Berbers (of North Africa). As to the day on which the ark landed on Mt. Judiyy, Qatadah and others cited that the believers went on the ark on the 10th day of Rajab. They floated for 150 days and the vessel landed on Mt. Judiyy, staying for one month before the people got out. The day they went off the ark was the 10th day of Muharram. Ibn Jarir narrated

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a similar piece of information and that they fasted on the day they got out.1 When Prophet Noah was about to die, he was asked a question by the angels, “How did it feel to spend so many years on Earth?” Prophet Noah replied, “I saw this life on Earth like a house with two doors. I entered into that life from one door and I left through the other.” He meant that it went so quickly. Our Prophet said that this world is like the farm for the Hereafter. Here you plant your deeds, and in the Hereafter you harvest. It was narrated that Prophet Noah lived for 1400 years, as well as other narrations. When Prophet Noah ate he would say “AlHamdulillah” (praise and thanks to God), and he said this when he drank, put on his clothes, and rode an animal as well. He was very thankful to God, as cited in SuratulIsra’, verse 3, “Prophet Noah was a thankful slave of God”. God said in Surah Saba’, verse 13, that one would find among the slaves of God few that are truly thankful to God. This does not mean that only a few people are Muslim. It means that the majority of Muslims are not highly pious Muslims. Most Muslims use their

Ahmad narrated in the Musnad (his book of Hadith) from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet passed by a group of Jews. They had fasted the 10th day of Muharram. The Prophet asked, “Why are you fasting this day?” They said this was the day that God rescued Prophet Moses and the Children of Israel from Pharaoh who drowned on that day. It was the day the ark landed on Mt. Judiyy. Noah and Moses fasted that day to be thankful. The Prophet said, “I am the one to fast that day”. He told the followers to fast on the 10th of Muharram to be thankful. He said, “Moses is ours (Muslim like us), and we will fast it.” The Prophet fasted out of thankfulness each year, commemorating that date. This shows that we can commemorate the Prophet’s birth, thanking God for the blessing of sending Prophet Muhammad to us.

1

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endowments to do some sins, and hence they are not truly thankful.

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Chapter 7: PROPHET HUD,
Blessings and peace be upon him The next Prophet to speak of is Prophet Hud. Prophet Muhammad said in a long hadith reported by Abu Dharr in the Sahih of Ibn Hibban that four Prophets were Arabs: Hud, Salih, Shu^ayb and Prophet Muhammad himself. The lineage of Prophet Hud is as follows: He is Hud, the son of ^Abdullah, the son of Rabah, the son of alJalud, the son of ^Ad, the son of ^Aws, the son of Iram, the son of Sam, the son of Noah. Other lineages were cited as well. In Suratul-‘A^raf, 65, God told us about sending a Prophet to the tribe of ^Ad. This Prophet told them, “O my people worship God. No one is God but Him. Won’t you be God-fearing? This Prophet is Prophet Hud. Let us tell some history leading up to the call of Prophet Hud. Shaddad, the Unjust The man “Iram” had a city named after him, built by Shaddad, the son of ^Ad. This city was between Hadramawt and San^a’ in Yemen. The tribe of ^Ad had thirteen branches. The people of the tribe of ^Ad were very tall and strong. The tallest among them was 100 cubits in height and the shortest was 60 cubits in height (~90 feet). Shaddad established himself as king of his people and he ruled unjustly, oppressing his people. 57

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Shaddad kept conquering other countries, until he was the dominant ruler at that time, with the other kings submitting to him. Shaddad was fascinated with old books. Whenever he read about Paradise that the Prophets spoke of, he imagined that he could build such a “Paradise” here on Earth (which of course is not true). Shaddad assembled a huge team of men to build what he claimed would be another “Paradise”. He first appointed one hundred men, each having one thousand assistants, to search the land of Yemen. They were to find a spot with the finest soil and freshest air. The spot they determined was the spot where Shaddad wanted to build his city. Then Shaddad wrote all the kings under him, and ordered them to gather all the gold, silver, gems, musk, amber, and saffron that their land contained, and to send it all to him. Shaddad had divers go to the sea to bring up pearls and other jewels. He commissioned miners to bring out sapphires, emeralds, and topaz from the Earth. Once having rich materials, Shaddad ordered that his city be built in that lovely spot. He ordered that the walls of the buildings be made out gold and silver bricks, covered with gems. Wide marble pillars were also to be employed. Canals were dug, bringing fresh water to flow along side the streets. Shaddad ordered that the banks of these streams be painted with gold and that gems be scattered in the streams. Shaddad also ordered his craftsmen to construct trees of gold, with jewels hanging off the branches.

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Many palaces were built, with the largest being for Shaddad, in the center of the city. Nut sided balls of musk and saffron were scattered in the streets giving their good scent. A huge rock wall, painted with gold and embedded with jewels, was built around the city, 140 meters high. On it were two golden gates, richly decorated, opening to a beautiful valley. The city was 32 kilometers long and wide. On the outskirts of the city, hills were made, enclosing thousands of high gold and silver towers. These were to be the living quarters of the soldiers. This city took five hundred years to build. God gave Shaddad a long life and he was still alive when it was completed. In the midst of this, God gave Revelation to Prophet Hud, one of the people of the tribe of Shaddad. Hud went to Shaddad, calling him to Islam. Shaddad was arrogant, occupied with building this city. Hud came to Shaddad after Shaddad had been the ruler for seven hundred years. Hence after rejecting the call from Prophet Hud, and remaining blasphemous, Shaddad set out to see his city, when his workers told him it was finished. Shaddad went out in a great procession, with his princes, ministers, followers, guards and servants. Shaddad left his son, Marthad, in charge of Hadramawt and other lands in his absence. It is said that Marthad did follow Prophet Hud. When Shaddad approached the city he had built, being only a night and day away, a great scream came from the sky, killing Shaddad and all his companions. Hence, Shaddad died at the age of nine hundred years, without ever entering this city. As well, all the workers 59

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who constructed the city, died, and the city became hidden from the sight of people. Hud, a Prophet From His Own People In Ash-Shu^ara’, verses 123-5, God told us that the tribe of ^Ad rejected the Messengers. Hud was from their tribe, and conveyed to them, “Won’t you be Godfearing? I am a trustworthy Messenger to you from God”. The people did not accept Hud, except those whom God willed to be saved. In Suratul-Ahqaf, verse 21 we know that God sent Prophet Hud to his own tribe, that of ^Ad, who were Arabs. He warned them and told them that they had to worship God alone, or there would be a day with severe torture for them. Hud warned them in a place called AlAhqaf, in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula. The dunes stretching from Oman to Hadramawt today is AlAhqaf where ^Ad lived. In verse 69, of Suratul-‘A^raf, we know that God reminded them of making them the vicegerents after the people of Noah. (A vicegerent in this context is one ordered to live on the Earth, benefit from the facilities and abide by rules. If one obeys, one will be rewarded. If one disobeys, one deserves punishment.) These people that Hud called were arrogant blasphemers. Part of their arrogance was from having such huge bodies, bigger than the people at the time of Prophet Noah. The people of ^Ad made idols and worshipped them. The idols were called Sada’, Samud, and Haba’. Their 60

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land had abundant water at that time. They planted many crops and orchards, and built high-rise castles. Despite all of their riches, they were not thankful to God. They were the first nation to blaspheme after the great flood of the time of Noah. Hud was the best among them in manners and they knew him. Still when Prophet Hud told them that they should stop worshipping idols, most rejected him. They said, “You are only one among us and we think that you are a liar. One of our gods got angry with you and that is why you talk like you do!” Hud told them, “I am not a ridiculous person. I am a Messenger sent by God. I am sent to teach you that those idols do not benefit or harm. They cannot harm or benefit themselves. God is the only One Who deserves to be worshipped. If you do not submit, you will face a severe torture from God.” From Surah Fussilat, verse 15, we know these blasphemers said, “Who is stronger than ourselves?” In the same verse, we are told, “Didn’t they see that God has great Power over all things?” Hud said, “Remember the people of Noah and what befell them. They were made the vicegerents; but they blasphemed, and were drowned. You must worship God and clear yourself of blasphemy, or God will destroy you as God destroyed the disbelievers in Noah. Look at your bodies. Some of you are as tall as 100 cubits in height and some of you are 60 cubits in height. God gave you a great strength in your bodies, fertile land, crops, and high-rise castles, but you do not thank God by worshipping God alone.” Prophet Hud told them about the Day of Resurrection and the Day of Judgment. They 61

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said, “Look, we are so powerful. How could we die, be reborn and reconstructed, and face an everlasting torture?” They rejected believing that they would be resurrected after their bones turn to soil. In Suratush-Shu^ara’, verse 127, we are told that Prophet Hud told them, “I do not ask any reward from you. I only seek the reward from the Lord of the Worlds.” Hud was not asking them for leadership or a high social status. He only was conveying the message. Still, the tribe of ^Ad were snobs to Prophet Hud and those who believed in him. In verses 136-8 of SuratushShu^ara’, we know what these blasphemous people of Prophet Hud told him, “This religion that we have is the religion of our forefathers. We shall not divert from that.” For that they deserved the punishment of God. They insisted on worshipping the idols, and told Prophet Hud, “We shall not be tortured”. Prophet Hud told them, “You await the extreme torture of God that is inevitable.” Only a handful of people followed Hud in the message of Islam, and those followers would conceal their belief out of fear of affliction by those people. Torture is Sent on Those Who Rejected Prophet Hud When the people of Hud disbelieved in God, and the signs of the proof of Prophet Hud’s truthfulness, God sent the torture upon them. In Suratul-Mu’minun, in verses 49-50 there is the meaning, “Prophet Hud made a supplication to God”. He said, “O God support me over them since they rejected me and belied the message. 62

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Only shortly they will wake up in great regret.” Suratul‘A^raf, verse 71, means that Prophet Hud told them, “Await the torture of God and I shall be waiting with you to see the torture befall you.” God ordered that the rain be withheld from the people of ^Ad until they were exhausted from the state of drought. Each time they suffered from the drought, Prophet Hud reminded them about Islam, and about the importance in believing in his message and quitting blasphemy. Hud told them that the only way to escape the torture of the drought is for them to clear themselves of blasphemy, and to adhere to the Religion of God. Yet Hud’s reminders only made them more persistent in their disbelief. Each time he reminded them, they rejected more and more. They drowned more and more in their blasphemy. Each time they did that, the intensity of the drought increased, up to a point that they made a plan to ask for rain. They sent a delegate on their behalf to go to Makkah, to make a supplication, so for rain to come down and rescue them from the drought. When the delegate did that, God sent black clouds over the people of ^Ad. They came from the direction of some valley. When they saw the black clouds they thought that they would receive the rain that will save them from the drought. They thought that these were clouds of mercy, but really they were clouds of great torture. God told us in Suratul-Ahqaf, verses 24-25, that He sent to them a very strong wind, which drove the black clouds to them. They said to their selves “Ha, this is the rain coming to us. These are the clouds of mercy. The 63

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rain shall come down. God responded to our delegate who went to Makkah.” God told them that this was a strong wind that carried with it a severe torture. It would destroy most of the things. The first to recognize and acknowledge what the cloud and the wind were bringing was a woman from ^Ad. When she realized what it brought, she screamed and fainted. When she woke up, they asked her, “What did you see?” She said, “I have seen a wind with flames of fire in front of it, with men leading it.” That strong wind carried their luggage and animals far away to the desert. Their hearts were gripped with extreme terror. They rushed into their houses, thinking by doing so, that they would be rescued. However, this wind was so severe that they were totally destroyed. Truly, their delegate was not answered. In Suratul-Haqqah, verses 6-8, God told us that He sent on the blasphemous people of ^Ad a strong, cold wind for seven nights and eight days, until that wind destroyed them and they died. God likened their situation to the trunks of the palm trees that have no heads on them. This is so because that wind would come to one of the blasphemers and carry him up into the air. Then he would be turned upside-down and be launched back to the ground. He would be smashed, his head would pop off of his body, and his dead corpse would remain. When they were destroyed, God sent birds to carry these corpses into the sea. In Suratul-Ahqaf, verse 25, we are told that only their houses were seen, empty of people. God put an end to those who belied Him and His signs.

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God saved Prophet Hud and those who believed in his message, as God informed us in the Qur’an in Suratul‘A^raf, verse 72 and Surat Hud, verse 58. The meaning of these verses is that God rescued and saved Hud and the believers with him, as a mercy from Him. Prophet Hud and the believers who were with him were isolated in a specific spot, and they were not touched by that wind. They received a pleasant thing. After all of this, Prophet Hud performed Hajj, as narrated by Imam Abu Ya^la in his Musnad. As to the place of the grave of Prophet Hud, there is a difference of opinion. Some say it is in Hadramawt in Yemen and some say it is in Makkah. Some said it was in Damascus. Take note that the land of the people of ^Ad nowadays is a complete desert that is extremely dry. There is no construction there. Yet, truly that land used to be full of vegetation and abundance of water. The Delegate of ^Ad After the destruction of ^Ad, the Arabs used to say, when they sent a delegation, “Be careful. Don’t be like the delegate of ^Ad”, with this becoming a proverb among them. Some of the story of the tribe of ^Ad was related by Imam Ahmad, Ibn Jarir and others from the route of the Companion Al-Harith Ibn Hassan Al-Bakriyy. Al-Harith said, "I left to go to the Messenger of God (Prophet Muhammad) and passed by a location called arRabdhah. There, I found an old woman from the tribe of

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Tamim who did not have an animal to ride to get to her destination. (The one who knows the history of that era would realize that the narrator of the story belonged to the Bakr tribe and that old woman belonged to the Tamim tribe. Those two tribes used to engage in fighting occasionally in the Era of Ignorance.) “She said, ‘I have a need for the Messenger of God, so would you take me to him?’ I let her ride on an animal and I took her with me. When I arrived in Madinah, I saw black banners flying. I said, ‘What is the story with the people?’ They said, ‘The Prophet wants to send ^Amr Ibnul-^As as the head of a Muslim army to fight.’ I sat down until the Prophet was done then he went into his house. I asked permission to come in and it was given. I went in and sat. Then the Prophet asked me, ‘Was there any fighting between you and the tribe of Tamim during the Era of Ignorance?’ I answered the Prophet, ‘Yes, we defeated them. I passed by the location of arRabdhah and I found an old woman among the Tamim tribe that did not have an animal to ride to come to her destination and asked me to take her to you. She is standing by the door.’ The Prophet gave permission for the woman to come in and she did. As she went in, Al-Harith was addressing the Prophet by saying, ‘O Prophet of God, let the desert of ad-Dahna' stand as a barrier between us and the Tamim tribe, so that there would not be any more fighting.’ The woman was provoked when she heard these words and asked the Prophet, ‘If you let this desert of ad66

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Dahna' stand as a barrier, then where would Mudar go to graze animals?’ She referred to herself as belonging to Mudar—in reference to a grandfather of the Prophet, to tell him that ‘we and you, Quraysh and Tamim, go back to the same grandfather’. At this, Al-Harith Ibn Hassan Al-Bakriyy said a proverb in Arabic that indicates a person sometimes would do something, unsuspecting of harm coming out of it, and he ends up being harmed by it. (He brought this woman along with him, and he did not expect her to stand as an adversary in front of the Prophet as she did). He said, ‘I seek refuge with God and His Prophet from being like the delegate that ^Ad sent to the Ka^bah to supplicate for water.’ The Prophet asked, ‘Who is the delegate of ^Ad?’ AlHarith told the Prophet, ‘You have asked the expert in this story.’ Al-Harith proceeded to say that the Prophet made him tell the story. (The Prophet already knew that story, but he wanted Al-Harith to say it aloud). Al-Harith said, ‘The tribe of ^Ad suffered a great drought. They sent Qil, a man among them, as a delegate to supplicate for water. On the way, he went in as a guest at a person called Bakr Ibnu Mu^awiyah. This man kept him occupied for an entire month, offering him wine to drink, and having two young women singing to him. This man was kept busy and forgot all about his people. Then the host himself reminded him of his own people, saying to him, ‘Did you not come this way for your people’s need?’ Then he remembered and left the man's house. He called out and said, ‘O Lord, I did not come to cure an ill person, nor to expiate a prisoner of

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war. O God, provide the water for the tribe of ^Ad, whatever You willed to provide.’ God sent three clouds, one white, the other red, and the third black. A voice called to Qil from the clouds, addressing him. It said, ‘Qil, choose for yourself and your people from among these clouds.’ Qil said, ‘I choose the black cloud, because it bears the most water.’ A caller called to him saying, ‘You have chosen that which will destroy the entire ^Ad, that is, except those whom God excluded.’” We ask God not to be like the delegate of ^Ad!

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Chapter 8: PROPHET SALIH,
blessings and peace be upon him After Prophet Hud, came Prophet Salih. In Suratul‘A^raf, in verse 73, we are told that God sent to the people of Thamud a Prophet called Salih who belonged to the tribe of Thamud. Salih told them, “O people worship Allah, there is no God but Him Who deserves to be worshipped.” As to the lineage of Prophet Salih, it is cited that he is Salih, the son of ^Ubayd, the son of Masih, the son of ^Ubayd, the son of Hadir, the son of Thamud, the son of ^Athir, the son of Iram, the son of Noah. God sent Salih to Thamud, a tribe named after their famous grandfather Thamud. They were Arabs who lived in the area called Al-Hijr. This is an area stretching from the Hijaz to Jordan. Our Prophet passed by that land, when he was heading towards Tabuk. He had a group of Muslims with him. The traces of the tribe of Thamud still remain until today. They were there when the Prophet passed. It is called Mada’in Salih. The Many Endowments on the Tribe of Thamud God enabled the tribe of Thamud to live in this area. He endowed on them a lot of endowments, like those on the people of ^Ad. The people of Thamud were not any better than those blasphemers of ^Ad. They did not learn 69

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from the lesson of ^Ad. They were not God-fearing and most did not believe Prophet Salih. They worshipped idols and were carried away by the luxury of living that they had. God made Salih a Prophet from among the most honorable lineage of their tribe. They knew Salih well. Salih was the most patient and wise among them, and had the strongest mind. He urged them to worship God only, and not to associate partners to Him. Salih told them that the Creator does not resemble the creation. He told them to stop worshipping the idols that do not create harm or benefit. Suratul-A^raf, verse 74 means that God made the people of Thamud the vicegerents after the people of ^Ad. They were well off in their means of living and they lived long lives. They used to build houses that would collapse before they die, and so they resorted to carving their houses inside rocks in the mountains. Those houses would last long enough, and they would die before the houses collapsed. They became arrogant as a result of their ability to make those stone houses. They should have taken a lesson from the people of ^Ad. Thamud planted and harvested crops, but these people were not thankful to God. They did not believe in God correctly. They did not respond to the message of Prophet Salih. In Suratush-Shu^ara’, verses 141-152, we are told that Prophet Salih pointed out to his people that God is the One Who created them, and enabled them to construct on the Earth, making them vicegerents on Earth, after the people of ^Ad. God endowed on them the luxury of good crops and fruits. Prophet Salih explained 70

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to them that since God is the true Creator of all of these things, He is the only One Who deserves to be worshipped. He is the One Who truly sustains them. Salih ordered them to quit their blasphemy and to worship God only. Just as Prophet Hud said to his people, Prophet Salih told his people, “I do not seek anything in exchange for teaching you the knowledge. I do not expect you to pay or feed me. I seek the reward from God alone.” The people of Thamud responded to Prophet Salih, as we know from verse 62 of Surat Hud saying, “O Salih, we had high hopes for you in the past, before you started warning us and asking us to worship that which our forefathers did not worship. We truly doubt that you are truthful in what you are calling us for. We knew you before this, as someone with a sound mind and sound opinion. Yet now you are inviting us to drop that which our forefathers had worshipped before.” Prophet Salih told them to follow him, worshipping God and leaving out the blasphemy. Prophet Salih was very gentle in conveying the threat to them and drawing their attention to the fact that they were following the wrong path. He told them, “You will not have an excuse on the Day of Judgment if you remain in a state of blasphemy, because I delivered to you the message from God. You are accountable. You will not be able to say on the Day of Judgment ‘O God had You sent us Prophets and Messengers, we would have believed’, because God did send me as a Prophet to you.” Among the many hardships that the people of Thamud inflicted on Prophet Salih is that they told him that he was under the effect of witchcraft. This is stated in the 71

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Qur’an in verse 153 of Suratush-Shu^ara’. It means, “They said, ‘O Salih, you are under the effect of sorcery’.” This was only a reflection of their deep arrogance and rejection to following the true path that is supported by the judgment of the sound mind. Prophet Salih continued calling his people to leave blasphemy, and his people continued worshipping idols and following the wrong path. They feared that due to the persistence of Prophet Salih, that his message would spread and that some people would start believing in him. They wanted to picture Salih as someone weak and powerless, to show that he was not truthful in his claim of Prophethood. Hence, they requested from him to perform a miracle. They did this out of ridicule, and not because they believed in Salih. The Blasphemers Challenge Prophet Salih The blasphemers set specifications for this miracle. They said, “What we knew about you is that you had a sound mind, but now you are telling us to leave the idols of our forefathers. You now must be under the effect of witchcraft.” They pointed at a rock, and said, “Can you bring a camel and its calf out of this rock?” In Surat Ash-Shu^ara’, verses 153-156, we are told that the people of Thamud told Prophet Salih, “You are only a person under the effect of sorcery. You are only a human being like us. If you are truthful in your claim, give us a sign.” Prophet Salih, knowing their stubbornness, took from them commitments that should he perform that miracle, 72

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they would quit worshipping idols, believe in God, worship Him correctly, and believe in Prophet Salih and his message. When Prophet Salih took these promises from them, he asked God to make that miracle happen. God fulfilled the request of Prophet Salih, and a camel and its calf came out of the rock with the same specifications set by the people of Thamud. Some of the people who saw that miracle did believe, and they accepted Prophet Salih and fulfilled their commitment. One was named Jundu^ the son of ^Amr. This man was among their leaders; he had a branch of the people behind him. However, most of the people of Thamud did not honor their commitment and still disbelieved in Prophet Salih, and continued to worship idols. Some of the people blocked the way of others to embrace Islam. One of them was named Du’ab, the son of ^Amr, the son of Labid. Another was a person who was the owner of the idols, named Al-Hubab, and others. When the camel and its calf came out of the rock, Prophet Salih warned the people of Thamud about harming that camel. Salih gave them certain restrictions by which they had to abide. He said that the camel had to graze on the land and was entitled to the water of the well for one entire day. Thamud could use the well on the following day. From then on, it had to alternate like that. Prophet Salih warned them that if they did not honor that, they would face a severe punishment from God.

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From the Qur’an we know that Prophet Salih told them, “This is the camel, and note that the camel will drink from the well one day and you will drink from the well another day. Do not harm that camel or else you will be inflicted with a severe torture.” The camel stayed with Prophet Salih for some time, and this attracted some people to believe in Salih. This made the blasphemers more scared, because they saw that Prophet Salih was more appealing to the people. They feared for their position, and their leadership in the tribe. They started lobbying for the non-acceptance of Prophet Salih. The followers of Prophet Salih stayed firm. They responded as we know from Suratul-‘A^raf, verse 75, saying, “We believe in the message that Prophet Salih was ordered to convey from God.” This response did not change the position of the blasphemers. Their hearts stayed as stiff as stones. They responded to the believers as said in verse 76 of Suratul-‘A^raf, “What you have believed in, we have disbelieved in.” They saw that this camel that Prophet Salih brought was a major threat to them. They wanted to kill it and get rid of this threat. Hence, they conspired to kill the camel. The Killing of the Camel Those people hesitated for a while to carry out killing that camel, up to a point of time when two evil women among them played a role in influencing the people to carry out the conspiracy. One of them was named Saduq, the daughter of Mahya. She had a high social status and 74

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money. She offered herself to a man named Masra^, were he to carry out the mission of slaughtering the camel. The woman ^Unayzah, was elderly, and a blasphemer with four daughters. She offered anyone of her four daughters to Qudar if he slaughtered that camel. These two men got excited about this matter, and lobbied among the people to slaughter the camel. Seven joined them and they became nine. God told us about those nine people in Suratul-Naml, verse 48. In the city, there were nine who conspired to make trouble. They were all from the tribe of Thamud. These men killed the female camel that came out of a rock. The calf climbed a mountain, entered a rock, and disappeared. The Blasphemers are Warned of the Torture God told us in Suratu Hud, that Prophet Salih informed them after they slaughtered the camel, “Stay in your houses, enjoying for three days. Then await the torture of God.” Prophet Salih told them that he had warned them not to harm the camel and now they did. He said, “Now God has revealed to me that you stay in your houses for three days and then you shall receive the severe punishment. This is a promise that shall come true.” Despite the warning of Prophet Salih, those people did not repent. They had between their hands the stories of the blasphemers of before, like the people of Noah who were drowned, and the people of ^Ad who were killed. Even when Prophet Salih gave them three days and warning, they did not repent or reconsider. They did 75

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not leave out their blasphemy. Instead, they persuaded themselves that Prophet Salih was not truthful in his warning. They challenged, (Suratul-‘A^raf, 77). They said, “O Salih, deliver to us that torture that you are promising, if you are truly a Messenger.” Those people came together and conspired to kill Prophet Salih and his family. They agreed to kill him during the night and to deny that they were behind this murder they planned. God saved his Prophet from that conspiracy. God sent stones that killed the group of people that wanted to carry out the scheme of killing Prophet Salih. The first of the three days was a Thursday. The people woke up on Thursday, having pale yellow faces. However, their arrogance grew towards the end of the day. They said, “One day is over and nothing has happened”. They woke up the next day and their faces were red. Then, at the end of Friday they said, “Two days have passed, and nothing has happened”. They woke up on Saturday and their faces were black. At the end of the day they said, “the deadline is over, and nothing has happened.” When they woke up on Sunday they got ready to see what would happen. When the sun started to rise, the land rocked and shivered, underneath their feet. A very strong scream was heard, that immediately caused these blasphemers to drop dead. Their hearts ruptured inside of their chests. They were fallen corpses on the ground, empty of souls.

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Suratul-‘A^raf, 78 means that the rocking of the land overwhelmed them and they ended up lying down dead on their own land. It was cited that when they woke up on the fourth day, Sunday, the sun rose. However, they did not immediately receive the torture. At that they said that God had forgiven them. They had been scared and had entered into graves that they had dug that evening. Briefly, they enjoyed thinking that God had forgiven them and that there would be no torture. Then Angel Gabriel (Jibril) came down and blocked the rays of the sun. When they saw that, they ran back into their graves. Angel Gabriel screamed one scream like thunder and their hearts ruptured in their chests. They died. The fortified houses they built inside of rocks dropped down on top of their graves. After they were destroyed, Prophet Salih addressed them. He said, “I endeavored to call you to the Religion of Islam. I invited you to the belief and to stop worshipping the idols. I tried to take you out of the dungeons of blasphemy to the light of Islam. I was keen in doing that. However, you turned me down and rejected my advice. You rejected what I called you to, and this is the result. The strong houses in the mountains, money, water, fertile land, and crops did not do you any good. God punished you for your blasphemy.” This story of Prophet Salih sheds light that God put us on this Earth and enabled us to benefit from the facilities and made us accountable. He sent Prophets and Messengers to tell us the rules. If people do not respond to the Prophet of their time, they are at a loss. 77

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After the blasphemous people of Salih were destroyed, it is cited that Prophet Salih moved to the area of Ash-Sham, and lived in Palestine. Then he moved to Makkah and resided there worshipping God until he died.

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Chapter 9: PROPHET ABRAHAM (IBRAHIM),
blessings and peace be upon him Abraham (Ibrahim) is one of the Prophets of God. He is the son of Azar (also called Tarikh), the son of Nakhur, the son of Sarugh, the son of Arghu, the son of Falagh, the son of Ghabir, the son of Shalikh, the son of Qaynan, the son of Arfakhashidh, the son of Sam, the son of Noah. Prophet Abraham was born in Iraq, under the rulership of Nimrod. Nimrod ruled a wide area. The astrologers informed Nimrod at the time that a child would be born, and at his hands, the destruction of his reign would occur. They said that the residence of this child would be in Babil (Babylon) next to Kufah. At that, Nimrod ordered that any male newborn child would be slaughtered. The Birth of Prophet Abraham The wife of Azar conceived. Her husband took her to Ur, a village outside of Babil. It is a place between Kufah and Basrah, all in present day Iraq. He made her stay in a place that was excavated underground. He used to supply her with food, drink and the rest of her needs. After a long period of time passed without anything happening to the reign of that king, he felt relaxed. Azar addressed the king regarding the subject. The king 79

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permitted them to return. So, they came back with their children. Abraham grew up rapidly. His father was a man who carved idols and worshipped them. Prophet Abraham Calls his Father to Islam Prophet Abraham forbade his father from doing this false worship, as indicated in Surat Maryam, verse 42. Abraham said, “O my father, why do you worship that which does not hear, see, or benefit you with anything?” Azar was angry and he said, "O Abraham, if you do not worship my gods, I will stone you,” as was stated in Surat Maryam verse 46. Prophet Abraham told his father that he would ask God to guide him to Islam. Despite the threat, his evil father did not kill him. Abraham used many wise techniques to prove to his father and the rest of the idol worshippers that they were wrong in worshipping idols instead of their Creator. The people at that time worshipped the sun, the moon, and the stars. They sculpted idols representing those objects in the sky. Abraham wanted them to think about how these objects move, and that they must have a Creator Who has Power over them, making them move. Abraham Never Worshipped the Sun, Moon, and Stars We know from verses 76-79 of Suratul-An^am that one night Prophet Abraham saw a star in the sky and told the people with denial, “This is my Lord?!” Then he 80

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waited and wanted them to observe that the star went away. After the star went away Abraham told, “I don’t worship that which goes away”. Abraham did the same with the moon and the sun. Concerning the sun he said, "Is this what you want me to worship, this which is bigger?!” He stressed to the people that all these things are creations that change, and that one must worship the Creator of those objects Who never changes. Important note: Nowadays you find some people who misunderstand these verses and commit a serious mistake. They believe that Prophet Abraham worshipped the star, then the moon, then the sun. Then he finally worshipped God. This is totally incorrect. It is not possible that any Prophet would do such a thing. These misguided people think that the questions that Prophet Abraham posed were instead confirmations that he worshipped the star, moon and sun. In the Qur’an, there are no exclamation or question marks. However, as already known, Abraham’s statement was an exclamatory question posed to confirm an extreme rejection—in accordance with the Arabic language of the Qur’an. An example of this is the following: Say someone came to you and said so-and-so is very gentle and has good manners. Then, when you associate with that person you find he is ill mannered and vulgar. You pose the question, “This person is good mannered?!" Clearly what you mean is that this person is the opposite. How could people take those verses to mean that Abraham first worshipped those things in the sky? God said in the Qur'an that Abraham was already a believer

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prior to that incident (Al-Ambiya’, verse 51). The great Muslim scholar Ibnul-Jawziyy cited this in his book Zadul-Masir. Prophet Abraham Smashes the Idols The people of Abraham used to celebrate a feast where they went out of the town all together to celebrate that day. On that day, Prophet Abraham told them, "Inni saqim” (I will be sick) as it is cited in the Qur'an in Suratus-Saffat verses 89. Hence Prophet Abraham did not go with them to their feast. When they left, Prophet Abraham swore by God to break their idols, as stated in verse 57 of Al-Ambiya'. Some of the people who were the last to leave heard Abraham. When they left, Abraham went to the idols. Those idols were in a grand hall, one next to the other. Food was placed between the hands of the idols. Prophet Abraham, mocking the idols, asked them, "Won't you eat?” When they did not reply, he said, “What is the matter with you? You do not speak.” Abraham started breaking them, using an ax. He destroyed them, making them rubble, except for the large one. Abraham left it intact for the people to see when they returned. He wanted to show them that the biggest idol, that they regarded the highest, was truly without power. When the people returned and saw what had happened to their idols, they were extremely distressed, deeming

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this as a major incident. They said, "Who did that to our gods? Whoever did that to our gods is unjust!" Those who were among the last batch to leave, having heard Prophet Abraham utter those words said, "We have heard a young man called Abraham speaking ill of them. We have not heard such words from another person. We think that this is the person who did that to the idols." The matter of this incident reached Nimrod and his close associates. They said, “Bring Abraham in front of the people to witness what we are going to do to him.” When they brought Abraham, with the people gathered at the place of the king, they asked Abraham, “Did you do this to our gods?” Abraham said, “If these idols could utter, then it is the largest idol of them who did that. So ask it, if it can speak.” Abraham did not say that the big idol did it. He was proving to the people that the big idol was powerless. Those people recognized that the biggest idol did not speak, as Prophet Abraham was saying. They put their heads down because they knew that Prophet Abraham discredited them. Then, Prophet Abraham told them, "Do you worship other than God, that which does not benefit or harm you? Woe to you! Come back to your senses." Prophet Abraham Confronts the Evil Nimrod At that point, Abraham’s people debated with him about God. Nimrod asked Prophet Abraham, "That lord of yours, what is he?" Nimrod posed that question using 83

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the term "what" because he was used to likening the Creator to the creatures, and worshipping idols unrightfully. Abraham stressed that God is not similar to His creation. He talked to Nimrod about the Power of God, and about the signs that signify the Oneness of God. Abraham said, "God, my Lord, is the One Who gives life and death." Nimrod, out of stubbornness said, "I give life and death. I can take two men who deserve to be killed. I will kill one, and I will set the other free. By that I will have given life to one, and death to the other." Prophet Abraham, with his sharp brilliance, immediately realized that Nimrod was stubborn. Abraham changed his strategy with Nimrod, and told him, "God brings the sun from the East. If what you say is true, bring it from the West." That rebuttal startled Nimrod. Once, Nimrod told Abraham, “Ask your Lord to revive the dead or else I will kill you.” Abraham asked God to show His Power to revive the dead. The Miracle of the Birds God revealed to Abraham to take four birds, a red rooster, a white pigeon, a green peacock, and a black crow. Abraham slaughtered those four birds, cutting off their heads. Abraham kept the heads. Then Abraham mashed together the headless bodies of those four birds, thoroughly mixing the parts of the four together. Abraham then divided that mixture into seven parts, and placed one part on each of seven mountains. 84

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Abraham stood so that he could see the whole mountain range and the seven places where the mixtures were. Prophet Abraham held the heads of those birds in his hand and said, “Come by the Will of God”. The parts of those birds came flying together from the seven places, and the bodies of the birds were reconstructed. The birds stood before Ibrahim without heads. Seeing this amazing miracle strengthened the faith that Abraham always had. Then Abraham offered the head to the appropriate bird, and the head attached to the body. When Abraham offered the inappropriate head, the bird did not accept it. When these birds were whole again, they flew away. In his extreme stupidity, Nimrod still did not believe in Abraham’s message, despite that amazing scene. Nimrod imprisoned Prophet Abraham for seven years. Nimrod also starved two lions to feed them Abraham. However, when Nimrod sent the starving lions to kill and eat Abraham, instead they licked him and prostrated to him. Nimrod Tries to Burn Prophet Abraham Then Nimrod and his companions unanimously agreed to burn Prophet Abraham in support to their false gods. They collected wood, put it in a big ditch, and they started a great fire, so great that they needed to use a catapult to throw Abraham into it. They did not know the catapult at that time. The cursed Satan came to them, in the form of a man, and

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taught those people how to make a catapult. It is said that man named Hayzin built it. Later, God made the ground swallow Hayzin. The fire was so hot that if a bird were to fly above that fire, it would be burned. The people tied the hands and feet of Prophet Abraham before sending him off in the catapult. Prophet Abraham addressed God, “There is no God but You. Praise to You. You are free of all imperfections. To You are the thanks. You are the Owner of everything. You have no partners.” When they threw Abraham into the fire, God made that fire cool and peaceful on him. Prophet Abraham said, “God’s support is enough for me. God is the best to rely on.” He stayed in it for the time that God willed for him to stay, without being harmed. He came out of it safe, without his body or clothes being burnt. The ropes that tied him did get burnt, without that hurting Prophet Abraham. Days went by and Nimrod was sure that Abraham was dead. Then Nimrod looked and saw Prophet Abraham there alive and unburnt. Nimrod also saw a man next to Prophet Abraham who looked like him. Nimrod said, “I saw as if Abraham is alive. I think I am not seeing well. Build me a tower so I can be high and see clearly.” They made that tower, and when Nimrod ascended it, he still saw Abraham and man next to him identical to Abraham. Nimrod yelled to Abraham, “O Abraham, can you get out of the fire?” Abraham said, “Yes”. Then Nimrod asked, “Are you afraid of being burnt if you stay there?” Abraham answered “No”. Then Abraham went out of the fire. Abraham was asked, “Who was the one with you?” Abraham said, 86

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“That was the angel of shades. God sent him to give me good company”. Since then, Nimrod refrained from further hurting Abraham. However he still did not accept the message of Prophet Abraham. God gave a punishment to Nimrod in this life, and in the next. Nimrod was ordered to accept Islam three times, which he refused. Then Nimrod gathered his army. God sent a lot of insects, attacking the army of Nimrod. The insects ate their flesh and left them as dead skeletons. Then, God sent an insect to Nimrod that went into his nostril. Nimrod felt great pain because of that and the only thing that he thought would make the pain go away was for his head to be hit. Nimrod asked for his head to be hit with hammers and other objects. It is narrated that he was in that condition for 400 years until he died. Prophet Abraham and Lot Leave Babylon Prophet Abraham left that area of Babylon, along with his nephew Lot (Lut). Lot was to become a Prophet, being Muslim all his life, believing Prophet Abraham. Lot went to an area in present day Jordan. After leaving Babylon, Abraham first arrived in Harran, which is a place south of Turkey. He stayed there for a certain period. It is narrated that the king of Harran had a beautiful daughter named Sarah (Sarah). After Sarah believed in Prophet Abraham, he married her. (Others cited that Sarah was his cousin.) Then Prophet Abraham immigrated towards the countries of ash-Sham as it is said in Suratus-Saffat, verse 99. “Ash87

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Sham” is comprised of present day Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Palestine. Many references will be made to “Ash-Sham” throughout the book. The verse says that Prophet Abraham went in the direction of the blessed land of Ash-Sham. Back then it was the land of the Prophets, whereas Iraq, at that time, was the land of the tyrants. Abraham and Sarah Go to Egypt After living in Palestine, Prophet Abraham and Sarah then headed towards Egypt. When Abraham arrived in Egypt there was a Pharaoh who was also an unjust tyrant. This man used to commit adultery with the beautiful married women that entered his land. Prophet Abraham told his wife, “If this tyrant knows that you are my wife, he will use force against me to get you.” Abraham told Sarah, “If he asks you, tell him that you are my sister (which is true, my sister in Islam).” Then, some of the assistants of this tyrant saw Sarah and told him, “We have seen a woman that arrived into your land that should be yours and not anyone else’s due to her extreme beauty.” That Pharaoh sent his assistants to bring her, and they did. When Prophet Abraham learned about that, he started praying, as is the case with pious Muslims. They resort to prayers in hard times. When Sarah entered the quarters where the Pharaoh was present, he could not hold back. Because of his ill manners, he stretched his hand towards her. His hand froze severely. The king told her, 88

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“Supplicate God that my hand will be released and I shall not harm you.” Sarah did, and the king’s hand was cured. Because of his ill manners, the king attempted once again to reach for Sarah, and his hand froze, but in a stronger manner than the first time. The king told Sarah the same thing as the first time. She made supplication and his hand was cured. The king attempted a third time, and his hand froze much more severely than the first two times. The king told Sarah, “Make supplication to God to restore my hand and I swear I will not attempt again.” Sarah made supplication and the king’s hand was restored. Then, the king called the man that brought Sarah to him and told him, "Take her away! You brought a devil to me and not a human! Take her out of my land! Give her Hagar (Hajar), (who is a slave woman that he had) as a gift, and let her go." When Prophet Abraham saw Sarah, he ended his prayers and said, “Tell me your news.” She said, "Good news. God held back the hand of this vulgar man, and we came back with a servant." Hagar was a beautiful woman. After a certain period of time, Sarah gave Hagar to Abraham as a gift. According to the rules given to Abraham, he could legally have sexual intercourse with the slave he owned. The Birth of Ishmael Sarah reached the age of menopause after having been barren. Prophet Abraham had intercourse with Hagar and she gave birth to Ishmael (Isma^il). Hagar is the 89

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mother of all the Arabs that came from the offspring of Ishmael. This is why Prophet Muhammad said to his Companions, "If you conquer Egypt, then pay good attention to and treat the people of Egypt well, because they have a blood tie to me." The Prophet meant that the relationship between the people of Egypt and the Arabs is tied to Hagar (who came from Egypt), with her being the mother of all the Arabs who are from the children of Prophet Ishmael. Muslim related this hadith. Whoever calls Ishmael the “bastard son” of Abraham is making a serious lie. Ishmael was a legitimate son of Prophet Abraham, for the intercourse that Prophet Abraham had with Hagar was legal according to Islam. Abraham went out of Egypt and went to a land called Bi'rus-Sab^ (Beer Shiva). Then he left to an area between Ar-Ramlah and Ilya' (Jerusalem), all in Palestine. The scholars said that Sarah was jealous after Hagar gave birth to Ishmael, and that is why Abraham took Hagar and his son and went to Makkah, as will be explained. Abraham Receives the Good News of Isaac Later, God gave Sarah the ability to have a child named Isaac (Ishaq). The angels gave her the good news of his coming birth and they gave her the good news of a son from him named Jacob (Ya^qub). Sarah gave birth to Isaac when she was at an old age of 90 years. Before having Isaac, God subjected Abraham to the difficult test of slaughtering his son from Hagar, Ishmael. 90

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Abraham was fully obedient and did not hesitate, not even for a second. However, God replaced the son with a lamb, and Ishmael was not slaughtered. This story is told in detail in the chapter about Prophet Ishmael. Prophets Abraham and Ishmael Rebuilt the Ka^bah Later, God ordered Prophet Abraham to reconstruct the Ka^bah. Prophet Abraham did that along with Ishmael. When the walls of the Ka^bah were raised, Abraham stood on a stone which is known as Maqam Ibrahim (this stone originally came from al-Jannah, just as the Black Stone was). Each time the walls were raised a level that stone rose up, carrying Abraham. With each stone they laid, they made supplication to God as said in SuratulBaqarah verse 127. It means “O God, accept this obedience from us. You are attributed with Hearing and Knowledge.” There is a footprint to this day, on the stone that Prophet Abraham used to stand on while building the Ka^bah. It is truly Prophet Abraham's footprint. However, it is not confirmed that there is a footprint of the foot of Prophet Muhammad on any particular stone. When Abraham finished reconstructing the Ka^bah, God ordered him to call, “O people, God ordained Hajj to this Old House.” God imparted to Abraham the knowledge of performing Hajj. Prophet Ishmael also performed Hajj.

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Hagar, Ishmael's mother, died before Sarah, in the land of Hijaz (where Makkah is). Then Sarah died in the land of Ash-Sham. It was stated that after the death of these two women, Abraham married a woman from the people of Kan^an, who also bore children for him. Definitely Ishmael was the first son of Prophet Abraham. In the perverted Torah, they say that Prophet Abraham was ordered to slaughter his “first son Isaac”. Those Jews changed their book, to take away from the true privilege granted to Ishmael. The facts that Ishmael was so patient with the order to be slaughtered, and that Abraham loved Ishmael so much, show the high status of Ishmael. The Jews wanted to cover that up. The Jews come from Isaac and they wanted people to think that Isaac got the honor of that great test of the order to slaughter. However, they forgot to also take away the words "his first". According to their Torah, Ishmael was Abraham’s first son. The fact that they forgot to remove the words, “the first” shows their grave error. Abraham is called Khalillullah, which is an exclusive title for him and Prophet Muhammad. It contains the meaning of “the one whose heart is full of love for God”, or “the one who is fully dedicated to God.” God revealed to Abraham ten booklets. He was the first person to be circumcised. Abraham was 80 years old when God ordered him to circumcise himself. To rush and be obedient to God, Abraham immediately acted. There was a hammer next to him. He used it to perform the circumcision. The hammer had a flat head on one side to hammer nails, and a sharp edge on the other side. Abraham used the sharp edge for the

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circumcision. Abraham did not wait to find something else, out of being quick in obedience to God. Most of the conversation of Prophet Abraham with his children was not in the Arabic language. Yet Prophet Ishmael spoke the Arabic language. It is known that Abraham was extremely merciful. He is the best of the Prophets after Prophet Muhammad. He was buried in al-Khalil (Hebron), in Palestine, next to where his wife, Sarah, was buried. The place of his grave is known there. The entire city of al-Khalil was named after Prophet Abraham. Much more is related concerning the honorable Prophet Abraham in the following chapters about Prophets Lot, Ishmael, and Isaac. We ask God to greatly bless and honor Prophet Abraham, and grant us being with him in the Hereafter.

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Chapter 10: PROPHET LOT (LUT),
blessings and peace be upon him Prophet Lot (Lut) is the son of Haran. Haran was the brother of Abraham, with them both having the evil father, Azar. Prophet Lot immigrated to Sodom (Sadum) and resided there. God sent him as a Prophet to its people who were blasphemous. Prophet Lot is cited 27 times in the Qur’an. He was cited in Suratul-‘A^raf, Suratu Hud, Suratul-Hijr, Suratush-Shu^ara’, Suratun-Naml and other chapters as well. Some ignorant people think that the name in the Qur’an “Lut” comes from the Arabic word “liwat”. Liwat means sodomy. This is totally false. First, Lut is not an Arabic name. Also, a Prophet would not have a non-befitting name, derived from the word for a forbidden, disgusting act. It is blasphemy to believe that a Prophet would have a name indicating a disgusting act. Lot accepted the guidance of Prophet Abraham, never being a blasphemer. Lot believed that Prophet Abraham was a Prophet and Messenger. Prophet Lot is Sent to Evil People In Suratul-^Ankabut, verse 26, God said that Lot believed in Abraham. Abraham said that he would immigrate from Iraq to Ash-Sham to teach the people.

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Abraham and Lot left Iraq. They stayed, journeying together until God made Lot a Prophet to the people of the city of Sodom, next to the Dead Sea in what is now Jordan. Prophet Lot left Abraham with Abraham’s permission, as God ordered Lot to do. Sodom had several villages next to it, linked to Sodom, making five villages in all. The people of Sodom were so very vulgar, with a disgraceful history and terrible manners. Their inner selves were evil. They would not shy away from any sin. They practiced waylaying, attacking travelers. They never advised each other to give up their sins. They innovated a terrible sin. No one before them had done this sin. It was the sin of sodomy (a man putting his penis in the anus of another). These men of Sodom desired other men, and turned away from the women of the city. Prophet Lot addressed these people, saying “How could you approach men sexually and leave out what God created for you, in having the enjoyment of wives? Definitely you are an unjust people.” The men of Sodom were so open and arrogant in doing their sodomy that they bragged about it. Lot warned them of punishment and told them to embrace Islam. He told them that God was the Only Creator and rest of the great Islamic creed. The people of Sodom did not accept Prophet Lot, and continued to associate partners to God. Sodom and the villages linked to Sodom were full of fruit trees. They were in the courtyards and outside along the streets.

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The Origin of Sodomy Once, the people of Sodom suffered from a drought and were concerned about having a famine. They said, “We should prohibit the travelers and strangers that stop by our territory from consuming our fruits. Every time we see a stranger, we will attack him, and sodomize him. Then, we will get such a bad reputation that we will be left to ourselves.” The devil whispered that to them and made it seem good. Hence, they attacked the passersby and sodomized them. Lot told them “You are ambushers. You stand in the way of people, take the men and forcibly sodomize them, sit in the streets throwing pebbles at the people, and mock those that pass by." Prophet Lot came to them to call them to Islam, and to leave out their terrible practices. They did not accept, and became more stubborn in their blasphemy, despite the advice of Prophet Lot. They would tell him, in extreme arrogance, “If you are truthful, let the punishment befall us”. They threatened to throw out Lot from the city with his family. Lot asked God for support, “O God, rescue me and my family members from what they do, and give me victory over those menacing people who do such ugly things.” God supported his Prophet and willed for those blasphemers to be destroyed. Angels Come To Help God sent the powerful angels Gabriel (Jibril), Michael (Mika’il), and Israfil in the form of men. First they came 96

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down to Abraham as guests. Prophet Abraham was delighted, because he took great delight in receiving guests, and liked to be generous with them. Abraham liked the behavior of these guests very much. He went out and brought a young calf that was well nourished. Abraham slaughtered and cooked it. Then he presented it to his guests to eat. However, they did not put their hands forward to eat (because angels do not eat). Prophet Abraham was concerned, because usually if one did not take the food of his host, then he was an enemy. They told him, “Do not be afraid. We are angels that God sent to the people of Lot.” Abraham’s wife Sarah was there. She laughed because she knew how stubborn the people of Lot were. The angels gave Sarah the good tidings that she would deliver Isaac (Ishaq), and after Isaac, Jacob (Ya^qub) will be his child. In Surat Hud in verse 72, Abraham's wife expressed her surprise that she would be delivering a child at such an old age (90 years) with her husband being an older man (of 120 years). Prophet Abraham felt relaxed when he knew that they were angels. Moreover he was happy after they gave him the good news of the coming of his son Isaac. Abraham started talking to them regarding the people of Lot. Abraham asked them, “Would you destroy a village with one hundred believers in it?" They said, “No.” He said, “If there were fifty?” They said, “No.” Abraham decreased the number until he reached one believer. They said, “No.” At that point, he said, "Lot is in that village (and he is a believer).” In Suratul-^Ankabut, verse 32, we are told that the angels said, “We know who is in that village, and we 97

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shall save Prophet Lot and his believing followers. The wife of Lot will not be saved. She will receive the torture, because she was a blasphemer." They added, "O Abraham, leave talking about that subject. The orders of God were given to inflict the torture on those people, and that which God willed cannot be stopped." Then the angels left from the home of Abraham, towards the city of Lot. They came in as guests of Lot. Lot felt very worried because of their arrival. He feared what the people would do to those men, especially when he saw their level of beauty and the goodness of their shapes. He said, "This is a difficult day." The wife of Lot helped the people of Sadum to perform sodomy. Lot’s wife betrayed him and continued to help her people sin. Although she was an evil woman, she never betrayed Lot by committing adultery. Lot’s wife went out and told her people that Lot had received guests. She told the people that she had never seen anyone more beautiful than these ones. The people quickly came to Lot’s home, wanting to commit sodomy with the guests. Lot told the people what is said in Surat Hud, verse 78 that means, “O my people come and marry my daughters. Do not attempt to commit this ugly sodomy." He added, "Be God-fearing and do not attack or disturb my guests. Is there not a wise man among you that would guide you to the proper behavior?" They told him, "We do not need your daughters, and you know what we want." Prophet Lot was extremely mature and wise. Prophet Lot wished for a group of people to support him because he did not have a group to back him against those people, as is cited in Surat Hud, verse 80. The evil people were, 98

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by this time, pushing on the door of the house of Prophet Lot from the outside, demanding to get to those men. At that point, Gabriel told Prophet Lot, "O Lot, we are sent from your Lord. Open your door to them, and no harm shall reach you from them." Prophet Lot knew now that these were really angels. They were sent to test the unjust people of Lot. Angel Gabriel asked God if he could punish the people now. Lot opened the door. When the people came in, Gabriel hit them with his wing, and caused them all to become blind. Their eyes became totally gone without a trace of an eye left. They left fearful, screaming that in the house of Lot are the strongest magicians on Earth. They started threatening Lot by saying, “Wait until morning comes in and you will see what we are going to do with you.” Then the angels told Prophet Lot, "Take your family away from here during the night, and let none of you look behind. The torture shall befall them in the morning." Prophet Lot expressed that he wished the torture came to them earlier. They said, "Is the morning not soon enough?" The believers were not to look behind them, so as not to see the intensity of the torture hitting their people. The Torture of the Blasphemers Prophet Lot left with his wife and two daughters. When the morning came, the torture was sent on his people. Angel Gabriel raised their five cities and turned them upside down. This was for those who were inside 99

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the cities. As for those who were outside, God made stones of cooked, burning clay, with markings on them rain down on them. These stones rained consistently. Each stone bore the name of the person it was to hit. That destroyed all of them. At that point, Lot’s wife turned around and called out for her people, expressing pity for them. A stone hit, and killed her. God saved Lot and his daughters. In Surah Hud, verses 82 and 83, we know the torture that came down on the people of Lot. Angel Gabriel, with one feather of one of his 600 wings, pulled the entire five villages out, like one wrenching out a thing. Angel Gabriel took all that to the first heaven. The angels of the first heaven heard their screams, the crowing of their roosters, and the barking of their dogs. Then, angel Gabriel turned it all upside down. A strong scream roared throughout the sky that ruptured the hearts of those wicked people, within their chests. It is said that the five cities of Lot were Sadum, Say^ah, ^Amrah, Dumah, and Sa^wah. The largest of all was Sadum (Sodom). By the time the sun rose, all the villages were destroyed. Prophet Lot was patient with the fact that his wife did not believe and was destroyed. Her name was The scholar, Hakim, said in his book Walihah. “Mustadrak” that Ibn ^Abbas explained verse 10 of Suratut-Tahrim as follows: “The wives of Prophets Noah and Lot betrayed them. This does not mean that they committed adultery, but that Noah’s wife said that Noah was crazy, and Lot’s wife told her people about the guests they received, so her people could sodomize them.” 100

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Hakim said that Lot was beautiful, with a white face, thin nose, small ears, long fingers, a lovely mouth, and the best of the smiles. We ask God to meet the great Prophet Lot.

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Chapter 11: PROPHET ISHMAEL (ISMA^IL),
blessings and peace be upon him Ishmael (Isma^il) is the Prophet of God, who is the son of the Prophet of God, Abraham. Ishmael and Hagar are Left in Makkah Abraham took Ishmael and his mother, Hagar, to the land of Ash-Sham (Palestine), along with his wife Sarah. Then Prophet Abraham received the Revelation to take only Ishmael and Hagar to Makkah. Prophet Abraham put them in a location that is inside the boundaries of Masjidul-Haram (the holy mosque of Makkah with the Ka^bah in it) as it stands today. Yet at that time there were no evident buildings there. The Ka^bah had been there until the flood of Noah, but the Ka^bah came down in that flood. No people were living there and there was no water source. Abraham left his two dear ones, in that barren area, with a bag of dates and a leather bag filled with water. Then, Prophet Abraham left and went back to Palestine. Hagar (the mother of Ishmael) followed him. She said, “O Abraham, where are you going, leaving us in this valley that has no water, food, companions, or anything?” She kept saying that repeatedly to him. When she realized he was not answering, she said, “Is it 102

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that God ordered you to do this?” He said, “Yes.” She said, “Then we will not be lost.” Then, she returned. When Prophet Abraham reached a location where Hagar and Ishmael could not see him any more, Abraham turned and faced the location where the Ka^bah stands today. He lifted his hands and made a supplication to God. This is the meaning of verse 37 of Surat Ibrahim. Prophet Abraham addressed God, “O our Lord, I have settled part of my family in a valley that does not have any cultivation, by the House of God, to perform the prayers and worship. O God make people with loving hearts come to them and give them sustenance to be thankful to You”. Abraham did not leave Hagar and Ishmael out of harshness. He deeply loved these two dear ones. Abraham left them upon the order of God. Prophet Abraham loved God most. He obeyed God at all times. Hagar started nursing Ishmael, drinking from the water, and eating from the dates. When the water ran out from that container, she and her blessed son became thirsty. She observed him struggle from thirst. She hated to see her son in that situation. So, she left and went towards a mountain closest to her called Mount As-Safa. Hagar climbed the mountain and looked over the valley to see if there was anyone there. She did not see anyone. So, she climbed down that mountain. When she reached the valley, she raised her dress and trekked her way through the valley, the way an exhausted person would do, until she crossed that valley and reached a corresponding mountain called Mount Marwah. Then,

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she went on that mountain and looked to see if she could see anyone. She did not. Hagar did that seven times. The Prophet said in what was related by Al- Bukhariyy that this is why Muslims perform As-Sa^y between As-Safa and Al-Marwah. When she reached the last lap, she heard a sound. She silenced herself and listened carefully. An Angel Comes as a Mercy to Hagar Hagar called out, “If you can rescue us, then I have heard your sound.” She saw an angel. He drilled into the ground until water came out. She made a basin for that water. She put it into her container any water that collected inside the basin. This was replenished from its source. Because Hagar made a basin, the water was contained and did not flow freely on the ground. Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessing be upon him, said, “May God endow the mother of Isma^il with His Mercy. Had she left the water flowing, without containing it into a basin, the well of Zamzam would have been flowing on the surface of the Earth, and people would have taken their needs from it.” Hagar drank and nursed her child. The angel said, “Do not fear. You will neither be lost nor be destroyed in this location.” The angel told her that in this location her son and his father would build a House of God, and that God does not make those who are pious get lost. It is interesting to note that all the Muslims that make Hajj, from the most high on down, reenact the 104

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movements of Lady Hagar. Look at her social status. Hagar was a woman slave. Despite that, every Muslim, both men and women, reenact her movements. Many lessons are contained in this, for those who have hearts to understand. The Establishment of the City of Makkah Hagar and Ishmael remained as such for a period of time, until people from the tribe of Jurhum passed by. They came from the direction of Kada', a place south of Makkah. Those people saw a wandering bird, circling in the sky, not landing but wanting to come down. They said, “This is a sign of water in that location”. This is what birds do when they fly over water. The tribesmen found this interesting; for their knowledge of that valley was that it was without water. They sent one or two men to check it out, and those men saw the water. They went to the mother of Ishmael and asked for permission to stay with her. Hagar agreed, but she said that the water was hers, and not under their control. They accepted. They decided to reside in that location and sent after their people to come join them. A group of them resided there, and Ishmael grew up among them. He learned the language of the Arabs from them. During that time, Prophet Abraham regularly visited Hagar and Ishmael. Prophet Abraham would ride al-Buraq, an animal of Paradise, leaving the land of AshSham early in the morning. He would arrive in Makkah quickly enough that he would take his siesta there. Then 105

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he would leave Makkah, arriving that night to sleep in the land of Ash-Sham. Prophet Abraham was Ordered to Slaughter Ishmael Ishmael grew up to an age where Prophet Abraham felt hopeful that he would see a lot of goodness from him, in terms of obedience to and worship of God. When Ishmael grew up to be a young man, with the signs of intelligence on him and the readiness to obey, God subjected Prophet Abraham to a difficult test. Then was the first son of Abraham, a son so loved and cherished by him, and yet Abraham was ordered to end the life of this awaited child. God subjected Prophet Abraham to this difficult test to expose to Abraham, and us, the quickness on the part of Abraham to obey God. Abraham had a dream that he was slaughtering his son. Abraham knew that this was an order from God, as the dreams of the Prophets are part of Revelation. Abraham told his son to bring a rope and a knife, and to come with him, on a certain route of Makkah. On their way, Satan appeared to them, wanting to block Abraham from fulfilling the order of God. Prophet Abraham threw pebbles at him. This is where the Muslims throw pebbles during Hajj. The significance contained in our act is that if the devil appears to us, as he appeared to Prophet Abraham, we shall degrade, reject, and throw pebbles at him like Abraham did. When Satan became hopeless of distracting Abraham, he appeared to Ishmael, who was carrying the rope and 106

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the knife behind Prophet Abraham. Satan said, “Young man, do you know where your father is taking you?” He said, “To get wood for our family from that route.” (This is what he thought.) The devil said to him, “By God, he only wants to slaughter you.” Ishmael asked, “Why?” The devil said, “He claims that his Lord ordered him to do that.” Ishmael said, “Then let him do that which his Lord ordered him to do.” When Ishmael did not listen to the devil, he went to Ishmael’s mother and told her, “Do you know where Abraham took Ishmael? She said, “He went to bring us wood”. The devil told her, “He only took him there to slaughter him.” She said, “No, he is very loving to his son and too merciful to slaughter him.” The devil said, “He claims God ordered him to do that.” She said, “If this was the order of God, then we are subject to the orders of God.” The enemy of God, Satan, left as a loser, not achieving anything from Abraham, Ishmael, or Hagar. By the Will of God they did not listen to him. They unanimously stood obedient to the orders of God. When Prophet Abraham was alone with his son on that route, which is known as the route of Thabir, Prophet Abraham addressed his son by saying, “I have seen in my dream that I am slaughtering you, so what do you have to say?” He said, “O father, do that which you are ordered and, God willing, you will find me patient.” Then Ishmael said, “O father, if you want to slaughter me, and then tie me well so that none of my blood would splash you, because the pains of death are strong and I probably would shake under the throes of death (for death has a lot of pain). Sharpen your blade to be quicker 107

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in finishing me. When you want to slaughter me, do it in a way that you cannot see my face, and that I do not see the blade (and get scared as a result). If you want to take my clothing back to my mother to make it easier for her, then do so.” Prophet Abraham told him, “You are such a good assistant to me in carrying out the orders of God!” Abraham tied Ishmael down and sharpened his blade, as Ishmael suggested. Abraham made sure not to look at Ishmael’s face, and he placed the blade on his throat. The Sacrifice from Paradise At that point an angel called Abraham and told him, “O Abraham, you have fulfilled the orders of God.” The angel told him “Take this sacrifice instead of your son”, as it is cited in Suratus-Saffat 107. Instead of Ishmael being slaughtered, a hefty lamb with horns and red wool was slaughtered. The lamb had grazed in Paradise for forty years. God made that lamb come down to Earth, and Prophet Abraham slaughtered it in Mina. This is the reason people slaughter a sacrifice at that place in Hajj. The people making the pilgrimage spend of their money to buy an animal and the meat of that animal is given to the poor of Makkah. The two horns of that lamb from Paradise hung on the Ka^bah for the people to see for many hundreds of years. They were still there when Prophet Muhammad lived, and continued to be there until the rulership of ^Abdullah Ibnuz-Zubayr. At that time the Blessed House was set on fire by the unjust. These two horns burned in that fire. 108

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The Wives of Prophet Ishmael When Ishmael grew older, the tribe of Jurhum liked what they saw of him. When he became adolescent, they had him marry one of their women. Also, Lady Hagar died. After Ishmael got married, his father Prophet Abraham came to check their situation. He did not find Prophet Ishmael at home. Abraham asked the wife of Ishmael about him. She said, “He went out hunting for us.” Then Abraham inquired about their situation and their way of living. She started complaining, saying that they were humans facing great hardships. She did not realize that she was talking to her husband's father. Prophet Abraham told her, “Once your husband comes back, give him my salutations, and tell him to 'change the step at his door'.” When Ishmael came back, he felt that someone came to visit them. He asked his wife, “Did anyone come?” She told him, “Yes, an older man came, and his description is such and such, and he asked about you. I answered him, and he asked about how we were managing. I told him that we are facing a great hardship.” Ishmael said, “Did he give you advice?” She said, “Yes, he asked me to give you his greeting, and he said that you should change the step at your door.” At that, Ishmael said, “That was my father. He ordered me to separate from you, so go to your parents.” Ishmael divorced her, and married another woman from that tribe. Prophet Abraham visited again after a period of time. He did not find Ishmael. He asked the new wife about

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him. She said, “He went out hunting for food.” Abraham asked her, “How are you doing, and how is your standard of living?” She said, “We are doing fine, and we are living well.” She started praising God. Abraham said, “What kind of food do you eat?” She said, “Meat.” He said, “What do you drink?” She said, “Water.” He said, “O God, bless their meat and their water.” Prophet Muhammad said that they did not have grains there, and if they had, then Prophet Abraham would have asked God to bless their grain as well. Then Abraham told the wife of Ishmael, “Once your husband returns, give him my greeting, and order him to keep the step at his door.” When Ishmael came back, he asked his new wife “Did anyone come?” She said, “Yes, an older man came,” and she described and praised him. “He asked me about you and I told him. He asked me about how we are living, and I told him that we were living well.” He said, “Did he give you any advice?” She said, “Yes, he asked me to give you his greeting, and he orders you to keep the step at your door.” He said, “That was my father, and you are the step. He ordered me to hold on to you.” Prophets Abraham and Ishmael Rebuild the Ka^bah Prophet Abraham went away for a time and came back. At that time, Ishmael was working on his arrows, sharpening them under a large tree, close-by to Zamzam water. When he saw his father, he stood up to receive

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him, and they greeted one another in the loving way of father and son. Abraham said, “O Ishmael, God ordered me to do something.” Ishmael said, “Do what God ordered you.” Abraham said, “Would you assist me?” Ishmael said, “Yes.” Abraham said, “God ordered me to build a house over there.” Abraham pointed to where the Ka^bah is today. Abraham and Ishmael laid down the foundations for the house, building the Ka^bah as we explained in the chapter about Prophet Abraham. Ishmael would bring the stones and Prophet Abraham would construct, until they finished building the Ka^bah. One Branch of Arabs Ishmael’s second wife was Lady Ra^lah, the daughter of Mudad, from the tribe of Jurhum. She delivered twelve (12) male children for him. From them came Nabit and Qaydar, and from these two in particular, God made that group of Arabs multiply. Ishmael is the grandfather of the branch of the Arabs that are called al-Musta^ribah as opposed to al-^Aribah. The Arabs are of two branches. The Arabs of Yemen are of the Arabs who are al-^Aribah (the original Arabs). However, the branch of the Arabs who are offspring of Prophet Ishmael are called the Arabs who are alMusta^ribah (literally this means ‘those who became Arabs’). Prophet Muhammad is from al-Musta^ribah.

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The children of Ishmael are ‘those who became Arab’ because the father of Ishmael was not an Arab, and Ishmael was not an Arab either. Ishmael was then raised in Makkah and married an Arab woman. Ishmael’s children married Arabs. Ishmael acquired the Arabic language and was the first among his people to speak Arabic at its best. God made Ishmael a Messenger to the many Arab tribes in that region. It is said that he died in Makkah, and was buried there in Al-Hijr, where his noble mother was buried.

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Chapter 12: PROPHET ISAAC (ISHAQ),
blessings and peace be upon him Isaac (Ishaq) is a Prophet of God, who is the son of a Prophet of God. Prophet Muhammad praised Isaac in a hadith. The Prophet said that Joseph (Yusuf) was a genuinely generous person, as was his father Jacob (Ya^qub), as was his father, Isaac (Ishaq), as was his father Abraham (Ibrahim). Our Prophet praised all four of these Prophets, saying that they were genuinely generous. They were the only four consecutive Prophets, (father, son, grandson, and great-grandson). Prophet Isaac was sent to the people of the Sham area (includes present day Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and Palestine). God revealed verse 113 of Suratus-Saffat. This verse means that God gave Abraham the good news of the coming of Isaac, and that he would be highly pious. God blessed Abraham, Isaac, and people from their children. God told that among their children were people who were fair to themselves, upright, and some were unfair to themselves and blasphemed. When the young Isaac grew, Prophet Abraham told his son that he liked for him to marry a relative of theirs. Isaac married his cousin, by the name of Rafqah, the daughter of Batwil. Although for some time Rafqah was barren, later she delivered for him male twins, ^Is and Ya^qub (Jacob). Isaac had asked God to let her have children, and God fulfilled the request of Isaac.

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It is stated that ^Is, the son of Isaac, married the daughter of Isma^il, who delivered a son named Ar-Rum. Some claim that the Romans are the descendants of this son. This is not a confirmed matter. Isaac is cited several times in the Holy Qur’an. In Surah Sad, 45-7 God confirmed the Prophethood of Isaac. Also, Isaac is cited in Suratun-Nisa’ and SuratulBaqarah. Isaac was a fine Prophet of God, conveying the message of goodness, like all the other Prophets. Isaac reminded the people of the purpose of this life. He taught them the rules of the great, true Religion of Islam. He told the people of Paradise for some and Hellfire for others, just as the other Prophets did. Isaac lived, preaching Islam, for 180 years. He died in the land of ash-Sham. He was buried next to his father in the same cave where Abraham and Sarah were buried, in Al-Khalil (Hebron), Palestine.

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Chapter 13: PROPHET SHU^AYB,
blessings and peace be upon him Shu^ayb is one of the Prophets of God who is cited ten times in the Qur'an. Aspects of the story of Shu^ayb are stated in verses 85-93 of Suratul-‘A^raf and verses 84-95 of Surah Hud. He was an Arab. Some scholars said that he was the son of Prophet Lot’s daughter. Others said that he was among the offspring of Prophet Abraham. One lineage given for Shu^ayb is the following: He is the son of Mikil, the son of Yashjar, the son of Madyan, the son of Abraham. (How could he be An Arab when he was the son of Abraham? Is Madyan a direct son of Abraham from other than Sarah? If true, was this woman an Arab?) God sent him to the people of Madyan. He lived among these people who knew him well. Despite living among them, Prophet Shu^ayb never participated in the evil practices that his people were committing. Then God gave him Revelation, and Prophet Shu^ayb called the people to Islam. Prophet Shu^ayb is Sent to Tree-Worshippers We know from the Qur’an that the people of Shu^ayb were called “ashabul-aykah,” which means “the people of the thick, heavy trees.” Out of extreme ignorance and blasphemy, they worshipped one big tree, which was in a grove of other trees. These people were very renowned 115

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traders. They spoke Arabic. They lived in Madyan, a city of the Hijaz, to the north of Madinah, close to the Gulf of ^Aqabah. This city of Madyan was close to the lake of the people of Prophet Lot. It is mentioned in the Qur’an in Surah Hud, verse 89, that the people of Lot were not far from the people of Madyan. As we said, according to a narration, the man Madyan (that the city is named after) was the son of Prophet Abraham. Madyan and his people were Muslim, worshipping God. Yet, after some time, the people of the region started to blaspheme and become evil. They got wealthy and gave up worshipping God. Their trading was extensive. They would go to Yemen, Syria, Iraq and Egypt. They built up a lot of wealth, through unfair dealings. When they made an agreement to sell an amount to another, they would give less than what they agreed. When they made an agreement to buy a certain amount, they would take more than agreed. In addition, they terrorized the travelers by waiting for a caravan to pass, then raiding it, taking the goods unrightfully. God made them rich, with this money taken unrightfully, and put them to the test. God made Shu^ayb, a person of their own people, a Prophet. Prophet Shu^ayb told them to stop worshipping that tree, and be Muslim, worshipping their Creator only. As well, Prophet Shu^ayb ordered them to give up gaining money in an unlawful way. Verse 84 in Surat Hud indicates that Prophet Shu^ayb advised his people to worship God only, and not to fall short in weighing while transacting. He confirmed that they lived well off and he feared a great

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torture would befall them. Very few people accepted the message of Prophet Shu^ayb and became Muslim. Prophet Shu^ayb Spoke Beautifully Prophet Shu^ayb advised his people, as stated in the Qur'an. Prophet Shu^ayb spoke and advised in such a good way that he was known as the 'orator of the Prophets'. He was articulate, elegant, and rich in his speech. Shu^ayb would say a short statement, yet it was full of meaning and impact. However, his people did not accept this richness, and indulged in injustice. Most of them walked away from belief, and exaggerated in injustice. They did not think that Shu^ayb had a powerful influence, due to the small number of people following him. In Surat Hud, verse 91, there is an indication that those people addressed Prophet Shu^ayb, telling him, “We find you weak among us; few people followed you in your Religion. If it were not for your tribe, we would have stoned you. You are a man that we do not regard as dear to us.” This verse neither means that they found him physically weak in a manner that people would humiliate him, nor that he had a defect or a handicap like blindness, etc., by which people would consider him weak as a result. The scholars of interpretation explained that it is not befitting to attribute physical weakness to the Prophets, as Abu Hayyan explained in his book ‘Al-Bahr al-Muhit’. Hence, the meaning of the word “da^ifan” in this verse of the Qur’an, which means “weak”, is that only a few 117

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people followed Shu^ayb in his Religion. Hence, the people called him “weak”. They told him, “If it was not for your tribe, we would have pelted you until death, because we do not hold ourselves from killing you personally. Rather, it is for the sake of your tribe that we did not kill you.” Consequently, they did not respond to him positively, although his words to them were among the most articulate of words, and the highest in meanings. His clarity and articulation was so strong, that even a dull person who lacked intelligence, as well as the intelligent people, could understand the meanings of his words. Still, his people would not listen to him. Verse 89 of Suratul-‘A^raf says that Prophet Shu^ayb told his people, “If we (he and his followers) were to embrace your (false) religion, then this would be injustice. May God save us from that”. Prophet Shu^ayb never followed the false religion of worshipping a tree. Prophet Shu^ayb was Muslim all his life, just like all the other Prophets. God Punishes Those Who Did not Follow Prophet Shu^ayb God hit them with an extreme heat that hindered their breathing. They went into their houses to escape the heat, but the heat followed them into their houses. They left their houses escaping towards the open woods. God sent a cloud that shaded them from the sun. They experienced coolness, and they felt relaxed. They called 118

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one another, until all of them gathered under that cloud. When they all gathered underneath it, God brought out of it a flaming fire that fell on them. Then Angel Gabriel screamed at them. All of them were destroyed. God protected Shu^ayb and those who were with him. This is the torture of "yawmudh-dhullah," (the day of the shade) which is cited in the Qur'an in the verse 189 of Suratush-Shu^ara'. We ask God, that we hear the good speech of Prophet Shu^ayb in the Hereafter.

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Chapter 14: PROPHET JACOB (YA^QUB),
blessings and peace be upon him Prophet Jacob (Ya^qub) is the son of Isaac (Ishaq), the son of Prophet Abraham (Ibrahim). Prophet Jacob is also The name Isra’il means called Isra’il (Israel). “^Abdullah” (the slave of God). Prophet Jacob married two sisters, who were his maternal cousins. They were two daughters of his uncle on his mother’s side. Marrying two sisters at the same time was permissible in his set of rules from God. (According to the rules given to Prophet Muhammad, men cannot marry two sisters at the same time.) Prophet Jacob had 12 sons total from these two wives and from two women slaves he owned. (Again, in the time of Prophet Jacob it was permissible for the man to have sexual intercourse with slave women whom he owned. From these twelve sons the twelve tribes of Israel came. Their names are Rubil, Sham^un, Lawi, Yahudha, Zabalun, Lashhar, Yusuf (Joseph), Binyamin (Benjamin), Dan, Naftali, Jad, and Ashar. All the children of Israel come from these twelve sons and their children. We tell more about Prophet Jacob, in the story of his son, Prophet Joseph (Yusuf).

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Chapter 15: PROPHET JOSEPH (YUSUF) and PROPHET BENJAMIN (BINYAMIN),
blessings and peace be upon them Joseph (Yusuf) and Benjamin (Binyamin) were brothers with the same mother. Their mother, Rahil, first had Joseph. Then she died giving birth to Benjamin. Jacob (Ya^qub) paid special attention to those two sons, Joseph and Benjamin, due to that they lost their mother, and that they had a high degree of obedience and good manners. The other ten brothers envied those two because of this special attention they received from their father. Jacob and his children lived in the country of Palestine. One time, when he was about 12 years old, Joseph saw a dream,. He saw the sun, moon and 11 stars were prostrating to him. Joseph told his father about his dream. Prophet Jacob told Joseph “Do not tell your brothers about this dream, so that they do not harm you out of envy. The devil is a severe enemy to the human.” Despite the warning of Prophet Jacob, the news of the dream got to Joseph’s brothers. When they got this news of the dream, this added to their envy and hatred for Joseph.

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Jealous Brothers These brothers discussed the matter, and said, “The son of Rahil wants leadership among us. This is why he said he had this dream.” Some wanted to kill him, but Yahudha said “No”. Then he took an oath from the brothers that they would not kill Joseph, but to take him to an open land and leave him there so he could not get back to their father. They went to their father and said, “Let Joseph come with us tomorrow, while we graze the animals. Joseph can play while we do that.” Prophet Jacob said, “I do not like Joseph to leave me. I fear if you take him that you would get busy, not paying attention to Joseph, and the wolf would eat Joseph.” The brothers kept insisting until Prophet Jacob sent Joseph along with them. Prophet Jacob thought if he said “No”, they would scheme more about Joseph. When they reached the open land, with a well, they threw Joseph to the ground and took off his shirt. Joseph asked innocently “Why did you take my shirt? I need it to cover my body. They said, “Why don’t you call the sun, the moon, and the 11 stars to help you and keep you company? They put him in the well. When he reached down, they let him go from the rope. Joseph fell to the bottom of the well. They did that wanting to kill Joseph, hoping that he would die as a result of the fall. However, the well had water in it, and Joseph did not die. At the base of the wells of that time, were cleaning platforms. Joseph got to and sat on that platform. God 122

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imparted the knowledge to Joseph that a day would come on which he would face his brothers again, without them even knowing that they were facing him. Then, the brothers called out to Joseph, checking to see if he died. Joseph hoped that it was a call of rescue, so he responded to them. Instead of helping Joseph, now that they knew he was alive, they threw stones at him. The brother who had originally said not to kill Joseph, stopped those brothers from that. This well is in Palestine and is called Jubb. After all of those ill deeds, the brothers stained Joseph’s shirt with the blood of a baby lamb. Then those brothers, in their plotting and scheming, decided to wait until the night to go to their father, Jacob, with the bloodstained shirt. They chose the nighttime, thinking that the darkness would conceal their lying to their father. They came to their father Jacob at night, crying and screaming. Jacob asked them why they were in that condition. They said, “We went to play and race. We left Joseph with our belongings. When we turned around and looked at Joseph, we saw that a wolf had eaten him and only his shirt was left.” They presented the shirt of Joseph to their honorable father. Prophet Jacob was very wise, and knew that they were lying. He looked at that bloody shirt, and saw it was not at all torn. Jacob told them wisely, “According to your story, how gentle that wolf was, that he would eat my son without ripping his shirt.” Jacob told them, “You have conspired, and did something which your selves desired, and I will be patient.” (Yusuf, 18)

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The Capture of Joseph It is cited that Joseph stayed in the well for three days waiting for the mercy of God. After those three days, a caravan passed by. One of the people in the caravan was nominated to fetch water from the well. He lowered his bucket into the well. When that occurred, Joseph hung on to the bucket, and the man pulled Joseph out of the well. That person was delighted because he found this beautiful young man alone. He wanted to carry Joseph to Egypt to sell him and get some money. He planned to claim that Joseph was a slave that he owned and then to sell him. When his comrades saw Joseph, they asked to go into partnership with him. They wanted to limit it to them, so the rest of the caravan would not get a share. They claimed that the custodians of the well had owned him and that they had asked them to take him to Egypt and sell him on their behalf. One of the brothers of Joseph returned to the well to give food to Joseph. This brother saw Joseph out of the well with that man. This brother went back to the other brothers and told them about this. All the brothers, except Benjamin, came to Joseph. They told the man that had Joseph, “This is a slave of ours that ran away.” They took money from the man (saying that they were selling Joseph to him). They took so little money from the man for Joseph, that it was not weighed. It was just counted and given. (Yusuf, 19-20)

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Then the caravan men took Joseph to Egypt. There, they put Joseph in the marketplace, where people bid for slaves. The people were amazed by the beauty of Joseph, and started competing a lot to get him. A very wealthy man there, by the name of Qutfir, bought Joseph. Qutfir had the title of “ the ^Aziz”. He was the treasurer of Egypt, controlling the resources and expenditures. The king of Egypt, that Qutfir was under, was Rayyan, the son of Walid. It is said that this king did not die until he believed in Joseph. When Qutfir brought Joseph to his house, he told his wife, “Be generous to him, so that he would be of benefit to us when he grows up. Maybe we would take him as a son.” It was claimed that this man Qutfir did not have sexual intercourse with women. Joseph stayed with them, with the people considering him to be an owned slave. God gave Prophet Joseph a lot of beauty. Prophet Muhammad said that he had “half of the beauty”. The wife of the ^Aziz was named Ra’il. It is also said that she had the name Zalikhah. Ra’il was very beautiful, with a high social status. She was very pleased to have Joseph, for she had no children. Joseph was privileged in the household. Qutfir made him in charge of all the servants of the house, and they bestowed a lot of generosity upon Joseph. God saved Joseph from the darkness of the well, and gave him a comfortable setting. A Woman Tries to Seduce After Joseph had grown into such a handsome man, Ra’il fell in love with him. She had an overwhelming 125

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desire to have a sexual affair with Joseph. It is reported that her husband had never had sexual intercourse with her. One day, with Joseph being about seventeen years of age, Ra’il made a plan. She dressed up and decorated herself, then shut the doors of a room with Joseph. She tried to seduce Joseph and get him to fornicate with her. Joseph said, “I seek refuge with God”. Joseph told her, “God generously gave me good mannerisms and I would never do such a thing with you. Those who are unjust will not succeed. This is abhorrent and serious injustice.” (Yusuf, 23) When he refused, she tried to hold on to him and force him to do the deed. God inspired Joseph to not fight with her, because if her clothes got torn, later people may see that, and believe that he attacked her. Instead Joseph turned from her, without fighting her, and ran to the door to leave. She grabbed him, and tore his shirt from the back. God preserved Prophet Joseph from committing this sin at the age of 17. After this incident, God bestowed Prophethood on Joseph at the age of 40. Prophets are protected from committing such a sin, before and after Prophethood. There is a verse in Suratu Yusuf that means, “If God had not protected Joseph from such sins (by making him a Prophet), he would have been swept into that sin”. Some bad interpreters lie about Prophet Joseph. In their ignorance and evil they accuse Prophet Joseph of having loosened his pants and wanting to do the sin, but that then he saw his father biting on his fingers prohibiting him from that. Then they say, due to that, 126

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that Joseph did not complete the act. This is a big lie about Joseph. A good scholar named Abu Hayyan wrote a book called “Al-Bahrul-Muhit”. In it this scholar vehemently denounced those who put forth this lie about Joseph. He said, “It is not permissible to accuse someone unrightfully of an enormous sin. Joseph did not attempt this sin at all. As stated in the verse, God protected Joseph from even wanting to do such a sin. Those sayings which people attribute to the Salaf (the followers of Prophet Muhammad of the first 300 years of this nation), claiming that Joseph did this, are fabrications, and none of it is valid. These stories are lies. These accusations that they make against Joseph, if made against another Muslim, would degrade a Muslim who does commit enormous sins. What about saying these things about a Muslim who became a Prophet? Prophets are impeccable, and never commit such sins.” While in the situation of having his shirt torn, and trying to escape, Qutfir opened the door and saw the scene. Quickly Ra’il said, “This man Joseph wanted to commit fornication with your wife. I pushed him away and I tore his shirt. What would you do with him (implying that Joseph deserves punishment)?” Joseph said, “No, rather she tried to seduce me! I refused and I went to the door to get away from her. She caught up with me and tore my shirt.” The cousin of the ^Aziz was with him. This cousin said, “If Joseph’s shirt is torn from the front, she is truthful and Joseph is a liar. If it is torn from behind, then he is truthful and she is a liar.” (Yusuf, 26)

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According to another narration, it was a small babe that spoke those words, a family member of Ra’il. The ^Aziz saw that Joseph’s shirt was torn from the back. Qutfir knew that the news of this incident leaking out to the public would be very embarrassing for all three of them. Then the ^Aziz said to his wife, “This is a result of the scheming that most of the women do. You accused Joseph in order to cover up your own bad deed. Ask forgiveness of your sin. You were sinful.” Then Qutfir said to Joseph, “O Joseph, do not mention this to anyone”. Nonetheless, some of the news of this incident got to the women friends of the wife of the ^Aziz and the women started to talk about the incident. The women mocked Ra’il, due to that she lusted after one whom they thought was a young, lowly slave. They had not seen Joseph yet. The wife of the ^Aziz got news of this whispering of her women friends. Ra’il wanted to pay them back for their gossip. The wife of the ^Aziz got the idea to invite these women to her home. She prepared a sitting place for the women and gave them fruits and knives. When the women started cutting the fruits, the wife of the ^Aziz had Joseph come into the room with the women. When they looked up and saw his beauty, they became so entranced that they began to cut their hands with the knives without noticing. They exclaimed, “This is not a human, but a generous angel!” At that, the wife of the ^Aziz told them, “This is the man about whom you blame me. I tried to seduce him, but he refused.”

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Joseph is Put in Prison Unjustly Then the wife of the ^Aziz, out of evil plotting, said, “If Joseph does not do what I order him to do, I will have him put in prison”. Joseph said, “The prison is more dear to me than sinning.” Joseph made supplication (du^a’) to God to relieve him from the scheming of the women, and to make him pure from sin. God fulfilled Joseph’s supplication. Then, Ra’il said to her husband, the ^Aziz, again lying, “Joseph, this Hebrew slave, made me scandalous among the people, because he spoke about the incident of attempted seduction. Imprison him!” Although the ^Aziz had liked Joseph, he wanted the accusations against his wife to settle down. Hence, Qutfir had Joseph imprisoned for no valid reason. Immediately, Joseph started to show his excellence to the people in the prison. Everyone was impressed with his good manners, sincerity, trustworthiness, and beauty. Two young men, among those who accompanied the king of that time went to prison with Prophet Joseph. One of the men was a baker for the king and the other prepared the drinks for the king. Those two men had been put in prison due to being accused of trying to poison the king. These two men saw the worship of God that Joseph performed in prison, and Joseph gained their trust. Then, the two men found out that Joseph had been granted the knowledge of the interpretation of dreams. Each of these men had seen a dream, and both asked Joseph to explain the meaning of their dreams. Prophet Joseph did not immediately interpret their dreams. 129

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Rather, he took the opportunity to talk to them about Islam first. (Yusuf, 38) He called them to the correct belief in God and His Messengers. Joseph ordered them to worship God alone and not to worship other than God. Then Joseph explained the meaning of their dreams. The baker had seen himself in the dream with three baskets on his head, and birds were eating from the top basket. The one who prepared drinks had seen three grape vines in his dream, and he was squeezing juice from those vines. Joseph said to the one who saw the grape vines, “You will get out of prison. After three days the king will send for you and give you back your job.” Joseph said to the baker, “As for you, after three days the king will send for you, crucify you, and the birds will eat from your head.” This is the meaning of what God made them see in their dreams. (Yusuf, 41) Joseph told the man who saw that he would be released from prison, “When you get released, tell the king about me and that I am imprisoned unjustly”. When that man was released from prison, the devil made him forget to mention Joseph to the king. Hence, Prophet Joseph stayed in prison for seven more years. The Dreams of the King One day the king saw two dreams in one night that made him disturbed and scared. The king had seen seven fat cows coming out from the side of the sea, being

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swallowed by seven thin, weak cows. The king awoke, but then slept again. He saw seven green wheat plants and seven that were dry. The seven dry wheat plants also swallowed the seven green wheat plants. When the king awoke from those dreams, he looked to find someone who could satisfy him as to the meaning of these disturbing dreams. All his advisors could not explain the dreams. The one in charge of drinks heard of these dreams, and finally remembered Joseph. He said, “I can get you the interpretation of your dreams. This is not through my knowledge, but I know someone who knows the interpretation of dreams. Send me to him”. The drink pourer had asked to be sent to Prophet Joseph in the prison. The king had this drink pourer sent to Joseph in the prison. The man told Joseph the dreams. Joseph told the man the meaning of the dreams. Joseph said, “It means that there will be seven fertile years, with rain and good crops. You will plant every year in this seven years. Hence, leave the wheat grains in the heads, except for the amount that you need for eating. By doing this, the wheat will be preserved. Store it. Then seven years of infertility will come. You need to start eating the stored food, eating first that which was oldest. Most of what you have stored will be consumed. After that, a year of rain will come, and the trees will bear fruits. You will squeeze the juice from these fruits.” (Hajj Riad said: This is a method of wheat storage being taught nowadays. ASK H R) When the drink pourer went back to the king and told the king Joseph’s interpretation, he felt in his heart that 131

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what Joseph said was true. The Pharaoh said, “Bring that man to me”. When the messenger of the king came to Joseph, to bring Joseph to the king, Joseph did not go at first. Joseph wanted to meet the king, with the king totally convinced ahead of time of his innocence. (Yusuf, 51) Joseph said to the messenger, “Go back to your king and ask him about the story of the women who cut their hands. Have the king look into this story and know if I was imprisoned rightfully or unrightfully.” The king called those women who had cut their hands. He asked them, “What is your story? What had happened? (Yusuf, 51) They said, “By God, we did not see any wrong doing from Joseph.” Those women openly declared that Joseph was clear of what he was accused. When the wife of the Aziz saw that God saved Joseph, and that Joseph was now important to the king, she confessed. She said, “Now the truth has appeared and it stands out clearly. I tried to seduce Joseph. He did not do anything to me.” Joseph is Freed from the Prison, Cleared of the Accusations The king then knew the truth of the matter of Joseph. The king was convinced that Joseph was innocent. The king said, “Bring Joseph to me and he will benefit me”. When Joseph arrived, the king said, “You have a high and deep rooted status with us. We have seen great manners from you and you are trustworthy.” The king wanted Joseph close to him. 132

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Prophet Joseph said, “Make me the treasurer over the treasures of Egypt.” He asked for this office to implement the rules revealed by God and to rule in a just manner. He did not ask for it to show off, or for its prestige. The king assigned Joseph with that responsibility and discharged the ^Aziz, Qutfir. Joseph is the Treasurer of Egypt Joseph, in his powerful position, invited the people of Egypt to Islam. Many people accepted, and he was well loved by the people. Their love for Joseph increased when they saw how well he filled his position. Joseph was just, applying the rules of the Religion. The king himself, at the hands of Joseph, embraced Islam, as was cited by Mujahid , the student of Ibn ^Abbas. When the seven fertile years came, Joseph stored the wheat, as he had advised the king to do. Then the seven years of drought came to Egypt and other areas as well. The drought affected the area of Ash-Sham, where Prophet Jacob and his sons were living. The word spread to the land of Jacob that in Egypt there was food available, under the charge of a kind, just treasurer. The Brothers Come to Egypt Prophet Jacob sent his sons to Egypt to buy food. However he kept Benjamin with him. The sons of Jacob went from Ash-Sham to Egypt to buy food from this just treasurer. These sons did not have an idea that this

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treasurer was their brother Joseph. When the brothers came to Joseph, Joseph recognized his brothers, but they did not recognize him. Prophet Joseph made the brothers feel comfortable. He talked with them, and managed to learn from his brothers that they had a brother named Benjamin who stayed back with their father. Joseph started encouraging them to go back to Ash-Sham, and then come back to Egypt, and to bring their brother Benjamin. Emphasizing how accurate he was with his transactions with them, he promised that if they did not bring their brother with them, he would not give them food in the future. Before the brothers left Egypt to go back to their father with the food they purchased, Joseph ordered the servants to put the money, which his brothers had paid, back in their luggage without them knowing. Prophet Joseph hoped that his brothers would like this surprise and come back. When the sons returned to their father Jacob, they told him about what had happened. Of course, they did not say they met Joseph, because they still did not know that they had met him. They told their father how the just treasurer wanted to meet their brother Benjamin. Their father, Jacob, said to them, “How could I entrust you with Benjamin when I entrusted you with Joseph before and Joseph did not return?” Then they opened their luggage and found the money, which they had paid. They told their father, “We have met the best of men! Send our brother with us, so we can go to that man again. We shall protect our brother. We

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will bring the food to our people. We will gain one more animal load as well, for the animal of Benjamin will enable us to bring more food”. The Brothers’ Second Trip to Egypt Prophet Jacob sent Benjamin with them on their second trip to Egypt after he took their promises that they would protect him. The only justification for not bringing back Benjamin would be if they all were defeated at once. Prophet Jacob told his sons that they should enter Egypt from separate gates, and not all together. This was to avoid being hit by the evil eye. They were beautiful in appearance, and the sight of all of those beautiful sons together could make for envy among the people. The brothers went back to Egypt with Benjamin. They went back to Prophet Joseph, and showed Joseph that now they had also brought their brother Benjamin. Joseph fed them and made them feel comfortable. They were to sleep at the home of Joseph. Joseph wanted to talk to Benjamin privately. So, he made the accommodations arranged a certain way. Joseph gave them mattresses to sleep on that were for two men. Since there were 11 of them, one would be by himself. Hence, Joseph said, “Let Benjamin sleep in my quarters, for he does not have a space to sleep.” When in the quarters of Joseph, Joseph began to talk privately to Benjamin. Joseph managed to get Benjamin to tell that he had another brother that did not come with them from Ash-Sham. Benjamin thought that his brother 135

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Joseph had died. At that, Joseph revealed to Benjamin that he was his brother Joseph. Joseph loaded the camels of the brothers with food and put the jeweled cup of the king in the luggage of Benjamin, after Joseph told Benjamin that he would do it. When the brothers were leaving, and it was known that the king’s special cup was lost. Some of the servants of Joseph and those who worked for him went after the brothers of Joseph. They said, “You are thieves”. The brothers rejected that accusation saying, “We did not come to your land to do evil”. Joseph said, “What would be your punishment if you were liars?” They said, “You should take as a slave the person with whom you find the king’s cup.” (Yusuf, 76) They looked for the cup and found it among the things of Benjamin.2 The brothers said, “If Benjamin has stolen, then also his brother before him (Joseph) stole.” The brothers were quick to believe that Benjamin did something unjust, as they still believed that Joseph had been unjust in the past. The brothers did not practice thinking well about these two honorable brothers. The brothers could have said, “Benjamin would not do such a thing. There is some mistake here”. Instead the brothers quickly accepted the idea of Benjamin doing some wrong thing. They still accepted to think that Joseph had stolen long ago, which was not the case. The real story about Joseph, and why they thought that he stole, is as follows:

The answer the brothers gave enabled Joseph to keep his brother. According to the King’s law, Benjamin would be beaten and fined.

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Joseph, when he was young, was with his aunt who was taking care of him. Jacob wanted to take Joseph. Out of her strong love for Joseph, she did not give him up. This aunt had something, which belonged to her father, Prophet Isaac. She tied it on Joseph, underneath his clothing. Then she said, “Where is that thing, I cannot find it?” When they looked for it they found it in Joseph’s clothing, as she tied it there. In the rules revealed back then, the victim of thievery could keep thieves as their slaves working for them. The aunt kept Joseph with her until she died. This is the meaning of the brother's statement that if Benjamin stole, his brother Joseph had stolen before. When the brothers realized that they could not bring their brother back with them, they told Joseph, “Set Benjamin free and keep one of us in his place instead.” Joseph refused. The oldest brother, Rubil, said, “I shall not leave this place until my father permits me to leave or God endows on me an excuse to leave.” The other brothers went back to their father and told him about what had happened. Jacob felt severely sad about all this (Yusuf, 83) and as a result of his extreme sadness, he cried a lot to the point that he lost his sight. When Prophet Jacob had lost Joseph, the same thing had happened. Prophet Jacob had temporarily lost his sight, out of crying, and then he regained his sight. The Prophets of God are not permanently blind. When the sons saw their father crying again, this time due to the loss of Benjamin, they showed their harshness to their father. The told their father, “Are you going to get so sad now, just like you did when you lost Joseph?” 137

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(Yusuf, 86-87) Jacob told them to go back and get news about their brother Benjamin and not to lose hope of the mercy of God. The Brothers’ Third Trip to Egypt The brothers wanted to get more food from Egypt. They brought along with them inferior merchandise to exchange for wheat. Only some of the brothers went to Egypt on this trip. When they arrived to Joseph, they said to him, “We know that this merchandise of ours will not buy much wheat. Yet, we plead with you to grant us wheat. We also plead that you set our brother Benjamin free, because our father is heartbroken”. When Joseph heard their story, and that his father Jacob had lost his sight from crying over the loss of his son, Prophet Joseph started to cry out of sadness for his people. At this, Prophet Joseph removed the cover over his honorable forehead, and revealed to them that he was their brother Joseph. He asked them in a reprimand, “You were so unkind to our father, and it is so bad to deprive people of their rights. Do you know what you did with Joseph and his brother Benjamin unjustly?” When Joseph said these words, they knew that he was really their brother Joseph. They said, “It is you, Joseph!” He said, “I am Joseph, and this is my brother Benjamin. This is the outcome for those who are God-fearing. They will be rewarded for being steadfast to Islam. God blessed us by bringing us back together.” 138

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At that point, God softened the hearts of those brothers and they apologized to Joseph. They said, “By God, God gave you merit over us and we were wrong.” They expressed their repentance. God had made Joseph now in a position of great power over his brothers. Despite all the power that Joseph now had, Joseph did not retaliate against his brothers. God praised those people in a position to revenge, who instead refrain from vengeance against the believers. These pious people are occupied with praising God, remembering the Day of Judgment. They do not find satisfaction in vengeance against the believers. Prophet Joseph told his brothers, “I will not punish you today. I ask God to forgive you”. Joseph said, “Take this shirt of mine and put it on the face of our father. His sight will be restored. Then come back to Egypt, bringing back with you all of our people”. Yahudha said, “Let me bring our father this blessed shirt, especially since I was the one who brought the other shirt to him so long ago. I lied to my father, saying that the wolf had eaten you. Now let me make my father delighted, as I made him sad before.” It is narrated that Yahudha was so eager to take this shirt that he ran off to Ash-Sham with the shirt while he was bare-foot. The other brothers followed after Yahudha in the caravan. When the caravan of the brothers left the boundaries of Egypt, the wind carried the scent of Joseph to his father Jacob, despite that being 80 farsakhs (~240 km). Jacob said, “I can smell the scent of Joseph. I think that I will be with him soon.” The people around Jacob said, “Are you still heartbroken about being separated from

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Joseph? Jacob told them, “I have a knowledge from God that you do not have.” (Yusuf, 94-96) When the brothers arrived with the shirt, they put it on Jacob’s face and Jacob regained his sight. Jacob told them, “Didn’t I tell you that I know from God that which you do not know?” (Jacob was remembering that dream which Joseph saw long ago when he was young). The brothers who had stayed with their father, repented to God also, when they saw the shirt of Joseph and heard the news from the other brothers that Joseph was still alive. Those brothers said to their father, Prophet Jacob, “Ask God to forgive us”. Prophet Jacob said that he would. Prophet Joseph is Re-united with His Blessed Father Prophet Joseph sent 4000 soldiers to escort his family from Palestine to Egypt. Then Jacob, his wife, and his sons traveled to Egypt. Also, 63 other members of the family traveled with them. When the family got close to Egypt, Joseph went out to receive his father and family. The people of Egypt did the same. When they came in, Joseph was very generous to his father, Prophet Jacob, and Jacob’s wife. Prophet Joseph invited his father to come onto the royal platform. Jacob, his wife and the brothers prostrated to Joseph (out of respect and salutation, not worship), putting their foreheads on the floor. This was allowed during their time according to the rules that God revealed to them.

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Joseph said to his father, “This is the meaning of my dream (the sun, moon and 11 stars prostrated to me)”. Between the dream, and the exposing of its explanation there were 40 years. This means that Prophet Joseph was about 52 years old when his father came to Egypt. It is narrated that eventually Prophet Joseph became the ruler of that area of Egypt, with a king over his position. There is a narration that Joseph lived for 23 years after his father came to Egypt. Another narration says that Joseph lived 110 years after that. Our master Jacob stayed in Egypt and died there. Jacob had left a will to be buried where his father was buried. Prophet Joseph carried out his will. He went to Hebron (AlKhalil), in Palestine, and buried him there where Abraham and Isaac had been buried. Joseph also left a will to be buried with his parents. It is narrated that Prophet Joseph died 361 years after the birth of his greatgrandfather, Prophet Abraham. Prophet Moses later on carried out the will of Joseph. Prophet Moses took Joseph out of Egypt and buried him with his parents. This happened many years after the death of Joseph. Here, we draw your attention to some important matter. After knowing what the brothers of Joseph did to Joseph, among all their ill doings, it is not permissible to say that those brothers were Prophets. They hid their brother, were unjust to him, and they harmed him. Also they confronted their father, who was also a Prophet, with dispraise and harsh words, which is blasphemy, as it is stated in a verse of the Qur’an. Even though the brothers repented, still God would not make those brothers Prophets. Benjamin did not do 141

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all those bad things that the other brothers did. It is famous that Benjamin was a Prophet of God. From those brothers, though, came children from among their offspring who were Prophets. They are “Al-Asbat” referred to in the Qur’an. We ask God to enable us to meet Prophet Joseph and his father Jacob in the Hereafter.

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Chapter 16: PROPHET JOB (AYYUB),
blessings and peace be upon him Prophet Job (Ayyub) is a Prophet who is cited in the Qur’an. His name is Ayyub Ibn Mus. His wife was from the children of Jacob. Prophet Job had a lot of property in the land of Ash-Sham, money, livestock, and many children and servants. Prophet Job was thankful to God for all these endowments upon him. Job called the people to worship God only. He ordered the people with the good acts and forbade them from committing sinful acts. The Afflictions upon Prophet Job Then, God afflicted Prophet Job by making him lose all his money. Then, all his children died. Then, Job became ill with a very severe sickness that remained for 18 years. God did not tell us in the Qur’an what the sickness was, nor did our Prophet tell us. However, it is known that it was an extreme sickness that did not make Prophet Job repulsive to the people. No Prophet had a repulsive illness that would drive the people away from him. This illness did not cause worms to emerge from his body, as some said, nor did his flesh fall off of his body as some claim. All of that is repulsive and does not occur to a Prophet. Also, Prophet Job was not dumped on garbage for seven years as some Jews said. 143

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Job was inflicted with this severe illness for so long, that his patience with his illness became famous. People would say, “This requires the patience of Job,” using him as an example of a patient person. The Patient Wife of Job The people got tired with serving Job through this extremely long illness, except his wife who remained patient with him. One day, she could not find anything to feed her husband. She did something that she should not have done. She cut her hair and sold it to the wife of a rich man. Job’s wife used that money to buy food for Prophet Job. When she offered the food to her husband Job, he asked her, “From where did you get the money to buy this food?” Job’s wife said, “Do not ask, and just eat”. However, Prophet Job insisted to know from where she got the money. Then, she told her husband Job how she had cut her hair and had sold it to buy that food. Prophet Job became angry with her, for the sake of God. It was forbidden in the rules of Prophet Job, as it is forbidden in the rules now, for a woman to cut her hair and sell it to someone who will use that hair to braid it into her own hair. Both the one who sells it and the one who buys it and uses it are sinful. Prophet Muhammad said that in a hadith. Prophet Job swore that when he got cured from his sickness, that he would whip his wife one hundred lashes because of her doing this. A man who used to visit Prophet Job apostatized. The devil whispered to him that Prophets are not hit with 144

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afflictions. Hence, this man believed Prophet Job must have committed an enormous sin. Prophet Job was very sad concerning the apostasy of this man. Then Prophet Job asked God to cure him, and God gave the cure. One day, after eighteen years of sickness, Prophet Job left for an errand. He met an angel who ordered Prophet Job to strike the ground with his foot. Prophet Job did so and water sprang out of the ground. The angel told him to bathe with the water and drink from it. Prophet Job did so and became healthy, as he had been before. As well, God made Prophet Job youthful again. Prophet Job’s wife became worried due to the length of time Job was away. She went out to look for him. When Job’s wife saw him, she did not recognize him with his youthful appearance. She asked him, “O slave of God, have you seen the Prophet of God, the one who is inflicted with illness? You resemble him greatly.” Prophet Job told her, “It is I”. Then she recognized her husband. God also made Job’s wife youthful again, as a reward for her patience with the illness of her honorable husband. God gave them a great amount of money and more than 20 children. Concerning the oath that Prophet Job made to lash his wife when he was cured, God revealed something that made it easy on the wife. God revealed to Prophet Job to take a palm branch with 100 leaves and to strike his wife with it once. This would fulfill his vow. God ordered that as a reward to the wife of Job for being so patient with her husband’s illness. It was narrated that Prophet Job died at the age of 93 years. There was a man called Al-Mukhshabiyy who said something wrong about Prophet Job. He said that 145

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Prophet Job got inflicted with the illness because he obeyed the devil. This is a false statement and a Prophet would never obey the devil. Praise to God, the One Who enabled us to narrate the true story of the honorable Prophet Job.

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Chapter 17: PROPHET EZEKIEL (DHUL-KIFL),
blessings and peace be upon him As for the Prophet Ezekiel (Dhul-Kifl), there is great difference in opinion concerning him, among the scholars. Even concerning who his father was, and were he was raised, there are different sayings. Some said that he was Bishr, the son of Job. God made him a Prophet after his father. Allah ordered him to call people to worship God only. He lived most of his life in ash-Sham area. He died at the age of 75. Others said that he was not a Prophet but instead a righteous man. Some said that he committed himself to performing one hundred rak^ahs every day. This is why he was called Dhul-Kifl.3 It was cited that he took it upon himself before one of the Prophets that he would establish justice among his people. The verses of the Qur’an indicate that he was a Prophet, since his name is cited along with the names of other Prophets (Al-Ambiya’ 85-86; Sad, 48).

3

The word “kifl” indicates committing oneself to do something.

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Chapter 18: PROPHET JONAH (YUNUS),
blessings and peace be upon him Prophet Jonah (Yunus) is “Yunus Ibnu Matta”. He is from the city of Ninawa, a city next to Mosul, in Iraq. Prophet Jonah is cited in the Qur’an. Jonah’s people used to worship idols. He called them to worship God, but they did not obey him. Jonah warned them that a major torture would befall them, if they did not believe. Jonah left his city angry with his people. However he left before it was revealed to him to leave his city. While away, the torture approached the city. The people saw it. They made supplication to God and expressed true repentance. God lifted that torture from them. As for Prophet Jonah, when leaving his people, he met people on a ship. When this ship went a certain distance in the sea, it stopped. The people said that this vessel was not moving due to the presence of a particular person. They said, “We are going to put the name of each person on an arrow, and throw them in the water. The arrow that floats has the name of the person who is causing our ship not to move.” They did this throwing three times and every time the arrow with the name of Prophet Jonah on it was the one that floated.

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Prophet Jonah is Swallowed by a Whale Then they all agreed to throw Prophet Jonah in the sea, and they did. A whale in that sea swallowed Prophet Jonah without chewing him. Prophet Jonah stayed in the stomach of the whale, praising God. He was in three darknesses: the darkness of the night, the darkness of the sea, and the darkness of the interior of that whale. Prophet Jonah said, “O God, there is no God but You. You are clear of non-befitting attributes. I did injustice to myself by leaving my people before receiving permission from You.” Jonah’s statement is cited in verse 87 of Suratul-Ambiya’. Jonah’s deed was not blasphemy, a great sin, or a small sin with meanness. Like all the other Prophets of God, Jonah never committed any of these, both before and after Prophethood. Had Jonah not been a pious Muslim, who worshipped God constantly, he would have remained inside the whale until the Day of Judgment. However he was a noble Prophet, and God rescued him from the whale. The correct worship has secrets and blessings, and the stories of the Prophets bring many lessons for the one who is pensive about them. The whale spat out Prophet Jonah on land in part of Iraq. Prophet Jonah had become sick. God made a pumpkin grow. Prophet Jonah ate from that and shaded himself with the huge foliage of the plant. The pumpkin has many merits: it grows quickly, its leaves are wide and

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are good for shading, flies do not come near it, the fruit is nourishing, and it is edible whether cooked or raw. Prophet Jonah became cured from his sickness and God ordered him to return to his people. They were 100,000 or more people and Jonah stayed among them, guiding and teaching them, as all the honorable Prophets did. Prophet Muhammad said, “Do not give me merit above Prophet Jonah, the son of Matta”, as narrated by Muslim. Some scholars said that our Prophet said this before he received Revelation that he was the best of the Prophets. When it was revealed to Prophet Muhammad that he was the best of the Prophets, Prophet Muhammad then said about himself, “I am the best of the sons of Adam. I do not say this out of boasting and arrogance”. Others said that the first saying of our Prophet means, “Do not give me merit above Jonah in a manner which degrades Prophet Jonah”. The Imam of al-Haramayn, alJuwayniyy said, “Do not think that because Prophet Muhammad went up through the seven heavens and above, and Prophet Jonah went down in the sea of this Earth, that this means that Prophet Muhammad was closer to God, by distance, than Prophet Jonah, because God exists with being in a place.”

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Chapter 19: PROPHET AL-KHADIR,
blessings and peace be upon him The name of Al-Khadir is Balya, the son of Malkan, from the children of Sam the son of Noah. His kunyah (a name generally saying that he is the father of his first son) is Abul-^Abbas. He was called Al-Khadir (the one who makes things green) because he sat on a piece of bare land and it became green with plants. The life of Al-Khadir is very long. It is said that he was a leader at the front of the army of Dhul-Qarnayn, the pious Muslim who trapped the two evil tribes of Gog and Magog (Ya’juj and Ma’juj). Al-Khadir reached a source of water called the water of life. Al-Khadir drank from this water and God made his life long, as God willed eternally. There is a difference among the scholars about the status of Al-Khadir. Some scholars said that Al-Khadir is a Prophet and Messenger; some said that he is a Prophet and not a Messenger. Others said that he is not a Prophet, but is a waliyy (a righteous follower of a Prophet). The saying with the most weight is that AlKhadir is a Prophet. The reason that it is most probable that Al-Khadir is a Prophet is due to a conversation Prophet Moses had with Al-Khadir. Prophet Moses asked Al-Khadir, “How did you know that I am Moses?” Al-Khadir responded, “The One Who made you know that I am Al-Khadir, also made me know that you are Moses”. This saying of Al-Khadir carries a sign that Al-Khadir receives Revelation. Al151

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Khadir received special orders from God that surprised Prophet Moses. Prophet Al-Khadir has a very Long Life Most of the scholars say that Al-Khadir is still alive and lives on Earth. A Shaykh named ^Amr Ibnus-Salah said that Al-Khadir was alive, and the Muslims at large joined with him in that belief. An-Nawawiyy and others said the same. As said, and cited in the Qur’an, AlKhadir is the pious slave who met with Prophet Moses. Once a person told Ibn ^Abbas, “A person claims that Prophet Moses is not the same Moses in the story of Moses and Al-Khadir (in Suratul-Kahf)”. Ibn ^Abbas said, “This is wrong.” Then Ibn ^Abbas narrated a long story. We narrate this story in the chapter about Prophet Moses (Musa). Some say that the man that Prophet Muhammad said would be killed by Ad-Dajjal was Prophet Al-Khadir. If confirmed, then it is another support for those who say that Prophet Al-Khadir is still alive. This is so, because that event of Ad-Dajjal sawing a man in half has not happened yet. It is said that mostly Al-Khadir stays on the water. Many of the pious salaf and khalaf met with Al-Khadir and benefited from him.4
4

Once, there was a judge in Lebanon who now has died, named Shaykh Muhyiddin al-^Ajuz. He openly narrated that the great Shaykh of our time, ^Abdullah al-Harariyy (who is still alive) had met with Al-Khadir, peace be

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The Story of a Pious Man Meeting Al-Khadir It was related that long ago a pious man named Bilal Al-Khawwas was walking in the place where the Children of Israel had been lost for 40 years. Suddenly he found a man walking with him. It occurred to Bilal that the man next to him was Al-Khadir. This man said to Bilal, “What do you say about Malik the son of Anas?” Bilal said, “He is the leader of the imams of this nation (Imamul-a’immah).” Then the man asked him about ashShafi^iyy. Bilal said, “He is among the high ones of the Awliya’ (Awtad).” He asked about Ahmad Ibn Hambal and Bilal said, “He is Siddiq” (a high status). He asked him about Bishr al-Hafi, and Bilal said, “There is no one like him after him”. Bilal asked, “Who are you”. The man said, “I am AlKhadir.” Bilal asked, “What is it that I did to earn seeing you?” Al-Khadir said, “It is due to your being so good to your mother.” Then Al-Khadir was gone. Bilal said, “I turned around and did not find Al-Khadir any more.” Similar to that there are many narrations about other pious people meeting Al-Khadir, including the pious Caliph of the 100th Islamic year, ^Umar ibn ^Abdil-^Aziz. These reports are sound narrations.

upon him. Shaykh Samir al-Qadi of Lebanon heard this from this judge. Some people told Shaykh Samir al-Qadi that Shaykh ^Abdullah al-Harariyy went somewhere and Al-Khadir surprised our Shaykh by being there. God knows best about the truth of this. This is something which is not far fetched considering Shaykh ^Abdullah al-Harariyy and his piety, we ask God to protect him. (Should this be kept?)

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Chapter 20: PROPHETS MOSES (MUSA) and AARON (HARUN),
blessings and peace be upon them Later, well after the death of Prophet Joseph, Egypt began to be ruled by an evil Pharaoh who was deeply blasphemous and evil. This evil Pharaoh was cited several times in the Holy Qur’an as an example of an extremely evil type of human, whom we must hate, and not imitate. The offspring of Prophet Israel (Jacob) continued to live in Egypt after the death of Jacob and his son, Prophet Joseph. The offspring of Jacob and his twelve sons are known as “The Children of Israel” with ‘Israel’ meaning Prophet Jacob, and not the place nowadays. This evil Pharaoh hated the Children of Israel in his country, and treated them as slaves, torturing and humiliating them. The Children of Israel spoke the Hebrew language. Pharaoh saw a dream one night that a fire came from Jerusalem and burnt the houses of the Egyptians, but spared those of the Children of Israel. After he woke up, the Pharaoh gathered his astrologers and sorcerers who told him that his dream meant that his reign would perish at the hands of a child born to one of the Children of Israel. Hence, the Pharaoh decided to kill all the baby boys of the Children of Israel. The Pharaoh was advised that if he killed all the baby boys, then soon they would run out of strong slaves to do their work. Hence, the

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Pharaoh proclaimed that every other year all the baby boys of the Children of Israel would be killed. A woman of the Children of Israel gave birth to a boy named Aaron (Harun), on the year that the boys were not killed, but she gave birth to a dear baby boy, named Moses (Musa) in a year that the baby boys were being killed. God inspired the mother of Moses to put the baby Moses in a basket and put the basket in the Nile River. God threw in her heart that she should not worry and that her little son would come back to her and would become a Messenger of God. A member of the household of the Pharaoh found the basket carrying little baby Moses, and pulled it from the river and brought him to the palace. The wife of the Pharaoh, Asiyah, was a kind-hearted woman. She begged her husband not to kill this baby. She said that they might benefit from him. Asiyah said that even they may adopt him as a son. The heart of the mother of Moses had longed for him. God strengthen her heart and inspired her to tell Moses’ sister to secretly follow the basket and see what would happen to it, so that her heart could be encouraged. Moses’ sister saw that her brother had been taken into the household of the Pharaoh. She also got news that her brother would not nurse from any of the wet nurses brought to him. Moses’ sister came forward and said, “I can lead you to a woman who would be able to feed him!” The people at the palace agreed. Moses’ sister led them to Moses’ mother, without telling them who the woman was. When

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Moses’ mother took him, Moses nursed from her breast. Hence, the household of the Pharaoh made the mother of Moses the “wet-nurse” of Moses. God returned Moses to his mother, which delighted her. The name of the mother of Moses was “Yuhanidh”. The people started to call Moses “The son of Pharaoh”. When Moses started to be of an age when he did not need to nurse and could move about, the mother of Moses brought Moses back to Asiyah in the palace. When Moses was playing with Asiyah, Asiyah handed him to Pharaoh. When Pharaoh took Moses, Moses grabbed the beard of Pharaoh and pulled out some of the hair. The Pharaoh was so angry with this that he wanted to kill Moses. Asiyah started to sooth the Pharaoh’s anger by saying, “He is so young. He does not understand what he is doing!” The Pharaoh remained very angry. Asiyah had to think of an extreme measure in order to save Moses from being killed by the evil Pharaoh. She had the servants bring a date and a burning coal. Asiyah told Pharaoh, “If the boy reaches for the date, he knows what he is doing, so kill him. However if, when given the choice of the two, he chooses the burning coal, then this is a proof that the child does not know what he is doing”. God inspired Moses to reach for the burning coal and placed it immediately inside his mouth. This coal burned the tongue of the little Moses. This burn from the coal left a light effect on the tongue of Moses, but not to the extent that it impeded the speech of Moses, or made him alter the true sound of letters when he spoke. No Prophet would be unable to express himself properly.

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The meaning of the verses in Surah Taha, 27 and 28, is that Moses asked God to cure him of the light effect of this injury to his tongue. It does not mean, as some say, that Moses could not speak properly and people could not understand him. Moses grew up in the palace of Pharaoh. God gave help to the Children of Israel through Moses. He helped and protected them from injustice by the followers of Pharaoh. A Man is Killed One day Moses entered Manf, a place in Egypt. It was the mid-day when the sun was very hot. It was the time of the siesta, with most people napping. The streets were empty. Moses passed by two men fighting, one from the Children of Israel and one from the followers of Pharaoh. The Israelite sought the help of Prophet Moses. Prophet Moses came and punched that follower of Pharaoh, not intending to kill him, but instead to stop him. Surprisingly the disbeliever died. According to one saying, God had already bestowed Prophethood on Moses when that event occurred. Verses 15 and 16 from Suratul-Qasas indicate that Prophet Moses did not approve of what he did, because he fought before receiving the Revelation of fighting with the disbelievers. Moses remained that day and the following day waiting, seeing if someone would come for him, since he killed that person (by mistake). Moses saw the same man from the children of Israel seeking his help, as he had sought it before. 157

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Moses said to that man, “You are an extremely misguided person”. Despite this, Moses did step forward to help him again. However, the Israelite got scared and feared that Prophet Moses would hit him, saying, “Will you kill me, as you killed someone before?” Prophet Moses leaves Egypt The news of the killing reached Pharaoh, who ordered that Moses be killed. A man came and told Moses. Moses left his home in Egypt, not following the routine roads until he reached Madyan, the city of Prophet Shu^ayb. Moses covered a very long distance. Moses did not carry food with him, but he ate that which he found on the way. When Moses reached Madyan, he came to some water, which the people of Madyan used to water their animals. He found a group of people watering their livestock. Moses found two women behind these people with animals they wished to water, to help their older parents. The women were waiting for the rest to finish so they could water theirs. Moses helped them with that and they liked his manners. They went home and told their father about Moses’ good manners. Their father sent one of them to invite Moses to stay with them. When they started to go to the woman’s home, Moses walked in front of her, so that his eyes did not fall on her back. She stayed behind him, directing him where to go. The father of the women was Shu^ayb. According to one saying, he was Prophet Shu^ayb, and according to another saying he was a different Shu^ayb. Moses told 158

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their father his story. Shu^ayb comforted him saying, “Do not be afraid. You have been saved from those unjust people”. Shu^ayb offered his daughter in marriage for eight years of service. Moses chose to make it 10 years out of his generosity. Moses took care of Shu^ayb’s sheep for ten years, and married the daughter of Shu^ayb. Every Prophet was a shepherd, up to and including our Prophet Muhammad. They took care of sheep in preparation for their role of being Prophets, learning to manage people compassionately and patiently. The Staff of Moses It is said that Angel Gabriel gave Moses a staff. It is also said that Prophet Shu^ayb gave Moses this staff. The staff was originally brought down from Paradise with Prophet Adam. The story of this staff is fascinating. The staff of Moses is cited in the Qur’an in Surah Taha, verse 18. From this verse we know that Moses said, “This is my staff. I lean on it. I beat the leaves with it to make them fall (as food) for my sheep. As well, I use it for other purposes.” The staff was long, being 15 feet. It is reported that if a beast tried to attack, the staff would drive the animal away on its own. The staff would drive away scorpions from Moses as well. The staff used to stride along with Prophet Moses and converse with him. It had a fork on one end on which Moses could hang his bow and arrows. At night the two prongs of the fork would light up like candles. If Moses wanted water, the 159

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forked end would turn into a bucket, and Moses could lower it into a well for water. If there was no well, Moses could plunge the staff into the ground and water would flow out. When Moses removed the staff from the ground the water would stop flowing. When Moses wanted shade, he would plunge the staff in the ground, and the prongs of the forked end would extend. Then Moses would put his cloak on the prongs and that made a shade. If Moses wanted fruit, he could plunge the staff into the ground and fruit would grow from it for him to eat. Prophet Moses Heard the Eternal Speech of God After completing the ten years of work for Shu^ayb, Moses took his family and went out of Madyan in the cold of winter. Moses took out an instrument, which he used to spark fire, but it would not spark and start fire. When Moses could not start a fire for them he looked around and saw the signs of a fire in a direction. Moses went to that direction. This fire had no smoke. Moses heard a sound calling from the right side of the valley, saying that he who is fetching this fire is blessed (referring to Moses), and those who are around it are blessed (referring to the angels). At that God made Moses hear His speech, which is not a letter or a sound, and which is not any language. It does not have a beginning or an end. It does not resemble our speech. It is does not occur as a result of the movement of lips or tongues. It is the speech that does not occur one batch after the other. It is the speech, 160

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which is an attribute of God, which does not resemble our speech. God created in the ears of Moses the strength to hear the Speech of God, although it is not a sound. God ordered Moses to take off the shoes that he was wearing. This is because they were made out of the untanned skin of a dead donkey. Hence, they were najisfilthy (religiously filthy and if worn affects one’s worship). Then, God ordered Moses to throw his staff, the special one, which he carried. When Moses threw it, it turned into a giant snake (Suratul-Qassas, 31). This snake had a mane, like a horse, and was extremely large. It is said that its mouth was about 70 feet wide. The snake began to swallow everything in its way, including trees and rocks. Prophet Moses heard the snake crunching these things after swallowing them. Prophet Moses had the natural fear that a human would have when surprised by a giant snake. God revealed to him not to be afraid. God revealed to Moses to put his hand in the giant mouth of that snake, in order to strengthen his heart, and at that the snake returned back into a staff. Also God ordered Moses to put his hand into the opening of his shirt (Suratul-Qasas, 32). Moses put it in and took it out. His hand was shining white like snow, not patchy white like leprosy. Then, Moses put his hand back in and took it out. His hand was now his natural color, which was a swarthy shade. God revealed to Moses, “These are two miracles for you to confront Pharaoh and the ones who are with him.”

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God ordered Moses to talk with Pharaoh and call him to Islam. Moses asked God to protect him so that they do not kill him. Moses asked God to support him by making his brother Aaron a Prophet, to help each other. Prophet Moses Returns to Egypt Moses took his family to Egypt and reached there at night. God revealed to Aaron that Moses had arrived. God had made Aaron a Prophet. He went out to receive his brother Moses. Then they went to Pharaoh. They told the gates men, “Tell Pharaoh, we are the Messengers of the Lord of the Worlds”. When the Pharaoh heard that, he told his gates men to let them in. When Moses and Aaron entered, Moses told Pharaoh, “I am the Messenger of the Lord of the Worlds”. When Pharaoh looked at him, he recognized him. Pharaoh told Moses, “Weren’t you raised with us here, you stayed with us for years, then you killed someone, and then you escaped?”. Moses told him, “I went away when I feared your killing, and God blessed me with the status of Prophethood, and made me a Messenger.” Pharaoh requested a miracle to stand as a proof. Prophet Moses threw down his stick. Immediately, it turned into that great snake again. This snake was so big that when it opened its mouth it reached the ceiling of Pharaoh’s palace. Pharaoh was greatly scared of this snake and urinated in his clothes.

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Prophet Moses put his hand in the opening of his shirt and it came out shining white as snow, as it did when God revealed that miracle to him before. Prophets Moses and Aaron advised Pharaoh in a courteous manner, softly. However, Pharaoh did not believe, refusing to become a Muslim. Rather Pharaoh said that Moses was a great sorcerer. Egypt was then famous for sorcery. Pharaoh ordered that all his magicians be gathered around him. They were brought from all the areas of Egypt. Their exact numbers are not known. Some said that they were seventy; others said fifteen thousand. God knows best. The Magicians Believe The Pharaoh set a feast day that they had coming up, as a day to challenge Moses. Pharaoh put his magicians on one side and the people gathered to see this. Pharaoh’s magicians threw their ropes. The people were deluded to think that they were snakes moving around. At this point, Prophet Moses threw down his staff and again it turned into that real, giant snake. The snake went and swallowed all the ropes of the magicians, which had been thrown. When the magicians saw that, they recognized and acknowledged that the deed of Moses was not magic. They believed in God and they prostrated. They said, “We believe in the Lord of the Worlds, the Lord of Moses and Aaron.” Pharaoh was so angry and told them “Did you believe in them before I gave you permission?” Pharaoh wanted 163

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them to commit apostasy. He threatened them, but they refused to commit apostasy. Pharaoh cut off their right hands and left feet and crucified them on the trunks of palm trees. Pharaoh killed them while they were making supplication to God to grant them patience, and bless them to die as Muslims. Those magicians were blasphemous at the beginning of the day, and they were Muslim martyrs at the end of the day. Other Believers There was among the people of Pharaoh a believing man who was hiding his belief. At that, he declared his belief out in the open. He was killed also. He was crucified along with the magicians. This believing man had a believing wife who was the comber of the hair of the daughter of the Pharaoh. This daughter was not from Pharaoh’s wife Asiyah. When this believing woman was combing the daughter’s hair, her comb fell down. The woman said, “In the name of God” (Bismillah). The daughter of the Pharaoh asked her, “Do you have a lord other than my father?!” The woman told her, “My Lord and your father’s Lord is God.” When the daughter told her father, the Pharaoh, about this, he called this believing woman to him. The Pharaoh ordered her to commit apostasy. She refused. The Pharaoh brought her children. Then he brought a huge container, filled it with water, and built a great fire under the container until the water boiled. 164

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Then Pharaoh started throwing her children one by one into the boiling water asking her to commit apostasy to Islam. She kept refusing. The Pharaoh reached to the last of her children, who was a nursing child. The baby spoke to her and said, “O mother be patient. You are on the true path”. At this she told Pharaoh, “I have a request for you. I request that you collect my bones and the bones of my children, and that you bury them all together”. Pharaoh said, “You are granted that”. Then Pharaoh had her killed. The bones were buried in one location. Many decades later, when Prophet Muhammad passed by that location (on the night of the night journey and ascension), he smelled a good fragrance coming from that grave and asked Angel Gabriel about it. Gabriel related to Prophet Muhammad the story, which we told. Asiyah, a wife of Pharaoh, believed in Moses. When Pharaoh killed the comber of his daughter’s hair, Pharaoh went to his wife Asiyah and gave her this news. Asiyah said to Pharaoh, “You are so belligerent in disobeying God, and you will face the great torture”. Pharaoh told her, “Maybe you have turned crazy like that comber?” Asiyah told Pharaoh, “No, I am not crazy. I have believed in God, the Lord of the Worlds.” At that Pharaoh ordered her tied down to four stakes on the ground. He tortured her until she died. Pharaoh would tie people to his famous four stakes and put a tremendous weight on them, such as a millstone, until they died. He was known as the “lord of the stakes’ due to this, as cited in Suratul-Fajr.

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Before she died, Asiyah said, “O God, build for me a house in Paradise and save me from Pharaoh and his doings, and from the unjust people”. This is cited in verse 11 of Suratut-Tahrim. She died as a martyr. Our Prophet said that Asiyah was one of the best of the women of the world. The best women of the world are Mary, the mother of Jesus, then Fatimah the daughter of Prophet Muhammad, then Khadijah the first wife of Prophet Muhammad, then Asiyah, the wife of the Pharaoh. Afflictions on the Disbelievers When Pharaoh and his people rejected the call of Moses and Aaron, God inflicted them with punishments. God sent on them continual rain, which affected the followers of Pharaoh, but did not affect the Children of Israel, who believed in Moses and Aaron. The followers of Pharaoh pleaded with Moses, “O Moses ask your Lord to relieve us of this rain and we will believe in you”. Moses made supplication to God. God stopped that rain. When the rain ceased to fall, their vegetation was so nice and luxuriant that they said, “Oh, this rain was a good thing for us” and they did not believe in Moses as they promised that they would. “We are now delighted that the rain came. Our plants are so strong now!” is what they said to Moses out of their extreme stubbornness. Then God afflicted them with locusts, which ate that vegetation about which they felt pride. They could not prevent this extremely numerous amount of locusts from 166

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eating their plants. They came to Moses and said to him, “Ask your Lord to relieve us of these locusts and we shall believe in you”. Moses made the supplication and God saved them from the locusts. Yet, when they were relieved of the locusts, again they did not believe as they promised they would. Then God inflicted them with small harmful insects, which bothered them greatly, sticking to their skin and causing them great irritation. They did the same with that infliction, asking for relief, then not believing after receiving the relief. Then they were inflicted with frogs, which even hopped into their mouths. They would find the frogs all over, even in their pockets, which distressed them greatly. The same series of event happened, but they did not believe. Then God afflicted them with blood. They would go to fill their containers with water, and when they filled the containers, the liquid would be blood. Again they asked Moses to make supplication to God for them to be relieved of that particular affliction. They promised that if they got relieved, they would believe. Still then, when they were relieved, they broke their promise and did not believe. Prophet Moses Takes the Children of Israel out of Egypt When a long time passed and the followers of Pharaoh did not believe in Moses, God revealed to Moses to take the Children of Israel out of Egypt to the blessed land, 167

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near Jerusalem. God revealed as well for Moses to take with him the casket of Prophet Joseph (Yusuf), fulfilling the will of Joseph to be buried in Palestine. When Prophet Moses went out with the Children of Israel from Egypt, they reached a certain location where they were not certain where to go next. The scholars of the Children of Israel told Moses, “We have gotten lost because we did not carry the body of Prophet Joseph with us, as he requested in his will.” Remember that we said earlier that Prophet Joseph made a will before his death to be buried in Palestine, where his father, grandfather and great-grandfather were all buried. Prophet Joseph was not originally buried in Palestine after he died, so his body was to be brought up and moved to Palestine. The people started to look for someone who knew where the body of Joseph had been buried. They could not find anyone who knew, except for an old woman from the Children of Israel. When Prophet Moses asked her where the location of Prophet Joseph’s grave was, she told Prophet Moses, “I will not tell you until you make a promise to me. Promise me that I would be your companion in Paradise.” When Prophet Moses heard the request, he stopped. He had to wait until he received Revelation about it. Prophet Moses could not tell her “Yes” without that being revealed to him from God. Then God revealed to Prophet Moses to grant her the promise that she requested. At that, Prophet Moses gave her this good news. She then pointed to a location that was covered with water. She told them to remove the water and dig in the ground under it. They did as she told them and the 168

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casket, with Prophet Joseph inside, appeared. They carried the casket with them. God made them know which way to travel to the blessed land. This is narrated in the sahih hadith of the Prophet, narrated by Ibn Hibban.5 Prophet Joseph was buried under water so that very few people would know of his burial site. The general rule is that one does not dig up and take the dead body of someone from one city to another, but the case of Prophet Joseph’s body was an exception. Prophet Moses ordered all the Children of Israel to leave Egypt with him and Aaron. They were about 600,000 people. When Pharaoh learned of this plan, he gathered a huge army and followed them. Pharaoh’s army was about 1,600,000 soldiers.

From this hadith, we learn a rule that is very beneficial for the people of the Sunnah of the Prophet: It is not forbidden to ask the Prophets for something that is not customary to ask for (since they receive Revelation from God Who knows everything). Prophet Moses did not tell this woman that she was blasphemous for making such a request. On the contrary, Prophet Moses waited for the matter to be revealed to him, and then he answered her. One of the Companions of Prophet Muhammad helped the Prophet in something. The Prophet with his excellent manners rewarded those who helped him. The Prophet addressed this Companion, “Ask me for something”. This Companion said, “I ask, O Prophet of God, to be your Companion in Paradise”. The Prophet asked, “Do you have another request?” This Companion said, “This is my only request to which my heart is attached.” The Prophet told him, “Pray a lot and you will be my Companion in Paradise”. The Prophet did not reprimand that Companion for his request and certainly did not tell him that he was blasphemous for asking for that. The Wahhabi sect lied and said that it was forbidden to ask the Prophets for something which is forbidden to ask from others. This woman asked to be with Prophet Moses in Paradise, which is something that only God would give. Unless God reveals it to some of His creation, only God knows what was willed eternally.

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When the Children of Israel arrived to the Red Sea, Prophet Moses struck the sea with his special staff, and the sea split into 12 pathways, which God made dry for the Children of Israel to walk on. There were twelve tribes of the Children of Israel, and there was a pathway for each of the tribes. God made windows in the walls of water between the pathways so that the tribes would not feel lonely as they walked on those extraordinary pathways. Pharaoh arrived to the edge of the sea. Pharaoh was terrified at the sight of the sea splitting into twelve paths. He was scared to go after Moses, Aaron, and the other Children of Israel in those pathways. Pharaoh was riding a male horse. Angel Gabriel came, riding a female horse, and went into one of the pathways formed in the sea. The horse of Pharaoh smelled the scent of the female horse of Gabriel. At that Pharaoh’s horse rushed in to the pathway after that horse of Gabriel, carrying Pharaoh into one of the pathways with him. Following him, the soldiers of Pharaoh rushed into the pathways in the sea as well. When the last of the Children of Israel had arrived on the shore of the other side of the sea, Pharaoh and his soldiers were in the middle, and had not reached any of them. As soon as the last of the believers was on the normal land, God made the sea close up again, and Pharaoh and all of his 1,600,000 soldiers drowned. When Pharaoh had reached a point of dying when his repentance was not accepted. Pharaoh made a

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declaration of his belief in Moses. This declaration was not accepted from Pharaoh and he died as a blasphemer.6 Some of the followers of Pharaoh who had remained on the land got the news of the drowning death of Pharaoh. They said out of their stubbornness that Pharaoh did not die and that instead he went away to China, and he should return. At that God made the sea spit out the dead body of Pharaoh to their shore, swollen like a bull. They recognized him by his distinctive grand clothing. At that, they became certain that he died. Prophet Moses Goes to Mt. Sinai and Some Followers Worship the Calf When God saved the Children of Israel from all those hardships of the Pharaoh, God ordered Moses to fast for thirty days. This was fasting like we do now, abstaining from food and drink and other things, from dawn until sunset. Then God added ten more days to that fasting of Moses. God revealed to Moses that after those forty days, God would send to him the tablets of the Torah (Tawrah). All the books given to the Prophets from God were given in their totality at one time in that Prophet’s life,

In the case of Pharaoh, God revealed in the Qur’an that the utterance of Pharaoh was not accepted from him. This saying of Pharaoh did not absolve him of his blasphemous state. He will be in Hellfire forever. If we do not have Revelation about someone who utters the belief at death, we have to go by what we witnessed and deem this person a Muslim.

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except for the great Qur’an, which was revealed to Prophet Muhammad in parts, over a period of 23 years. Moses obeyed God, fasting these 40 days. Then he went to the Mount Tur (Sinai). Moses left Aaron behind, in charge of the followers. There was a man among the followers named Musa as-Samiriyy, having the same first name as Prophet Moses. This man led many of the Children of Israel astray, as he himself was astray. When Musa as-Samiriyy was young his parents lost him, and he was without a family. Angel Gabriel brought him food so that he would not perish. This Musa as-Samiriyy was raised as a blasphemer. When Prophet Moses went away from his people, Musa as-Samiriyy told the followers the terrible blasphemy, “Moses went to fetch his Lord and his Lord is right here”. Musa as-Samiriyy had made the figure of a young calf out of gold, and had mixed into the gold of this figure some of the dust from the hoof print of the horse of Angel Gabriel. This figure made the mooing sound of a real calf. Musa as-Samiriyy told the followers the detested blasphemy, “This is your Lord and the Lord of Prophet Moses. Prophet Moses went to look for his Lord, but his Lord is here”. Of course, Prophet Moses did not go to look for a place where God dwells, because God is not a body and He exists without being in a place. This was a test for the people from God. God created that mooing sound which is not typical to come from a statue. God knew eternally what these people would do. So, obviously the tests from God are not for God to “find

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out what the people will do”. The tests from God on the creation are a challenge for the creation. If they pass the test, they will be happy in this life and the Hereafter, but if they fail the test, they will reflect back on the test on the Day of Judgment and blame themselves for not having used their minds with which God endowed them. Aaron knew of the blasphemy of Musa as-Samiriyy, admonished him and warned the people about him and his evil. Aaron forbade them from worshipping the golden calf, which was clear blasphemy. However, many of them accepted the words of as-Samiriyy, and went out of the Religion of Islam, becoming idol-worshippers. Some of the followers remained Muslim, sticking to Prophet Aaron and obeying him. After Prophet Moses had gone away from the people, at one point in his solitude, Prophet Moses asked God to see Him. God revealed that Moses would not see Him in this life. God told Moses, “Rather look to the mountain and if the mountain remains intact, you will see Me.” God created in that mountain the ability to see Him. When that mountain saw God, it crumbled and was destroyed. When Moses witnessed that event, Moses fainted. Then God made Moses revive from his faint, and Prophet Moses praised his Lord. Moses asked to see God, because it was not yet revealed to him that man does not see God with the eyes of this earthly body. The people, who are Muslim in this life, will be granted the great honor and bliss of seeing their Lord when they live in Paradise. This will be with their new eyes of their new, better body of Paradise. They will see the One Who is not in a direction, unlike in any way the experience of seeing a creation. 173

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After Prophet Moses’ experience of seeing that mountain demolished, God made the tablets of the Torah come to the hands of Prophet Moses. When Prophet Moses returned to his people with the tablets of the Torah, he was astonished to see them worshipping that golden calf. He was extremely angered for the sake of God. Moses let go of the tablets in his hand, in a manner that was not disdainful of the tablets. Prophet Moses reached for the head and beard of his brother Aaron, showing Prophet Moses’ extreme anger concerning the situation, but not out of disrespect to Aaron. Nor did Prophet Moses reach for his brother’s head and beard implying that Prophet Moses believed that Prophet Aaron had allowed for this false worship to occur. Prophet Aaron explained to Prophet Moses the series of events, his excuse of why he stayed with these blasphemers, and did not kill them. Aaron explained that he feared that Prophet Moses would say to him, “You handled that situation without me and did not wait for my return.” Aaron felt this because Moses was the leader of the Children of Israel. Prophet Moses went to as-Samariyy and humiliated him severely. Prophet Moses went to the golden calf and burned it. Then Moses threw those ashes away. Prophet Moses told the blasphemers that they had done extreme injustice to themselves by apostatizing from Islam when worshipping that golden calf. Moses told them to repent to their Lord, by becoming Muslim again. After being Muslim again, they were then to be killed. They were to be killed by those of the Children of Israel who remained Muslim, and never 174

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worshipped the golden calf. This was the way to repent, for those who worshipped the calf. Seventy thousand of them were killed. After that killing, Prophet Moses and 70 of the best of the Children of Israel supplicated God. Moses said, “That which occurred is from You God. With it You guide whomever You will and with it You misguide whomever You will.” The others said to God, “We repented and returned to You God”. The name “Yahud” given to the followers of Moses means: ‘Repenters’. At that, God revealed to Moses for the killing to stop. Hence, a group of those who had apostatized by worshipping the calf, and then returned to Islam, were saved from being killed. When the Children of Israel saw what was in the Torah, of all they were obligated to do, most of them sat back lazy and did not want to do the obligations from God. At that God ordered Angel Gabriel to pull out a mountain from Palestine. The size of the mountain was the same size as the area covered by the Children of Israel on Earth. God ordered Gabriel to suspend the mountain above their heads. Prophet Moses told them, “Either you accept the orders of God in our book the Torah, or God will smash you with this mountain.” When they were in that situation, they accepted to follow the Torah.

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The Story of the Cow There are many stories of the bad doings of some of the followers of Moses. We present one of them. One of the Children of Israel killed his uncle secretly. This killer was the only heir of this uncle. So, the killer expected to get all the inheritance of his dead uncle. This killer threw his dead uncle next to the house of other people. The killer acted shocked and saddened by the death of his uncle. He demanded blood money and revenge on the people of the place the body was. When Prophet Moses looked into the matter, he asked the people accused of the murder. They denied that they had killed that man. The Children of Israel started to talk a lot about this incident and Prophet Moses wanted to know who the real killer was. Prophet Moses then ordered the people to slaughter a cow. However, the people did not have the willingness to immediately obey Moses. They started to delay doing what they were asked to do by asking Prophet Moses questions about this order of his. If they had not asked any questions in order to delay, they could have slaughtered any cow, fulfilling the order. Since they asked questions out of desire to delay fulfilling the order, God made specifications for them, which were hard for them. When they wanted to know more about this cow to slaughter, Prophet Moses told them, “It is a cow which is not old nor young, not big and not small. Then they 176

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asked Prophet Moses, “Now we know about the age, so now tell us about the color of this cow”. Prophet Moses told them that it was a bright yellow cow, which would bring delight to the one who gazed at it. Then, they wanted more explanation about this cow. Prophet Moses said, “It is a cow which, when it walks, does not disturb the soil, and there is no defect in it.” Finally, after they exhausted their asking, they started to look for such a cow. After searching, they found it with a man among them. They bought that cow from him for a high price. The man who had owned that cow had been very kind to his mother. God blessed him with this money. They brought that cow to Prophet Moses and slaughtered it. Prophet Moses then took a piece of that dead cow and struck the murdered man with that piece. At that, God gave life to the murdered man. The revived man told the name of the one who really had killed him. Then he died again. This is not the only case when God made a dead person come back to life, speak, and then die again. Many incidences of this occurring are well known. This is narrated about some of the Companions of Prophet Muhammad. Prophets Moses and Aaron Bear Patiently with the Lost People Prophet Moses took the Children of Israel and led them close to the land of Jerusalem, with the Holy House. It was a place called Ariha (Jericho). In Ariha 177

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there were unjust rulers. The Children of Israel were ordered to fight those unjust rulers. However when they reached there with Prophet Moses, most of them sat back from fighting. Those who sat back said, “We will not enter this land with those unjust tyrants. O Moses, go with your Lord and fight. We will be sitting here.” God inflicted the Children of Israel by making them get lost for 40 years, after they had arrived so close to Jerusalem. This was a result of their disobedience. The land that they were lost in was called At-Tih. Prophet Moses and Aaron were with them in At-Tih, but were not punished alongside them. Rather the presence of Prophets Moses and Aaron was for them to carry out the orders of God. At-Tih was a barren land with no plants, water or shade. The Children of Israel complained to Prophet Moses about the heat of the sun. Prophet Moses made supplication to God and was given a great miracle. A cloud came that provided shade for them. During the day this cloud blocked the heat of the sun, yet during the night the cloud did not block the moon, so that they could use the moonlight. However, if the night was dark and the moon was not shining, a stick of light descended among the Children of Israel to illuminate the way for them. They continued making requests saying, “What should we wear? We are afraid that our clothes will rip and we will not find anything else to wear.” Prophet Moses replied, “Your clothes will not rip, decay, or get dirty for 40 years.” Then they came up with another question, “If a new baby is born what will he or she

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wear?” Moses answered, “The small clothes will grow as the children grow.” They asked, “What are we to wear on our feet, if our shoes are ruined?” Moses said, “Your shoes will not be ruined for 40 years.” It was cited that while in at-Tih, the Children of Israel ran out of food. They said to Prophet Moses, “What do we eat now that we have no food left?” He answered saying, “God will bring down baked bread for you from the sky.” Each day, bread with a delicious taste called manna (al-mann) came down from the sky from dawn until sunrise, just as snow falls from the sky. Each person would take what he needed for one day. If someone took more, then the extra bread would spoil, except for Friday. Each Friday they were allowed to take more than what they needed for one day, because Saturday was a day of worship, and the bread did not fall to them on that day. Then the Children of Israel asked Prophet Moses, “What are we supposed to eat with this bread? Do you expect us to eat it plain with nothing alongside it?” Prophet Moses answered with patience and compassion for them by saying, “ God will grant you meat.” “From where?” they asked. The wind brought to them as-salwa, fat healthy quails. Then they remembered something that one could not go without, whether resting at home, or traveling. They said, “From where do we get water? There is no spring or river in this land!” Prophet Moses said, “God will provide for you.” Then God ordered Prophet Moses to strike a rock with his staff and water sprung from it.

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It was narrated that this rock descended with Prophet Adam when he descended from Paradise, and that it was passed down through generations until reaching Prophet Shu^ayb. Prophet Shu^ayb gave this rock to Prophet Moses when he gave him the famous staff. Each time the Children of Israel needed water, Prophet Moses placed the rock on the floor and struck it 12 times with his staff. Each place where the stone was struck, water would rush out, as plentiful as rivers. In their habit of rushing matters they said, “If Prophet Moses lost his staff we will die of thirst.” God then revealed to Prophet Moses that he should not hit the stone, and instead he should speak to it. Prophet Moses from then on spoke to the stone, ordering it to give water. The stone would obey, releasing water. Some of the ungrateful among them said, “O Moses, we shall not be patient with one kind of food (al-mann). Ask your Lord to bring us crops from the land: grains, onions and lentils. They left that which was good for them for something that was less. Prophet Moses told them to go to a certain land where they would find what they requested in that country. After the forty years passed, of being lost, the manna and quail were cut off from them. The Children of Israel who refused to fight the tyrants remained in at-Tih. Those who were more than 20 years old died except for Joshua (Yusha^, the son of Nun) and Kalib the son of Yufna, and the young offspring of the Children of Israel remained with them. They obeyed the orders of God. When they reached Ash-Sham they fought the unjust rulers and entered Jerusalem. None of

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the people who said, “We will not enter it” entered Jerusalem. The Fascinating Story of Prophet Moses Meeting Prophet Al-Khadir Ibn ^Abbas said, “I heard Ubayy the son of Ka^b say, ‘I heard the Messenger of God say: Moses stood up to give a speech to the Children of Israel. Some of them asked Moses, “Who is the most knowledgeable among the people?” Moses replied, “I am”. This was what Moses knew. Then God revealed to Prophet Moses that it would have been better for him to reply, “God knows best”. God revealed to Prophet Moses that He had a slave where the two rivers met, who is more knowledgeable that Prophet Moses in certain matters. Moses longed to meet this person. Moses said, “O God, how would I meet this person?” God revealed to Moses, “Take a salted fish with you in a container. Wherever you would lose this fish, you would find Al-Khadir.” Moses set out with Joshua (Yusha^, the son of Nun), the same one who later became a Prophet himself. They carried a container with a salted fish. They reached a rock, and Moses slept. The fish shook in the container, although it was salted. The fish finally shook so much that it came out of the container and went into the river. The next day they proceeded with the walk. Then they proceeded in the night. Joshua had forgotten to tell Moses about what happened to the fish. When the next morning came, Prophet Moses said to the young Joshua, “We got tired as a result of this traveling. Let us eat.” 181

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Moses did not get tired until he crossed the point where the fish escaped. Joshua told Prophet Moses, “You remember the rock where we stopped at and slept? The salted fish jumped out of our container there and swam away.” Prophet Moses said, “The goal of our travel was to get to that location. Let us go back”. They went back following their own traces and footsteps, until they reached the rock. They saw a man at the rock. This man was covered with a cloth. Prophet Moses saluted him. He was Al-Khadir. Al-Khadir said to Prophet Moses, “Are you Moses, the Prophet sent to the Children of Israel?” Moses said, “Yes”. Al-Khadir told Moses, “God gave you knowledge that I do not know, and God gave me knowledge that you do not know.” Moses told Al-Khadir, “Should I be with you, so that you teach me that which I do not know?” Al-Khadir said, “You will not be patient with me. How would you be patient with a matter of which you are unaware?” Moses said, “God willing, you will find me to be a patient man. I will comply with whatever you order”. Al-Khadir said, “You can accompany me with the condition that you do not ask me about anything until I decide to tell you about that thing.” Moses said, “I agree”. Moses and Al-Khadir went walking along the seashore. A vessel came by. Al-Khadir and Moses asked the people of the vessel to take them aboard. The people of the vessel knew al-Khadir. They took them aboard without a fee. While Prophet Moses and Al-Khadir were on the vessel, a bird on the edge of the vessel put its beak once in the water. Al-Khadir said to Moses, “My knowledge and your knowledge in comparison to the 182

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things that God knows is so little. It is less than this drop of water pulled by this bird, compared to the whole sea.” Muslim narrated this in his Sahih. When on the vessel, Al-Khadir reached for one of the wooden planks of the ship and pulled it off. The people of the vessel did not see what Al-Khadir did. Moses was astonished by what Al-Khadir did and said, “Do you do this to the vessel of people who took us aboard without a fee, so that the vessel would sink with its people?” Prophet Moses asked Al-Khadir out of astonishment, because this was very unusual and not what one would expect from a pious person. Al-Khadir told Prophet Moses, “Didn’t I tell you that you would not be patient with me?” Prophet Moses said, “Do not blame me about what I forgot. I am tired from traveling.” Then the two went off the vessel walking. Moses and Al-Khadir came upon a boy, playing with other boys. AlKhadir reached for the head of the boy, pulling off the head of the boy with his hands, killing the boy. Prophet Moses at that time told Al-Khadir, “How did you kill a soul, and this killing is not a prescribed punishment for killing another?” Al-Khadir said, “Didn’t I tell you that you would not be patient with me?” Prophet Moses said, “If I ask you about anything after this, without you initiating to tell me about it, then I will no longer accompany you.” Then they reached a town. The people of the town did not treat them kindly as guests. They did not offer them food. Al-Khadir saw a wall that was about to fall down. Al-Khadir worked and made the wall straight. Moses said to Al-Khadir, “We came to a people who did

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not offer us food. If you had taken a fee for your work, we could have used that money to buy food.” Al-Khadir said, “Now we must part. I shall tell you about the truth of these matters that you were not patient with, not waiting until I tell you about them voluntarily. As for the ship, it belonged to some poor people at sea. I wanted to put a defect in it because there is an unjust king who takes good sound ships away from their owners. When the king sees this ship he will see that there is a defect in the ship and will not take it. The people can fix the defect later with wood. As to the boy I killed, if he had lived to be adolescent he would live to be a disbeliever. His parents treated this boy generously. Had he grown up he would have been a tyrant on them, and would have exhausted them due to his tyranny. I wanted God to replace that child with a child who is merciful to them. As to the wall, two orphan boys owned it. Under the wall was something that their father hid for them. Their father was a pious man. I wanted to preserve that wall from falling down, and keep the thing for them hidden, until the boys grow up and are able to take that thing out. All that which I did, I did not do out of my own. Rather I was ordered to do all of it by God. This is the meaning of the matter with which you were not patient.” Our Prophet said, “May God have mercy on Moses. I wish that Moses had more patient. More would have happened and we could have learned more stories.”

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Qarun, the Evil Cousin Like all the Prophets, Prophet Moses had many hardships, which he endured with patience. One report, that shows the endurance of Prophet Moses, is the story of the harm that Moses’ cousin inflicted on him. Moses had a cousin named Qarun. God gave Qarun so much wealth that strong men could not carry the keys of the boxes of wealth. Qarun showed off and was not grateful to God. He wore fancy clothes and strutted around. He lived in palaces with many slaves and servants. Qarun was so arrogant with the people. When people advised him to give up his arrogance, he refused. Qarun believed that God loved him and that was the reason he had all his money. He did not see a need to change his ways. God revealed to Moses that he and his people had the obligation to pay a certain amount of their wealth to those who deserved. Moses told Qarun to pay one dinar for each one thousand dinars and one dirham for each one thousand dirhams. When Qarun calculated the amount that he would need to pay, he saw that amount to be enormous. Qarun was overwhelmed with stinginess and made apostasy. He stopped being Muslim. Qarun gathered some of his supporters and said, “Moses commanded you with so many things and you obeyed him. Now Moses wants to take away your

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money.” Qarun’s cohorts said, “Command us Qarun with whatever you wish.” Qarun said, “Bring a sinful woman and pay her to lie and say that Moses wanted to commit adultery with her.” Qarun’s followers went and gave a sinful woman a lot of gold to do this. On a day of feast, Qarun came to Moses pretending to be loving and said, “Your people have gathered so that you will command them to do the lawful and abstain from the unlawful.” Prophet Moses told the people, “He who steals has the punishment of his hand being cut off. The unmarried one who commits adultery is lashed. The married one who commits adultery is stoned to death.” Then Qarun, in his evilness, cried, “Even if it is you, O Moses?” Moses replied, “God help me from you. I do not even approach sins.” Qarun then said, “The Children of Israel are lying. They said that you committed adultery with the evil woman.” Moses said, “Call her.” They called for her and she came. Moses then uttered a vow in the name of God Who cleaved the sea and Who revealed the Torah, and asked her by that vow to say the truth. God was merciful with her, and she repented of her sins. She told the people, “Moses is innocent of these accusations. Qarun paid me to say that Moses committed adultery with me.” Moses made prostration to God and asked God to give him victory over his oppressors. Moses received Revelation from God that the Earth would obey him in whatever he commands. 186

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On the next day, Qarun went out in his usual arrogant procession. He had thousands of servants and attendants. He wore clothes ornamented with gold and jewels. At the front, Qarun rode a black and white, ornamented, female mule, with the others on their mounts behind him. The people were looking at all of this. The deceived among them said, “May Qarun enjoy his blessings. He is very lucky, with his money and high status.” When some of the pious people heard that, they advised them not to be deceived by the wealth of this world. Qarun reached a place where Prophet Moses was teaching the people. Qarun called out to Moses, “O Moses, if you were preferred to me in prophecy, I was preferred to you with money. If you want, make a supplication to God against me.” Prophet Moses came with a steady heart, relying on God. Qarun started to ask God for help, but he was not answered. Then Moses said, “O God, command the Earth to obey me today.” Then Moses addressed the Earth and said, “O Earth, take them”. Qarun and his evil followers started to sink into the ground. First, just their feet sank. Then Prophet Moses said, “O Earth, take them to their knees”. They sank to their knees. Then Moses asked that they sink to their shoulders and they did. Finally, Moses told the Earth to take them totally, along with all the treasures. The Earth trembled under Qarun’s house. The earth swallowed all the money of Qarun within that house. When the people saw that, they repented and praised

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God. They thanked God that they were not made like Qarun and his mean followers. Prophet Moses was Full of Merits Prophet Muhammad, blessings and peace be upon him, cited many merits of Prophet Moses. Our Prophet told the story that the Children of Israel used to bathe naked, able to see the naked body of their bathing friends. Prophet Moses would bathe alone, away from the people, so that his eyes would not fall on the area of their bodies that they were not to show to others. One of these people said, “What keeps Moses from bathing with us, except that he has a defect in his body, which he wants to keep hidden from us.” Once Prophet Moses went to bathe. He put his clothes on a stone. The stone moved away with the clothing of Prophet Moses. He cried, “O stone, my clothes!” Due to Prophet Moses’ running after the stone and his clothes, some of those men saw Prophet Moses’ naked body, without Prophet Moses paying attention to them seeing him. Prophet Moses was busy chasing after that stone with his clothes. Those people said, “By God, Prophet Moses does not have any defect in his body”. When Prophet Moses got to the stone, he took his clothing and started to beat the stone with his clothes. Abu Hurayrah reported from the Prophet, “By God, this stone has six or seven marks left on it as a result of the hitting of Prophet Moses.” This hadith brings many benefits. One is that the Prophets do not have any physical handicaps and defects. 188

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God made this extra-ordinary event of a stone running with Moses’ clothes to manifest to the people that Prophet Moses’ body was clear of any defects. If Prophets have no hidden defects, surely they do not have defects that are apparent. If this were the case with physical defects, how would Prophets have defects pertaining to their manners with people? Prophets are clear of having defective manners with people. Qadi ^Iyad said, “The Prophets are clear from any defects and handicaps in shape or manners. There is no attention paid to historians who report things saying that Prophets had handicaps. Rather, the case is that God made them clear of all defects. They were clear of everything which the eyes of the people would judge as ugly and repulsive.” The Death of Aaron and Moses Prophet Aaron died before Prophet Moses, during the time when the Children of Israel were still lost. After Aaron died, some of the Children of Israel accused Prophet Moses of killing his own brother. Prophet Moses said to them, “Woe to you! You say that I killed my own brother (who is a Prophet and Messenger)?” Such black hearts that are like stones imagined that Prophet Moses killed his brother who was also a Prophet and Messenger of God! This was blasphemy. When these people persisted more about the matter of the death of Aaron, Prophet Moses made a supplication to God to expose the matter to them. God made Aaron be raised above them on a platform. They learned that

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Prophet Moses was truthful in what he said, that he did not kill his brother. In al-Bukhariyy and Muslim, it is narrated that one time, Angel ^Azra’il, the Angel of Death, came to Prophet Moses. Moses did not recognize him, with him coming in the form of a man. Moses thought that this angel was a waylayer coming to harm him. Prophet Moses hit him and his eye popped out. Then God made the eye of the angel sound again. The Angel of Death came to Prophet Moses again. This time Prophet Moses recognized him. Angel ^Azra’il asked Prophet Moses, “Do you want to live? If you want to live, put your hand on the skin of an ox. The number of hairs on the area which your hand covers will be the number of years you will live.” Prophet Moses asked, “After that what would happen?” The Angel of Death said, “You will die.” Prophet Moses then said, “Let it be now”. Prophet Moses died. His grave is near a red hill, next to the road, in Jericho (Ariha). There is a mosque with Moses’ name, where he is buried. We ask God for the honor of meeting Prophets Moses and Aaron.

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Chapter 21: PROPHET JOSHUA (YUSHA^),
blessings and peace be upon him After Prophet Moses died, God chose Prophet Joshua (Yusha^ Ibn Nun) as a Prophet. It is said that he was from the children of Prophet Joseph (Yusuf). When Joshua was young, he was the man that accompanied Prophet Moses when he went to find Prophet Al-Khadir. Later Prophet Moses had asked Joshua to go ahead of them to fight the unjust blasphemous people. Joshua went into Jericho (Ariha) and killed the unjust tyrants there. Those tyrants were from the children of Sam, but were not Arabs. Joshua killed some, but some of them remained and it was close to the time for the sun to set. Prophet Joshua asked God to hold back the sun from setting. God answered his supplication and the sun was held from setting until he killed them all. Prophet Joshua managed the children of Israel until his own death, after the death of Prophet Moses. He was not a Messenger, but was a Prophet ruling with the Torah. The grave of Prophet Joshua is probably the grave located on a small mountain outside of Tripoli of Lebanon. The mountain is called Mt. Turbul in a town called al-Minyah. People claim that Prophet Joshua is buried in other locations as well, but this location is the

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one that the scholars said was the most probable location of his grave.

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Chapter 22: PROPHET ELIJAH (ILYAS) and PROPHET ELISHA (IL-YASA^),
blessings and peace be upon them Prophet Elijah is Ilyas the son of Yasin. It is said that he was from the children of Prophet Aaron (Harun). God sent him as a Prophet to the Children of Israel after the death of Hizqil. Some salaf said that Hizqil was a Prophet of the Children of Israel. Also Ash^iya and Armiya are said to be Prophets. After Hizqil’s death, the Children of Israel contradicted the Torah. God sent Prophet Ilyas to them. Between the rules of Moses and Jesus there was no new book of rules. Prophet David was a Prophet between Moses and Jesus, and he did receive a book called the Zabur. The Zabur, however, was a book of wisdoms, not a book of new rules. Hence, the Prophets after Moses (before Jesus received his new book of rules called the Injil) were to teach and implement the rules of the Torah, given to Prophet Moses. Elijah told the people to worship God and be obedient to Him. He forbade them from worshipping an idol. It was cited that they were the people of Ba^labakk (Baalbek), in Lebanon, and the name of the idol was “Ba^l”. Most of the people rejected Elijah and only a few believed in him. Among his followers was Elisha (IlYasa^). After the death of Prophet Elijah, God made Elisha a Prophet.

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Prophet Elisha stayed with the people, ordering them to obedient to and worship only God, and to leave blasphemy. Then Prophet Elisha died.

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Chapter 23: PROPHET DAVID (DAWUD),
blessings and peace be upon him Prophet David is among the Prophets cited in the Qur’an. He is David the son of Isha. He is from the branch of Yahudha, the son of Jacob. Prophet David was the youngest son. Once, David went to his father and told him, “Each time I sling a stone from my slingshot I hit my mark.” Another time, he went to his father and told him, “I went between mountains and found a lion there. I rode that lion holding him by his ears. The lion did not attack me.” Another time, he went to his father and told him, “O father, I walked in the mountains and said ‘Subhanallah’ (God is free of all imperfections), and not a mountain was left except that it said ‘Subhanallah’ with me.” Each time his father would tell him, “Await the good news, for these are good signs.” Once Prophet David was walking on a road. He saw three stones. The stones spoke to him and said, “Take us. You will use us to kill Goliath (Jalut)”. Goliath was a blasphemous tyrant. David took the stones and kept them in a bag that he carried. David, his father and brothers went out with Saul (Talut), the king of the Children of Israel, along with rest of the Children of Israel to fight Goliath, the tyrant.

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The Evil Goliath is Killed and David Becomes King Goliath was among the strongest and tallest of the people. Despite that, David came forward to fight Goliath. When Goliath saw David, he became fearful. He told him, “You are a young man. I do not want to kill you”. David told him, “No, it is I who will kill you!” David placed the stone in his slingshot and slung it. The stone hit Goliath between the eyes. The stone struck in such a strong manner that it killed Goliath. When David killed Goliath, Saul gave up the reign over the Children of Israel to David. He said, “You will be the king in my place.” The Children of Israel gathered around him and David became a Prophet that was also a king. God revealed the book Az-Zabur to Prophet David that did not have new rules, but contained wisdoms. Prophet David worked to earn his money. God gave Prophet David a special endowment of being able to bend metal with his bare hands. With this endowment, Prophet David made the armor called “mail”. Prophet David did not need to heat the metal, nor did he need to pound it; he used his bare hands only. Prophet David ate from what he earned from his own work. Prophet David sold these armors and lived from this money, despite the fact he was a king. God ordered the mountains and birds to say “Subhanallah” (Praise to Allah) when David said “Subhanallah”. It did not take Prophet David long to

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recite the Zabur. He would complete its recitation while preparing his animals for riding. When David recited the Zabur, the beasts were very overwhelmed and attentive to the recitation, to the extent that one could take them by their neck and lead them. This was due to the beauty of the recitation of David. Prophet David had a beautiful voice and produced overwhelming beautiful tones. The Piety of David David was extremely diligent in worship. He cried a lot. Prophet David is described in verse 17 of Suratu Sad as being strong and endeavoring in worship, soft in his heart, and extremely merciful. He used to stay up at night and perform prayers. He fasted every other day. He ruled with the Torah. He, who is like this, is definitely not one who would send the leader of his army to the battlefield in order for him to get killed, so that he could marry his wife. This is what some misguided people say about Prophet David. They are clearly liars. Some misguided people misinterpret verses 23-24 in Suratu Sad. These verses refer to “lambs”. However some say they really refer to “women”. They say that it means that Prophet David did some tremendous sin concerning women.

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This is false. In this chapter of the Qur’an, the verse is really referring to lambs. The real chain of events, concerning these lambs is as follows: Two people who were adversaries had a dispute about a matter and came to Prophet David through the back door. One man told Prophet David, “This is my brother. He has 99 lambs and I only have one lamb. Despite this, he wants to take my one lamb from me, and unjustly add it to his flock!” When David heard that from the first man, he believed he was truthful. Due to this, Prophet David ruled that the second brother did injustice to the first, before listening to the second brother. A judge is supposed to listen to both parties before passing a judgment. It is cited in the Qur’an that David repented of his action. It was a small sin that was not mean. Those evil misguided people claim that “lambs” mean women, and that the story is meant to symbolize that Prophet David wanted the wife of his general. Al-Halimiyy, As-Subkiyy, and other Islamic scholars exposed the falsehood of those who lied about the honorable Prophet David. The Opinion of David’s Son, Solomon Prophet David had a son named Solomon (Sulayman). When Solomon became a man, Prophet David sought his opinion about several matters. Once two disputing men came to Prophet David. One had an orchard of grapes and one had a flock of sheep.

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The owner of the orchard complained to Prophet David that the flock of the other came into his orchard at night, ate from his grapes, and ruined his orchard. It is an obligation on the owner of a flock of sheep to prevent his flock from escaping at night and ruining people’s orchards. He must contain his flock at night. Prophet David passed the judgment that the owner of the flock should give his sheep to the owner of the orchard, in replacement for the crop of grapes that was ruined. Solomon told his father, “O Prophet of God, another judgment would be more suitable”. David asked, “What would that be?” Solomon told him, “It would more suitable to let the owner of the flock take care of the orchard and repair it, while the owner of the orchard takes the sheep and benefits from them at that time, taking the milk. When the orchard is back to its original state, then the sheep go back to the original owner.” Prophet David liked the opinion of his son, and ruled as his son suggested. The Story of the Saturday People The village of Aylah was by the Red Sea and the story of its people was cited in the honorable Qur’an. Some people in that village committed a major sin and as a punishment God turned them into monkeys and pigs. These people were called Ashabus-Sabt, the Saturday People. Before Prophet Muhammad received Revelation about this event, the Jews concealed this story. They did not want people to know that God had turned some of the 199

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Children of Israel, who were before them, into pigs and monkeys, and then destroyed them. God however, exposed them in the Qur’an when He revealed this story to Prophet Muhammad, may peace be upon him. This story was revealed, warning the Jews not to be arrogant, and stubborn. They should have accepted the truth and believed in Prophet Muhammad. The Revelation of this story was to remind those Jews of what had happened to those who were before them from the village of Aylah. During the time of Prophet David, the Muslim Children of Israel were prohibited from working, trading, crafting goods, or fishing on Saturdays, because this was a day of rest for them. This was a test from God, making evident to the people who would follow the orders of God, and who would disobey Him. Each Saturday fish and whales would come close to the shore, to the point that one could catch them by hand. This was because the fish and whales had an instinct that they would not be harmed that day. The fish would come to the shore in great numbers gathering there and no one would frighten them. During the rest of the week, the fish would remain in the depths of the ocean and the Children of Israel would not see them until the following Saturday. It is easy however for the devil to lead the wicked soul to wrongdoing and sinning. One of the people of the village craved some of the fish that came on Saturday. The devil made the fish seem so tempting that the man made a plan to get what he desired.

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One Saturday, he came to the shore and saw a big fish swimming close to it. He took the fish’s tail and tied it with a rope. Then he tied the other side of the rope to a stake and anchored it into the sand. At the end of the day (with Saturday passing at sunset), he came back to the shore, took the fish, went home, cleaned it and barbecued it. The smell of fish surrounded his house, so his neighbors came asking about the smell. The man denied having fish. After they insisted on an answer he said, “It is the skin of a fish that I found, so I brought it home and barbecued it.” The next Saturday he did the same thing, and again the neighbors came by asking him about the smell of barbecued fish. This time, however he said, “If you want you can do as I am doing.” “What are you doing?” they asked. He told them what he was doing, and they imitated him. Then, they became inventive in their ways to catch the fish. On Fridays they would make small pools which were easy to block and were connected to the ocean through small tunnels. The fish would enter these tunnels on Saturday and get stuck in the pools. Some went even further and they would ride their boats out to the open sea and force the big fish back towards the shore until these fish got stuck in the tunnels. They would then close the openings to the pools and the fish would be stuck there unable to get out until it was Sunday, when the Children of Israel came and took what they had caught. Many people did this. Eventually it reached the point where people were openly fishing on Saturdays, then selling what they caught in the market. This of course was a weighty disregard for the orders of God. 201

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When the major sinners sinned publicly, the scholars among the Children of Israel forbade them from doing this. The scholars told them to fear God, reminding them of the torture that was awaiting them, if they did not repent. The major sinners however did not listen. As a result, the scholars built a wall in the village that separated them from the major sinners. During the night, God punished those sinners by turning the younger ones into monkeys and the older ones into pigs. In the morning, the good people among the Children of Israel (who had ordered with the good and forbade the wrong) went to their jobs, mosques, and other places in the community, but they did not see any of the major sinners. They were shocked and surprised at this and wondered about what happened to them. One of them put a ladder on the wall to take a look. When he looked over to the other side he was astonished to find monkeys jumping over each other and pigs making ugly noises. They opened the doors of the wall and entered into the side of the major sinners. The monkeys came close to the humans, smelt their clothes and cried. The humans would say, “Didn’t we forbid you from doing that sin.” The monkeys shook their heads indicating, “Yes, you forbade us.” It is said that 70,000 were changed into monkeys and pigs. Twelve thousand people forbade them from doing that sin. Before the sinners were changed into monkeys and pigs, the people in that village were of three groups. One group sinned and fished; they were around 70,000. They were changed into animals. Another group were the ones

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who did not fish and forbade the others from fishing. They were around 12,000. The last group neither fished nor did they forbid others from fishing. This group used to say to the group who forbade fishing, “Why do you forbid these people who are sinners while God will destroy and punish them?” They expected God to punish those sinners relying on stories of past nations who had sinned, and consequently had been punished and destroyed by God. The ones who forbade the sinners said, “We are forbidding them as a reminder to them of the sin they are doing. Perhaps they will fear God and stop.” God saved the group who forbade the sinners and the group who did not sin but did not forbid the sinners. The only group that turned into monkeys and pigs was the one who fished on Saturday. Those people who were changed into animals were only alive for three days. During that time they did not eat, drink, or produce any offspring. Their story became a great lesson for the people who had known them and knew what happened to them. Similarly, their tale was a great lesson for the nations that came after them who did not see them but only heard about them. Prophet David lived for 100 years as was cited in the hadith of Al-Bayhaqiyy, and others. We ask God to enable us to hear the beauty of the voice of Prophet David.

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Chapter 24: PROPHET SOLOMON (SULAYMAN),
blessings and peace be upon him When Prophet David died, the reign was passed to Prophet Solomon (Sulayman). Like his father, Solomon was a Prophet and a king. Prophet Solomon asked God for a kingdom the likes of which no one would have after him. God fulfilled that supplication of Prophet Solomon. The Magnificent Reign of Prophet Solomon Let us relate some of the special endowments God bestowed on Solomon. God taught Solomon the speech of the birds and the beasts. The plants would speak to Prophet Solomon and tell him about their benefits. In the assembly of Prophet Solomon, there were six hundred seats. Both humans and jinn would sit there. God made Solomon able to subjugate the devils. Although they did not become Muslim, they worked for Solomon. They greatly feared Solomon and none of them dared not to do the work that Solomon ordered them to do. The devil that did disobey Solomon would have a great torture befall him. This is why none of them dared to disobey Solomon. They built high, strong buildings for him, and large containers. They brought jewels and pearls from the sea. God made copper come out of the Earth, already melted for Prophet Solomon. From that copper, magnificent things were made. 204

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The Real Flying Carpet Among what the devils made for Prophet Solomon was a wide, carpet-like, wooden platform covered with gold and silk. This platform was big enough to carry humans, castles and other buildings, tents, supplies, horses, camels, and other animals. In the middle of it was a place for Prophet Solomon to sit. Around Prophet Solomon the pious people sat on golden chairs. Around them there were silver chairs for the scholars. The other people and jinn sat around the scholars. Despite the vastness of the reign of Prophet Solomon, he fought in person for the sake of spreading the Religion. Prophet Solomon was constantly battling the blasphemers to spread Islam, teaching that God was the only God, without partners. God subjugated the wind to Solomon. The flying carpet carried him, taking Solomon wherever he wanted. If he wanted to travel or fight an enemy, the carpet would be loaded with all that an army needs. Then a special wind that was designated by God to obey Prophet Solomon would come under the carpet, raising the carpet into the sky. This wind would be as gentle as a breeze, carrying Prophet Solomon and his army to their destination. If Prophet Solomon wanted to travel faster, he would ask for a stronger wind, and it would come. This carpet had an amazing speed covering what was normally a onemonth traveling distance in less than five hours. They would get to a place in the morning, and be back at home 205

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in the afternoon. Birds flew over them shading, and protecting them from the harmful sunrays. The city of Tadmur, in the region of Ash-Sham was the headquarters for Prophet Solomon’s kingdom. It was cited that the jinn had built that city for him from great stones, with long pillars of yellow and white marble. One morning, Prophet Solomon headed out from Tadmur in the direction of Istakhr, one of the biggest cities of Persia. In Istakhr there was a mosque known as Solomon’s Mosque. It would usually take a month to reach Istakhr from Tadmur, but Prophet Solomon reached it by noon. He rested a bit in the mosque, and then he headed towards Kabul in present-day Afghanistan, which also usually took a month to reach. Prophet Solomon reached there by nightfall, slept there, and headed back towards Tadmur the next morning, reaching it by noon. Among the proofs for these trips is what was found in a house near the Tigris River. In that house, a board was found. On this board, one of the companions of Prophet Solomon, either from the humans or the jinn, had written, “We stayed in this house. We did not build it; rather it was already built. We reached Istakhr at noon and the next day returned to Ash-Sham.” Another story that was narrated about Prophet Solomon was that while riding his carpet he passed over a farmer plowing his land. The man looked towards him and said, “David’s family has been given a great kingdom.” The wind carried the words of this man to the ears of Prophet Solomon. Solomon landed and walked to the

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man. Prophet Solomon told the man, “I heard what you said, and I came to warn you not to wish for that which you cannot obtain. One praise of God, that God accepts from you, is better than the entire world and what is in it.” The farmer replied, “May God ease your worries like you have eased mine.” Out of his extreme generosity, every day Prophet Solomon slaughtered 100,000 lambs and 30,000 cows and offered it to the people. Then Solomon himself ate the bread of the poorest people, barley bread, and drank sour milk. The concerns of Prophet Solomon were not, “What will I eat today? What will I wear today?” When Prophet Solomon did wear fancy clothes it would be done for a Religious benefit, not for the purpose of living luxuriously. When the highly righteous people take care of their clothing, it is for the purpose of having people come and gather around them to listen to the knowledge. This is so because most of the people judge by the appearances. Our Prophet cited in his hadith that there are men with scattered uncombed hair, who are dusty. They wear two garments only, just one to cover the upper part and one to cover the lower. If they come to people the people would not receive them and would instead send them away. However, if one of them made supplication to God, he would be answered, because he really has a very high status in the Religion. Al-Bukhariyy, Ahmad and others narrated this. Hence if a highly pious person cares for his appearance, it is not out of love of luxury, but only so

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that they are not sent away. They want to be received by the people, so the people would learn the Religious knowledge. The true richness is piety. This is why the Prophet said that richness is not by owning many things, but it is the richness of the heart. The Story of Prophet Solomon and Lady Bilqis Once, Solomon was walking with others in a certain location. He needed water. Prophet Solomon asked for his hoopoe bird. This bird would travel with Prophet Solomon because it had the ability see the water underneath the soil. Solomon could not find water, due to the disappearance of that bird. Prophet Solomon said, “I shall torture or slaughter that bird unless he gives me a legitimate excuse as to why he is not here with us.”7 The hoopoe had passed by the palace of Bilqis, who was a queen in Yemen. She was from the people of a man named Saba’ who was from a man named Qahtan. The Arabs of Yemen go back to Qahtan. The bird had seen an orchard behind the palace of Yemen and went there. He heard the news from the palace that Bilqis was the queen with a grand reign. He
Ibn ^Abbas said that while the hoopoe is above the earth it sees the water underground. One of the misguided people said, “If the hoopoe can see water, while the water is under the earth, why is it that the hoopoe falls prey to the trap of the hunter?” Ibn Abbas said, “Once destiny comes, the sight is blocked”. This means that whatever God has willed to happen shall happen, no matter how cautious and careful the creature is. CHECK THE INFORMATION SCIENTIFICALLY.
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also heard that she and her people were blasphemous, prostrating to and worshipping the sun. When the hoopoe came back to Solomon, Solomon asked him about where he had gone. The hoopoe said, “I learned that which you did not know. I brought you from Yemen some news which I am certain you do not know.” Then the hoopoe told Prophet Solomon the story of Bilqis and her people. Prophet Solomon said, “I will check if you are truthful in your claim.” From verses 30 and 31 of Suratul-Naml, we know that Solomon wrote Bilqis a short letter saying, “I start with the name of God, ar-Rahman (the One Who is merciful with believers and disbelievers in this life), ar-Rahim (The One Who is merciful only with the believers in the Hereafter). This is from Solomon. Do not disobey me and come to me as Muslims”. Prophet Solomon ordered the hoopoe to drop the letter in the lap of Queen Bilqis. The hoopoe did as ordered. Bilqis was greatly astonished at seeing a bird come and drop a letter in her lap that contain such content. She gathered the heads of her people to get their opinion. They told her, “We are a people with great strength and power. It is up to you, our Queen.” Bilqis said that she would subject Solomon to a test by sending him a gift. She said that if Solomon accepted the gift, then she would know that he was a man who was attached to worldly power, and was not as he said. If he did not accept it, then she would know that he is a person dedicated to God. When her gift arrived to Solomon, along with her messenger, Solomon said, “Are you giving me money?

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God gave me better than what He gave you. You are the ones who are delighted about receiving gifts from one another. I did not request a gift from you, rather I demanded that you become Muslim.” Then Prophet Solomon sent the gift back with the messenger, and told the messenger to tell Bilqis, “You will meet a great army which you have never experienced before. You will be unable to defeat or block the army of Prophet Solomon. We shall drive you out of your city.” When the messenger returned the gift to Bilqis and gave here the message from Solomon she said, “This is man we cannot handle.” She gathered the heads of her people and they traveled to Prophet Solomon. When she got near to arrival, Prophet Solomon told those with him, among the humans and jinn, “Who will bring me the throne of Bilqis [which is in Yemen]?” Prophet Solomon wanted her throne brought to him, to prove to her that he was a Prophet. One of the jinn said, “I can bring you the throne before you break for lunch”. Prophet Solomon said, “I want it quicker than that”. One among the righteous humans was an assistant of Prophet Solomon, named Asaf Ibn Barkhiya. Asaf said, “I can bring you the throne of Bilqis quicker than the time it takes you to focus your sight from a far away object to a close object.” Prophet Solomon then found the throne of Bilqis before him. Solomon said, “This is a test from God. Will I thank God, or will I forget?” This was really an amazing feat considering that the throne of Bilqis was 120 feet long and 60 feet wide, covered with jewels. Bilqis was a smart woman. However, she was misguided to not worship God, due to the habit of her 210

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people. Her people were powerful. It is the nature of most people who are given a lot of strength to not listen to those who have less strength. Prophet Solomon, in his brilliance, wanted to lead her to the correct belief. When Bilqis arrived to Prophet Solomon, he showed her throne and asked her, “Is this how your throne looks?” She said, “It is as if it is mine”. Prophet Solomon told her, “It is really yours. The fact that you locked your doors did not benefit you!” Prophet Solomon ordered the devils to build a very grand structure out of glass. This structure was flat and it had water running under it. In it were fish and other things one would see in the sea. Some people told Bilqis to enter this grand structure. When she entered she thought it was water. She slightly lifted her dress to walk and reach Solomon. Solomon turned his eyes away and told her, “This is made out of smooth glass. Do not fear; you can step on it”. When she saw all of this great reign and dominion, she knew that the strength of her people did not compare to the great strength of Prophet Solomon. She recognized that all of that was an endowment from God upon Solomon. At that moment she was guided to know that God did not accept her former deeds. She said, “O my Lord, I have done myself injustice by worshipping other than You! I have become a Muslim, worshipping the Lord of the Worlds along with Solomon.” Her story is cited in the Qur’an and the hadith. It is famous among narrators that later Prophet Solomon married Bilqis, but this is not confirmed. Others said that Prophet Solomon told her to marry a king of Yemen. God knows best. 211

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Prophet Solomon and the Angel of Death Once, in the session of Prophet Solomon, the Angel of Death, ^Azra’il, was visiting. The Angel of Death used to visit Prophet Solomon now and then. The Angel of Death was looking a lot at a certain man who was with Prophet Solomon. When that man knew that the Angel of Death was looking at him, he showed great fear when the Angel of Death left, thinking about death. This man asked Prophet Solomon to order the wind to carry him to the land of India. Prophet Solomon did so, and the man got to India very quickly. Then the Angel of Death, ^Azra’il, came back to Prophet Solomon. Prophet Solomon asked the angel why he was looking a lot at that particular person. The angel responded “I saw that man with you, in ash-Sham, and I was ordered to soon take his soul in India. I was looking at him wondering how he would get from Ash-Sham to India so quickly.” Whatever God willed must be. The Real Version of the Story of the Vow of Prophet Solomon In Verse 34 of Suratu Sad is a reference to an event in the life of Prophet Solomon. This verse was given many interpretations. Some of these interpretations are not suitable to attribute to a Prophet. Abus-Su^ud gave the correct interpretation. Al-Bukhariyy and Muslim narrated the same from the Prophet. The true meaning is the following: 212

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Prophet Solomon said, “I will have sexual intercourse with one hundred of my women (who were made Islamically legal for him) in this one night. Each will give birth to a fighter for the sake of God”. However Prophet Solomon forgot to say “in sha’ Allah” (by God’s will) concerning this matter. Prophet Solomon did have sexual intercourse with one hundred women that night. Contrary to Solomon’s hope, only one of them conceived a child. When she delivered, she gave birth to half a boy who was dead. Prophet Muhammad swore, “By the One Who controls my soul, had Solomon said ‘in sha ‘Allah’ all of the women would have conceived and given birth to knights fighting for the spread of Islam.”8 The Death of Prophet Solomon Prophet Solomon stayed in his great dominion for some time, with the jinn serving him as he willed. When the time for Solomon’s death arrived, a matter happened which Prophet Muhammad told us about, as narrated by Ibn Hibban and others.

Some historians reported that Prophet Solomon had 300 wives and 700 slave women with whom he could have sexual intercourse. This report is not confirmed in the hadith of Prophet Muhammad. What is confirmed is that the Prophet said that Prophet Solomon said, “I will have sexual intercourse with one hundred women”. Prophet Solomon did this out of his great love to spread Islam by jihad. The Prophet did not mention the total number of his wives, but definitely at that time one hundred women were made Islamically legal for Solomon. Prophet Solomon provided for all of those women, and treated them all fairly.

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Prophet Muhammad said, “When Solomon stood to pray in his niche (mihrab), a plant emerged. Solomon asked, ‘What is your name?’ God made the plant speak, and it told its name. Prophet Solomon then asked the plant, ‘For what purpose do you grow?’ Then the plant told him. If it were edible, it would be taken and cultivated. If it was medicine, that would be written down. Once, when Prophet Solomon was praying, a plant emerged between his hands. He asked the plant what its name was and the plant said ‘the carob’. He said, ‘For what were you created?’ It said, ‘To destroy this house’. This meant that the death of Solomon was near, and Solomon understood. Prophet Solomon said, ‘O my Lord, I ask that the news of my death be kept from the jinn, for the humans to know that the jinn do not know the unforeseen.’ (Some humans used to believe that the jinn knew the unforeseen.) Prophet Solomon took that plant which had grown up and made a stick out of it. He leaned against that stick and died. Prophet Solomon stayed in that position for an entire year, being dead, leaning against that stick. The jinn stayed travailing, doing work for Solomon, not knowing that Solomon had died some time ago. One day, a small insect called “Al-Aradah” came. This insect chewed on the stick of Solomon and Solomon fell down. When the jinn saw that, they knew that Prophet Solomon had died.” The jinn thanked this insect that revealed the situation of Prophet Solomon. They brought water to it, to build its house. This insect creeps on ceilings made out of 214

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wood, and it constructs its house from a mixture of soil and water. One wonders from where this insect brings the soil and water to make this clay house. It is the jinn who provide the soil and water in order to thank the insect. It is in the Sham area. O God, bless Prophet Solomon, the one You endowed with a great kingship!

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Chapter 25: THE HONORABLE ANGELS, HARUT and MARUT
Before continuing with telling you about more honorable Prophets of God, we tell of an event that occurred after the death of Prophet Solomon. This event is cited in the Qur’an, in Suratul-Baqarah, verse 102. During the time of Prophet Solomon were a group of the Children of Israel who gave up Islam, the Religion of Israel (Jacob) and all the other Prophets. Instead of following the Torah and the wisdoms of the book given to Prophet David, Az-Zabur, they became sorcerers. They had books of sorcery from the devils. The Cunning Ways of the Devils In those days, the devils used to ascend to high points and could eavesdrop on the conversation of the angels. The angels would talk with each other about some things copied from the Guarded Tablet, concerning what would happen on Earth that year. The devils would go, with information they overheard from the angels, to the humans on Earth who were sorcerers. The devils would speak with these human sorcerers and give them information. The sorcerers and those they told would see that what the devils told became true.

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Consequently, some people started to trust those sorcerers. The sorcerers would then add false information, making seventy lies along with each truth. People wrote the statements of the sorcerers and compiled books. It began to be spread that the jinn and the sorcerers knew the entire unknown. Believing that jinn and sorcerers know the unknown is blasphemy. Prophet Solomon sent some of his soldiers to collect those books of the sorcerers and to put them in a chest. Then Prophet Solomon had that chest buried under his throne. None of the devils could approach the throne of Solomon for fear of being burnt. Solomon threatened the devils saying, “If I hear anyone say that the demons know the unknown, I shall break that person’s neck”. The devils were enraged because God endowed on Solomon command over the devils, even though the devils did not convert to Islam. They talked about deaths, disasters and the like. Since the birth of Prophet Muhammad, the devils could not go up and hear those conversations of the angels. If they attempt to, a flaming comet is thrown at them (SuratulMulk, verse 5). Satan Lies about Prophet Solomon After Prophet Solomon died, Satan appeared in the form of a man to a group of the Children of Israel. He said, “Shall I show you the way to an never-ending treasure, no matter how much you take from it?” When they said yes, the devil said, “Solomon was not a

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Prophet. Nay, he was instead a sorcerer! Dig under his throne and find out!” The Muslims of the time, when they got word of this, were enraged. They said, “Solomon was truly a Prophet of God, a pious Muslim who never engaged in sorcery!” Satan came back to those he spoke with and showed them where to dig for the box of books. The men told Satan, “You dig and get this box”. Satan told them, “No, I won’t do that, but I am right here, near you. If you do not find the box where I tell you, you may kill me!” Those fools dug and found the box. They opened it and took out the books of the sorcerers. Then Satan told them, “Solomon used to control the humans, jinn and the birds with this magic”. The fools said, “We see and believe that Solomon was a sorcerer. This is the magic with which he commanded and subdued us!” Then Satan flew away and continued to spread the lie that Prophet Solomon was a sorcerer. Satan added that the righteous follower of Prophet Solomon, Asaf Ibn Barkhiya, also was a sorcerer. Remember that he was the one who brought the throne of Bilqis to Prophet Solomon, by God’s will. Hence, those blasphemers among the Children of Israel started to practice what they read in those books. These human sorcerers would be tutored by devils. They claimed to be Prophets and challenged the people with their witchcraft. God then sent two angels to the Earth named Harut and Marut. These two angels were sent to teach the people the difference between the tricks of the sorcerers and real miracles of Prophets of God. 218

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The angels taught that those sorcerers were not really Prophets, so that they would not fool people. Witchcraft can be opposed by more powerful witchcraft, and a sorcerer can defeat another sorcerer. In sorcery there is a lot of delusion. Sorcerers call on devils to work for them with their evil directives. Since humans do not see the jinn, much harm is done. Miracles of Prophets, on the other hand, are not the work of devils. God created those extraordinary events without devils being involved. When a Prophet confronted a blasphemer with a miracle, the blasphemer never could duplicate the miracle. This proves to the people that God supports a Prophet, and the blasphemer is not. God Made Two Angels Descend Showing the Truth The two angels, Harut and Marut, descended to reveal to the people the difference between sorcery (a forbidden practice) and miracles (that are the proof of Prophethood). Harut and Marut taught sorcery to warn the people about it, and not to encourage them to do it. Didn’t the Prophets teach about blasphemy, murder, fornication, and other sins so that we do not do them? The Prophets did not teach us exactly what sins are, so that we do them! When Harut and Marut taught sorcery, they warned that this ought not be done, and that it was a test. The people passed the test if they did not perform sorcery. They passed the test if they taught the others the 219

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difference between the ugly practice of sorcery and the good miracles God bestowed on Prophets. They did not pass the test if they took the knowledge of sorcery and practiced it. A false tale is told that those honorable angels, who are not male or female, met a beautiful woman and fornicated with her. Even when angels appear in the form of a man, they do not have any genitals. How could anyone believe that false story? Furthermore, fornication is a great sin, and angels never disobey God. Ignorant people concoct many lies about honorable Prophets, angels and other Muslims. These lies are set forth with the intent to slander the noble, righteous Muslims. We ask God that the true information in this book will dispel many of these lies.

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Chapter 26: PROPHET ZACHARIAS (ZAKARIYYA) and PROPHET JOHN (YAHYA),
blessings and peace be upon them Prophet Zacharias (Zakariyya) and Prophet John (Yahya), his son, are cited in the Qur’an. Prophet Zacharias is the son of Barkhiya, from the children of David. Prophet Zacharias was married to Elizabeth (Isha^), the sister of Lady Mary. Isha^ was barren. Prophet Zacharias used to work as a carpenter and eat from what he earned. Prophet Zacharias is the Custodian of Lady Mary When Elizabeth’s mother gave birth to Mary (Maryam), after a long time of not conceiving, she had made a vow that the child born would be dedicated to serve the House of God. When Mary was born, the people competed over who would raise her. Prophet Zacharias said, “I have the priority because her sister is my wife.” The people refused, and went out to the river Jordan. Each person threw his pen. All the pens sunk to the bottom, except the pen of Prophet Zacharias. Hence, Zacharias became the custodian of Mary. When Mary grew up in obedience, Prophet Zacharias saw Lady Mary having fruits of the summer with her in 221

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the winter, and the fruits of the winter with her in the summer. When Zacharias saw that sign with Mary, while she was in the place of prayer, Zacharias became hopeful that he would have a son, even with him and his wife having advanced years. In verses 38 and 39 of Suratu Al ^Imran, there is the meaning that Zacharias made a supplication to God, “O God grant me a good child. You are the One Who answers the supplication”. God answered the supplication. Angels called Zacharias while he was praying in that niche saying, “God gives you the good news that you will have a child named John (Yahya), believing in Jesus, the son of Mary. He will be a master. He will not desire to be married (in this life). He will be a Prophet and among the righteous.” When Zacharias heard that, he did not doubt in the Power of God. He believed that for sure this would happen. However, Prophet Zacharias did inquire as to how it would happen, considering that he was so well advanced in years and his wife was barren. God revealed to him that God did that which He willed. God made the wife of Zacharias become pregnant, although she had been barren for so long. God made the sign of her pregnancy be that Zacharias would stop talking to people for three days. For those three days, he only used signs to communicate to people, although he did not suffer a speech impediment. However, during that time, when Prophet Zacharias wanted to mention God, his tongue would speak freely.

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The Birth of Prophet John Then John was born, looking very beautiful. Since a young age, John was physically strong, and had great strength in obedience and comprehension as well. John adhered to the laws of the Torah, and was strong with the truth (Surah Maryam, verses 12-14). God made John a noble Prophet. Among the Children of Israel, there was a king who married a woman who had a high status. When the wife of the king got older, she was scared that the heart of the king would move away from her to someone else. She was afraid that she would lose the luxury that she had. Due to all of this, she asked the king to marry her daughter from another man. This was his stepdaughter and was still forbidden to him, according to the Islamic laws. The king asked Prophet John about this matter. John told him that it was unlawful to marry one’s stepdaughter. The king told his wife what Prophet John said. The wife ranted, “How could John disobey you, the king, and give you such a judgment?!” Then she started to incite the king to kill Prophet John. She ordered this daughter to give the king wine to drink and then to seduce him, so that he would try to commit adultery with her. The woman told her daughter that when the king gets to the point right before sexual intercourse, she should prevent him and tell him, “I will not let you until you bring me the head of John”.

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The Unjust Killing of Prophets John and Zacharias All of this happened as planned and the king ordered the beheading of John. Prophet John’s head was cut over a container. Some of the blood fell outside of the container and that blood kept on flowing. The blood kept on flowing on Earth until an unjust blasphemous king came and killed 70,000 of the Children of Israel. This is because those Children of Israel did not protect and defend John, a Prophet of God, from being killed. After the king had John killed, the followers of the king went to look for Zacharias, to kill him also. Prophet Zacharias passed by a tree and the tree called him. The tree split open and Zacharias went inside the tree. The devil, however, found out that Prophet Zacharias was in that tree. The devil went and told the followers of the king that Prophet Zacharias was in that particular tree. Those followers of the king went and sawed the tree in which Prophet Zacharias dwelled, and Prophet Zacharias died as a result. Some people misinterpret the verse in the Qur’an that mentions that Prophet John did not desire women in this life. Those who misinterpret this verse, say that Prophet John was unable to have sexual intercourse. This is incorrect. The truth is that in this life, Prophet John did not have a desire to have a wife or slave woman with which to have sexual intercourse. John was physically able, but simply did not desire it in this life.

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Chapter 27: OTHER PROPHETS,
blessings and peace be upon them There were many Prophets other than the ones we tell you about in this book. The ones we cited are the ones who are famous in the nation of Prophet Muhammad, blessings and peace be upon him. Most of these were cited by name in the Qur’an. Some of the salaf (the Muslims of the first three Islamic centuries) attributed Prophethood to other than the ones we have cited such as: Ash^iya, Armiya, Hizqil and Danyal. In Surat Fatir, verse 24, God said that every nation had a Prophet. This indicates the large number of the Prophets. Ibn Hibban related that Prophet Muhammad said that the Prophets were 124,000, 313 of whom were Messengers. However, there is a difference in opinion about the credibility of some narrators of this hadith. For this reason, it is not used to deduce rules in matters pertaining to the belief. There is another narration by Ibn Jarir, which states that there are 8,000 Prophets, but this narration is not confirmed. Some of the scholars said that the right methodology is not to specify a number of Prophets, to be on the safe side. This way one avoids including those who are not among them, and excluding from the Prophets those who are among them. We are making note of this here, at this point in the book, because all the Prophets whom we do not know 225

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about definitely came before Prophet Jesus. Jesus is the next Prophet to tell about.

Prophet

Definitely Prophet Muhammad is the last Prophet to be born as stated in the Qur’an and the hadith. Also we know that definitely no Prophet is between Prophet Jesus and Prophet Muhammad because of the hadith of Prophet Muhammad stating it. Hence, we can logically conclude that all those many Prophets we do not know about were before Prophet Jesus.

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Chapter 28: PROPHET JESUS (^ISA),
blessings and peace be upon him Prophet Jesus (^Isa) is cited in the Qur’an many times. Jesus is the son of Mary, who is the daughter of ^Imran, from the Children of Israel. The name of the mother of Mary was Hannah or Hamnah. Lady Mary is Born Once, Hannah saw a bird feeding its children. She longed for a baby herself. She asked God to give her a child. God fulfilled her request. When Hannah felt the pregnancy she said, “O Lord, I vow that that whoever in my womb be dedicated as a servant in the Holy House, worshipping You.” Hannah had thought the child would be a boy. When she delivered, she saw the baby was a girl. Hannah named the baby Mary (Maryam) and asked God to protect her and her children from the devil. Mary grew up in a pious manner. As mentioned previously, Zacharias was her custodian. From him, Mary learned the rules of Islam. Mary endeavored in performing obedience, until she became the best of the women in the world. Before attaining the age of 14, she was already a highly pious woman. Ibn Jarir and others narrated that one day, Mary ran out of water. She asked her cousin, Joseph, the son of Ya^qub, the son of Mathan, to go with her to fetch water. He is known as Joseph, the carpenter. He said, “I have 227

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what is sufficient for me for tomorrow.” Hence, Mary went by herself to fetch some water. There, Mary found a man. She feared him, and she sought refuge with God. This good-looking man was really Angel Gabriel. He told Mary, “I am one of the angels of God. God sent me to give you a good child.” Lady Mary Becomes Pregnant with a Blessed, Father-less Child Mary said, “How would I bear a child? I have not been touched by a man, and I have never been a prostitute.” Gabriel said, “This was ordained by God and it is an easy matter to God. This child will be a sign to the people and a mercy from God to them. This is a matter that has been preordained.” When he said that, Mary submitted to the ordainment of God. Gabriel blew in the opening at the neck of Mary’s dress. When Gabriel blew, the soul of Jesus went into Mary’s mouth and into her womb. Gabriel left Mary pregnant, carrying Prophet Jesus. Mary filled her container and went back. Mary’s cousin, Joseph the carpenter, was among the most worshipful people. (Of course, this is a different “Joseph” from Prophet Joseph). As days passed, Joseph saw the signs of pregnancy on Mary. Certainly, he saw this as a very serious matter. Joseph did not know how to explain that situation to himself. When he thought to accuse her of fornication, he would remember how pious Mary was. Yet when Joseph wanted to declare that Mary

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was innocent of this sin, he would see the signs of pregnancy on her. Joseph decided to talk to Mary openly. Joseph said, “Thoughts come to me about you. I have been fighting and rejecting them. However, I have reached the point that I am overwhelmed by these thoughts. This is why I wanted to talk to you.” Mary said, “Ask, but in a kind way that does not harm me.” Joseph told her, “Tell me, will plants grow without seeds?” Mary said, “Yes.” Then Joseph asked, “Will trees grow without rain?” Mary said, “Yes.” Then Joseph asked her, “Will there be a child without a male?” Mary said, “Yes. Do you not know that God made the plants emerge the day He created them the first time without seeds? Do you not know that God created the trees for the first time without rain? Do you not know that God created both Adam and Eve without a male or a female?” Joseph said, “Yes.” When Mary told him that, Joseph felt at heart that this pregnancy was something given to Mary from God. He felt sure of her innocence from sin. It is narrated that both Prophet Zacharias and Joseph were falsely accused of making Mary pregnant. It is also narrated that the wife of Zacharias and Mary had their pregnancies at the same time, with Elizabeth delivering John six months before Mary delivered Jesus. Prophet Jesus is Born The length of Mary’s pregnancy is a case of difference in opinion. Some said it was nine months long; others said it was eight. Other lengths were also 229

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narrated. When she felt the pains of delivery, she went to the east of Jerusalem. She started her delivery while being under the branch of a palm tree in Bethlehem (Bayt Lahm) in Palestine. Mary said, “I wish I had died before this”, due to her thinking about the reaction of the people. Mary said, “I wish I had died, and not a trace would have been seen of me.” Angel Gabriel called her from the lower end of the mountain saying, “Do not feel sad. God made a small river run underneath you. Shake the trunk of the palm tree, and dates will fall down to you.” That palm was not fertile, yet when Mary shook its trunk, it turned green and dates grew on it. Angel Gabriel said, “Eat, drink and delight yourself.” Prophet Jesus was born. As a special endowment from God, Satan was not present at the birth of Jesus and did not prick him. After forty days, Mary came to her people carrying her son. When the people saw Mary they exclaimed, “O Mary, you have committed an enormous sin.” They told her “O sister of Harun!” (This meant that Mary had been known to be like a pious man among them named Harun.) They said, “Your father was not an evil man, nor was your mother a prostitute. How did you do this?” Mary said, “As ordered, I have vowed not to talk to any human today.” When they still wanted to talk to her, she pointed at the baby indicating to them to talk to him. They were angered. They said, “How do we talk to one who is still in the cradle?” They thought that she was mocking them. 230

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Baby Jesus Speaks to the People At that point, God made Jesus speak. Baby Jesus said, “I am the slave of God. God will reveal a Book to me and make me a Prophet. There are blessings wherever I am. God will order me with prayers and Zakah as long as I am alive.” The first thing that Prophet Jesus uttered was his declaration that he was the slave of God. This is a strong proof that Jesus is not God, nor is he the Son of God. Mary’s people wanted to punish her when they first saw the child with her, because they thought that she had committed fornication. However, after baby Jesus spoke, the people refrained from punishing her, and left her alone. After that, Jesus did not speak until he reached the age when children normally speak. Mary took Jesus to Egypt. They stayed there for a period of time. Then Mary and Jesus went back to the land of ash-Sham, to a city known as Nazerith (an-Nasirah), in Palestine. Jesus’ followers were called Nasara, in reference to that city (according to one of two sayings). It is not reported by trustworthy sources that Mary married her cousin Joseph. This is the story of the Christians, and is not reliable. The reliable report is that Mary never married until her death. Some scholars say that she will be married to a Prophet in Paradise. Mary was the best of all the Muslim women. It is blasphemy to say that she is the “mother of God”, as some Christians say. God does not have a mother or a father. 231

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Jesus Follows the Torah before Receiving a New Book Jesus, peace be upon him, studied the Torah in school and memorized it. Jesus followed the Torah until God sent the Revelation to him, when he was 30 years old. God made him a Prophet and Messenger. Jesus told the people of his Prophethood. God gave Jesus a new book, the Injil. The Injil abrogated some of the rules that were in the Torah. When Prophet Jesus announced that he was a Prophet, and that he received a new book, a lot of the people following the Torah did not like this. They wanted to stay with the Torah, and refused to give up following the rules in the Torah to follow the rules in the Injil. Those who did not accept the Prophethood of Jesus and the new Holy Book, and instead clung to the Torah, are those called the Jews. God made many miracles occur at the hands of Jesus. At Jesus’ hands, God created the cure of many with leprosy, and other severe diseases. Jesus also made the dead become alive, by the Will of God—in defeat to those who objected to and opposed him. God gave Jesus these types of miracles, because the people of Jesus’ time were famous for their medicine. Despite that, they could not do what Jesus did, by God’s Will. Jesus was circumcised and did not eat pork. (The Christians know these facts. They admit that Jesus was circumcised and that he did not eat the swine. However, a long time after Prophet Jesus was raised, some deviant monks came together and changed these two rules, to

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encourage others to come to their perverted religion). Also Jesus did not drink wine, although Christians claim that he did. None of the Prophets drank even a drop of alcohol their entire lives. The complexion of Jesus was fair. He wore clothing made out of thick, unspun wool. Jesus used to eat raw green vegetables, like endive (hindaba’) and mulukhiyyah, green vegetables of the Palestine area. Jesus was extremely detached from the world. He did not have a house of his own. He used to sleep wherever the night fell upon him. If the night fell when Jesus was in the place of prayer, he would sleep there. (At Jesus’ time, there were specific places dedicated for prayer. Although they were not called ‘masajid’ like we call them today, these specific places were present). Jesus did not get married. The Story of the Spread of Food from the Sky Prophet Jesus had ordered Al-Hawariyyun (Supporters), the best people, who had believed in and followed him, to fast 30 days. Upon the completion of the 30 days, they were with Jesus in a desert. When Prophet Jesus traveled, thousands of people would follow him. Some of them were Jesus’ Companions, and others were sick wanting a cure. However, a group of people followed to mock and belittle Jesus. The Hawariyyun asked Prophet Jesus if they could have a spread of food descend on them from the sky, to confirm to them that God accepted their fast. They wanted to have something special to eat on the day they 233

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broke their fast. They also asked that the spread would be enough for all of them, both rich and poor alike. Prophet Jesus was fearful for the Hawariyyun, thinking that they might not thank God properly, if He gave them this endowment. Moreover, they had seen many miracles, so why did they want more? When Prophet Jesus addressed them with his concern, their answer was that they wanted the blessings that would accompany this spread of food. After their insistence, Prophet Jesus went to the place where he usually prayed, placed a cloth made from unwoven wool, and cried out of fear of God. Then, Jesus made supplication that the Hawariyyun’s request would be answered. God accepted Prophet Jesus’ supplication and a spread of food descended from the sky between two clouds. One cloud was above it and one was below. Around it, there were angels. Slowly, it neared the ground and during its descent Prophet Jesus continued making supplication to God asking Him to make this spread of food a mercy for his people, bringing peace and blessings, not being an infliction. The spread of food landed near Prophet Jesus. It was covered with a cloth. Prophet Jesus took this cloth away while saying, “In the name of God, the best Sustainer”. Once the spread was uncovered, the people could see seven big fish, seven loaves of bread, vinegar, salt, honey, pomegranates, and other fruits. The food of this spread had a wonderful smell, which the people around it had never smelled before.

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The news of the feast reached the Jews. They came to look at this unusual and extra-ordinary occurrence, while being sad about its happening. Prophet Jesus ordered the Hawariyyun to eat from the spread of food, but they replied by saying, “We will not eat from it until you have eaten from it.” Prophet Jesus told them, “You are the ones who asked for it. You eat from it.” Still they refused. At that, Prophet Jesus ordered those who were poor, ill, diseased, handicapped, or blind to eat from it. Their number was close to 1,300. They all ate from it. The blessing that resulted from this great miracle was that all those who ate from it, whether they were handicapped or had a sickness, were all cured. Furthermore, the one who was poor among them became rich. As a result, those who first refused to eat from it regretted their refusal. The number of people who wanted to eat from this feast became so huge that Prophet Jesus made them take turns. Each person, from the very first person until the last, ate until they were full. It was cited that everyday 7,000 people ate from the table. Forty days after the food spread had been among them, God revealed to Prophet Jesus to allow only the poor people, and not the rich, to eat from the feast. Prophet Jesus warned the people to be honest, and for the rich people to stay away from it, as they had been ordered. Jesus also ordered the poor people who ate from it not to store any of its food. They could not take food away with them and save it for the next day. However, the

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people did not obey Prophet Jesus. Many rich people ate from the food spread, and many took away food wanting to store it. As a result the food spread was lifted, which was a great hardship for many people. The hypocrites among the followers of Prophet Jesus used this as an excuse to shed doubt about the truthfulness of Prophet Jesus and spread that among the people. God revealed to Prophet Jesus, “I will torture those who blaspheme.” Thirty-three people who had blasphemed woke up the next day to discover that they had been transformed into ugly pigs. As pigs, they ate and slept on the dirt and filth from the trash piles, after they had been eating good food and sleeping on comfortable beds. When the people saw this they gathered around Prophet Jesus and cried. The pigs also came, hanging their heads in shame and crying. Prophet Jesus knew who those pigs were. Jesus said to them, “Aren’t you so and so” and each one shook his head up and down, unable to speak. The people who blasphemed remained as pigs for several days. Then Prophet Jesus made supplication to God to take their souls out of their bodies. They disappeared and it was unknown whether the earth had swallowed them or something else had happened to them. The people talked about this miracle. Consequently, many people embraced Islam. Likewise, the faith and belief of those who were already Muslim increased. The account of the food spread is cited in Suratul-Ma’idah, verses 112-115, of the Holy Qur’an.

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Prophet Jesus is Raised to the Heavens When Prophet Jesus was thirty-three years old, the Jews wanted to kill him. However, God saved Jesus from them. God made one of Jesus’ students look like him, and that student was killed in place of Jesus. Ibn Abi Hatim and An-Nasa’iyy narrated that Ibn ^Abbas said that Jesus was with twelve of his Companions in a house. Prophet Jesus said, “Among you there will be those who commit apostasy after being believers.” Then Jesus said, “Who among you volunteers to be made to look like me and will be killed in my place? He will be my Companion in Paradise.” The youngest man among them stood up and said, “It is I.” Prophet Jesus said (kindly), “Sit down.” Prophet Jesus repeated his question. This youngest follower stood up again and said, “It is I.” Jesus again said, “Sit down.” Then Jesus repeated the question a third time. That youngest person said, “It is I.” At that, Prophet Jesus said, “It is you.” That person was made to look like Jesus. When people came to capture Jesus they thought this student was Jesus. They took that student and crucified him. Before this crucifixion, Prophet Jesus was raised from a window, from the upper corner of the house. People used this window to get to the roof. Prophet Jesus was raised through it. This is from a sahih hadith. The story which some tell, that a Jewish man was paid a lot of money to disclose the place of Prophet Jesus, is false. The story says that then this man guided them to the house, went inside before them, and when they 237

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followed him, they thought him to be Prophet Jesus, and they took him. Again this is false. Another story, which is told, that the person killed was the leader of the Jews is incorrect. Ibn Abbas’ narration is the correct one. Prophet Jesus is Still Alive and Will Come Back to Earth Jesus, peace be upon him, now is present in the second heaven. He shall descend before the Day of Judgment. His descent will be one of the great signs of the nearing of the Day of Judgment. Abu Dawud and others narrated that Prophet Muhammad said, “Jesus, the son of Mary shall descend among you. Know him. He is a man average in height. His hair is smooth, not curly. He is neither thin, nor heavy. He will remain on Earth for forty years. All religions will be destroyed, except the Religion of Islam.” This is a sahih hadith by unanimous agreement of the scholars of hadith. (After Prophet Jesus comes to Earth, there will be a time when no non-Muslim human being will live on the face of the Earth). When Jesus descends he will be wearing two yellow garments. Prophet Muhammad said that Prophet Jesus, the son of Mary, will descend and rule justly. Jesus shall perform Hajj and travel to the grave of Prophet Muhammad, with the purpose of saluting the Prophet. The Prophet will return Jesus’ salutation. The breath of Prophet Jesus, when he returns, will reach as far as his sight reaches. The blasphemer who did not yet embrace Islam will die when the breath of

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Prophet Jesus reaches him. Either he believes or he dies. God will destroy all the religions other than Islam. At the time of Prophet Jesus, the people of Gog and Magog (Ya’juj and Ma’juj) will appear on the Earth. They will cause a lot of evil on Earth. Prophet Jesus will take the believers to Mt. Tur (Sinai) where they will make a supplication to God. At that, God will send to the people of Gog and Magog worms that will go inside of them, and kill them. After all of them die, God will send a heavy rain to wash all their corpses into the sea. After that, the Muslims will live in peace, comfort, and safety. There will be so much peace that the wolf will be with the sheep grazing and not kill them. The baby will play with the snake without the snake harming him. Money will be in great surplus to the extent that no one will take it. At that time, the Earth will bring up the gold inside of it. The person will be burdened when he wants to pay Zakah (an obligatory payment to deserving people) due to that he will not find a poor person to receive Zakah. The Earth will be ordered to bring forth fruits that are very blessed by God. A whole group of people will be able to eat from one pomegranate. God will bless milk so that the milk of one cow will be sufficient for an entire tribe. The milk of a sheep will be enough for one branch of a tribe. When he comes back to Earth, Prophet Jesus will marry and have children. Then Prophet Jesus will die as all men do. The Muslims will perform the funeral prayer for him and bury him. The great Companion of the Prophet, ^Abdullah ibn Salam, said that in the original

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Torah given to Prophet Moses, it is written that Prophet Jesus would come, and be buried with Prophet Muhammad in his same chamber. From this, as well as the Qur’an, Sunnah (sayings of Prophet Muhammad), and consensus of the scholars, it is known that Prophet Jesus did not die yet, and that God raised him from Earth to the heavens, while he was awake. A verse of the Qur’an means that God raised Prophet Jesus from this Earth alive. After that, Prophet Jesus will come back to Earth, live, and then will die. God saved Prophet Jesus from the people who blasphemed and wished to kill him. This is the interpretation of ^Abdullah ibn ^Abbas, the great explainer of the Qur’an. Verse 157 of Suratun-Nisa’ explicitly indicates that Prophet Jesus was neither crucified nor killed. He who believes that Prophet Jesus was crucified or killed, has denied the Qur’an and becomes a blasphemer due to this conviction. He needs to correct his belief, and say the two Professions of Faith, to enter Islam. He must declare, “I profess that no one deserves to worshipped except God, the Creator, and I profess that Muhammad is the Messenger of God.” Jurayj, the Pious Follower of Prophet Jesus After Prophet Jesus was raised to the second heaven, his Muslim followers were following the Injil and teaching Islam. These Muslims were persecuted frequently. They left the towns and lived in isolated areas in the mountains to avoid the harm of the disbelievers. 240

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One of these followers was named Jurayj. Once Jurayj was praying an optional prayer when his mother called him. Jurayj did not respond to her call, but instead continued with his prayer. His mother was upset and said, “May you not die until you see the faces of the prostitutes.” Jurayj was known for his piety. Some evil people wanted to tempt Jurayj and see him fail in his quest to obey God. They got an idea to send a prostitute to him. They wanted him to fall into her trap to discredit him. The woman got dressed up and went to the small hut of Jurayj, away from the people of the city. When she proposed the sin of fornication to Jurayj, he immediately rejected her, and sought refuge with God. When the prostitute found that she could not seduce Jurayj, she went to a shepherd she saw, and did the evil sin with him. This prostitute got pregnant from that shepherd. When she gave birth, she claimed that the baby was from Jurayj. When the people of the city heard that, they now had their alleged reason to discredit Jurayj. The people went to the small hut of Jurayj and destroyed it. They began to drag Jurayj through the streets. They were proclaiming that Jurayj was not really pious and was a fraud. Jurayj asked to pray two rak^ahs of prayer. The people granted him that. After Jurayj did that, Jurayj asked the newborn baby who his father was. God made the newborn baby speak clearly. The baby said, “The shepherd is my father.” When the people heard this, they stopped accusing Jurayj of this act. They offered to re-build his house out

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of gold. Jurayj said, “No, just re-build it as the same simple hut that it was”. The People of the Cave The following story is cited in the Holy Qur’an, in Suratul-Kahf. One of the followers of Prophet Jesus went to a city called Ufsus, in nowadays Turkey. An evil king named Duqyanus ruled that city. This king told his people to worship idols. This righteous follower of Prophet Jesus worked at a public bath there. When the bath owner sensed the blessings of this worker, he put him in charge of all the work to be done. This righteous follower of Prophet Jesus became acquainted with some young men of the city. He took the opportunity to teach these young men the Religion of Islam. He told them that God did not have any partner, and that they ought to worship God only, not the idols. The young men believed and embraced Islam. The names of the youths were Maksalamin, Amlikha, Maratunis, Yanyunis, Sazamunis, Dawanawanis, and Kashfitit. The story of the Religion of these young men spread in the city. When the news got to the king, Duqyanus, he was furious. The king was told that the young men had left the king’s religion, mocked his idols and defied them. The king called the youths to his court and ordered them to leave Islam, threatening to kill them if they did not. Although the youths stayed steadfast to Islam, the king thought they did not yet have mature minds. Hence, 242

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the king did not kill them immediately. He sent them back to their homes to think about the matter, before he carried out his threat. After sending those youths to their homes, the king traveled from the city. Those youths took that opportunity of the king being away, to flee the city and find somewhere else to practice Islam. One of the youths said, “I know a cave in the mountain. My father used to secure the sheep in it. Let us go there and hide until God grants us victory.” They all agreed to this. The youths went out playing and rolling a ball in front of them, so that no one would notice something unusual. Then suddenly they fled towards the cave. A barking dog, named Qitmir followed them. The youths were worried that the disbelievers would hear the dog’s barking, and be led to them. The youths threw stones at the dog and pushed him away. Still the dog did not return. Finally the dog raised its front paws to the sky, as if he was making supplication to God. Then God made the dog talk saying, “O people, why are you driving me away and hitting me? Do not be scared of me. I do not disbelieve in God.” When this amazing event happened, the youths were certain that God, out of His mercy, would protect them. These youths sought refuge with God, and supplicated, “O God, grant us mercy from You, and create good matters for us.” They continued walking until they reached the cave. Within the cave they found fruits and water. After eating

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and drinking, they lay down to rest. All seven youths slept heavily on the floor of that cave. God made those youths sleep continuously for years and years. They did not hear anything. Neither gusts of wind, nor the sound of thunder woke them. When the sun rose, it did not hit them with its high heat, a sign of their high rank. When the sun rose, it moved to the right of the cave, and when it set, it passed by the left. Hence, the youths did not get much of the heat of the sun. They were not hit by its sunbeams, neither at the beginning nor at the end of the day. As a result, the color of their skin did not change, and their clothes did not get worn out. God made them sleep with their eyes wide open. If one were to look at them, one would think that they were awake. God made them keep their eyes open, to keep their eyes from getting impaired. Their eyes got exposed to air, and did not suffer the ills of a lengthy closure. It was narrated that an honorable angel was in charge of turning them in regular intervals. They were turned on their left and right sides twice a year. This was so that their body would not decay. If one were to look at them, one would be frightened by them and run away. However, people could not see them and could not approach them. After three hundred and nine years of sleep, God made them wake up. They woke up very hungry. They talked with each other about how long they thought they had slept. One of them said, “I think that we slept only one day, or less.”

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Another one said, “We went to sleep this morning, and now the sun is getting ready to set”. Yet another said, “Let us stop wondering. God knows best how long we stayed. Let one of us go with some money to buy some food. That one must be alert and smart. No one should recognize him, or else he would be followed. King Duqyanus and his followers must not know of our location, or else they would come and torture us to make us leave Islam.” In reality, Duqyanus had died many, many years ago. The present king was a pious Muslim, following Prophet Jesus. The people of the city of the king were in disagreement about the matter of the Resurrection on the Day of Judgment. Some said that they thought only the souls of the people would be gathered on the Day of Judgment, and that their bodies would stay decayed in the soil. Others had the correct belief, that the bodies would be recreated and assembled with their souls. The pious king was upset with their argument. He asked God to give a clear proof to the people, so that they would all have the correct belief about this issue. Amlikha was the youth chosen to go out and get food, being fearful and watchful. When he reached the city he was used to, Ufsus, he was surprised to see many changes. An area that had been a wide, open grazing land for sheep was now full of high castles. Other castles that Amlikha was used to had collapsed. Amlikha did not recognize any face he saw. Amlikha became confused. Seeing the youth in this state, someone asked him, “Are you a stranger to this city? What are you looking for?” Amlikha said, “I am

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not a stranger. I just want to buy food, and I cannot find the place where I normally shop.” The man took Amlikha by the hand and led him to a food store. Amlikha took out his money and gave it to the seller. The seller became amazed, due to that Amlikha gave him an ancient coin, with the picture of the ancient king Duqyanus on it who had died about three hundred years earlier. The seller thought that Amlikha had discovered an ancient treasure, and was keeping a great wealth somewhere. People gathered around Amlikha and took him to the Muslim king. The king got the news of the youth, before the youth arrived. The king had heard a story from his grandfather of some youths who were Muslim and had disappeared. The king was very eager to meet Amlikha, hoping that he would be one of those youths. When Amlikha got to the king, the king made Amlikha feel comfortable and asked him about his story. Amlikha told his story and realized that he and his friends had slept for hundreds of years. The king was very pleased with these events, and turned to his people saying, “Certainly, God sent you a sign to show the truth of the matter about which you differ.” The king and the people of the city walked with Amlikha to the cave. When they got near Amlikha said, “Let me go in first so that my friends do not get scared.” Amlikha went in and told his friends what had happened to them. He told them that they had slept for hundreds of years, Duqyanus had died long ago, and that a pious Muslim king now ruled their city.

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The friends were very happy with this news. They went out of the cave and greeted the king. Then they returned to the cave. When the people of the city saw that God had made those youths sleep for more than three hundred years, awaking youthful, fresh and healthy, they gave up their wrong belief. They believed that God, Who made that happen, has the Power to resurrect the people on the Day of Judgment, both in body and soul. Other Followers of Prophet Jesus The followers of Jesus went to various lands, teaching the Injil to the people. However, the Injil started to get changed by the people. The Injil, although it was revealed after the Torah, was changed by the people before the Torah was. The book called the Bible is not at all the Injil, the real Holy Book given to Prophet Jesus by God. The real Injil is not present on Earth any more. It was raised to the heavens. (Some one told me that but I want it checked) About 200 years after the raising of Jesus to the heavens, false teachings were widely spread about Jesus, saying that he was the “son of God”. The ruler Constantine established a false doctrine about Jesus and many followed that false doctrine. Hence, those who followed that false doctrine were called Christians, but they really did not follow Jesus at all. Throughout the years leading to the Prophethood of Muhammad, some people continued to have the correct belief about God, not believing that Jesus is the Son of 247

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God. Five years before God gave the first Revelation to Prophet Muhammad, the last person on Earth to have the right belief about God died. When we say “the last person” we mean, of course, other than Prophet Muhammad, and Prophet Al-Khadir. This gives you an idea of how bad the people were on Earth, when Prophet Muhammad started calling them to Islam. Prophet Muhammad revived calling the people to Islam, just like all the Prophets about whom we have just told you. God’s peace and blessings be upon all of them!

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blessings and peace be upon him

The Glorious Life Of The Last Prophet: Muhammad

O Muhammad!
Born in Makkah, so long ago Was the best man, the world would ever know. Nursed by Halimah, she watched him grow. Raised by his uncle, the people loved him so! He is Muhammad. O Allah bless him! He is Muhammad. How we love to praise him! He met Khadijah, such a fine woman. They had children, but no boys lived to be a man. Who’d place the Black Stone? Then in walked the man. It was As-Sadiq. They all loved his plan. He is Muhammad. O Allah bless him! He is Muhammad. How we love to praise him! Then came the angel, when he was forty, He brought the message, full of glory! He was a Prophet, like the ones of old. Just like Jesus, their message must be told! He is Muhammad. O Allah bless him! He is Muhammad. How we love to praise him! He called the people to leave their blasphemy. He was rejected, except by a few so great to see.

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He was patient; he didn’t waver in his faith. Then more believed him, although the evil ones did hate. He is Muhammad. O Allah bless him! He is Muhammad. How we love to praise him! Went to Madinah, the city of light. He called the Jews there. They saw his great might. He fought at Badr. The angels fought along with him, The bad of Makkah. Allah gave us the win! He is Muhammad. O Allah bless him! He is Muhammad. How we love to praise him! Battle of Uhud, a test for every man, Some were impatient, but our Prophet was so grand! Ahzab Battle, three groups came to fight Islam. They were vanquished. Allah supports our man! He is Muhammad. O Allah bless him! He is Muhammad. How we love to praise him! There was a treaty, how good it would be! He fought at Khaybar, with a sure victory. Event the Romans, with numbers big to see, Felt defeated, by this noble army!

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He is Muhammad. O Allah bless him! He is Muhammad. How we love to praise him! Then the great help from our Lord came, And Makkah, the Muslims now could claim. And the people, became his followers in droves, And forgiveness is what our Prophet shows! He is Muhammad. O Allah bless him! He is Muhammad. How we love to praise him! Like all men do, our Prophet had to die, And his story brings tears to our eyes. But what he likes for us all to do, Is tell his message, this message O so true! O Muhammad! O Allah bless him! O Muhammad! How we love to praise him! O Muhammad!

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Chapter 29: The Parents and Grandfather of Prophet Muhammad (Muhammad),
peace and blessings be upon him Prophet Muhammad’s parents were both from the tribe of Quraysh, in Makkah, in nowadays Saudi Arabia. Quraysh is the tribe with the highest rank among the Arab tribes. The mother of Prophet Muhammad was Aminah the daughter of Wahb, from the family of Zuhrah, from the tribe of Quraysh. The father of Prophet Muhammad was ^Abdullah, the son of ^Abdul-Muttalib. ^Abdul-Muttalib was high in the community of Makkah, when Prophet Muhammad was born. He was in charge of giving water and food to the pilgrims who came to Makkah. Years before Muhammad’s birth, ^Abdul-Muttalib did not feel himself to be in such a high position. Remember the well in Makkah that was dug for Lady Hagar and Prophet Ishmael? That well of Zamzam had gotten covered. ^Abdul-Muttalib, before having his son ^Abdullah (the father of Muhammad), had a dream that he was digging that blessed well. However, the people of Quraysh tried to prevent ^Abdul-Muttalib from digging that well. ^Abdul-Muttalib felt weak in the tribe, because he only had one son. He felt that if he had a lot of sons the people would not treat him badly. ^Abdul-Muttalib made a vow that, if God gave him ten sons, he would

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sacrifice the last of these ten at the Ka^bah. Of course, this is not a right thing to vow. God did give ^Abdul-Muttalib ten sons. The tenth son was ^Abdullah, who would become the father of Prophet Muhammad. ^Abdul-Muttalib especially loved this tenth son. However, ^Abdul-Muttalib wanted to keep his vow and prepared to slaughter ^Abdullah. At that, the people of Quraysh told ^Abdul-Muttalib, “If you slaughter your son, other people will imitate you in this and start to slaughter their sons for the same reason. We see this as a bad thing!” Hence, ^Abdul-Muttalib went to a person for advice. This advisor said, “Put up ten camels, draw, and see if the arrows say the camels or your son. If they say your son, keep on adding ten camels and drawing until the arrows say the camels.” They did so and the arrows did not say the camels until 100 camels were put up. As a result, ^Abdul-Muttalib slaughtered 100 camels instead of his son, the future father of our Prophet. ^Abdul-Muttalib kept his ten sons, and did re-excavate the well of Zamzam, as he had dreamt. Instead of being slaughtered as a baby, ^Abdullah grew to be one of the most handsome men. One day, ^Abdullah was walking with his father and passed by a woman of a tribe called Asad. The woman called out to ^Abdullah, “Where are you going O ^Abdullah?” He said, “To a place with my father.” She said, “I would give you an equal number of camels to the number that were slaughtered in your place, if you would have sexual intercourse with me right now.” ^Abdullah said, “I am busy”. Then he said poetry that meant, “I prefer to die,

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than to do an abhorrent thing. You did not mention a lawful marriage. So how would I do what you asked?” Later that day, ^Abdullah got married to Aminah, with Aminah moving into ^Abdullah’s house that night. The next day, after consummating the marriage, ^Abdullah again passed by the woman of Asad. On this day, the woman did not say anything to ^Abdullah. ^Abdullah was curious as to her change, and inquired as to why she was not talking as she was yesterday. She replied to him, “Yesterday I saw a light in your face. I don’t see it today.” It is said that from that first wedding night, Aminah conceived Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him. ^Abdullah traveled to trade in Madinah with his uncles from his mother’s side there. ^Abdullah got sick in Madinah and died therein at the young age of twenty-five.

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Chapter 30: The Story of the Year of the Elephant
Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was born in Makkah in the year when Abrahah, the Abyssinian, came to destroy the Ka^bah. Instead God destroyed Abrahah and his army. At that time in Makkah, the people named years by major events. Therefore, it is said that the Prophet was born in the “Year of the Elephant”. It is the year 571 of the western calendar. Abrahah was a Christian ruler in Yemen, ruling on behalf of the Abyssinian king. By that time, the true teachings of Jesus had been perverted and Abrahah had a blasphemous belief. Abrahah had built a church called Qullays in Yemen and wanted the people to come there instead of to the Ka^bah. However, when he found that the Arabs’ hearts were still attached to the Ka^bah, he set out with his army to destroy it. They brought a big elephant, which was the leader, along with other elephants. When the army came close to Makkah, Abrahah ordered his troops to attack the livestock. They took some of ^Abdul-Muttalib’s camels. ^Abdul-Muttalib Ibn Hashim was one of the leaders of Makkah and the grandfather of our beloved Prophet Muhammad. As most of the people in Makkah, he was from the tribe of Quraysh. The king sent one of his soldiers to Makkah where he met with ^Abdul-Muttalib. The soldier said, “The king has sent me to tell you that he did not come here to fight 257

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you unless you fight him first. Rather, he came to destroy this house (meaning the Ka^bah). Then he will leave you.” ^Abdul-Muttalib said, “We do not have the ability to fight him. We will not try to confront him.” The messenger of Abrahah came back with ^AbdulMuttalib to Abrahah. When ^Abdul-Muttalib entered the king's chambers, the king praised and honored him. Then he told the translator, “Ask him about his need from the king.” The translator asked and ^Abdul-Muttalib replied, “My need is for the two-hundred (200) camels that were taken from me during the attack to be given back to me.” Abrahah told his translator, “Tell him: When I first saw you I was impressed, but now I do not think highly of you. I came to destroy something you consider holy in your religion and you do not discuss that with me, rather you talk about the camels that were taken?” ^Abdul-Muttalib replied, “I am the lord (owner) of the camels; as for this House, i.e., the Ka^bah, it has a Lord Who will protect it.” Abrahah returned his camels to him. Fearing that the army would harm people on its way to Makkah, ^Abdul-Muttalib instructed Quraysh to disperse in the mountains. They obeyed him. Abrahah directed his army towards Makkah with the big elephant in the front. However, the elephant refused to move despite the beating and orders given to it. To their surprise, when they directed it towards Yemen and ash-Sham areas, it ran quickly without delay. Then, God sent birds from the direction of the sea in small groups. Each bird had three stones, two in its feet, and one in its beak. Each stone was bigger than the size

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of a lentil but smaller than the size of a chickpea, and on each was written the name of one of Abrahah's soldiers. The stone would fall on the named soldier, enter from his head, and leave from his bottom, killing him. Thus, Abrahah’s army was destroyed and did not enter into the Holy Mosque of Makkah. It was said that there were 60,000 soldiers. None of them returned, except for a small group with their commander, who told their story; then he died. Abrahah became very sick. His body fell apart, small piece by small piece. Abrahah did not die until his heart came out of his chest.

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Chapter 31: The Birth of Prophet Muhammad,
blessings and peace be upon him At the time when Prophet Muhammad was born, most of the people of Makkah were in a terrible state of worshipping idols. They believed that God was only one of many gods. The people of Makkah made many statues, and worshipped them unrightfully. They believed that the Ka^bah was a special house, but they put their ugly idols around the Ka^bah. The people used fortune-telling arrows in order to make decisions and went to fortune-telling people for advice. People came from all around to visit the Ka^bah and worship the idols. They claimed to be making Hajj (Pilgrimage). However, what they called Hajj was changed from the Hajj performed by Prophet Ibrahim before them. They went around the Ka^bah naked while clapping and whistling. The Makkans got wealthy from the spending of the tribes who came to their city to worship unrightfully. Some say that the Prophet was two months old when his father died, and others say that Aminah was still pregnant with the Prophet when ^Abdullah died. ^Abdullah left five camels, some goats, and a female slave called Barakah (also known as Umm Ayman). Aminah narrated that she did not feel the weight of the pregnancy like other women do. During her pregnancy Aminah saw a dream (with her feeling in a state between

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waking and sleep). In this dream someone told her, “Do you know with whom you are pregnant? You are pregnant with the Master of this Nation and its Prophet.” The birth of the Prophet was an easy one. It was on a Monday, on the 12th day of the Islamic month of Rabi^ulAwwal. The Prophet’s birth was about 50 days after the incident of the Elephant attack of Abrahah. It was narrated that the Prophet’s umbilical cord was already cut when he was born. Hence, no one had to do that cutting. Also it is said that the Prophet was born already circumcised. Aminah sent a message to ^Abdul-Muttalib to tell him of the birth of his grandson, and to come. ^AbdulMuttalib came and Aminah told him about wonderful dreams that she had while pregnant with the baby, and how easy the birth was. ^Abdul-Muttalib was very pleased and took the blessed baby to the Ka^bah. He went inside of the Ka^bah with the baby, thanking God for the birth of this special grandson. ^Abdul-Muttalib gave the baby the name Muhammad, meaning, “the one praised by many for his numerous good attributes”. This was not a famous name at the time among the Arabs. Only seven children had received this name before and all of that had been recent. Those seven children had been named Muhammad because at that time, the Arabs were hearing that shortly a Prophet would be born named Muhammad. Those people hoped that their son would be that Prophet. So, they named their sons Muhammad, before the naming of our Prophet. Yet the name Ahmad, that is also a name of Prophet Muhammad, was never given to one before our Prophet.

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This is the name cited in the book of Prophet Jesus, the Injil, as well as the name Muhammad. Ibnu Sayyidin-Nas and others narrated that when the Prophet was born fourteen balconies of the biggest palace of the king of Persia fell down. Also the fire that the Persians worshipped went out, even though it had not gone out for one thousand years. The name for the title “king” in Persian is “Kisra”. This Kisra saw a dream about which he felt very uncomfortable. The Kisra gathered his advisors and consulted with them about the dream. The Kisra told his advisors that he saw in his dream camels guiding horses. These animals crossed the river of Tigris and from there they spread through his kingdom. While Kisra was telling this dream, they got the news that the fire they worshipped had gone out. The Kisra got more disturbed. The religious head of the Kisra told him, “I saw the same dream this past night. I interpret it as follows: The Arabs will get out of their country and overcome the rulership of Persia. Those Arabs will rule our areas. This will take place after fourteen Persia kings rule, equal to the number of balconies that just fell from the palace.” That Kisra thought to himself, “It will be a long time before fourteen kings pass. I don’t want to care about this now.” After the birth of the Prophet, 10 Kisras succeeded one another in just four years. After those four years, four more Kisras reigned over a period of about 80 years. The Persian Empire then totally fell to the Muslims, under the rulership of Caliph ^Uthman, about 20 years

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after the death of Prophet Muhammad. Ever since then, that area has been a Muslim area until today. When baby Muhammad was born, the news spread among the sons of ^Abdul-Muttalib that they got a new nephew. One of the sons of ^Abdul-Muttalib acquired the name “Abu Lahab”. Abu Lahab received the news of his new nephew from a slave woman he owned named Thuwaybah. Abu Lahab was so happy that he set that slave woman free that Monday. Later, when Muhammad became a Prophet, that same uncle became one of the worst of enemies.

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Chapter 32: The Nursing of Prophet Muhammad
First, Aminah nursed her son, Muhammad, for a short time. Then another woman nursed him. However, Lady Halimah was the main nursing mother of Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him. In those days in Makkah, women wanted their children nursed by Bedouins who lived outside of the city. They believed that their children would be healthier by being raised in the desert. Aminah wanted her son to have a good start. Therefore, she too desired to have him nursed outside Makkah. The following is told by the nursing mother, Halimah, “I went with other women from Banu Sa^d searching for nursing babies in Makkah, riding a female donkey in a year of drought which left us with no food. My husband was with me on an old female camel that would not even give us a drop of milk. In addition, I had a son with me that would not let us sleep at night because of his crying and my breasts did not have what was enough for him. When we reached Makkah, the Messenger of God was shown to every woman and every woman rejected him because he was an orphan. We all were seeking the reward from the father for nursing his child. Every one of my companions had a child to nurse except myself. I hated to return without having any child to nurse. I told my husband, ‘I swear by God I will return to that orphan and take him.’

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When I returned, my husband said, ‘You did the right thing. May God bring goodness through this child.’ I swear by God, as soon as I put him in my lap, the milk started flowing out of my breasts. Muhammad and my son nursed until they were satisfied. My husband went to the female camel and found her udders full of milk. So, we milked as much as we wanted and my husband and I drank until we were satisfied. That night our children and we slept full of food, and with our thirst quenched. My husband said to me ‘O Halimah, I swear by God, I see that you have brought a blessed human. Our children have slept!’ We went out of Makkah. I swear by God, my female donkey ran ahead of the caravan and my companions said surprised, ‘Isn’t this your female donkey that you rode to Makkah?’ I said, ‘yes.’ I swear by God that she was ahead of them until we reached our camps. We came to the most barren land. I swear by the One Who controls my soul, my lambs would go out in the morning with other peoples’ lambs, and in the afternoon my lambs would come back with full stomachs and udders while their lambs would return hungry and without milk. Then, we would drink whatever we desired of the milk and no one around would even have a drop of milk from his or her animals. The people would ask their shepherds, ‘Why don’t you graze your sheep where Halimah does?’ So, they would graze their animals wherever we grazed ours. Their animals would return hungry without milk and ours would return full of food and milk. Muhammad became one year old and was a strong boy. We went to his mother and I told her, ‘We should 265

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keep him lest he would be inflicted with disease in Makkah.’ I did not want to give him up to his mother because of the blessings that we witnessed from him. We kept on talking with his mother until we convinced her to leave him with us. One day my son came and told us, ‘Help my brother from Quraysh! Two men came and laid him down and cut open his chest.’ We ran fast and found Muhammad standing, with a changed color. We both embraced him. He told us, ‘Two men with white clothes came and laid me down and cut my chest open. I do not know what they did with me.’ My husband said, ‘O Halimah, this child is hurt and we need to return him to his family.’ [Halimah and her husband were worried that Muhammad became mentally sick]. When we got to his mother, she said, ‘Why did you bring him back when you were so insistent on keeping him with you?’ I said, ‘We have taken care of him and have done what we were obligated to do; then we feared for him.’ His mother said, ‘I swear by God, this is not the reason. Therefore, tell me what happened.’ When we told her what had happened she said, ‘You were worried about him? I swear by God, my son will have a great rank. Let me tell you about him. When I carried him, nothing was lighter or more blessed than he was. When I was pregnant with him I saw a dream that a strong light came out of my body. This light was so strong that it lit up the palaces in Busra [a city in ashSham. When I delivered him, he did not fall as other babies do. He fell with his hands on the ground, raising his head to the sky. Leave him with me and go back to your business.’” 266

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Chapter 33: Some Events in the Prophet’s Early Life
Our Prophet, Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was about five years old when he went back to live with his mother and grandfather. Aminah was very happy. Muhammad had many uncles, the sons of ^Abdul-Muttalib. His eldest uncle, Abu Talib, was very fond of him. His uncles Hamzah and al-^Abbas were about his own age. These two uncles later embraced Islam. The dear mother of our Prophet, Aminah, died when the Prophet was five years old (and some said six years old). She had taken her son to Madinah, to the grave of his father. On the way back, she died and was buried in a place called Abwa’. His grandfather ^Abdul-Muttalib then took charge of him. His grandfather was about 100 years old by that time, but he was still active. He took the little Muhammad with him where he went and gave him special attention. ^Abdul-Muttalib used to put a small rug next to the Ka^bah and sit on it. He did not want anyone to sit on it but him. ^Abdul-Muttalib’s own sons sat next to this carpet. They kept others from sitting on it. Due to all this, when the little grandson, Muhammad, came and sat on the carpet, his uncles tried to remove Muhammad as they did with the others. ^Abdul-Muttalib said, “Leave him. I feel that he will have a great status in the future.”

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^Abdul-Muttalib died only about two years after Aminah (with some saying the Prophet was seven years old, and others saying eight). Due to the death of ^Abdul-Muttalib, the Prophet’s uncle Abu Talib (the son of ^Abdul-Muttalib) took on the care of the young Muhammad. Although he was poor, with a lot of children, Abu Talib made young Muhammad part of his household, putting him ahead of his own children. The children of Abu Talib woke up with messy hair and mucus in their eyes. Abu Talib noticed that Muhammad, on the other hand, woke from sleep with his hair looking neat, as if it had been oiled with olive oil. As well, instead of having mucus, the eyes of Muhammad looked bright, as if some one had applied kohl to them. Abu Talib noticed that whenever they ate together with young Muhammad present, the food was enough for all of them. They felt full. However, when they ate without Muhammad, the food did not satisfy them. Hence, when the family wanted to eat Abu Talib said, “Wait until my son (Muhammad) comes.” With Muhammad present, they got full and still had some food left at the end. Abu Talib used to give the cup of milk first to Muhammad, because he noticed that when Muhammad was the first to drink, the milk would be enough for everyone. Due to all of this, Abu Talib declared, “This is a blessed child!” Umm Ayman, the Prophet’s nanny, said, “As a child, the Prophet never said that he was hungry or thirsty like the other children do. He used to wake up and go drink

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from the well of Zamzam. After that, when we offered him food he would say ‘I am full’.” There were no schools in Arabia at that time and few people of the city could read or write. Muhammad grew up not reading or writing, not because he was unable, but because he did not go to school for that knowledge. Despite not going to school, Muhammad spoke and knew the Arabic language flawlessly. Muhammad memorized his knowledge without the need to write it down. When Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was twelve he went with Abu Talib, who was a merchant, towards Ash-Sham land (the area of Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, and Syria). A priest called Bahira saw Muhammad. He embraced him, and then offered him food. Then, he uncovered Muhammad’s back and looked for a mark between his shoulders, which he knew the last prophet would have. Bahira knew signs of the last prophet from the teachings of Prophet Jesus that had been preserved. Bahira said to Abu Talib, ‘Your nephew has a very high status. Return with him to your hometown and guard him against the Jews, lest they notice the signs that I noticed’. Abu Talib hurriedly finished his trade and returned him to Makkah. After that he did not travel with him, fearing for him. Remember, at that time, there were people who were Christians and people who were Jews. By that time, the Christians were not having the right belief about Prophet Jesus, saying that he was the son of God, and the Jews were not truly following Prophet Moses, because they denied the Prophethood of Jesus. At that time, the Jews still had the Torah, which was revealed to Moses. 269

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In the Jewish scriptures, God revealed there would be a last Prophet, his description, and they should follow him when he came. The same news was in the scripture revealed to Jesus. However, by the time of Prophet Muhammad, this scripture had been perverted. Due to these facts, we hear many stories about how Christians and Jews had heard that a last prophet was to come, and they knew signs of how to recognize him. What is called the “Old Testament” nowadays is not the Torah revealed to Moses. One proof, is that in the “Old Testament”, it is written that God created the heavens and Earth in six days, and then He rested on the seventh day. In reality, God never revealed to any Prophet that He rested. In the greatest verse of the Holy Qur’an (Suratul-Baqarah, 255), God refutes those who say this about Him. God mentions that neither slumber does seize Him, nor sleep. In another verse of the Qur’an, God mentions that He created the heavens and Earth in six days, and He was not overwhelmed by fatigue (Suratu Qaf, 38). Praise to God.

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Chapter 34: The Trading and Marriage of the Messenger of God
We know from our beloved Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, that he was a shepherd at some time in his life. Our Prophet said that every Prophet tended sheep. Being a shepherd prepared the Prophets for the great task of caring for and guiding people. When Prophet Muhammad became 25 years old, he was known in Makkah by the name “al-Amin” (The Trustworthy), because of the good traits that he had. Abu Talib was suffering from being quite poor. Hence, when an opportunity came for his nephew to make some money, Abu Talib encouraged him, although he feared for him. Trading was a point of pride for the people of Quraysh. Abu Talib said, “O nephew, I am a man with no money. We had bad years and we have no money and trade. Here is the caravan of your people about to leave to the Sham area. Khadijah bint Khuwaylid is sending men from your people to trade for her and get some earnings. If you go to her and let her know you are available she will prefer you to others because of what she has heard about your purity. I dislike your going to the Sham area and I fear for your safety from the Jews.” The Messenger of God said that Khadijah might send after him. Abu Talib said, “I worry that she may hire someone else.” Khadijah bint Khuwaylid was a trading woman with a high status. She made a lot of money from her business, 271

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of sending her goods to ash-Sham. She used to hire men, give them money to invest, and share the profits with them. Khadijah got news of the dialogue between Muhammad and his uncle. Before that she had received news about the truthfulness, trustworthiness, and good manners of the Prophet. She said, “I did not know that he was interested in this.” She sent after him. She said to him, “I received the news about your truthfulness, trustworthiness, and good manners. I will pay you double of any other man of your people.” The Prophet agreed and told his uncle. Abu Talib said, “This is sustenance that God gave to you.” Prophet Muhammad set out with Khadijah’s servant Maysarah until they reached the Sham area in the market of Busra. The uncle of Prophet Muhammad told those involved to take care of Muhammad. Muhammad went under the shade of a tree close to the hut of a monk who knew Maysarah. The monk was called Nastura. Nastura asked, “Who is this under the tree?” Maysarah told him, “A man from Quraysh of Makkah.” The monk told him, “The one under that tree is a prophet.” Then he asked Maysarah, “Does he have some redness in his eyes?” Maysarah said, “Yes, it never leaves him.” The monk said, “He is the last prophet. I wish I would be alive when he is ordered to leave his city.” Nastura knew this sign from his teachings. Maysarah understood the words of Nastura. Then he went with the Messenger of God to the market of Busra and sold his goods. Maysarah bought an item and had a difference between him and a man. The man swore by al-Lat and al-^Uzza, two idols. The Messenger of God 272

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said, “I never swear by them.” The man said, “This is true.” Then he told Maysarah privately, “This is a prophet; our clergy find his description in their books.” Maysarah understood these words. Then everyone in the caravan left. Maysarah noticed a cloud over Muhammad, shading him, when it was very hot. Maysarah loved the Messenger of God and accompanied him as if he was the Messenger’s slave. When the Prophet returned from the trip, he entered in Makkah at noon while Khadijah was with some women. She saw him riding in with a cloud shading him. She showed that to her friends who were surprised. The Messenger of God told her about the profits that they had made and she was happy. Then Maysarah told her about the monk, the man in the marketplace, and how Muhammad was shaded. The Messenger of God gave Khadijah her goods. She profited twice as much as usual and she paid him twice as much as she had mentioned earlier. She was a very honorable and intelligent woman, had a high status, and the most riches of all the women of Quraysh. Every man desired to marry her if he could. One of Lady Khadijah’s friends gave our Prophet a hint that Lady Khadijah would accept a marriage proposal from him. Prophet Muhammad went to Lady Khadijah’s uncle with his uncle Hamzah and proposed to her. The Prophet was twenty-five and she was forty. Although they were not of the same age, they loved each other dearly and had a very happy marriage.

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Chapter 35: The Children and Household of Our Blessed Prophet and Lady Khadijah
After his marriage to Lady Khadijah, the young man Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, had comfort which was new to him. Although Khadijah was at an age when a lot of women stop having children, she gave birth to six children for her husband. The first boy was named Al-Qasim, who died at a very young age. This was one of the many hardships that Prophet Muhammad and Lady Khadijah bore with beautiful patience. They had four daughters: Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum and Fatimah. All of these children were born before Prophet Muhammad received Revelation. It is said that their last child was a boy named ^Abdullah, who was born after our Prophet received Revelation. He was also called AtTayyib and At-Tahir. This son also died at a young age, which made some evil people mock our Prophet, laughing about that he had no sons. They claimed that the Prophet would be forgotten due to having no sons. It is to be observed that their last son was born when Lady Khadijah was past the age of fifty-five, may God raise her exalted rank! Before receiving Revelation, the Prophet gave some of his daughters in marriage. At the time when our Prophet received Revelation, Fatimah was still young and lived at home with her beloved parents. Also, in the household were ^Aliyy, the son of Abu Talib, Zayd Ibn 274

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Harithah, and Barakah. All of these people became great Muslims, dear Companions of our beloved Prophet. All of these Companions have interesting stories. Concerning our Lady Fatimah, we ask God to bless her greatly, she became the best woman of her time. She was the only daughter of our Prophet who outlived him; she died six months after his death. Fatimah was a woman of great faith, and as a young girl she saw her father hurt so much by the blasphemers. She helped her blessed father in her own way and was very dear to him. Fatimah grew up to give birth to the beloved grandsons of our Prophet through her marriage with her second paternal cousin, ^Aliyy Ibn Abi Talib. Our Prophet wanted to help his uncle, Abu Talib, who had helped him when he was a young orphan. This is the reason that ^Aliyy was raised in the Prophet’s home. The Prophet offered to care for ^Aliyy to help Abu Talib with his financial problems. Al-^Abbas, the brother of Abu Talib took in his son Ja^far and Abu Talib kept his son ^Aqil with him. Hence, ^Aliyy had the great blessing of being raised by the best of creation! ^Aliyy was only ten years old when the Revelation came to his cousin, Prophet Muhammad. Zayd Ibn Harithah was a slave of Lady Khadijah. She gave him to our Prophet who later set him free. Although Zayd became free, he loved Muhammad so much that he wanted to stay living with him. Even when the true father of Zayd found that his son was alive, Zayd preferred to live with Muhammad, rather than go with his real father. Seeing that Prophet Muhammad adopted Zayd, he was thus called ‘Zayd Ibn Muhammad’ (Zayd, the son of Muhammad) until God made adoption 275

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prohibited. Harithah”.

He then was again called “Zayd Ibn

Barakah was, as we said earlier, the slave of our Prophet’s father. She was a woman from east Africa. Our Prophet set her free. She continued to stay with the Prophet’s household and enjoyed the great blessing of seeing the last Prophet grow up and become the greatest teacher of mankind. She continued to live close to the Prophet, even after the Immigration. God made her a woman of great faith, to the extent that He endowed an extraordinary event on her. For a reason, Barakah had to immigrate from Makkah to Madinah by herself. En route to Madinah, she became very thirsty. A short time later, she heard flapping of wings and saw a pitcher of water. Barakah drank from that water after which she never felt thirsty again. She married Zayd Ibn Harithah and they had a son, Usamah, who was also very dear to our Prophet. When our Prophet was thirty-five an incident occurred. It was the rebuilding of the Ka^bah by Quraysh. This happened about five years before the Revelation came to the Prophet.

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Chapter 36: The Rebuilding of the Ka^bah
As a young man, Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was known for his truthfulness and honesty. In addition to calling him Muhammad, many people called him As-Sadiq, the truthful, or Al-Amin, the trustworthy. When he said something, people believed him. They trusted him so much that they left their money and valuable things in his care. They knew he was fair and wise in dealing with difficult matters. Around this unique, fine young man, most people were in a state of moral decay. Wine drinking, fornication, and petty fighting were prevalent. Some Arabs were in the habit of burying their baby daughters alive. Tribes would back each other up with fierce loyalty, even when a member of the tribe was unjust. When Muhammad was a young man, floods damaged the Ka^bah. The Arabs considered the Ka^bah very holy and believed that a supplication made there would be answered. Quraysh decided to rebuild it. Taking part in its rebuilding was considered a great honor. The families of Quraysh tribe divided up the work and the Ka^bah was soon rebuilt. Then came the time to set Al-Hajar-Aswad (The Black Stone) in its place. The Black Stone was originally in Paradise, then God made it come to Earth. Since everyone wanted to have the honor of replacing the Black Stone, an argument began. Various members of Quraysh tribe were about to fight each other over it. 277

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For four days they quarreled. On the fifth day, an old man suggested, “Wait until the morning. Then let the first person who enters the Masjid (a specific area surrounding the Ka^bah) decide on the matter.” Everyone agreed to this suggestion. Early the next morning, Muhammad was the first one to come to the Ka^bah. Everyone was happy to see him. “Here comes As-Sadiq! Here comes Al-Amin!” they said eagerly. They knew Muhammad would be a fair judge. He would do what was right and would bring peace. They explained the problem to Muhammad. He listened to them carefully. Then he said, “Let each clan select a representative.” The clans did what he asked. Then he spread his own mantle on the ground and placed the Black Stone on it. He asked all the representatives of Quraysh to take hold of the mantle and lift it up. When the mantle had been lifted high enough, Muhammad himself put the Stone in its place. This made everyone happy.

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Chapter 37: Receiving the Revelation
All Messengers are Prophets, but not all Prophets are Messengers. When Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, became forty years old, God made him both a Prophet and Messenger. All Prophets are distinguished with receiving Revelation from God. Messengers are prophets who also receive a new set of laws. The people must follow the laws given to the present messenger. In our Prophet’s case, he is the last Messenger, and the laws given to him apply for all people until the Day of Judgment. The Messenger before Prophet Muhammad was Prophet Jesus. Hence, the set of laws given to Prophet Muhammad replaced the previous set given to Prophet Jesus, just as the set of laws given to Prophet Jesus replaced the set of laws given to Prophet Moses, peace be upon all the blessed prophets. This replacement does not mean that all the laws were different. For example, God revealed to all the Prophets that they and their followers must pray, but the number of times a day and details differed from one messenger to another to suit the time, according to God’s wisdom. According to that, there is no need for a new set of laws after Prophet Muhammad. Thus, God made him the last Prophet and Messenger. One of the Companions asked our Prophet about receiving Revelation. The Prophet said that sometimes it came to him like the ringing of a bell and that this was the heaviest on him. It would last until he knew all that God revealed. He said that sometimes an angel would 279

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come in the form of a man and talk with him telling him what God ordered to be revealed. At times, the Prophet used to sweat when he received the Revelation due to the heaviness of the matter. He would sweat even if it were a cold day. All of the Qur’an is Revelation from God received by Prophet Muhammad. As well, our Prophet received Revelation that was not the Qur’an. Before our Prophet began to receive the Qur’an, he had dreams that became true. Before receiving the first Revelation of the Qur’an, he loved to go out of Makkah to the cave of Hira’, where he worshipped God in solitude for many nights. Then he would come back to his home, take food and water, and return to the cave. One day, in the month of Ramadan, when our Prophet was forty, Angel Gabriel (Jibril) came to Prophet Muhammad while he was in the cave. Angel Gabriel told him to recite. The Prophet said that he had not learned what to recite. The angel repeated that three times. Each time the Prophet said that he had not learned what to recite, the angel embraced the Prophet and released him. After the third time, the angel gave the Prophet the first Revelation of the Qur’an. Angel Gabriel revealed the first five verses of Suratul-^Alaq.

These verses mean, “Recite starting with the name of your Lord, the Creator of everything, the One Who created man from a blood clot. O Muhammad, recite with the help of your Lord, Who is the Most Generous and is clear of any defect, the One Who enabled man to acquire 280

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knowledge through writing and to acquire knowledge which man did not know.” Shortly after the Prophet saw Angel Gabriel in the cave, God made Prophet Muhammad see Angel Gabriel in his real, original form, filling the entire horizon. Wherever the Prophet looked he saw this great angel. The Prophet fainted out of awe. Later, our Prophet related that he did not know before that time, that God had created such a magnificent creation.

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Chapter 38: Lady Khadijah Comforts Prophet Muhammad
The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, returned to his house and asked Khadijah to cover him, which she did. Then he told Khadijah what had happened and that he feared that he would get sick from the heaviness of the Revelation. Khadijah answered, “No, do not worry. This is good news.” She confirmed that by saying, “Certainly you are kind to your kin and you tell the truth. You help the needy and give him more than he expects. You are generous to your guest, and help others with their misfortunes.” Then Khadijah took Prophet Muhammad to her cousin Waraqah Ibn Nawfal, who was a Christian at the time. He used to copy from the Injil of that time, before he became old and blind. Prophet Muhammad described to him what had happened. Waraqah said that this was the same angel who came to Prophet Moses. Then he added, “I wish I was a young man and alive when your people make you leave your city.” The Prophet asked, “Will they do that?” Waraqah said, “Yes. No man before you came with what you bring, except that he was shown enmity. If I live until then I will support you strongly.” However, Waraqah died a short time later. The Revelation stopped coming for a while. Later, Angel Gabriel came to the Prophet who was then under a cover. Then, Angel Gabriel revealed the first verses of Surat al-Muddaththir.

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They mean, “O [Muhammad] who is under the cover, stand up and warn the people against the torture of God. Say Allahu akbar (God is great). Clean your clothes from any najasah (filth) and avoid associating partners with God.” The Qur’an continued to be revealed to the Prophet throughout 23 years. Every year, Angel Gabriel reviewed the Qur’an with Prophet Muhammad in Ramadan. However, the Ramadan before the Prophet died, it was reviewed twice. The last verse revealed to the Prophet was verse 281 of al-Baqarah. It means, “Fear a day when you shall return to God and every soul shall find what it earned without any injustice.”

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Chapter 39: The First Converts
After receiving Revelation and becoming the Messenger of God, our Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, immediately started to call people to Islam. He called the people with wisdom, following the guidance of the Revelations he was receiving. The first person to believe in Prophet Muhammad was his wife Khadijah bint Khuwaylid. Then ^Aliyy Ibn Abi Talib believed, and later his two older brothers, Ja^far and ^Aqil. Some said that ^Aliyy was 10 years old at the time when he embraced Islam. Zayd Ibn Harithah embraced Islam and was the first freed slave to accept the Prophet’s call. The first free man to accept the Prophet’s call was Abu Bakr, who was ^Abdullah Ibn Abi Quhafah. He was a very close friend to the Prophet. The Messenger of God said, “Everyone I called to Islam had hesitation (at first) except Abu Bakr.” Due to the invitation of Abu Bakr, ^Uthman Ibn ^Affan, Az-Zubayr Ibnul-^Awwam, ^Abdur-Rahman Ibn ^Awf, Sa^d Ibn Abi Waqqas, and Talhah Ibn ^Ubaydillah embraced Islam. Abu Bakr took them to the Messenger of God, and they embraced Islam. Then others embraced Islam. Some were: Abu ^Ubaydah Ibnul-Jarrah, Abu Salamah, ^Uthman Ibn Madh^un, Sa^id Ibn Zayd, ^Abdullah Ibn Mas^ud, ^Ammar Ibn Yasir, Suhayb Ibn Sinan, Abu Dharr, and Bilal.

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All of these early Companions have fascinating stories. The blasphemers of Quraysh in Makkah, who did not want them to believe, tortured most of them.

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Chapter 40: Stories of Early Companions
In this lesson, we present pictures of several of our Prophet’s early followers. The early followers have the distinction of believing the truth from our Prophet, before embracing Islam became popular in the Arabian Peninsula. Additionally, many of them suffered severe tortures from the blasphemers, simply because they believed our Prophet, loved God, and worshipped their Creator correctly. ^Abdullah Ibn Mas^ud was a young shepherd when he first met the Prophet. This was at an early time during the Prophethood. He told of his meeting our Prophet and his embracing Islam. ^Abdullah Ibn Mas^ud said, “I used to tend some sheep of the family of ^Uqbah Ibn Abi Mu^ayt [a terrible blasphemer]. The Messenger of God came with Abu Bakr. He asked, ‘Do you have any milk?’ [He said he did not and these were not his sheep. So, the Prophet asked for a sheep that did not give milk]. I brought to him a sheep that did not give milk. The Prophet passed his hand on the place where the udders were and an udder full of milk appeared. [The animal was milked and] the milk was put in a rock container. The Prophet gave it to Abu Bakr, then to me; then he drank. Then he told the udder to shrink, and it shrank as it was before. When I saw that I said, ‘O Messenger of God teach me.’ He passed his hand on my head and said, ‘May God bless you. You will be a knowledgeable person.’ One day when we were with the Prophet on Mt. Hira', the chapter 286

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of Al-Mursalat was revealed to the Prophet. I took it fresh from the mouth of the Prophet. The Prophet taught me 70 surahs, man to man, without any third person with us.” ^Abdullah Ibn Mas^ud was a great Companion. He narrated many sayings of the Prophet, and was very respected among the Companions for his knowledge of the Qur’an. He lived about 20 years past the death of the Prophet and did not tire from spreading Islam, even in far away areas. A slave from Abyssinia, named Bilal, believed in our Prophet. His owner hated Prophet Muhammad. He tortured Bilal, in order to break his belief in God. Bilal was taken out at noon, bare-chested, and was forced to lie on the burning pebbles. Then a large stone was put on his chest, so he could not move. Bilal never said the blasphemy, which they wanted to hear. Instead he said, “Ahadun Ahad” (Allah is the only God). Our Master Abu Bakr, full of compassion, bought Bilal from his owner for a high price; then he freed him. Henceforth, Bilal accompanied our Prophet, immigrated to Madinah, and had the honor of calling the believers to prayer (making adhan), along with his many other good deeds. A married couple and their son were early converts to Islam. Their names were Yasir and Sumayyah, and their son was called ^Ammar. The three of them were slaves of a Makkan blasphemer. Upon seeing long, merciless torture inflicted upon them by their owner, our Prophet told them “Be patient. You will meet again in Paradise.”

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The blasphemers threatened to kill Sumayyah if she did not leave Islam, but she refused to renounce her faith. They killed her. She was the first female martyr in our nation. When Yasir received the same threat, he also refused to blaspheme and was killed. After seeing the threat was real, ^Ammar said blasphemous words, when he was likewise threatened with death if he did not blaspheme. All the while ^Ammar had rejected these words in his heart. Our Prophet reassured ^Ammar that he had remained a believer, for he did not accept the blasphemy he had only uttered due to the real threat of death. ^Ammar was a noble Companion, who went on to live a life full of good deeds, knowing that he would be reunited in the Hereafter with his brave parents.

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Chapter 41: The Harm of the Blasphemers upon Abu Dharr
Another early follower of our Prophet was a man known as “Abu Dharr”. His name was Jundub Ibn Junadah, from the tribe of Ghifar. Our Prophet said about Abu Dharr, “There is no man under the sky or on Earth who is more truthful than Abu Dharr”. When the news of the appearance of the Prophet in Makkah spread and reached Abu Dharr, he said to his brother, “Ride to Makkah from our valley and find out about this man who claims to receive news from the heavens and tell me.” His brother went to Makkah, listened, then he went back to Abu Dharr and said, “I saw him ordering with good qualities of behavior and words that are not poetry”. When Abu Dharr heard these words, he said, “You did not get to the depth that I want. I want to know more.” Abu Dharr set out to Makkah carrying an old canteen. He went to the Holy Mosque. He did not want to ask others about our Prophet, in case they were the enemy. He stayed there until night came, and he lay down in that area. Our Master ^Aliyy, then still a young person of about 12 years, passed by and saw Abu Dharr. He knew Abu Dharr was a stranger. ^Aliyy followed him wherever he went. They did not talk until morning. Abu Dharr took his canteen and went back to the Masjid and slept in the same area. Then ^Aliyy said, “Isn’t it time for the man to know where to sleep?” Then he took him to his house as 289

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his guest. The third day, Abu Dharr went to the masjid and ^Aliyy took him home at night. ^Aliyy asked after the third day, “What brings you to this city?” Abu Dharr replied, “If you promise you will fulfill my request without trouble, I will tell you.” ^Aliyy gave his word. Then, Abu Dharr said that his goal was to meet Muhammad. ^Aliyy said, “Yes, it is true. He is the Messenger of God.” In the morning, Abu Dharr was instructed by young ^Aliyy to follow him. If ^Aliyy sensed danger, he would make a sign of pouring water, and Abu Dharr should not get near him. ^Aliyy said that if he went into a house, Abu Dharr should follow him into the house. They proceeded as planned and entered a house. Abu Dharr’s eyes fell upon the best of creation. He listened, and immediately embraced Islam. Our Prophet instructed Abu Dharr to go to his tribe and tell them about Islam. He was told to wait there until the Prophet gave him further instructions. Abu Dharr said, “I swear by the One Who controls my soul, I will shout out my acceptance of Islam among the people of Makkah! I will not just tell my own people.” Hence, Abu Dharr went to the Holy Mosque and shouted the Shahadah loudly. The blasphemers were upset and beat Abu Dharr, until he lay on the ground. Al^Abbas, one of the Prophet’s paternal uncles, came and checked on Abu Dharr. Then he said to his people, “Woe to you! Don’t you know that he is from the tribe of Ghifar? When you travel to trade in Ash-Sham, you have to pass through his tribe’s valley. If you hurt one of them, you will not be able to pass through safely!” (Before Islam, the Ghifar tribe was known to cause trouble for travelers.)

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Although Al-^Abbas saved Abu Dharr, by God’s will, the next day Abu Dharr made the same announcement and the blasphemers gave him the same beating. Again, by God’s will, al-^Abbas saved Abu Dharr by making the same appeal. Then, Abu Dharr followed the Prophet’s instruction, and his tribe became Muslim even before they met our blessed Messenger. Abu Dharr went on to live an outstanding life, full of amazing events. He dutifully narrated many precious words from our Prophet. He stood firm with the truth, as our Prophet said, including after our Prophet’s death. He lived until a time during the Caliphate of our Master ^Uthman. At the end of his life, he lived away from the people, for he saw the love of this life creeping into some hearts, and when he bade with purity, many did not bear it.

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Chapter 42: The Public Call
After three years of Prophethood, fearlessly calling to and teaching people Islam with skilled tactics, God revealed to Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, to make a public call. God revealed ayah 214 of ash-Shu^ara’ in which God ordered Prophet Muhammad to warn his relatives, calling them to Islam. Prophet Muhammad went on the top of as-Safa, a mountain in Makkah, and called the different clans by their names. They came in a hurry. The Prophet said, “If I were to tell you that there was an enemy ready to attack you, would you believe me?” They said, “Yes. We never experienced except truthfulness from you.” He said, “I am a warner to you of a very severe torture (if you do not hold the proper belief).” Abu Lahab, one of the uncles of the Prophet, cursed him. He was mad, thinking that our Prophet was wasting their time and trying to destroy their lifestyle. Shortly after that incident God revealed the surah called al-Masad in which it is mentioned that both Abu Lahab and his wife will receive severe torture in Hellfire. The news of this surah reached the wife of Abu Lahab, Umm Jamil, who was a very wicked woman. When Umm Jamil heard the surah, she came to the area of the Ka^bah with stones in her hand. She addressed Abu Bakr threatening to harm the Prophet by saying, “I heard your friend has dispraised me, and I will show him.” Abu Bakr asked her, “Do you see anyone with me?” She said, “No. Are you mocking me?” She 292

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continued to dispraise the Prophet, who was sitting next to Abu Bakr. After she left, the Messenger of God told his Companion, “Some angels blocked her from seeing me and saved me from her evil.” Once, one of the leaders of the blasphemers, ^Uqbah Ibn Abi Mu^ayt, saw the Prophet praying next to the Ka^bah. He took the clothes of the Prophet and strangled the Prophet severely. Abu Bakr came and pushed him away from the Prophet and said, “Do you kill a man because he says: God is my Lord?” One of the main leaders of the blasphemers was a man called Abu Jahl. This was the name that the Muslims gave to him meaning “the very ignorant person”. When our Prophet started calling people to Islam, Abu Jahl became a big enemy of the Muslims, mocking and torturing them. Once, Abu Jahl urged his cohort to put the stinking innards of a camel on the back of our Prophet while he was prostrating in prayer. It was done, while Abu Jahl and his friends mocked our Prophet. Brave, little Fatimah, the daughter of our Prophet, removed that filth off her father, who completed his prayer. Fatimah was only about ten years old at the time. The Prophet carried out the order of God to call his relatives as well as other tribes to Islam. He degraded their idols, which angered them. They all agreed to consider him as their enemy. The uncle of the Prophet, Abu Talib, protected him from the harm of Quraysh’s blasphemers and others. This angered the idol worshippers of Makkah and a group of their leaders said to Abu Talib, “Your nephew has cussed our idols and slandered our religion. Either you stop him or you give him up to us. After all, you follow the same religion that 293

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we do.” Abu Talib talked to them gently and they left him. The Prophet continued with his mission and the hatred of the idolaters to the Prophet increased. They went again to Abu Talib and said, “You have an age, status, and honor among us. We had asked you to stop your nephew, but you did not. We swear by God, we will not be patient with his cussing our fathers and idols. Either you stop him or we will fight him and you, until one side is victorious.” Abu Talib found it hard for himself to be away from his people and his heart was neither inclined to embrace Islam nor to let the Messenger of God down. However, he said to the Prophet, “O nephew, your people told me so and so. Avoid getting yourself and me killed. Do not put on my shoulders that which I cannot bear.” The Messenger of God thought that his uncle was letting him down and pulling out his support for him. He said, “O uncle, I swear by God, were they to put the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left to leave out calling to Islam, I would not do so until God makes Islam victorious, or I die while conveying it.” Then the Prophet wept. His uncle called him and said, “Come back my nephew. Say what you like. I swear by God that I will not give you up.” When Quraysh realized that Abu Talib was not going to give up his nephew, they increased their persecution and torture of the Muslims under their hands. The Messenger of God used to address the people saying, “O people, God orders you to worship Him and not to associate anything with Him.’ Abu Lahab would

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walk behind him and say, “This man wants you to leave the religion of your fathers.” The blasphemers met at their Hajj season to agree on something to say about the Prophet. (They would do some of the actions that we do nowadays in Hajj but they did it with their wrong belief. Hajj had been done by Prophet Isma^il, but through the years its performance had become perverted). Some said, “We will say he is a fortune teller.” Others wanted to say he was insane; and others wanted to say he was a magician. Others wanted to say that he was a poet. However, they all agreed that he was not any of that. Finally, they agreed to say that he brought a religion that separates between the person and his father, brother, tribe, and his wife. As a result of warning against the Prophet, he became very famous among the various Arab tribes. Thus, many of his own people were against him at that time. Yet, he was trying to save them from Hellfire, by God’s Will. An Arab tribe at his time believed that God had married an elite woman of jinn and that they gave birth to angels. Of course the truth, which our Prophet declared, was that God was not a man, and He never took a wife. God had no children. Additionally, angels were neither male nor female. Our Prophet was unshakeable in his mission to spread the truth about God and His attributes. The threats of misguided people did not scare him. After making the public call, two brave men who were respected in Makkah became Muslim: Hamzah (the Prophet’s uncle) and ^Umar Ibnul-Khattab. ^Umar was set on killing the Prophet after the public call. Yet, after he read some verses of the Qur’an that his Muslim sister

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had, he went to our Prophet. God changed ^Umar’s heart, and he professed his Islam to our Prophet.

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Chapter 43: Immigration to Abyssinia
The harm of the blasphemers intensified against the Prophet and his Companions. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, told some of his Companions to go out to the land of Abyssinia (East Africa). Eightythree men and eleven Qurashiyy women immigrated to Abyssinia. Among them were ^Uthman and his wife Ruqayyah (the daughter of our Prophet), Az-Zubayr, ^Abdur-Rahman Ibn ^Awf, ^Abdullah Ibn Mas^ud, and Ja^far Ibn Abi Talib. They were of two groups, one leaving before the other. Take note that the daughter of the Prophet, Ruqayyah, had married the honorable ^Uthman. ^Uthman became one of the best followers of Prophet Muhammad. Ashamah An-Najashiyy, the King of Abyssinia, was Christian. The King welcomed the Muslims and honored them. He allowed them to stay in his country and practice their Religion. Word of this got to the blasphemers of Makkah. As a result, the idolaters of Quraysh sent two men with gifts to the king of Abyssinia, requesting that he hand over the Muslims to them. Their effort was fruitless. The King sent after the Muslims. Ja^far Ibn Abi Talib pointed out the teachings of the Prophet about Jesus, that he was the slave of God and His Messenger. Moreover, he recited some of the Qur’an, which caused the king to cry. He protected them and did not allow the blasphemers to hurt them. This honorable king embraced Islam. He received a letter from our Prophet and became one of the upright 297

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Muslims. A few years after embracing Islam, the king died. On the same day, the Messenger of God said, “Today your brother, An-Najashiyy died. He is a righteous man.” He ordered the Muslims to perform the funeral prayer for An-Najashiyy, which the Messenger led.

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Chapter 44: The Boycott and the Year of Sorrow
Meanwhile, the Muslims in Makkah suffered many tight conditions. They were isolated into a particular rocky area outside the city of Makkah (a place where people would not normally live) where no one was allowed to buy from or sell to them. They were patient, seeking the reward from God. This extremely harsh situation continued for three years. Still, Prophet Muhammad went out to the Ka^bah and bravely called the people to Islam. Although he would not become Muslim, Abu Talib, and other blasphemers among the Prophet’s clan stayed with the Muslims in this valley, suffering from the lack of food as well. It was the character of Abu Talib to keep his vow to protect his nephew, no matter the circumstance. As the years passed, the relatives of the Prophet disputed about the boycott of the Prophet and the people with him. Some were not in favor of the extreme injustice. The blasphemers had posted a proclamation on the Ka^bah concerning the confinement of the Muslims. Our Prophet received Revelation that insects had eaten away this proclamation, except for the name of God. Abu Talib informed the people of this Revelation. They checked the parchment and found it eaten away except for God’s name.

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At this, they stopped the boycott. The Muslims, and the Hashim clan members, returned to their homes. Our Prophet was starting his tenth year of Prophethood. Six months after leaving the confinement, Abu Talib became sick. The Prophet came to him. There, he found Abu Jahl and another blasphemer at Abu Talib’s deathbed. While Abu Jahl urged Abu Talib to stick to idol-worship, our Prophet continued to urge him to embrace Islam. Abu Talib said that he would not leave the religion of his father, ^Abdul-Muttalib, and died as a blasphemer, a person of the Hellfire. Two months later, the honorable Lady Khadijah also died, at the age of sixty-five. Our Prophet felt the sorrow of missing her, although he knew without doubt that all her suffering was over; she would be one of the highest women of Paradise. The Prophet was left with daughters without their mother with them. After the death of his dear Khadijah, and in the same year, our Prophet married Lady Sawdah, an early convert to Islam who had suffered many hardships, and was then a widow. Shortly after Lady Khadijah’s death, our Prophet saw Gabriel in his dream showing him ^A’ishah, the daughter of Abu Bakr and saying, “This is your wife.” Abu Bakr and his wife were delighted to give their daughter in marriage to the Prophet. This wife, ^A’ishah, lived long after the death of our Prophet and helped the Muslim community greatly by continuously relating the sayings she heard from the Prophet until her death about 55 years after the death of Prophet Muhammad.

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Chapter 45: The Trip to Ta’if
After the death of his beloved wife Khadijah, in the month of Shawwal, in the tenth year of Prophethood, the Prophet went out to Ta’if with Zayd Ibn Harithah. Our Prophet was seeking support from the Thaqif tribe, hoping that they would accept what he brought to them from Allah. Ta’if is about forty miles southeast of Makkah. There the Prophet spoke to some leaders. They showed their disbelief in him. The Prophet left them. Then the people there pelted the Prophet with stones until his feet bled. Zayd was protecting the Prophet from the stones, and Zayd’s head got cut open. The Prophet went under the shade of a vineyard, while bleeding and in pain. Two boys saw him and felt compassion for him. The boys called ^Addas, their Christian slave, and ordered him to bring grapes on a platter and offer them to the Prophet. When the Prophet started eating, he said “Bismillah.” ^Addas said, “People of this area do not say such words.” When the Prophet asked ^Addas from which land he was, he said that he was from Ninawa. The Prophet said “The town of the righteous man, Yunus, the son of Matta?” ^Addas said, “How do you know about Yunus, the son of Matta?” The Messenger of God said, “He is my brother. He was a Prophet and I am a Prophet”. ^Addas started kissing the head, hands and feet of the Prophet. Then when ^Addas went to the two boys, the boys warned him against the Prophet, and told ^Addas 301

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not to change his religion. ^Addas told those boys that there was no one on Earth better than Prophet Muhammad. Al-Bukhariyy and Muslim narrated that the Prophet said, “[During the trip to Ta’if] I called Ibn ^Abd Yalil and he did not accept. I left sad and walked until I was in Qarnuth-tha^alib. I raise my head and saw a cloud shading me. I saw Gabriel in it. He called me saying, “God heard the response and rejection of your people to you. He sent you the angel of the mountains, to order him with whatever you wish.” The angel of mountains saluted the Prophet and said, “[I will do] what ever you wish. If you wish for me to close the two mountains on them, I will do it”. The Prophet said, “I hope that God will bring from among their children those who worship God without associating partners to Him.” The Prophet did not wish for retaliation. Our Prophet was hopeful that some people from them would become Muslim. Our Prophet relentlessly spoke with people of different tribes about Islam and gave them the clear proofs of the Qur’an. Among the special distinctions of the last Messenger, is that Muhammad was sent to the humans and the jinn. Jinn are creations who are not human. They live on Earth, some of them being believers in Islam, but most of them are not. The disbelievers among the jinn are the devils. The first devil, Satan, is a jinniyy; he was never an angel or a human. Our Prophet was the only Prophet sent to the jinn, as well as humans. He would go to certain places and teach them. In general, humans cannot see the jinn around them, as we cannot see the angels around us either.

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Four people traveled from Yemen to Makkah, not knowing about our Prophet and his call. Before reaching Makkah, at night one of them could not sleep. He heard a voice, without seeing a body. The voice said, “O you traveling people, when you come to Makkah with the Ka^bah, give our salutation to Muhammad and tell him that we are your followers, as Jesus, the son of Mary, told us to do”. This jinniyy had been alive during the time of Jesus, and had heard Jesus teaching about a last prophet to come named Muhammad. When Muhammad proclaimed Prophethood and the jinniyy found out, this same jinniyy knew to follow our Prophet, as he had followed Jesus before. This jinniyy had heard Prophet Jesus, although Prophet Jesus was not ordered to call the jinn specifically. Prophet Muhammad (Muhammad), peace and blessings be upon him, is the last Prophet born, and is the Prophet with the highest rank. All the other Prophets love and respected Prophet Muhammad. All the other Prophets told their people about the coming of Prophet Muhammad. They said, “If you live to his day, follow him”.

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Chapter 46: About the Miracles of our Prophet,
blessings and peace be upon him While the Prophet lived in both Makkah and Madinah, his followers and the blasphemers were witnessing magnificent miracles that God bestowed on the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him. Prophet Muhammad had never told a lie. Hence, all the people who knew him should have believed him when he told them that God had made him a Prophet. Nonetheless, God made Prophet Muhammad perform awesome miracles, the likes of which the people with him had never seen before. These miracles supported Prophet Muhammad’s claim of Prophethood. The blasphemers could not duplicate these miracles themselves. God bestowed miracles on all the Prophets, showing the people that the prophets are true in their claim of Prophethood. Prophet Noah was enabled to bring a male and female of each kind of animal on the ark. Prophet Abraham was thrown in a giant fire and did not burn. Prophet Moses was given a staff that turned into a real giant snake. Prophet Moses also struck that staff and the sea split into twelve dry pathways. Prophet Jesus formed a bird out of clay and it came to life. We love all the Prophets, and do not praise our Prophet in a way that degrades any other Prophet. Without degrading the other Prophets, we know that Prophet Muhammad's miracles were more numerous than the miracles of the other prophets. In addition, Prophet 304

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Muhammad was given the greatest miracles. Imam ashShafi^iyy said, “For every miracle God gave to the other prophets, He gave Prophet Muhammad one miracle like it or greater than it.” The greatest miracle given to Prophet Muhammad was the Holy Qur’an. Nothing had ever been recited in Arabic like it before, and as it began to come down, no one could imitate it. If both the humans and jinn were to try to come up with something like the Qur'an, they would not be able to do so. The Arabs around our Prophet prided themselves in their beautiful language. They were masters of the language, and would compose long poems on the spot. Those in the community who were eloquent in their speech were raised in status. When our Prophet began to recite the Qur’an to his people, they knew that this was not like something they had heard before. It was not poetry, which they prized, but something better, and beyond poetry. Prophets before Prophet Muhammad received Holy Books in their complete form at one moment, but our Prophet received the Qur’an part by part, and not in the order of the book. Our Prophet memorized all of the Qur’an, as it came, and knew where each verse was to go in the order of the Book. God narrates in the Qur’an many events of the past of which the Prophet did not know before, and events to happen in the future which did and shall happen. Prophet Muhammad performed miracles both while he was in Makkah, and after he immigrated to Madinah. In this book we are citing only a few of the miracles of

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our Prophet. In addition to the miracles mentioned throughout the lessons, two more miracles which Prophet Muhammad was given while he lived in Makkah are: Splitting the moon: When Prophet Muhammad announced to his people that he had been made a Messenger of God, the blasphemers of Makkah asked the Prophet to show them a miracle. At that, he pointed to the moon and it split into two halves. Both people who were inside and outside of Makkah saw this split. Those who saw it and did not want to believe said in their arrogance and ignorance that Muhammad had bewitched them. The Appearance of a Fierce Camel: In Makkah, the evil Abu Jahl made deal with a merchant and did not pay the merchant. The merchant came to Abu Jahl to get his money, but Abu Jahl refused to pay. When the merchant went to other disbelievers, they did not help. One of the disbelievers suggested, “Go to Muhammad the son of ^Abdullah. He will help you get your money!”. This disbeliever was not sincere. He expected Abu Jahl to never respond to our Prophet, and wished for the merchant to curse the Prophet. The merchant went to Prophet Muhammad, and our Prophet agreed to go with the merchant to Abu Jahl, helping the merchant get the money owed. The merchant knocked on the door of Abu Jahl and Abu Jahl came out. Our Prophet said, “Give this man his right”. Abu Jahl said, “Alright”. Quickly he went into his house, got the money, and gave it to the merchant. As a result, the merchant praised the Prophet a lot.

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The other disbelievers were angry with Abu Jahl about this, and complained to him. They said, “How could you have done this? Don’t you hear the merchant praising Muhammad?” Abu Jahl said, “You did not see what I saw. I saw a camel the size of which I have never seen behind Muhammad! This camel had big teeth. If I had said “No”, this camel would have killed me! I could not have said other than what I said!” Hence, God created that miracle for our Prophet, foiling the evil plan of a blasphemer. (IF THE FOLLOWING MIRACLE HAPPENED AFTER HIJRAH, IT NEEDS TO MOVE TO THE OTHER CHAPTER ON MIRACLES): Another miracle was what happened with a Bedouin man known for treating the mentally ill. Prophet Muhammad called that man to Islam. The Prophet said, “Let me teach you something beneficial to you”. The man said, “What is that?” The Prophet said, “To testify that no one is God except Allah, and I am the Messenger of God.” The man looked at the Prophet and said, “Do you need a treatment for your mind?” The Prophet said, “No”. The man said, “Do you have anyone to testify and support you in that claim?” The Prophet said, “Yes, this branch of a palm tree”. The Prophet ordered the branch to come. It came off of the tree and came to the Prophet bowing and prostrating on the ground. Then it stood in front of the hands of the Prophet. It testified three times that no one was God except Allah and Muhammad was the Messenger of God. The man then believed and became a Muslim. No one could imitate that miracle to discredit the Prophet. WHO NARRATED IT??? 307

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Another miracle bestowed on Prophet Muhammad, while he still lived in Makkah, is narrated in the next three lessons.

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Chapter 47: Isra' (The Night Journey)
After all the hardships of the boycott, the deaths of family members, and the reaction at Ta’if, God blessed our Prophet with a magnificent honor and experience. Two years before immigrating to Madinah, when Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was 51 years old, he went from Makkah, from the house of Lady Umm Hani', his paternal cousin, on a night journey (Isra’). The journey was by both body and soul, which is confirmed in the Qur'an and Hadith. The Prophet relates that it was night and his chest was cut open like when he was a young boy with Halimah. This was to prepare him for the greatness of what was to happen to him. Angel Gabriel cut open his chest and washed his heart with Zamzam water. Then, he brought a golden bowl that he emptied into the Prophet’s chest. As a result, his heart increased in wisdom and faith. Then the angel closed up his chest. Angel Gabriel brought al-Buraq to him. Al-Buraq is one of the animals of Paradise. One stride of this animal goes as far as his furthest sight. The Prophet rode behind Gabriel on al-Buraq and they passed by al-Madinah (before the Prophet migrated to it). The Prophet descended and prayed. He then passed by Madyan, the city of Prophet Shu^ayb and prayed two rak^ahs there. Then he reached Mt. Sinai (Tur Sayna') and prayed two rak^ahs there. Then they reached Bethlehem (Bayt Lahm), the birthplace of Prophet Jesus, where he prayed two rak^ahs. When he reached Jerusalem (Bayt al309

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Maqdis), he tied al-Buraq to the ring that the other Prophets had used. Then, he entered al-Masjid al-Aqsa that Prophet Adam built 40 years after he had built the Ka^bah. On the night of the Journey, a huge honor for the Prophet occurred. God gathered all the prophets from Adam to Jesus in al-Masjid al-Aqsa. The Prophet led them as their imam in prayer. Previously, all the Prophets had taken an oath to God. They vowed that, if they were alive when the final prophet received his Revelation, they would believe in and help him to be victorious. Each one of the prophets had ordered his followers to comply with this oath as well. During this night Journey, Prophet Muhammad saw many unusual things; among them: • On his way to Bayt al-Maqdis (Jerusalem), he saw the world in the shape of an old woman. • The Prophet saw the devil on the side of the road, calling him, but not daring to hurt him. God created signs that indicate the extreme goodness of some deeds and the extreme badness of others. Among these signs, which Prophet Muhammad saw, were: • Seeing people planting and reaping in two days. Gabriel told him, “Those are the people who exert effort and fight to spread Islam”. • Seeing people with their lips and tongues clipped with fiery clippers. Gabriel said, “Those are the people

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who speak words to mislead people. They invite others to straying, corruption, cheating, and treachery”. • Seeing heads of some people being smashed then returned as they were. Gabriel said, “Those are the ones whose heads feel heavy to perform the prescribed prayers”. • Seeing people competing to eat some rotten meat and leave out eating the good meat. Gabriel said, “Those are people from your nation who leave out consuming the permissible items and instead, consume stinking, prohibited items. They are the fornicators and adulterers”. • Seeing people drinking from the disgusting pus of the fornicators and adulterers. Gabriel said, “Those are the drinkers of alcohol in this life”. • Seeing people scratching their faces and chests with brazen fingernails. Gabriel said, “Those are the ones who used to backbite others”. Our Prophet smelled a nice scent from a grave and asked Gabriel about it. Gabriel told him that it was the grave of the woman who used to comb the hair of the daughter of Pharaoh. (The Pharaoh referred to was the extremely unjust ruler of Egypt, during the time of Prophet Moses. He declared to the people that he was their Lord. If a person refused to worship him, he would kill him in a torturous way. He was known as the “lord of the posts”, for he would tie those who did not believe in him to four posts, and torture them to death. He even killed his own wonderful, compassionate wife by having her tied under a huge millstone, for she believed in Moses. Her name is 311

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Asiyah. God mentions in the Qur’an, in Suratut-Tahrim, verse 11, that she is one of the best women, along with Mary, the mother of Prophet Jesus.) This combing woman was a pious believer. While she was combing the hair of Pharaoh’s daughter, the comb dropped from her hand; she said: ‘Bismillah’ (in the Name of God). The daughter of Pharaoh asked her, “Do you have a Lord other than my father?’ The woman replied, “Yes. My God and the God of your father is God.” The daughter told her father. Pharaoh ordered the woman to change her Religion, i.e., the Religion of Islam. She refused. Pharaoh had a big container filled with water on a fire to boil. Then he threw her children into it. When he wanted to throw a young nursing child of hers, God enabled the child to say, “O mother, be patient. The torture in the Hereafter is greater than the torture you bear in this world. Do not waver, you are on truth.” The woman said to Pharaoh, “I ask you to fulfill my wish and gather the bones and bury them together.” Pharaoh said, “You have that.” He then threw her into the container. She and her children died as martyrs.

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Chapter 48: Mi^raj (The Ascension), (Part 1)
Our Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, was at al-Masjid al-Aqsa. Then, he rose up to the heavens. The Prophet of God said about his Ascension, “We ascended to outside the first heaven and Gabriel asked for admittance. It was then said, ‘Who are you?’ He said, ‘Gabriel.’ He was asked, ‘Who is with you?’ He said, ‘Muhammad.’ He was asked: ‘Was he called for?’ Gabriel said, ‘He was called for.’ It was then opened for us. There I saw Adam. He welcomed me and made du^a’ (supplication) for me. Then, we ascended to the second heaven and Gabriel, peace be upon him, asked for admittance. It was then said, ‘Who are you?’ He said, ‘Gabriel.’ He was asked, ‘Who is with you?’ He said, ‘Muhammad.’ He was asked, ‘Was he called for?’ Gabriel said, ‘He was called for.’ It was then opened for us. There I saw the two cousins ^Isa (Jesus) the son of Maryam (Mary) and Yahya (John) the son of Zakariyya (Zacharias). They welcomed me and made du^a’ for me. Then, we ascended to the third heaven and Gabriel asked for admittance. It was then said, ‘Who are you? ’ He said, ‘Gabriel. ’ He was asked, ‘Who is with you?’ He said, ‘Muhammad.’ He was asked, ‘Was he called for?’ Gabriel said, ‘He was called for.’ It was then opened for us. There I saw Yusuf (Joseph), who was given great beauty. He welcomed me and made du^a’ for me. 313

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Then, we ascended to the fourth heaven and Gabriel, peace be upon him, asked for admittance. It was then said, ‘Who are you?’ He said, ‘Gabriel.’ He was asked, ‘Who is with you?’ He said, ‘Muhammad.’ He was asked, ‘Was he called for?’ Gabriel said, ‘He was called for.’ It was then opened for us. There I saw Idris (Enoch). He welcomed me and made du^a’ for me. ‘Then, we ascended to the fifth heaven and Gabriel asked for admittance. It was then said, ‘Who are you?’ He said, ‘Gabriel.’ He was asked, ‘Who is with you?’ He said, ‘Muhammad.’ He was asked, ‘Was he called for?’ Gabriel said, ‘He was called for.’ It was opened for us. There I saw Harun (Aaron, the brother of Moses). He welcomed me and made du^a’ for me. Then, we ascended to the sixth heaven and Gabriel, peace be upon him, asked for admittance. It was then said, ‘Who are you?’ He said, ‘Gabriel.’ He was asked, ‘Who is with you?’ He said, ‘Muhammad.’ He was asked, ‘Was he called for?’ Gabriel said, ‘He was called for.’ It was opened for us. There I saw before me Musa (Moses). He welcomed me and made du^a’ for me. Then, we ascended to the seventh heaven and Gabriel asked for admittance. It was then said, ‘Who are you?’ He said, ‘Gabriel.’ He was asked, ‘Who is with you?’ He said, ‘Muhammad.’ He was asked, ‘Was he called for?’ Gabriel said, ‘He was called for.’ The door was then opened. There I saw Ibrahim (Abraham) leaning against al-Baytul-Ma^mur, into which 70,000 angels enter every day and after they leave it they never return to it.”

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Chapter 49: Mi^raj (The Ascension), (Part 2)
On that night God spoke to the Prophet, as God had spoken to Moses before him. God speaks without a tongue or lips, for God is not a body or a creation. God does not need a place. He is not a body. He does not occupy spaces. God is clear of any attribute of the creation. Hence, our Prophet did not go to a place where God resides. God is majestically high beyond residing in a place. Prophet Muhammad did go to a place where no one had ever disobeyed God. God informed the Prophet that five prayers a day have become incumbent upon Prophet Muhammad and his followers. God also informed His Prophet that the one who sets one’s heart to do a good deed, but does not do it, acquires one reward. If one does it, one gains ten times the previous reward. The one who hesitates about performing a sin, but does not do it, has nothing written against him. Rather one gets one reward for refraining from doing it, for God’s sake. However, if one does it, one acquires one sin written against him. Among the wonders the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, saw during his Ascension were: • He saw Malik, the angel who is the keeper of Hellfire. Malik did not smile to the Prophet. So, Prophet Muhammad asked Gabriel, “Why didn't Malik smile like the others?” Gabriel replied, “Malik has not smiled since God created him; had he smiled for anyone, he would

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have smiled for you.” (Paradise has its own keeper, whose name is Ridwan.) • The Prophet saw Hellfire and signs of who would be punished there in the future. He said that most of the people in Hellfire would be women. • The Prophet saw Sidratul-Muntaha. This is a great tree that has beauty that no one can describe. Butterflies made of gold cover it. Its base is in the sixth heaven and it reaches up to the seventh. The Prophet saw it in the seventh heaven. • God gave the Prophet the honor of entering Paradise and seeing signs of who would be admitted there in the future. Our Prophet said that most of the people of Paradise would be the poor. On that night, even our Prophet did not see, hear, or imagine certain enjoyments of Paradise, which only God knows, and has reserved for our Prophet and other highly righteous people in the Hereafter. • God gave the Prophet the honor of seeing Angel Gabriel in his true form again. This time the Prophet was stronger to see his greatness; hence he did not faint. After his trip the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, returned to Earth on the same night and told people of his night journey. Since the blasphemers knew that he had never been to Jerusalem before, they mocked him and asked him to describe Baytul-Maqdis. God made it appear to his eyes and he described it to them. Those who were present there before had to admit that his description was exact. Some scholars said that the Night Journey of the Prophet to Baytul-Maqdis (Jerusalem), his Ascension to 316

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the heavens, and his return to Makkah all occurred during one third of the night. The Prophet physically went to these places. It was neither a dream, nor a ‘spiritual lift’. Surely, God has the Power to make this journey occur. Praise is to Him, the One Who has Power over everything.

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Chapter 50: The Prophet Meets with Some of the People of Madinah
At the time of Hajj (done in an invalid way by the blasphemers at the time), the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, used to meet with the various tribes and call them to Islam. During one of these times, he met with a group from Madinah. He called them to Islam, and they believed. They said to him: ‘We will return to Madinah and convey Islam to our relatives there’. They also told him they would meet with him the following year. When they returned to Madinah, they called the people to Islam, and some of the people there became Muslim. These were called the Ansar (Supporters). In the following year, twelve men from the Ansar came and gave allegiance to the Prophet. They said that they would not associate partners with God, steal, fornicate, kill their children (this was an existing practice during the time of ignorance, before the Prophet's call to Islam), or disobey him. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, sent Mus^ab Ibn ^Umayr to teach them the matters of the Religion. Many of the residents of Madinah became Muslim, until there was no single family without a Muslim in it. During the next season of Hajj, around seventy from the Ansar came to Makkah and gave allegiance to the Prophet during the night. Then, God revealed to our Prophet that he and his followers must immigrate to Madinah. The blasphemers 318

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of Quraysh found out about the allegiance and that the Prophet had ordered his Companions to go to Madinah. They tried to prevent Muslims from leaving to Madinah. Many Muslims left secretly. The blasphemers had a meeting and decided to kill Prophet Muhammad before he left also. Gabriel came to the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, and told him of the blasphemers' plan. He also told him not to sleep where he usually did. The Prophet then ordered ^Aliyy to sleep in his place, and to cover himself with the cover of the Prophet. He also instructed him to return to their owners what the Prophet was safekeeping for people. When the Prophet went out of his house, there were several young men surrounding it ready to kill him. God made the men unable to see our Prophet. Our Prophet took a handful of dirt and sprinkled it on their heads, while reciting the first nine verses of Suratu Yasin. In these verses, God tells that He made the blasphemers unable to see him.

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Chapter 51: The Hijrah (Migration) to Madinah
After our Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, left his house, he went to our Master Abu Bakr's house and told him that he had been given permission to migrate. Abu Bakr asked the Prophet if he could accompany him and the Prophet agreed. Abu Bakr then cried out of happiness. Then, they rode their female camels, which Abu Bakr had been preparing for the trip, until they reached the cave of Thawr, which they entered. This cave was not in the direction towards Madinah, in order to throw off the enemy. A few men were helping our Prophet and Abu Bakr secretly. God ordered a tree to grow in front of the entrance of the cave, which concealed it. Then two wild birds made their nest in front the entrance. The blasphemers were following the Prophet. When they arrived at the cave, they sent a man to scout the area. When he saw the nest and the tree, he went back and told them that there was no one in the cave. If he had only looked down at his feet, he could have seen our Prophet and Abu Bakr, but God prevented him. Some time after the blasphemers left, the Prophet and his Companion continued on their way to Madinah. However, a man named Suraqah Ibn Malik could follow and find them, after he found out that the blasphemers of Quraysh had offered a reward for bringing the Prophet and Abu Bakr. When he came close to them, the Prophet made a du^a’ (supplication) against him and the legs of 320

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his horse sank into the ground. Suraqah then asked the Prophet to make du^a’ for him, promising that he would not tell anyone about their location. The Prophet made du^a’ for him and his horse returned to its original state. Suraqah returned to his people and kept his promise. About eight years later, Suraqah became Muslim. On the way to Madinah, Abu Bakr, ^Amir Ibn Fuhayrah, the slave of Abu Bakr, and the son of Urayqit, who guided them on their way, were with the Prophet. They passed by Umm Ma^bad from the tribe of Khuza^ah, who did not know them. The Prophet said to her, “O Umm Ma^bad, do you have milk?” She said, “No, by God.” He then saw a female sheep in the house and asked her about it. She said that it was an old sheep and did not produce milk anymore. The Prophet passed his hand over its back and udder. Then he asked for a container. He milked the sheep and filled the container. Then he gave the milk to his Companions to drink. He milked the sheep again to fill the container for Umm Ma^bad and he left. Later, upon her husband’s return, Umm Ma^bad described our Prophet in glowing terms. She said, “He was innocently bright and had a glowing countenance. His manners were refined. Neither was his belly bulging out, nor was his head deprived of hair. He had black, attractive eyes, finely arched by continuous eyebrows. His hair was black. His neck was long. His beard was thick. His expression was pensive and contemplative, serene, and sublime. He is fascinating from a distance, but with proximity the fascination is changed into attachment and respect. His expression was very sweet and distinct. 321

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His speech was well set and free from the use of superfluous words, as if it were a string of beads. His stature was neither too high, nor too small to look repulsive. His Companions always surrounded him. Whenever he uttered something, the listeners would hear him with rapt attention, and whenever he issued any command, they vied with each other in carrying it out. He was a master and a commander…” The Muslims in Madinah had heard that the Prophet was on his way to them. Everyday they were on the lookout for his arrival. However, on the day that he arrived, they waited until the sun became too hot for them to bear and returned to their homes before he arrived. When the Prophet and Abu Bakr arrived, just one man saw them. He shouted as loud as he could, informing the people of the Prophet’s arrival. All came out to greet him. Many people there had become Muslim and still had never met the Prophet. Thus, they were thrilled to see him for the first time. When the Prophet arrived, he was exactly 53 years old, for it was the same day and month of his birth, Monday the 12th of Rabi^ul-Awwal. The Islamic calendar counts this entire year as the first year of the calendar, beginning with the month of Muharram. Hence the year that the Prophet immigrated to Madinah is known as the 1st Hijrah (Immigration) year. The Prophet entered Madinah riding on his female camel. He let it walk freely until it reached a spot and sat; at this spot the Prophet would build his mosque. The spot belonged to two orphans. They wanted to give our Prophet the land but he insisted on paying for it. The 322

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Prophet stayed at the house of Abu Ayyub al-Ansariyy until he completed building his mosque and his wives' rooms, adjacent to the mosque. The Prophet took part in the labor of building. The ceiling was made of palm leaves and the floor was of sand. At that time, our Prophet had two wives, Lady Sawdah and Lady ^A'ishah, who arrived in Madinah after the Prophet, along with Lady Fatimah, Lady Umm Kulthum and other close members of the household. Lady Zaynab stayed in Makkah a while longer. It was an individual obligation for the Muslims to immigrate to Madinah if able. It remained an obligation until the Prophet opened Makkah about eight years later. It continues to be an obligation for a Muslim to move out of a place ruled by non-Muslims if he believes that staying there will result in him committing blasphemy or sins.

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Chapter 52: The City of Madinah
What a great blessing from God was the arrival of the Prophet in Madinah! Before accepting Islam, the two Arab tribes of Madinah, al-Aws and al-Khazraj were fighting frequently. Then, God made the hearts of both tribes inclined to Islam and love for God and His Messenger, blessings and peace are upon him. The Muslims who immigrated from Makkah were called the Muhajirun (the Immigrants) and the Muslims of both tribes of Madinah were called the Ansar (the Supporters). After arriving in Madinah, our Prophet paired men from the two groups to be special Muslim brothers. The “brother” from the Ansar welcomed and helped his “brother” from the Muhajirun get established in Madinah. The Muhajirun brother helped his Ansar brother by teaching him from what he learned from our Prophet while in Makkah. God instilled love in their hearts for one another. The Ansar liked to farm their land, and helped the Muhajirun learn this skill. Also, there were marketplaces in Madinah where the Muhajirun could conduct the work they were used to in Makkah. Many Jewish tribes were also settled around Madinah. The Ansar had been used to living and dealing with them before our Prophet came. After his arrival, our Prophet called the Jews to Islam. Their top scholar, ^Abdullah Ibn Salam, recognized our Prophet as the final Prophet of whom Prophet Moses had told his people. He embraced Islam, and became a good, honorable Companion. Other 324

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Jews, among their scholars and laymen, also became Muslim. Despite this, a number of Jewish scholars remained stubborn and refused to accept the Prophethood of Muhammad. Our Prophet made a treaty with the Jewish tribes, in which they promised not to fight the Muslims or assist others against them. The Jews did not keep to this treaty, as will follow. Also, in Madinah, a group of Madinah residents were the munafiqun (hypocrites). These people said the two Islamic Professions of Faith (I profess that no one is God except Allah and I profess that Muhammad is the Messenger of God), but in their hearts they really hated Prophet Muhammad. They stealthily worked to destroy the new Islamic society of Madinah. They would come to the Mosque and appear to pray, but they secretly cooperated with the Jews and hostile Arab tribes, to attack and destroy the Muslim society. God protected our Prophet and his followers from being defeated by both of these groups. Despite their harm, the city of Madinah began to flourish with the light of faith and became al-Madinatul-Munawwarah, the Illuminated City.

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Chapter 53: The Fascinating Conversion of the Top Jewish Scholar
As we told you in the previous lesson, ^Abdullah Ibn Salam was the top scholar of the Jews of Madinah, knowing and teaching the Torah revealed to Prophet Moses. As we had said before, when Prophet Jesus became a Prophet, and called the people to follow the new set of laws revealed to him, the Jews made the serious mistake of not accepting the Book revealed to Jesus (the Injil) and instead stuck to the Torah. ^Abdullah Ibn Salam knew, from the Jewish teachings, that there were three questions, whose answers only the last prophet would know. When the news reached him that a man had arrived in Madinah, who claimed to be the last prophet, ^Abdullah Ibn Salam went to our Prophet. When ^Abdullah Ibn Salam posed these three questions to our Prophet, Prophet Muhammad told ^Abdullah that Angel Gabriel had already told him the answers to these questions. ^Abdullah Ibn Salam stated that Gabriel was the enemy of the Jews. The three questions were: What is the first sign of the Day of Judgment? What is the first food of the people of Paradise? And why is it that some children resemble their father, and others resemble their mother? It was revealed to our Prophet, by angel Gabriel that the first sign of the Day of Judgment (Is not the appearance of ad-Dajjal the first big sign??) was a fire

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that drives the people from the east to the west. Knowing this, our Prophet answered ^Abdullah. Angel Gabriel had told our Prophet that the first food, which the people of Paradise will eat, is the extra lobe of the whale’s liver. Knowing this, our Prophet answered that question of ^Abdullah. Angel Gabriel had informed our Prophet that the reason that some children resemble their father, and others, their mother, is due to the fact that if, during the sexual intercourse which caused that pregnancy, the fluid of the man comes out first, the child will resemble him. If the fluid of the woman comes out first, the child will resemble the mother. Knowing this from Revelation, our Prophet victoriously answered that third question of ^Abdullah as well. Upon hearing the clear truth, wisely ^Abdullah Ibn Salam said the two Professions of Faith, and entered Islam. After that, ^Abdullah hid in a close place, while our Prophet spoke with his people. Prophet Muhammad asked them, “What do you say about ^Abdullah Ibn Salam?” His people said, “He is the best and most knowledgeable among us, as is his father.” Our Prophet asked, “What would you say if he embraced Islam?” They said, “O God, protect him from that!” Then ^Abdullah Ibn Salam came out from his hiding place, and professed his Islam in front of them. They said, “He is the worst among us, and the most ignorant…” It is narrated in the collection of hadith, Sahih Bukhariyy, that our Prophet gave the good news that

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^Abdullah Ibn Salam will be one of the people of Paradise.

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Chapter 54: Good Confronts Evil at Badr (Part 1)
Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was calling the people to Islam by talking to them, because he had not been ordered to go to battle yet. After his immigration the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, was permitted to fight the blasphemers. The Prophet himself, peace and blessings be upon him, led 27 campaigns (ghazwahs) and many times he sent the Muslims to engage the enemy without going himself (sariyyahs). The Prophet told us that if it were not for the needs of some of his followers, he would have gone to every battle (for he was the most courageous and diligent). The people of Arabia were used to war and regarded a brave warrior highly. Seeing the Muslims winning one time after another, despite their small numbers compared to their opponents, convinced some people to become Muslim themselves. The Arabs used to go to war over personal matters. However, our Prophet never fought over personal matters. He fought for the sake of God. By conducting battles, some woke up and became Muslim before fighting, some made peace treaties with the Muslims without a fight, and some refused to believe and were killed, thereby saving the believers from their evil ways. God has revealed to our Prophet that those Muslims who die in battles to spread Islam were martyrs with a special rank. All their sins are forgiven at the first drop 329

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of bloodshed, and their souls go to Paradise while their bodies are in their graves. Then, on the Day of Judgment, their soul will return to their resurrected bodies. They will not fear and will not be questioned about their deeds. They, in body and soul, will then enter Paradise to live forever. At the Prophet’s time, the battles were not conducted randomly, but under the authority of the Prophet. After some smaller battles with blasphemers, the first major battle occurred on Friday, the 17th of Ramadan in the second Hijriyy year. It is known as the Battle of Badr. It was said about the battle that a group of 30 men were returning from ash-Sham to Makkah headed by Abu Sufyan Ibnul-Harith. When Prophet Muhammad started calling to Islam, Abu Sufyan was among the people who stood against the Prophet and became one of the leaders of the blasphemers of Makkah. The caravan led by Abu Sufyan was important for the blasphemers’ economy. They invested heavily in this trade caravan. God revealed that it was allowed for the Muslims to take that caravan. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, urged and directed Muslims to go with him to intercept the caravan. Abu Sufyan learned about the Muslims coming. He sent word to Makkah telling Quraysh that Muhammad was targeting him. People left Makkah rushing to join Abu Sufyan. Their number was 950 with 100 horses. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, left Madinah with 313 men; 77 were from the Immigrants and the rest were from the Ansar. There

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were only 2 horses with them and 70 camels. Hence, they used to take turns riding on them. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, stopped at the strait of as-Safra'. He received the news that the camel caravan was close to Badr and that the blasphemers had come out of Makkah to protect it. The Muslims did not capture the caravan of goods, and instead they decided to fight. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, then left the place and stationed at Badr at the side of the water closest to Quraysh. Sa^d Ibn Mu^adh suggested building a post of palm branches for the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him. It was then built and the Messenger of God sat in it with Abu Bakr. Quraysh continued on. When the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, saw them he said, “O God, here comes Quraysh with their stride walking with pride rejecting Your Prophet. O God, grant us the victory You promised me.”

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Chapter 55: Good Confronts Evil at Badr (Part 2)
The two parties came close to each other. Three of the mushriks (blasphemers): ^Utbah Ibn Rabi^ah, Shaybah Ibn Rabi^ah and al-Walid Ibn ^Utbah came out asking for a duel before the battle. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, ordered that ^Ubaydah Ibn al-Harith Ibn al-Muttalib would duel with ^Utbah, Hamzah the uncle of the Prophet, would duel with Shaybah, and ^Aliyy Ibn Abi Talib would duel with alWalid Ibn ^Utbah. Hamzah killed Shaybah and ^Aliyy killed al-Walid. ^Ubaydah and ^Utbah hit each other. Then ^Aliyy and Hamzah came at ^Utbah and killed him. They carried away ^Ubaydah with his foot cut off, who died a short while after that. People then walked slowly towards each other and the Messenger of God and Abu Bakr were at the post. The Prophet was saying, “O God, if this group of people (Muslims) are destroyed, You will not be worshipped on Earth. O God, fulfill for me what You promised me.” The Prophet stayed like this until his cloak fell off. Abu Bakr placed it back on him. Then the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, made one sudden move and became alert. He said, “Rejoice, O Abu Bakr, the victory of God has come.” The Messenger of God, peace and blessings be upon him, then came out of the post strengthening the people to fight. He took a handful of pebbles, threw them at

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Quraysh, and said to his Companions, “Press on them.” Then, the defeat happened. In this battle, God sent 3000 angels to fight the blasphemers along with the human Muslims. The Companions would see a head fly off the enemy before their own sword had struck. This was due to the help of the angels, by God’s Will. It is narrated that Angel Gabriel came to the Prophet and asked, “How do you regard among you those who fought at Badr?” The Prophet answered, “As the best of Muslims.” Gabriel said, “The same applies to the angels who were present at Badr.” The combat was on Friday morning, the 17th of Ramadan. ^Abdullah Ibn Mas^ud killed Abu Jahl Ibn Hisham Ibn al-Mughirah. Hence, one of the worst of the enemies of faith was dead. Fourteen of the Muslims died as martyrs: six from the Immigrants and eight from the Ansar. Seventy idol worshippers were killed in Badr; seventy were captured. The property seized from defeated blasphemers after a military victory is called “spoils”. In the laws revealed to previous prophets, the spoils were gathered in one place. Then God sent a fire that consumed them. In the rules revealed to Prophet Muhammad, the spoils were divided between our Prophet and Muslims who participated in the battle. The Prophet used his share of the spoils to help Muslims and not to amass personal wealth. Prophet Muhammad said that, out of God’s Mercy upon them, and due to their weakness, God allowed them to have the spoils.

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This battle is mentioned several times in the Qur’an. One reference is in Suratu Al ^Imran.

Verses 12 and 13 of Suratu Al ^Imran mean, “(O Muhammad) say to the disbelievers: you will be defeated and gathered together to Hell, and worst indeed is that place of rest. There has already been for you9 a sign in the two armies that met in combat (the Battle of Badr). One was fighting in the cause of God; the other was blasphemous. The blasphemers saw the Muslims as twice their number. God does support with His aid whomever He wills. Verily, in this is a lesson for those with minds.” After the victory, the Prophet kept watch in the battle area for three days. The slain bodies of twenty-four leaders of the blasphemers of Quraysh were thrown in a well at Badr. Our Prophet stood over the well and started to call the dead by name saying, “Would it not have been much better for you if you had obeyed God and His Messenger? Behold, we have found that our Lord’s promise came true. Did you also find that the promises of your Lord came true?’ When a Companion questioned his talking to the dead, the Prophet swore by God that the Companion does not hear his talk better than those dead in the well. Although Abu Lahab was not present at the Battle of Badr, he died out of sadness in Makkah quickly after
The scholar of Qur’an, al-Qurtubiyy, said that “you” in this ayah refers to (1) the believers, (2) all disbelievers, or (3) the Jews of Madinah.
9

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receiving the news of the death of Abu Jahl, other friends of his, and the great and evident victory of the Muslims. One of the great Companions of our Prophet, ^Uthman, did not fight in the battle of Badr. This was due to that his wife, Ruqayyah, the daughter of Prophet Muhammad, was very ill and he was caring for her. They had come to Madinah from Abyssinia. When our Prophet returned from Badr, he was told that his daughter Ruqayyah had died. Again our Prophet was patient with the death of a beloved one.

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Chapter 56: Reflections on our Blessed Prophet and his Honorable Companions
God made the Companions of our Prophet of mercy, the same in belief, but diverse in characteristics. This “unity in diversity” is what is so appealing about our Muslim nation. Our Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, taught his followers that in the body there is a lump of flesh, which if good, the whole self is good, and if corrupt, the whole self is corrupt. It is the heart. (Narrated by alBukhariyy and Muslim) Our Prophet spoke to the people’s hearts. He appealed to their hearts, not only by his words, but also by every action and response from his exalted self. Addressing our Prophet, God said in the Qur’an (AlKahf, 6):

It means, “You would perchance die out of concern, following after them, in grief, if they do not believe in this message”. Our Prophet said to a Companion, “I am like a man trying to hold you by your waists to save you from Hell, but you are escaping from my hands.” (Narrated by Muslim) The Prophet knew without a doubt that he himself would be saved in the Hereafter. Despite that, he continued to extend himself to the utmost, hoping that others would be saved as well. Truly, he loved for his 336

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brother what he loved for himself, peace and blessings be upon him (Narrated by al-Bukhariyy and Muslim). Concerning his dear Companions, our Prophet would never let any wrong actions of theirs go unchecked. Since his Companions were not prophets, they were liable to make mistakes, even mistakes that were serious. (Prophets are spotless of any sin, except of committing a small, non-mean sin). On the other hand, if Companions repented of sinning, our Prophet never reminded them of their former sins, thus avoiding humiliating them. He knew that God had that sin erased. He told his Companions that those who covered the faults of a believer in this life, would be granted a cover by God on the Day of Judgment, where there will be no cover but the one granted by Him. This means that those kind, compassionate people in this life, will not be exposed and humiliated before the people on the Day of Judgment. God, the One Who knows all things, will keep this person’s secret bad doings a secret from the people, and God will forgive him. The Companions of the Prophet were different kinds of people, some from countries other than Arabia. Many were very young, especially those Companions who are so famous for narrating hadith and telling the true meanings of the Holy Qur’an. In order to heighten your awareness, let us tell you the ages of some well-known Companions in the year our Prophet immigrated to Madinah. ^Abdullah Ibn ^Abbas, the great explainer of the Qur’an, and the cousin of our Prophet, was four years old. ^Abdullah, the son of our Master ^Umar was 11

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years old. Abu Sa^id al-Khudriyy was 11 years old. Jabir was 16 years old. Usamah Ibn Zayd was 6 years old. Anas Ibn Malik was 10 years old. Zayd Ibn Thabit, a translator for our Prophet and the compiler of the written sheets of Qur’an in the hands of the Companions, was 12 years old. ^Abdullah Ibnuz-Zubayr was born in that year. Lady ^A’ishah was 9 years old. Even our Master ^Aliyy, was only 23 years old and his wife, Lady Fatimah, was 18 years old. Al-Hasan and Al-Husayn, the Prophet’s famous grandsons, were not even born yet. Although Abu Hurayrah narrated the most hadiths of any Companion, he was also just a young man during those years he continually accompanied the Prophet. Abu Hurayrah accompanied the Prophet only for the last four years of our Prophet’s life. If you go to any volumes of hadiths, these are the names that you will read over and over again, saying what they heard from the blessed Prophet. Truly, the Companions of our Prophet of mercy were better than extremely precious jewels of all different sizes, shapes and colors. Yet they would say that they were jewels in the rough until their hearts were awakened, by God’s mercy, having the gift of Prophet Muhammad’s presence and example in their special, blessed lives.

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Chapter 57: Dealing with Banu Qaynaqa^
After the great Battle of Badr, God exposed the treachery of the Jewish tribes of Madinah who had made a treaty with the Muslims. They were jealous, felt threatened by the victorious Muslims, and began to break the terms of the treaty. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, gathered them in the marketplace of Qaynaqa^ and said, “O Jews, beware of the torture of God and do not let the torture that befell Quraysh fall on you. Embrace Islam because you know that I am a prophet sent with a message; you find that in your book.” However, the Jews, in general, were too stubborn and arrogant to accept the truth. The Jews of Qaynaqa^ were from the rich people of Madinah and had fortresses there. In spite of the advice of the Prophet to them, they continued practicing evil behavior and annoying Muslims. One day, one Arab woman sold her goods in the market of Qaynaqa^. She sat at a goldsmith shop. A group of Jews came to her, started bothering her, and asked her to uncover parts of her body. She, of course, refused. The goldsmith tied part of her dress to her back. When she stood up her private parts became exposed. The Jews laughed at her and mocked her. She screamed. A Muslim man came to the rescue. A fight occurred in which this Muslim killed the goldsmith. The Jews gathered around the Muslim and killed him.

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Quickly, the Jews rushed to their castles in preparation for war and shielded themselves by the fortresses. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, besieged them for fifteen nights and no one could leave. They then accepted the judgment of the Prophet and surrendered. A hypocrite named ^Abdullah Ibn Ubayy interceded for them and insisted until the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, spared them from being killed. The Prophet then ordered them to leave Madinah. ^Abdullah Ibn Ubayy was a sly character that made great harm to the Prophet and other Muslims. Before the Prophet immigrated to Madinah, the people of Madinah were preparing to crown him as the ruler of Madinah. When the Prophet became the ruler instead, ^Abdullah Ibn Ubayy was filled with resentment. After some time, ^Abdullah appeared to enter Islam, and prayed with the Muslims. The Prophet took him to be a Muslim as Islamic law dictated. He was truly the head of the hypocrites of Madinah, as God revealed later.

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Chapter 58: Events in the First Part of the Third Year and The Enemies of Truth Come to Uhud (Part 1)
With the help of God, our Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, was building a good, strong community of Muslims in Madinah. God blessed our Prophet with thinking of all the different aspects of a good community. Much of the time, our Prophet was surrounded with male Companions, teaching and guiding them, but he had a great concern for the women of the community as well. One way that our Prophet helped the women of the community was by having several pious wives at the same time. They lived without luxuries, but had the great blessing of being close to and learning directly from the Prophet. Several of these wives had been widows who were in need of help. These wives, before and after the Prophet’s death, spent their time teaching the women (and men) of the Muslim nation. Although some people might not be used to this idea, truly it was a great virtue of our Prophet that he had a number of wives in the later years of his life. The daughter of the Companion ^Umar, Hafsah, had lost her husband. Our Prophet proposed to her, to the delight of ^Umar. They were married in the third Hijriyy year. The Muslims had won a great victory over the blasphemers in the Battle of Badr, killing many of them.

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The blasphemers returned to Makkah, which was still under their control, defeated and dejected. They found that the caravan of Abu Sufyan had returned safely, and they agreed to sell the items brought back in the caravan and use the profit to prepare an army to fight Prophet Muhammad, may peace be upon him. They thought that by waging another war they would avenge the killing of their fathers, brothers, and sons. The tribe of Quraysh gathered to fight the Prophet. They sent delegates to some of their allied tribes calling on them to fight with them. Followers from the tribes of Kinanah and Tihamah joined them. Three thousand blasphemers in total gathered with their armors and swords prepared to fight. Two hundred of them were mounted on horses and seven hundred of them were foot soldiers with shields. On these camels they built alhawdaj (which is a small room built on the back of a camel). The blasphemous women would sit in these rooms during the battle, urging the men to fight and reminding them of their defeat in Badr. Foremost of those women was Hind, the wife of Abu Sufyan. This major attack happened a little over a year after the Battle of Badr. While the blasphemers were preparing for the war, Abu Sufyan asked Al-^Abbas the son of ^Abdul-Muttalib to fight with them against the Muslims but he refused. Al-^Abbas is the uncle of the Prophet. Al-^Abbas secretly sent a message to the Prophet forewarning him about the impending danger. The news reached the Prophet. Then the Prophet saw a dream on a Friday night before the battle. He woke up and told a group of his Companions about the dream. The Prophet said, “I saw in my dream cows being 342

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slaughtered. I also saw that the blade of my sword was cracked, and finally I saw that I put my hand into a strong shield that I interpreted to be Al-Madinah.” The Prophet interpreted that the cows that he saw in the dream were Companions who would be killed in the battle, and the crack in the sword was a man from the family of the Prophet who would also be killed. The blasphemers traveled to and assembled at the bottom of the valley before Mount Uhud, which is a mountain right outside Madinah. When Abu Sufyan and the other idol worshippers came down to Uhud, the Muslims cheered for the coming battle with the enemy. They said, “God brought us what we were awaiting.” The Prophet then said to them, ‘”If you stay in Madinah and leave the blasphemers where they are, their stay there will be one of the worst. If they raid us we will fight them in Madinah.” One of the Muslims, whom God honored with martyrdom later that day, said, “O Messenger of God, take us out to our enemies. That way they would not see us as cowards or too weak to fight them.” ^Abdullah Ibn Ubayy, the hypocrite, said, “Stay in Madinah and do not go out to them.” Those who loved to go out of the city and fight the idol worshippers, and some who missed the Battle of Badr continued talking to the Prophet, expressing how they wanted to go out to fight. The Prophet then went in and put on his war gear. This was on a Friday after he had finished the prayer. He went out ready for battle, but the people regretted that he would go out to fight. They said, “O Prophet of God, we insisted that you go, and we should not have done that. Stay, if you will, may God 343

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raise your rank.” The Prophet replied, “When a Prophet puts on his war gear, he should not take it off until after he fights.” The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, went out with one thousand men of his Companions until they reached ash-Shawt, an orchard between Madinah and Mount Uhud. Only one hundred of the foot soldiers of the Muslims had shields and two men on horses. In an attempt to weaken the Muslims, the hypocrite ^Abdullah Ibn Ubayy pulled out with one-third of the people, before fighting. The Prophet had his soldiers face al-Madinah and put Mount Uhud behind him. He ordered them not to initiate the fight, and not to fight until ordered. The Prophet protected their back with 50 archers who climbed onto Mount Uhud that overlooked the battlefield. The Prophet appointed one of the great companions ^Abdullah, the son of Jubayr as the leader of the archers. The Prophet ordered them all to stay in their position on the hill until he indicated that they could come down. The Prophet told them, “Protect us from their horses coming from behind by shooting the arrows at them. Do not leave your place if you see that we defeated them. We will continue to win as long as you stay affixed in your place.” Our beloved Prophet divided his Muslim army into many divisions and placed a leader for each one. The battle started and the blasphemers started advancing but were met with powerful blows from the Muslim swords. The horses of the blasphemers ran three times towards the Muslims. Every time they did so, they were shot at

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with the arrows and they went back short of success. The Muslims pushed on, killing the enemies of truth. The Prophet gave Abu Dujanah, a brave companion and a proven warrior, a sword. He took it and tied a red piece of cloth on his head as a sign of fighting. Then he drew his sword, and anything that stood in his way was destroyed. One of the blasphemers was targeting the wounded Muslims and killing them. Abu Dujanah followed him to rid the Muslims of his evil. When they met, the blasphemer hit Abu Dujanah, who received the blow with unshakable determination and firmness, then he struck the blasphemer with a powerful blow that killed him.

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Chapter 59: The Enemies of Truth Come to Uhud (Part 2)
The fighting was intense. The Muslims shot a lot of arrows on that day, including the Prophet, who was an excellent archer. As well, our Prophet was proficient with a spear. The archers on the mountain did their job. They were among the reasons that made the blasphemers retreat and withdraw; defeat was upon the blasphemers. In the midst of all of this, a painful incident happened that changed the outcome of the battle. Seeing the success, many of the archers thought that the battle was over. They wanted to go down to get their spoils. Their leader, ^Abdullah Ibn Jubayr warned them not to leave their spots, but all left thinking that the battle was over, except less than ten who stayed with their leader. The ones who refused to leave their post were saying, “We will obey the Prophet of Allah and stay in our position.” Khalid the son of Al-Walid, still a blasphemer at the time, saw that only a few of the archers were left. He took a group of blasphemers who snuck up and surprised the few archers left killing them, including the leader of the archers ^Abdullah the son of Jubayr. When this happened the yells of the blasphemers became loud, and the Muslims were surprised to find that were now surrounded. Many were killed and the situation became difficult for the Muslims. Blasphemers who had left came back, and viciously attacked the Muslims and raised their dirty banner off from the ground.

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At the beginning of this battle, Hamzah was overcoming the enemy, smashing them with his sword. One of the blasphemer slaves, called Wahshiyy, (which means monster), was a very good spear thrower. It was said about Wahshiyy that he never missed hitting his target with a spear. He had targeted our Hamzah and intended to kill him. Hind, the wife of Abu Sufyan had told Wahshiyy before the battle that if he managed to kill Hamzah he would be set free. Hind wanted Hamzah killed because Hamzah had killed Hind’s father and brother in the Battle of Badr. Wahshiyy spent the battle seeking the opportune moment that would enable him to kill Hamzah. Finally he found himself face to face with Hamzah, he raised his spear and threw it at Hamzah, it hit his body and he fell, dying as a martyr for the sake of Allah. Another of the martyrs among the Muslims was Handhalah Ibn Abi ^Amir. The Prophet saw Handhalah being washed by angels after he was killed. The Prophet told his Companions to ask the wife of Handhalah the story after the battle. The wife of Handhalah said that before the battle they had sexual intercourse. Then Handhalah heard the call to battle. He did not have time to perform the full shower that one makes after intercourse, and simply went immediately to battle. This is why, after Handhalah died, the angels gave him that bathing. In total about seventy of the Muslims were martyred that day. The Messenger of God, peace and blessings be upon him, was there at the back of the Muslim army with only a few other fighters. These few Companions fought so bravely to protect the Prophet. Five of them were killed

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protecting the Prophet, all of them from the Ansar. One fought until he was killed. Then the next stepped up and did the same until the five Ansar were killed. The last one was ^Umarah Ibn Ziyad or Ziyad Ibnus-Sakan. He fought until he could not rise up from the ground due to all the wounds he suffered. The Prophet said, “Bring him closer to me”. Some men brought him and the Prophet put the man’s cheek on his honorable foot. The Companion died with his cheek on the foot of the Prophet. The Banner of the Muslims was with Mus^ab Ibn ^Umayr. Mus^ab fought carrying the banner and reciting from the Qur’an until he was killed. Then ^Aliyy Ibn Abi Talib took the banner. A number of blasphemers had agreed among themselves to attack the Prophet all at once. They took advantage of the separation of the Prophet from many Companions to attack him. Some of them hit him with their swords on his honorable forehead, while others threw rocks at him and broke one of his teeth. His honorable lip was wounded and one blasphemer attacked and wounded the upper part of the Prophet’s cheek. The blow to the cheek made the rings of the Prophet’s helmet embed into his cheek. Then this blasphemer lifted his sword to hit the Prophet, but the Prophet held him back. The Prophet however, may peace be upon him fell and injured his honorable knee, which began to bleed. The two great Companions of the Muhajirun, Talhah Ibn ^Ubaydillah and Sa^d Ibn Abi Waqqas were fighting near the Prophet protecting him. Those Companions left with the Prophet fought bravely, preventing, by God’s Will, the blasphemers 348

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from killing the Prophet. Talhah fought so fiercely, that he sustained more than thirty wounds and his hand was hurt severely. Whenever the day of Uhud was mentioned around Abu Bakr, he would say that it was Talhah’s day. Prophet Muhammad, blessings upon him, said if one desired to see a martyr walking on the ground, one should look at Talhah Ibn ^Ubaydillah. Abu Dujanah ran over to the Prophet and used his back as a shield to protect the Prophet. The arrows would come flying at him while he was bent down protecting the most honored of Allah’s creations with his body and soul. Then a larger group of Companions came to the aid of the Prophet when they realized the situation, foremost of them was Abu Bakr. Another of them was Abu ^Ubaydah Ibn al-Jarrah. They attended to the Prophet, pulling the rings of the helmet out of his blessed cheek, and then to Talhah who sustained those many wounds. One of the blasphemers cried out that the Prophet had been killed. On hearing this cry, some Muslims felt hopeless and left the battleground. Of course, the Prophet was not killed. The Prophet, although wounded, moved to a part of his army. Among a certain group of Companions, Ka^b Ibn Malik, from the Ansar, was the first one to recognize the Prophet and see that he was not killed. Ka^b saw the eyes of the Prophet from under his helmet, and recognized him by his eyes. Ka^b shouted, “O Muslims, be guided, here is the Messenger of God” reassuring them that the Prophet had not been killed. This encouraged a large group to resume their fighting. The Messenger of God was with Abu Bakr, ^Umar, ^Aliyy, Talhah, Az-Zubayr and others. Ubayy Ibn Khalaf 349

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had sworn to kill the Prophet of God, long before this battle, in Makkah. The Prophet had told him at the time, “No, I will kill you, God willing.” Now, in this battle, Ubayy came on his horse, carrying his spear, aiming it towards the Prophet. Some Companions of the Prophet said they would take care of him, but the Prophet said that he would do it. The Prophet reached for a small spear and threw it at Ubayy and it hit his neck. Ubayy fell off his horse and yet no blood came out of his wound. Ubayy said, “Muhammad killed me”. The friends of Ubayy told him that it was not a serious injury, and that he was just scared. Ubayy remembered that the Prophet said that he would kill him. Ubayy said, “No, I am dying”. He died before reaching Makkah. Abu Sufyan, who was the leader of the enemy, was in a place high on the mountain. The Prophet said, “Those blasphemers should not be in a location higher than ours. ^Umar fought them with a group of the Muhajirun, until they forced them off the mountain. The Muslims defended the Messenger of God valiantly. The blasphemers realized that they could not defeat the Muslims, and consequently they stopped the fight. Abu Sufyan called out, “We have an appointment in Badr next year!” The Messenger of God told a man to say, “Yes, we have an appointment between us and you”. The blasphemers did not continue to attack; rather they showed their hard hearts by going around the dead Muslims, cutting off parts of their bodies, such as their ears and noses. Some of the women they brought made necklaces out of these body parts, and wore them around

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their necks as they danced madly. Abu Sufyan’s wife, Hind, chewed the liver of the Prophet’s uncle, Hamzah. Abu Sufyan wanted to know if the Prophet, Abu Bakr and ^Umar were dead. He called out, asking the Muslims if they were alive. The Prophet did not respond. Abu Sufyan happily said to those with him, “As for those (three) you have been relieved of them.” However, ^Umar could not hold back, and said, “O enemy of God, those whom you have just mentioned, I tell you that they are still alive. God has maintained what you hate.” Abu Sufyan started to praise the idols Hubal and Al-^Uzza. The Prophet told the Companions to call back to him, declaring the praises of God. Abu Sufyan felt that he and his men had made revenge for the Battle of Badr, with a similar number of Muslims killed at Uhud as the blasphemers who had been killed at Badr. ^Umar shouted to him that it was not the same, for the Muslims who died are housed in Paradise, whereas his dead will be in Fire. Abu Sufyan wanted to talk to ^Umar face to face. Thus, the Prophet told ^Umar to go. When ^Umar reached him, Abu Sufyan implored him: ‘Have we killed Muhammad?’ ^Umar responded firmly that the Prophet was still alive. Abu Sufyan declared to ^Umar that he considered him more reliable than his own man who had declared that the Prophet was killed. It is important to point out that our Prophet was not defeated and did not retreat in the battle of Uhud. Also, Abu Bakr, ^Umar, ^Aliyy and similar men from the early Immigrants and Ansar were not defeated either, and did not retreat from fighting with the Prophet. May God greatly reward all of them. We do not say the Prophet of 351

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Allah was defeated, rather we say that those who did not obey the Prophet’s orders failed and they themselves lost out. The Muslims buried their martyrs in Uhud, where they had died. The Prophet returned to Al-Madinah amid a sad atmosphere. When one of the Ansar women was told that both her father and brother were killed in the battle she asked, “What happened to the Prophet, may peace be upon him?” They told her that he was in a good condition. She said, “Let me see him”, and when she saw him, her eyes watered out of happiness. She said, “Every calamity other than the calamity of your death is tolerable, O Prophet of Allah. No affliction has as hard of an impact as the tragedy of losing you.” This was the way the battle of Uhud ended, in the middle of the month of Shawwal in the third year of Hijrah. It was a lesson in which the Muslims learned the importance of following the orders of the Prophet and his honorable teachings. All the orders of the Prophet hold happiness for the one who follows them.

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Chapter 60: The Aggression of al-Ahzab (The Allied Factions)
After the Battle of Uhud, our Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, was continuously working to teach and spread Islam. At the request of some tribes, Prophet Muhammad sent some of his Companions to teach them Islam. In the fourth year of Hijrah, 70 Companions who went to teach were betrayed and murdered instead. The Jewish tribes in the area of Madinah were continuing to betray the Muslims as well. Our Prophet expelled the Jewish tribe of Banun-Nadir from Madinah, due to their secret plot to kill him. In this year, our Prophet married two more righteous women. The first was Zaynab Bint Khuzaymah. Her husband was one of the martyrs of Uhud. She was very concerned for the poor and helped them a lot. God willed for her to die several months after her marriage to our Prophet. The second woman was also a widow. Her husband, Abu Salamah, had been a dear Companion of our Prophet. Her name was Hind, but she was known as Umm Salamah. Umm Salamah lived a long life (died 60 H) and along with ^A'ishah (died 56 H) taught Islam and narrated hadith after our Prophet’s death. She was a knowledgeable, wise, and upright Muslim. In the fifth year of Hijrah, the Battle of Khandaq (the Trench), took place. It was also called the Battle of Ahzab (the Allied Factions). A number of Jews from the leaders of Banun-Nadir, whom the Prophet expelled out 353

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of Madinah, left their area seeking Makkah. They called upon the blasphemers from Quraysh to fight the Prophet of God. Then, they agreed among themselves to fight him. The Jews left and went to other Arab tribes who had not embraced Islam. They invited them to fight the Messenger and the Muslims in Madinah also. They promised each other to fight on a particular day and at a particular place while the Prophet was in Madinah. Hence, three groups, the Jews, the blasphemous Quraysh, and other blasphemous Arab tribes formed an alliance against the Muslims (the Allied Factions). This news reached the Messenger of God, peace and blessings be upon him. He gathered his Companions and told them about the news of the enemy. He consulted with them. Salman Al-Farisiyy was a Companion who was originally from Persia. He was raised as a wealthy fire-worshipper in his native land, as that was the prevalent practice in Persia at that time. He rejected that belief, and went away from his land, meeting Jews and Christians. From them, he heard that a last messenger was to come. He harkened to that information. Salman got captured and was made the slave of a Jewish man. The Jewish man had Salman work picking his dates in Madinah. Hence, when the Prophet immigrated to Madinah, Salman was there as a slave. News reached Salman that a man had moved to Madinah, claiming to be the last prophet and messenger. Salman managed, by God’s mercy, to meet our Prophet, become Muslim, and gain his freedom. Henceforth, Salman stuck to our Prophet.

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Salman told the Prophet that a trench had been dug in his country in time of war. Our Prophet thought this idea was very good and ordered that a trench be dug at the vulnerable points of their city. The Prophet left Madinah with his Companions and camped at the side of a mountain, which the Muslims kept to their back. All the Muslims came forward to dig the trench along with the Prophet. There were three thousand Muslims, whereas the number of the Allied Factions was about ten thousand. The Prophet worked relentlessly with his Companions, encouraging them. He carried so much sand with his own hands that his skin was covered with it. The Companions of the Messenger of God from the Muhajrun (Immigrants) and the Ansar (Supporters) used to chant, “We are the ones who gave Muhammad the allegiance for Jihad, as long as we live, keeping this perseverance.” When the Prophet heard this he replied to them, “O God, there is no real goodness except the goodness of the Hereafter; [O God] bless the Ansar and the Muhajrun [who believed in Muhammad, the Messenger].” The Prophet continued digging the trench with his Companions around Madinah with a rock tied to his belly out of hunger. The Companion, Jabir Ibn ^Abdillah, saw this scene and rushed to his place with the hope to fetch some food to offer to the Prophet and his Companions. He asked his wife to prepare food for him. She did. When the little food was ready to be fully cooked, Jabir went to the Messenger of God and said to him, “O

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Prophet of God, come with one or two men.” He told him about what he had done. In Jabir's house a great and splendid miracle became clear. It is one of the many great miracles with which God supported the Prophet. The Prophet shouted to the Immigrants and Ansar, saying to them: ‘Come on.’ He was telling them that Jabir had prepared some food. Jabir then ran to his wife telling her that the Prophet of God was bringing the Immigrants and the Ansar and those who were with them. She asked, “Did he ask you how much food you have?” He said, “Yes.” She then replied, “God and His Messenger know best.” The Prophet entered with his Companions to Jabir's place and started breaking the bread. He would take from the pot with the bread, and then cover it while it was still on the fire. Thus he kept giving food to all the Companions until they ate in full. An amount of food was left as well. The Prophet said to Jabir's wife, “Eat this and give to others. The people had been struck by famine.” The Prophet went back from Jabir's house with his Companions to continue digging the trench. When they had finished digging it, the Allied Factions reached Madinah and were choked by this great trench that was preventing them from reaching Madinah. They camped around it, besieging the Muslims, and their hearts were full of disappointment. The Prophet sent a man who had secretly embraced Islam with a mission. He sent him to dissolve the allegiance among the Allied Factions. Since they thought that he was one of them, they listened to him. This man instigated key elements of the Allied Factions against one 356

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another and, by God’s Will, each group started accusing the other with betrayal and distrust. Afterwards, God, praise to Him, sent a fierce, fearful and uncompromising wind during a dark, chilling night. The wind hit the Allied Factions, turned over their pots, uprooted their tents, and spread terror among their ranks. On the next day, they fled in panic, heading towards Makkah. Their plot to fight the Prophet and his Companions failed. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, went back to Madinah with full confidence about God, the One Who controls everything. He was victorious and so were his Companions. God protected them from the evil of those blasphemous parties. Concerning this battle, God revealed Ayah 25 of Suratul-Ahzab: It means, “God turned back the disbelievers disappointed without acquiring any goodness. God spared the believers the fight. God has Power and Glory.”

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Chapter 61: Events Between the Battle of Khandaq (Trench) and the Signing of the Treaty of Hudaybiyah
After the Battle of Uhud (3 H.) and before the Battle of Khandaq (5 H.), the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him, had expelled the Jewish tribe of Banu-Nadir out of their settlement in Madinah (Rabi^ul-Awwal, 4 H.) to an area some 25 miles north of Madinah called Khaybar. Khaybar was a rich agricultural site inhabited by the Jews at the time. During the Battle of the Trench, the chief of BanuNadir, Huyayy, convinced another Jewish tribe of Madinah, Banu Quraydhah, to break an agreement they had with the Prophet and to fight against the Muslims. As soon as the tribes that formed the Allied Factions had left Madinah and the Prophet had returned to his home, Angel Gabriel came to the Prophet. Angel Gabriel told him that he ought to fight the Jewish tribe of Banu Quraydhah (which still lived in the Madinah area). The Prophet immediately responded. He put a trusted Companion in charge of the affairs of Madinah, and went to Banu Quraydhah with about 3000 men. The head of Banu Quraydhah told his people that, if they became Muslim, their life, wealth, women, and children would be secure. The Jewish people did not accept to become Muslim. The Jews had a lot more food than the Muslims, and the Muslims had just fought a month-long war. 358

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However, God put a lot of courage in the hearts of the Muslims, and a lot of fear and weakness in the hearts of the Jews. They surrendered. The Prophet had the men of Banu Quraydhah handcuffed and the women and children confined away from the men. Before, a great leader of the Ansar, named Sa^d Ibn Mu^adh, had had relations with Banu Quraydhah. They were his allies. Therefore, the Prophet agreed that Sa^d Ibn Mu^adh would be chosen to decide what would be done with the Jewish tribe. Sa^d Ibn Mu^adh had been severely wounded during the Battle of Ahzab, but he was brought to the site when he knew of the request of the Prophet. As he came, the Jews begged him to be easy on them. Sa^d said that the able-bodied men should be killed and the women and children taken as captives. He said that the wealth of these people should be divided among the Muslims fighters. The Prophet said that Sa^d had judged in accordance with the Command of God. Among the Jewish men was the head of Banun-Nadir, Huyayy. He refused to become Muslim and was killed along with the men of Banu Quraydhah. A few men of Banu Quraydhah said the shahadah and their lives, women, children, and wealth were spared. Right after the event of Banu Quraydhah, Sa^d Ibn Mu^adh started to bleed a lot from his wound from the Battle of Ahzab. He died later. The riddance of Banu Quraydhah took place in DhulQa^dah, 5 H. In this same month, our Prophet married another righteous Muslim, his cousin Zaynab Bint Jahsh. She had been married to Zayd, the man our Prophet 359

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raised in his home, but they were not happily married and Zayd divorced her. God revealed in verses of the Qur’an that she was to be the Prophet’s wife and that was for the people to know that adoption was prohibited and that a man could marry the divorced wife of his adopted son. This Zaynab was also devoted to serving the poor. She lived as a good Muslim and was the first wife of the Prophet to die after his death. In Sha^ban 6 H, the Prophet heard that an Arab tribe called Banul-Mustaliq was preparing to attack the Muslims in Madinah. The Prophet put a trusted Companion in charge of the Madinah matters and took his men to the battle. The Muslims were successful and only one Muslim was killed (by mistake by another Muslim). The Prophet married the daughter of the chief of the tribe of Banul-Mustaliq, as she had become Muslim. Due to this marriage, many of the tribe members became Muslim and were freed. Her name was Juwayriyah. She died in the year 56 H. During this time, ^Abdullah Ibn Ubayy, the head of the hypocrites, was stirring up a lot of trouble. He was very jealous of the Prophet, and wished to be in charge instead. On the way back from the battle, by mistake, Lady ^A'ishah was left behind. She was found and brought back to Madinah by a Muslim man who had followed behind the caravan. ^Abdullah Ibn Ubayy started a rumor that Lady ^A'ishah had committed adultery with this Muslim man. God revealed verses to the Prophet telling that she was not guilty of this accusation, and giving instructions of how to punish those who falsely accuse 360

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Muslims of fornication and adultery. Several Muslims were lashed as was prescribed.

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Chapter 62: The Treaty of Hudaybiyah
In the sixth Hijriyy year, Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, saw in his dream that he was performing ^Umrah with his followers. When the Prophet told his Companions of his dream, they were so happy and hopeful to return to the Ka^bah after six years of being away. Consequently, at the end of the sixth Hijriyy year, in the month of Dhul-Qa^dah, the Prophet and 1500 of his Companions set out to perform ^Umrah. News of their approach had reached the enemy in Makkah, who sent out an army to oppose them. The Prophet consulted with his Companions. They agreed not to fight unless they were prevented from performing ^Umrah. The Prophet and his Companions settled at a spot with a well, called Hudaybiyah. Some of the blasphemers tried to attack the Muslims but were not successful. Then some blasphemers came to talk to the Prophet. He informed them that he had not come to fight, but to perform the blessed ^Umrah. Finally, it was decided to send ^Uthman to talk with the blasphemers in Makkah, as he was a man some regarded highly. ^Uthman spoke with Abu Sufyan and others in a goodly way, explaining their intentions and calling them to Islam. The enemy refused to allow the Prophet to perform ^Umrah, but offered to ^Uthman that he himself may perform it. ^Uthman said, “How would I avail myself of this opportunity, when the Prophet is denied of it?”

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The return of ^Uthman was taking a long time and the Companions at Hudaybiyah feared that the enemy had killed him. They gathered with the Prophet under a tree and made a famous pledge to the Prophet called Bay^atur-Ridwan. The Companions pledged that if the fight erupted they would not run away or escape the battlefield. God referred to this pledge in the Qur’an (AlFath, verse 18), informing us that He would reward the believers who gave their pledge to the Prophet under the tree. The disbelievers saw the solidarity of the Muslims and instead of fighting them, agreed to make a treaty with them. The treaty was to be written down. The clauses of the treaty were as follows: • The Muslims could not make ^Umrah that year, but can come back the following year. At that time, they could not stay in Makkah for more than three days. • They could not come back armed, but could bring with them swords only, sheathed in scabbards, and these should be kept in bags. • War activities would be suspended for ten years, during which both parties would live in full security and neither would raise sword against the other. • If anyone from Quraysh went over to Muhammad without his guardian’s permission, he would be sent back to Quraysh. However, should any of Muhammad’s followers return to Quraysh, he would not be sent back. • Any tribe, who wished to join Muhammad, or enter into treaty with him, would have the liberty to do

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so; and likewise anyone who wished to join Quraysh,10 or enter into treaty with them, would be allowed to do so. When writing the treaty, the disbelievers refused to allow that the Prophet be called the Messenger of God. The Prophet accepted that they write “Muhammad the son of ^Abdullah. The Muslim scholars said, “The Prophet agreed with them to write 'Muhammad the son of ^Abdullah' instead of writing the Prophet of God. He also agreed with them on returning those who come from them and their not returning those who go to them. The Prophet did so for the important benefit that would result from the treaty.” Completing this treaty brought a prosperous outcome and fruitful results. This reached its climax by the opening of Makkah, all the people of Makkah embracing Islam, and other people embracing the Religion in groups. Many people before the treaty did not mix with the Muslims, but when the treaty was established, people started mingling with the Muslims. They came to Madinah and the Muslims went to Makkah. Different people learned from the Muslims about Islam. They learned from them about the Oneness of God, the obvious miracles of the Prophet, the repeatedly supported signs of his Prophethood, and his attractive manners and beautiful way. Some of them came forward to embrace Islam before the opening of Makkah such as Khalid Ibn al-Walid. As
“Joining Quraysh” did not mean to adopt their false religion. It simply meant to be an ally of Quraysh. Our Prophet would never agree to people adopting a false religion.
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you remember, he is the same man who had renewed the attack against the Muslims in the Battle of Uhud. God changed his heart, like ^Umar before him. Both men totally changed, becoming Muslim. They went on to love the Prophet with true sincerity and fought bravely for Islam.

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Chapter 63: Letters Sent to Rulers
Immediately after the blessed Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, returned from Hudaybiyah, he had letters prepared to be delivered to the rulers of other areas of the time, calling them to Islam. A silver ring was prepared with the words, “Muhammad, the Messenger of God”, with which the letters were sealed, showing their authenticity. The Prophet appointed various Companions to deliver the letters that were dictated by the Prophet to scribes. The letters began by saying “From Muhammad, the Messenger of God, to...” and the ruler was named. The letter proceeded to say: ‘peace be upon those who follow true guidance and believe in God and His Messenger.’ Appropriate verses of the Qur’an were written. The letter called on them to become Muslim, stating that if they accepted Islam, they would have reward from God and safety from the other Muslims. However, if they rejected the call, they bore the responsibility of the evils of their non-believing people. Among the letters sent were letters to: The King of Abyssinia; the Vicegerent of Egypt; the Emperor of Persia; Heraclius, the King of the Byzantines (Romans); the Governor of Bahrain; the Governor of Yamamah; the King of Damascus; and the King of Oman. Various Companions were sent with these letters in Muharram of the seventh Hijriyy year, a few days before the Prophet and other Companions set out to Khaybar to deal with the Jews in that area. 366

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Some of the rulers embraced Islam on receiving the letter, others did not but were polite, and others still were furious concerning the letter’s contents. The Governor of Bahrain and the King of Oman did embrace Islam, but the King of Damascus did not. The King of Abyssinia had embraced Islam. The Prophet sent him a letter, which the King treasured. The Prophet asked that the Muslims who had immigrated to his country be sent back. They returned to Arabia during the Battle at Khaybar. The King of Abyssinia died several years after receiving the letter, shortly after the Battle of Tabuk in Rajab, 9 H. The Prophet announced his death to the Companions and prayed the funeral prayer for him. The Vicegerent of Egypt read the letter, told the Companion that he would consider the call, but that he expected the last Prophet to be from Syria and did not accept the call. He sent back with the Companion gifts to the Prophet: two slave women and a mule. The Prophet accepted the gifts. He gave one slave to a Companion and kept the other, Mariyah. The Emperor of Persia did not accept Islam, and instead ripped up the letter. He ordered that his governor in Yemen have the Prophet arrested and brought to him. Men came to the Prophet from Yemen. God revealed to the Prophet that the son of the Emperor had killed him. The Prophet told the men from Yemen. The men went back to the Emperor’s governor in Yemen. The governor had received the same news from Persia, and as a result the governor and the Persians in Yemen accepted Islam.

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Heraclius, the ruler of the Byzantines (part of the Roman Empire), received the letter and at the time Abu Sufyan was there, as he would trade with them. Heraclius proceeded to ask Abu Sufyan a lot of questions about the Prophet. At that time Abu Sufyan had still not embraced Islam, but Heraclius had arranged a setting where Abu Sufyan found it hard to lie about the Prophet, for if he did, he feared that his friends with him would consider him to be a liar. It may have looked like Heraclius was about to embrace Islam, as he even asked his people if they would like that he would. His people showed their disdain to the call, and Heraclius did not embrace Islam. However, he did send presents back with the Companion.

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Chapter 64: Justice at Khaybar
After making the Hudaybiyah Treaty, it was time to deal with the Jews in a strong way. Many Jews who had been expelled from Madinah had settled in Khaybar, with its rich agriculture. After the Companions had been sent off with their letters to rulers, the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, and 1400 Companions set out to Khaybar during the month of Muharram 7 H. The army marched until they reached Khaybar at night. The Prophet had called the Jews to Islam many times, and had made fair treaties with them when he first arrived in Madinah. However, most of them refused to become Muslim, even though their top scholar, ^Abdullah Ibn Salam did embrace Islam as soon as the What increased their Prophet came to Madinah. despicable state was that they knew from their book that the last prophet was to come. Muhammad fit the description; yet they rejected him. God made miracles appear from the Prophet, but they were mad that Muhammad was from the descendants of Isma^il (Ishmael) instead of Ishaq (Isaac). These Jews had breached treaties and helped the enemies of the Muslims one time after another. In Khaybar, the Jews lived comfortably in very fortified castles. Nonetheless, when some Jews spotted the Prophet and his army approaching, they were struck with terror. Prophet Muhammad said, “God is Great. Khaybar shall face destruction. Behold! When we arrive

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to the heart of the enemy’s land, it will be a bad day for those who have been forewarned.” The Messenger of God opened the fortresses one at a time. Before opening one of them, Prophet Muhammad said, “Tomorrow, I will give the banner to a man who loves God and His Prophet and he is beloved to God and His Prophet.” All the men hoped to be the one. Then, the Prophet gave the banner to ^Aliyy Ibn Abi Talib. ^Aliyy pledged he would fight the enemies until they embraced Islam. The Prophet answered him saying, “Take your time until you reach their positions. Then, invite them to accept Islam, and brief them on their duties towards God. I swear by God that if only one should be guided through your example, that would surely outweigh the best of our camels.” Our Prophet did not conduct wars for personal reasons, but instead with the desire for people to become Muslim and be saved from Hellfire. Khaybar was in two parts, five forts in the first and three in the second. The Prophet began by attacking the minor forts. The Jews of one fort would come to fight, then give up and move to another fort. Then the Muslims would move on to the fort to which the Jews moved. Some of the big heroes of the fight besides the Prophet were ^Aliyy Ibn Abi Talib, Az-Zubayr Ibn Al-^Awwam, and Abu Dujanah. May God bless them. When ^Aliyy needed a shield, he picked up a heavy door of a castle and used it as a shield. Later, after the fighting, the people found that eight men together could not even flip that door, let alone carry it. This was a miracle for the Prophet which ^Aliyy was following, and showed a blessing (karamah) of God upon ^Aliyy. 370

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Among the forts of Khaybar was one that was strongest, where the women and children were kept. When the Jewish men were defeated at all the other forts, they went in this fort. The Jews stayed in the fort, threw stones and shot arrows at the Muslims from inside. The Prophet ordered for the fort to be rammed and the Muslims entered. The men fled, leaving behind their women and children. Then the Prophet and his men moved to the second part of Khaybar and laid siege on it for fourteen days. When the Muslims were about to ram the forts again, the Jews asked to make a peace treaty. The Prophet agreed not to kill the men if they left Khaybar and the adjacent land, leaving behind their gold and silver. Although the leader of the Jews agreed, he and his brother tried to keep a bag full of wealth. When this was discovered, the two men were killed. It is reported that 93 Jews were killed in this battle and that only about 17 Muslims were martyred. Although the Jews were supposed to leave Khaybar, they begged to stay as workers for the Muslims who were now in charge, and they would give half of all the produce to the Muslims. The Prophet agreed, as the Muslims had the hand over them and if they showed treachery they could be expelled. The conquest of Khaybar gave great economic benefits to the Muslims. The son of ^Umar said, “We never ate our fill until we had conquered Khaybar.” Also, immediately after conquering Khaybar the Prophet proceeded to conquer other nearby Jewish settlements, punishing them for their treachery and conspiracies against the Muslims. 371

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Among other events that occurred at this time, was that the Companions who had been in Abyssinia returned to find Khaybar already won. In addition, Abu Hurayrah became Muslim and started accompanying the Prophet. Although Abu Hurayrah spent only about four years with the Prophet, he chose a very simple lifestyle, only involving himself in learning from the Prophet and memorizing his words. He proved to be a very trustworthy narrator of the words of the Prophet and narrated the most hadiths of any Companion. After the conquest of Khaybar, among the prisoners was the leading lady of the Jews, Safiyyah. She was a descendant of Prophet Harun. The Companions insisted that she was only appropriate for the Prophet to take. The Prophet took her as his slave. When she became Muslim, the Prophet freed her. Then he married her, all before returning to Madinah. She lived in Madinah for about forty years after the death of the Prophet and died as a pious Muslim, one of the mothers of the faithful. In addition, after the conquest of Khaybar a tragic incident occurred. A Jewish woman presented the Prophet with a cooked sheep as a gift. The woman had secretly poisoned the sheep. When the Prophet put the first bite in his mouth, he spat it out without swallowing it; the meat spoke to him informing him that it was poisoned. Sadly, a Companion ate from the meat and died immediately from the poison. The Prophet had gotten some of the poison in his body. However, as a miracle, God did not make him die from that poison until his death, more than four years later. The Prophet bore patiently from ill effects of the poison during those years preceding his death, blessings and peace be upon him.

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Early in the same year, our Prophet proposed to marry the daughter of Abu Sufyan. Abu Sufyan was still a big enemy at the time. His daughter was named Ramlah. She also was called Umm Habibah. She, unlike her father, had embraced Islam at an early stage. She had immigrated with her husband to Abyssinia when Muslims did. In Abyssinia, her husband apostatized and became Christian. She stayed steadfast to her Islam in that foreign land suffering hardships. Our Prophet heard of her situation and proposed to her. She came to the Prophet, as other Muslims were coming to Madinah from Abyssinia, and became his wife. She lived around the mosque in her own small room along with the other seven wives. She died in the year 44 H.

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Chapter 65: Approaching the Desert Bedouins
Remember the Battle of Ahzab, where the three groups of blasphemers (The Allied Factions) joined together to exterminate the Muslims with no success? Who were the three groups? They were the blasphemers of Makkah (from the tribe of Quraysh), the Jews of Arabia, and the desert Bedouin tribes of Arabia. After the Prophet made the Hudaybiyah Treaty with the Makkans, then subdued the Jews, he sent out a number of expeditions to the desert Bedouin tribes. This occurred right after the Battle of Khaybar. The tribes roamed the area of Arabia called Najd, looting and plundering. The Prophet got news that a tribe called Ghatafan was gathering to fight the Muslims. The Prophet and about 500 Companions set out to fight them. However, no fighting took place because the Ghatafan agreed to make reconciliation. After this expedition, the other blasphemous Bedouin tribes were afraid of the Muslims. Some truly embraced Islam and others pretended to become Muslim without really believing in Islam. As per the Hudaybiyah Treaty, the Prophet and some of his Companions performed the ^Umrah in Makkah. It occurred one year after signing the treaty, in DhulQa^dah of 7 H. The Prophet had told his Companions to go around the Ka^bah in a very energetic way. This was

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for them to appear strong and steadfast to the Makkans who were watching their every move. At this ^Umrah, the Prophet was offered Maymunah as a wife by his uncle Al-^Abbas. This marriage cemented ties between the Prophet and influential men of Makkah. Maymunah was the last woman the Prophet married before his death, peace and blessings be upon him. At this time, until his death, our Prophet had nine wives. Having nine wives at one time was a special allowance granted to the Prophet. Other Muslim men, under the rules God gave to Prophet Muhammad, can only have up to four wives at one time. After this ^Umrah, the Prophet dispatched more military operations towards the blasphemous Bedouin tribes.

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Chapter 66: Brave Men Go to Mu'tah
During the eighth Hijriyy year, the Battle of Mu'tah in Ash-Sham occurred in the month of Jumadal-Ula. The reason for this was that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, had sent Al-Harith the son of ^Umayr alAzdiyy with a letter to Ash-Sham to the Roman ruler of Busra. This Companion was intercepted by one of the Romans allies and was killed. When the news of this incident reached the Prophet, he was very disturbed by it. Immediately, he prepared an army to be sent to Mu'tah (a place in Syria). He put Zayd the son of Harithah as their leader. The Prophet said: ‘If Zayd was killed, then Ja^far Ibn Abi Talib would be the leader, and if he was killed, then ^Abdullah Ibn Rawahah would be the leader of the army.’ Then, the Muslims prepared themselves for the battle. Their number was large, three thousand (3,000) of them, similar to the number of Muslims who participated in the battle of Ahzab. The Prophet did not go. He said that if it were not for the needs of some of his followers he would have gone to every battle. He advised them to go to the scene of al-Harith’s murder and invite the people to Islam. If they accepted, then there would be no war. When they reached an area near Syria, they received the news that Heraclius, the Roman ruler, had gathered tens of thousands of Roman soldiers and their allies from the Arab tribes Lakhm, Judham, Bulqin, Bahra', and Baliyy.

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The Muslim troops debated how to approach such a big enemy. Some wanted to write to the Prophet telling him how many men were with the enemy seeking his advice. ^Abdullah Ibn Rawahah made a speech to encourage them. He said, “In our fight, we do not count on the number of soldiers or equipment, rather on the faith with which God has honored us. Dart to win either of the two: victory or martyrdom.” The people said, “By God, he is right.” The Muslims encamped in a town called Mu'tah. Then the fierce fight with the enemy began. The Muslims met the Romans and their parties and fought. Zayd the son of Harithah fought while holding the banner of the Prophet until he was killed. Then Ja^far the son of Abu Talib took the banner and fought with it until he was killed. He was holding the banner with his right hand and when it was cut off he held it with his left. Then they cut that hand off. So, he held it between his shoulders until he was killed, may God have mercy on him. He was just 33 years old. After Ja^far was killed, ^Abdullah the son of Rawahah took the banner while he was riding on a horse. He fought until he was killed. Thabit Ibn Aqram then took the banner and said, “O Muslims, decide on a man among you.” They said, “We decide on you.” He said, “I am not the man for it.” So, they decided on Khalid Ibn al-Walid who protected the army from defeat. As you remember, Khalid was one of the leaders of the blasphemers in the Battle of Uhud. Then God changed his heart and made him Muslim after the signing of the Hudaybiyah Treaty. This battle was a chance for Khalid to use his skills fighting on the side of truth. God 377

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endowed Khalid with a great war strategy. Khalid reshuffled the right and left flanks and brought a forward division from the rear to make the Romans think that fresh reinforcements had arrived. Then, the Muslims fought, then retreated and then fought again. This made the Romans think that they were being entrapped and drawn in the heart of the desert. By God’s Will, the Romans stopped their attack fearing what Khalid wanted them to think. Miraculously, God made the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, able to see the condition of his army. Hence, he rose onto the mimbar and called the people. When the people assembled he said, ‘”I will inform you of your fighting army. They met the enemy and Zayd was killed as a martyr.” Then he asked forgiveness for him. He continued to say, “Ja^far then took the banner and charged at the enemy until he was martyred.” He then asked forgiveness for him. The Prophet said, “Then ^Abdullah the son of Rawahah took the banner and was firm until he was killed.” Then the Prophet asked forgiveness for him. The Prophet said, “Then Khalid the son of al-Walid took the banner. O God, he is a sword among Your swords. So, make him victorious!” From that day, Khalid the son of al-Walid was named “the Sword of God”. The Prophet said about Ja^far, “Instead of his hands, God has given him two wings with which he will fly in al-Jannah (Paradise) wherever he likes.” When the Islamic army returned and came close to Madinah, the Muslims went out eagerly to meet them. The Prophet thought of how the son of Ja^far would not see his father return. Our Prophet said, “Give me the son 378

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of Ja^far”. So, ^Abdullah the son of Ja^far came. The Prophet took him and comforted him concerning the death of his father. The Muslims who were martyred were 12, whereas the Romans lost a large number. The news of this battle, with Muslims facing a huge army of a huge empire gave the Muslims a great military reputation. People concluded that Islam must be correct when they heard of this great support from God, and many tribes embraced Islam.

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Chapter 67: Opening of Makkah (Part 1)
After some time under the treaty, Quraysh violated one condition of the conditions of Hudaybiyah. They assisted the tribe of Bakr (which allied with them) against Khuza^ah (which allied with the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him). Quraysh sent Abu Sufyan to Madinah to renew the Treaty of Hudaybiyah, but this did not take place. Abu Sufyan went to the home of his daughter, Umm Habibah, the wife of the Prophet. She did not receive him as he had expected and would not even let him sit on the bed of the Prophet. Prophet Muhammad prepared for Jihad against the blasphemers of Makkah. He called on the Arabs around him to join. He marched with an army that was close to 10,000 men strong. This event occurred in Ramadan in the eighth Hijriyy year. When the news reached Quraysh, Abu Sufyan and some other men went out seeking the news about the Messenger of God. The Muslims captured them and took them to the Prophet. God changed the heart of Abu Sufyan and it was at that time that he embraced Islam. The Prophet told his uncle Al-^Abbas to have Abu Sufyan, the new Muslim, stand in a certain place. In this place, he saw the whole Muslim army pass by him. In this way, Abu Sufyan saw how great the Muslim army was. When Abu Sufyan saw the Prophet and those fighters with him, he told al-^Abbas, “No one could resist such an army.” 380

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Al-^Abbas told the Prophet that Abu Sufyan likes to be respected and honored. Now that he became Muslim, the Prophet did something that delighted Abu Sufyan. The Prophet entered Makkah, and an announcer shouted by the order of the Prophet, “The one who enters the Masjid is safe, the one who enters the house of Abu Sufyan is safe, and the one who closes the door of his home and stays inside is safe.” The Prophet had sent different Companions to place banners at different points around Makkah. He sent azZubayr to the north, Khalid Ibn Al-Walid to the south, and Sa^d Ibn ^Ubadah (the leader of Ansar) to the northeast of Makkah. The Prophet ordered all of them not to start fighting, but only to fight in self-defense if necessary. Some blasphemers did start fighting with Khalid, who fought back killing twenty-four. The Prophet entered Makkah in the blessed month of Ramadan, 8 H, without fighting, wearing a black turban. The Prophet, who had previously been mocked in Makkah, was humble. He recited from the Qur’an while assuming this great victory of overtaking the city of his birth. Now the Muslims ruled the city of Makkah, and the Islamic laws were to be carried out as they had been in Madinah. The Prophet went to the Ka^bah where 360 ugly idols surrounded it. The Prophet jabbed them with a stick saying, “The truth has come and the false is destroyed.” Any idol the Prophet poked would fall on its back although they were tied down with lead. This was a miracle. The Prophet did this to humiliate the idols and those who worshipped them.

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The Prophet also sent Khalid Ibn Al-Walid to destroy an idol called ^Uzza which was located outside of Makkah. Abu Bakr’s father had not embrace Islam yet. Abu Bakr brought him to the Prophet. The Prophet was gentle with him for he was about 80 years old. He became Muslim at that time. The Prophet went inside of the Ka^bah and found pictures drawn representing Prophet Abraham (Ibrahim) and his son Ishmael (Isma^il). The pictures showed them using fortune-telling arrows. The Prophet was upset and ordered the pictures wiped out and stated that those two great Prophets never used these.

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Chapter 68: The Opening of Makkah (Part 2)
The people of Makkah who, for so many years, were used to looking for signs from arrows and fortune tellers, were seeing true miracles from the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him. As well, he was not telling them to demolish the Ka^bah, just to destroy the idols and have the belief that Prophets Abraham (Ibrahim) and Ishmael (Isma^il) truly held. They had news of the Muslims even scaring the powerful Romans. The leader of the Muslims, Prophet Muhammad, was from their own tribe. All of these matters had effect on the people of Makkah. Our Prophet stood and addressed the people of Makkah. He said, “O Quraysh, God has taken away from you the habit of bragging about your fathers. All people came from Adam, who was created from soil.” The Prophet went on to recite verse 13 from the surah called al-Hujurat:

It means, “O people, We (God) created you from a man and woman and We (God) made you peoples and tribes so you get to know each other. The best among you to God is the one who is most pious.” Our Prophet said, “O Quraysh, people of Makkah, what do you think I am going to do to you?” They said,

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“We expect good from you. You are a good brother and cousin.” Our Prophet said, “You are free.” The people of Makkah proceeded to come to the Prophet and some of his Companions. They became Muslim in droves. Even some of the big enemies of the Muslims had their hearts changed, and the Prophet did not punish them for their past abuse. Some of these were Hind, the wife of Abu Sufyan, who had chewed on the liver of our Prophet’s uncle Hamzah, and the killer of Hamzah, Wahshiyy. Seeing the Prophet in the city of his birth, some of the Ansar were concerned that the Prophet would like to stay in Makkah and not live in Madinah anymore. The Prophet knew of their concern and assured them that he planned to live in Madinah until his death. Consequently, this was the “Opening of Makkah”. The people of Makkah became Muslim without a fight. After this, immigrating to Madinah was no longer an obligation on the Muslims.

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Chapter 69: Events at Hunayn (Part 1)
Our Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, stayed in Makkah for 15 days after he opened it. The Arab tribes of Hawazin and Thaqif came to Hunayn, which is a valley between Makkah and Ta'if. They intended to fight the Prophet. Their leader was Malik Ibn ^Awf AnNasriyy. When the Prophet heard about their intentions, he sent ^Abdullah Ibn Abi Hadrad Al-Aslamiyy to them. He ordered him to stay among them, and then come back to the Prophet with the news about them. Ibn Abi Hadrad came back and told the Prophet about what he had seen of them and how they intended to fight the Muslims. The Prophet decided to march to them. He left with 12,000 Muslims until he reached the valley of Hunayn. Notice, after the Opening of Makkah, the large increase in the army of the Muslims. 10,000 marched with the Prophet from Madinah, and now the Prophet had 2000 more. At dawn, the Prophet and his army passed through a narrow valley. Hawazin ambushed the Muslims severely, pouring arrows and other projectiles on them. When the front part of the army encountered this, they turned around to escape. When they did this, they simply faced the back part of their own army, as if to force the back part of the Muslim army to retreat also. The Prophet, however, never felt the urge to retreat and continued forward. A group of Muslims stayed firm as well, such as: Abu Bakr, ^Umar, Abu Talhah, ^Aliyy, Al-^Abbas, al-Fadl, and others from the Muhajirun and 385

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Ansar. Abu Sufyan Ibnul-Harith, was holding the reins of the Prophet’s mule. Our Prophet could have ridden a fine horse, but on purpose he rode his slower mule as a sign of his bravery and reliance on God. The scholars said, “The riding of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, on the mule (Duldul) during war when the people are in extreme need for him, is the extreme in courage and steadfastness. He will be then the reference that the Muslims go back to and in their hearts they will find tranquility by his presence and place. The Prophet did that on purpose because a mule is not the suitable animal for running away. After all, the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, could have ridden many well-known horses.’ Prophet Muhammad ordered his uncle Al-^Abbas, whose voice was loud, to say, “O people of Ansar, O people of the Immigrants, O people of Khazraj.” When they heard his voice they replied, “Labbayk. Labbayk. (We obey you. We obey you.)” Many Companions rushed to be with the Prophet. If their animal did not turn quickly enough, then they would jump off their animal and come on foot to the Prophet. When any Muslim wanted to come close to the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, it would be hard for him to move forward with his camel due to the many defeated people. This soldier would hold his sword and shield, descend from his camel, releasing it, and head towards the Messenger of God. By that time the Prophet had close to one hundred men around him who fought off Hawazin by striking at them.

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The battle intensified. A good deal of stabbing and sword fighting took place. The Messenger of God, peace and blessings be upon him, started saying:

It means, “I am the Prophet without a doubt. I am the (grand)son of ^Abdul-Muttalib.” No one among the people was seen to be stronger than the Prophet. He showed the ultimate courage, steadfastness, and patience. God put fear in the hearts of Hawazin when they finally reached the Messenger of God, peace and blessings be upon him. When they came face to face with the Messenger of God, he shouted at them once and threw pebbles at their face and said, “Ha Mim, they will not be victorious.” No eye of theirs was safe from what he threw at them. They could not see and they were defeated. About this incident, God revealed in SuratulAnfal, Ayah 17 that means, “It was not you who created your throwing of pebbles. God is the One Who created it.”

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Chapter 70: Events at Hunayn (Part 2) and Events Before Tabuk
Many spoils were collected from the Battle of Hunayn, including 6,000 women and children, 24,000 camels, 40,000 sheep and 4,000 ounces of silver. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, in his wisdom, did not distribute the spoils immediately. Instead, he had them taken to place near Makkah to be kept. Survivors of the other opposing tribe, Thaqif, went to Ta’if, which was their town. They fortressed themselves in their castles. Our Prophet and his army went to Ta’if and surrounded their castles for 15 days so they could not get out. People of Thaqif tribe and people of Hawazin tribe that had not been killed in the war started to embrace Islam. Those who had embraced Islam requested that they could get back their women, children, and wealth. However, they had been the ones to wage war on the Muslims. The Prophet dealt with these new converts with great wisdom. He said, “You know I am not the only one of this army. The fighters have rights and I am not the only one to implore. Tell the truth. What is dearer to you, your women and children, or your wealth? On purpose, I delayed dividing the spoils until you came to me as Muslim.” The new converts chose their women and children. Then the Prophet, again with great wisdom, addressed his army praising God, “Your brothers have come to us as Muslim, and I like to return their women and children to 388

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them. Those among you who love to give up their share of these may, and those who love to wait may.” When our Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, did not hear everyone say they give up their share, he waited until their commanders went to him and told him that everyone liked to give up their share of the women and children. Hence, those new converts from the tribes of Hawazin and Thaqif were reunited with their women and children. Concerning the spoils that were not given back, the Prophet divided them and gave a lot of the spoils to the new converts who had come with him from Makkah to fight Hawazin and Thaqif. The Prophet did not give spoils to the Ansar brothers, although they too fought in the battle. Some of the Ansar began to talk about this. They wondered about the reason. The Prophet explained that he gave to those new Muslims to attract them more to Islam, whereas he relied that the Ansar were firm on Islam. Our Prophet said, “Do you not accept that they get these animals and that you get the Prophet in your own city? I swear by the One Who controls my soul, had I not made Hijrah, I would have considered myself from among the Ansar. O God, have mercy upon the Ansar, their children, and their grandchildren.” The men from Ansar started to cry until their beards were heavy with tears, and said, “We accept that the Prophet is our share to take back with us to our homes.” Our Prophet went back to Makkah and performed ^Umrah. Our Prophet appointed a governor of Makkah, and then he returned to Madinah a little before the end of the 8th Hijriyy year.

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In Madinah, a happy event happened for our Prophet at the end of the 8th Hijriyy year. A son of his was born whom he named Ibrahim. Ibrahim was the only child of our Prophet, after his children with Lady Khadijah. This son was not from any of his nine wives. Instead Ibrahim’s mother was a slave woman of the Prophet, named Mariyah. At first, Mariyah was not a Muslim, when she was sent by the ruler of Egypt, as a gift to the Prophet. This was common in that day. She then became the slave of our Prophet. Afterwards, she became Muslim (she died in the year 16 H). In Islam, the female slave of a Muslim man is like his wife in some ways. An example is that they can have children together. In Islam, Muslim slaves have some difference in some of their obligations. For example, they are not obligated to perform Hajj. Although the slave does not have some obligations that the free man has, he may obtain a high status religiously. The slave is treated in a good way. The Muslim who owns a slave provides suitable shelter for the slave. He is urged to clothe him as he clothes himself and to provide him with the food he himself eats. He is not to overburden him with work, and he is encouraged to help his slave with the work. Ibrahim, the son of Prophet Muhammad died in the year 10 H. He was the last of three sons to die. The Prophet wept for his death and stated that weeping out of sadness for the departure of a dear one was permissible. When Ibrahim died, an eclipse took place. Our Prophet emphasized to his Companions that the eclipse was not due to Ibrahim’s death; it was just one of God’s creations.

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Chapter 71: More Miracles of Prophet Muhammad,
peace and blessings be upon him Our Prophet and his Companions were witnessing many, many miracles while they lived in Madinah and during the various battles and trips for the sake of God. We will relate some more to you. • Curing Qatadah's eye after it was pulled out: AlBayhaqiyy narrated from the route of Qatadah, the son of an-Nu^man that Qatadah's eye was injured on the day of Badr. Qatadah’s eyeball was left resting on his cheek. Some wanted to cut his eye out. However, they asked the Messenger of God, peace and blessings be upon him, whether they should do so. The Prophet said, “No.” The Prophet called Qatadah over and pressed his eye with his palm to its socket and his eye was cured. Later, Qatadah could not tell which of his two eyes had been injured. Are we sure that the following happened AFTER HIJRAH? • The food that mentioned God's name in the hand of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him: AlBukhariyy mentioned from the hadith of Ibn Mas^ud that he said: ‘We were eating with the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, and we could hear the food saying subhanallah.’ • The wolf speaking: Once a man saw a wolf going after one of his sheep. The man prevented the wolf from getting the sheep and the wolf spoke to the man. The 391

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wolf said, “Why do you prevent me from getting my sustenance?” The man was so amazed and said, “A wolf speaks?” The wolf said to him, “What is more amazing is that in Madinah is a man who is a Prophet of God”. The man went to Madinah and inquired about our Prophet. He found our Prophet and told him what had happened. Our Prophet confirmed what the man said, and the man became Muslim. • The speaking of the camel: Once a man treated his camel unjustly. The camel spoke to our Prophet and told our Prophet about the injustice done to it. Prophet Muhammad went to the owner of the camel and reprimanded him, telling the man that the camel spoke to him. • The crying tree trunk: The Prophet used to give his speech in his mosque in Madinah leaning on a trunk of a dead palm each time. Once some of the Companions said, “Let us build a pulpit (mimbar) for the Prophet’. They made one and the Prophet used it instead of leaning on that palm trunk. When the Prophet started speaking, the palm trunk began moaning loudly, like a little child. All the people who were in the mosque heard this trunk moaning. The Prophet went down from the mimbar and put his hand on the palm trunk. The trunk started to calm down, as a little child does when he is comforted. This miracle was witnessed by a large number of people, and they told others making it very famous and undoubted. • The water that sprung from between his fingers: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, was once given a container of water that did not cover all of his fingers. When the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon 392

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him, placed his honored hand in the container, water started springing from between his fingers. Then all the people (about 1500) who were present made ablution (wudu') and drank from this water. Al-Bukhariyy and Muslim narrated from the route of Jabir that he said, “People were thirsty on the day of Hudaybiyah and the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, had a bowl of water from which he was making wudu'. The people started coming towards him and he asked, ‘What is wrong?’ They said, ‘O Prophet of God, we do not have any water to make wudu' or drink from except that which you now hold.’ The Prophet placed his hand in the bowl and the water flowed out from between his fingers as if springs were there. We drank and made wudu’.” Jabir was asked, “How many were you?” He said, “If we had been 100,000 it would have been enough; we were 1,500.” These are just a very small number of the hundreds of miracles God gave to Prophet Muhammad, may God greatly bless his honorable self.

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Chapter 72: Off to Tabuk
After the Opening of Makkah, the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, received many delegations in Madinah. These were people of different areas, longing to meet the Prophet who was becoming so well known. As well, our Prophet was sending out knowledgeable Companions to help people of other areas establish the practice of Islam in their area. The Prophet’s Companions destroyed several idols outside of Makkah. In the ninth year, an event happened which gives a lesson to the Muslim women. The nine wives of our Prophet were good Muslim women who were memorizing the Qur’an and the sayings of their blessed husband. The Prophet lived without luxury, sharing this kind of life with his wives. At this point of time, a lot of riches were coming the way of the Muslims. All of his wives together asked him for more of the worldly things. Our Prophet was displeased by this request and made an oath to stay away from all of his wives for one month. Then, God revealed verses of the Qur’an concerning this situation. The wives were to choose. If they wanted the glitter of this world, they could choose that and the Prophet would divorce them. If they accepted to live a life without luxury, they could choose to stay his wives. The Prophet went to Lady ^A'ishah first, giving her the choice. She and then all of the wives chose to stay married to our Prophet and accept the amount of food, clothes, and other things that he gave them without complaint. 394

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In this year, Prophet Muhammad told his Companions that he was to gather an army and lead them to face the Romans in the North. Our Prophet learned that Heraclius had gathered some armies to invade the Prophet in his country. In addition, the Prophet did not want the Arab tribes living next to the Roman Empire to side with the Romans. This happened during a time of drought and intense heat. In spite of that, Prophet Muhammad ordered preparation for the fight. He urged the rich to equip the deprived. ^Uthman Ibn ^Affan, may God bless him, spent a huge sum of money which was not equaled by any other. Abu Bakr As-Siddiq donated all his wealth. ^Umar Ibn Al-Khattab donated half of his wealth, and al^Abbas and Talhah gave a great deal of money. The women gave away all that they could afford of their jewelry. When the people gathered, the Prophet had an army of thirty thousand infantry and ten thousand horsemen. The hypocrites gave excuses to the Prophet of why they could not go. On the other hand, three Muslim men, who were not hypocrites, did not go although they were able. Their case is mentioned in the Qur’an (At-Tawbah, verse 118). Additionally, there were other men who were so eager to go, but there were not enough supplies to include them. They wept, not being able to go, as mentioned in Suratut-Tawbah, verse 92. The great warrior, ^Aliyy Ibn Abi Talib, was appointed by the Prophet to stay in Madinah to take care of the Prophet’s family. ^Aliyy had always participated in battles. The hypocrites taunted him about staying behind, saying that the Prophet did not like him. Our 395

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Prophet consoled him saying, “Are you not pleased to be in the same status with me as Harun was with Musa, except that there is no Prophet after me?’ (Remember Harun, a Prophet, looked after Musa’s people while Musa went to receive the Tawrah.) It was the habit of our Prophet not to go in a direct route to the enemy in order to confuse them. However, in this attack the route was direct due to the length of the travel and weather conditions. This army was called the “Army of Hardship” due to that three men would take turns riding one camel, and the lack of food and water. One of the many miracles God gave to our Prophet occurred as the army was on its way. Some of the army came to the Prophet asking if they could slaughter some of their camels and eat them, due to their hunger. The Prophet permitted them, but before they did so, ^Umar Ibnul-Khattab made a suggestion. He said, “If you allow them, then we will have less animals to ride. O Messenger of God, have the people bring their bits of food and ask God to bless the food.” The Prophet agreed to this. A piece of leather was spread on the ground and the Prophet had them put their food, which was very little, a handful of corn, dates, and bread. Prophet Muhammad asked God to bless that food. The Prophet told the Companions to take from the food and fill their containers. All the containers in the camp were filled with that food. They ate their fill and there was food left behind, praise to God.

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The army passed by the city of Thamud tribe. Remember Thamud and Prophet Salih? Our Prophet forbade his soldiers from entering those houses that the blasphemous Thamud had carved out of stone. When the army was in great need of water, Prophet Muhammad asked God for help and a great rain cloud came and, by God’s Will, supplied them with the water they needed. The Muslim army arrived in the city of Tabuk. There they set up their camp. Our Prophet addressed them with blessed, encouraging words. The news of the Muslim army got to the Romans. The Romans chose not to fight the Muslims, feeling terror in their hearts. Some of the cities of the area became under the control of the Muslims. They paid jizyah to the Muslim state, and in turn were protected. Jizyah is payment of non-Muslims to the Muslim state. By paying this, the non-Muslim can live in the Muslim state and will receive protection. The army returned to Madinah without a bloody fight, and with a great victory. Our Prophet and the army returned to Madinah in Ramadan 9 H., with this expedition taking 50 days total. This was the last major campaign of our Prophet.

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Chapter 73: Events upon the Return from Tabuk and The Farewell Pilgrimage
Our Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, returned to Madinah, with his big army, from Tabuk. The pious Muslims who had been left behind were joyous to see their return and to hear of their success. Prophet Muhammad told his army, “Certainly in Madinah, there are people who whenever you crossed a valley (as if) they were with you. The only thing that kept them from the army was their valid excuse.” Although there were so many good Muslims in Madinah, the community was still bothered by some hypocrites. The hypocrites came forward to the Prophet making their excuses of why they did not go to Tabuk. In the 9th year, an event occurred affecting those hypocrites. Their leader, ^Abdullah Ibn Ubayy died. When he died, the Prophet did not have proof that he was not Muslim. Every time a Muslim of the community would hear blasphemy from him, ^Abdullah Ibn Ubayy would deny that he said it. He would profess the shahadah and pray with the Muslims. Even on his deathbed, ^Abdullah Ibn Ubayy asked for a piece of cloth of our Prophet. He indicated that he wished to be shrouded with this cloth, seeking the blessings of God by it. Therefore, Prophet Muhammad prayed the funeral prayer for him. After that, God revealed to the Prophet that ^Abdullah Ibn Ubayy did not die as a Muslim. Instead he died as a hypocrite and will be in Hellfire 398

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forever. After that Revelation, the Prophet never asked forgiveness for him. After the return from Tabuk, many tribes came to the Prophet, embracing Islam. When it got near to the time of Hajj that year, our Prophet sent Abu Bakr to lead the Hajj actions. After Abu Bakr left, some verses were revealed and our Prophet sent ^Aliyy to go with Abu Bakr to inform the people of these new verses. In these verses, God informed those who still worshipped idols that they had four months of safety after which they had no assurance of safety, unless they became Muslim. Our Prophet ordered Abu Bakr to proclaim at Hajj that after that year no blasphemer could come to perform Hajj. Also, no person could anymore perform tawaf naked. The 10th Hijriyy year began. In that year, more tribes came to Prophet Muhammad, embracing Islam. In an area of Arabia, a man started to make trouble, claiming to be a Prophet. His name was Musaylimah, the liar. Our Prophet warned against him, and soon after the death of our Prophet, Musaylimah was killed. Our Prophet appointed governors to all the areas that had become Muslim. Then our Prophet prepared to make Hajj himself, the Hajj of the year 10 H. Our Prophet did not live to perform another Hajj, so this Hajj is known as the Farewell Pilgrimage. Many of our Prophet’s Companions joined him in this Hajj, learning from him the required and optional parts of Pilgrimage. At Hajj, our Prophet delivered an important and touching speech, which is now known as the

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Farewell Speech. We present some of the content of this honorable speech. After glorifying God, our Prophet said, “O people, hear my sayings for I may not be able to stand with you in this place next year. Certainly the blood and money of your brother is forbidden for you. You will die and be asked about your deeds. I have done my job. Whoever was entrusted with something, give it back to the rightful owner. The usury of every debt must not be paid. You have the right to take your original amount of money and not more.” “The Devil has given up being worshipped in Arabia. However, the Devil wishes that you disobeyed God in less than that. I warn you against him.” Our Prophet warned a lot against the Dajjal as well. The Dajjal is a human man who will claim to be God. He will appear before Prophet Jesus comes back to Earth, and spread evil. Then Prophet Jesus will return to Earth and kill him. Prophet Muhammad told the people that a person of one race did not have superiority over one of another race; the superiority is only by piety. Our Prophet said, “O people, you have rights on your wives and they have rights on you. I command you to treat the women well. The women are like prisoners in your hands. So, do not take advantage of them and harm them.” “I have conveyed what I was ordered to convey”. Our Prophet asked if he had conveyed and the people confirmed that he had conveyed.

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During this Hajj, the last whole surah of the Qur’an was revealed which is Suratun-Nasr.

This surah has the meaning, “O Muhammad, when the victory of God comes to you and (God) gives you the opening, and you see the people coming to Islam, one tribe after another, then declare God’s perfection, praise and thank God, and ask Him to forgive you. Certainly, He forgives.” When our Prophet received this chapter he said: ‘As if I am dying.’ An ayah revealed during this Hajj is in SuratulMa’idah, verse 3. In this verse God reveals that on that day all of the basic rules of the Religion have now been revealed. After Hajj, our Prophet went back to Madinah, and continued his work of teaching and spreading Islam.

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Chapter 74: Events of the Year 11 H and the Death of Our Beloved Prophet,
blessings and peace be upon him Early in the 11th year, our Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, instructed the Muslims to set out for the land of Palestine, headed by Usamah, the son of Zayd. At that time, Usamah was not yet twenty years old, but the Prophet knew that he was the right one to lead the army. Great Companions, who were much older than Usamah, set out under his command. However, soon this army was ordered to slow down. This was due to the pains of the Prophet. One night, our Prophet went out to the cemetery of the Muslims called Al-Baqi^. He asked God to forgive the Muslims buried there, and then he went home. The following morning, he began to have severe pains. He had a very serious headache. With his pains growing, our Prophet continued to move from house to house each night, visiting his wives. When he was in the house of Lady Maymunah, his pain got very severe. He gathered all his wives and asked their permission to be taken care of in the house of Lady ^A'ishah. They accepted. Our Prophet sat on the mimbar and addressed his Companions. He said that a slave of God has been given the choice to have the enjoyments of this life, or to get what God has in store for him on the Day of Judgment. This slave chose what God has in store for him. Abu Bakr started to cry and called out to the Prophet. The other Companions were perplexed. Only Abu Bakr had 402

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understood that our Prophet was referring to himself, and that he was going to die soon. Our Prophet gave several signs that Abu Bakr should be the ruler of the Muslims after his death. When our Prophet could no longer lead the people in prayer, he insisted that Abu Bakr be the one to lead the prayers. In addition, our Prophet said that all the doors of the houses around the mosque (the door that went from the house directly into the mosque) should be closed up, except for the door of Abu Bakr. Our beloved Prophet had a severe fever as well. When one Companion commented on the severity of the fever, our Prophet said, “We Prophets are like that. We are given the greatest hardships and our reward is multiplied for us.” Our Prophet would put water on his face and say, “La ilaha illallah (No one is God except Allah), certainly there is suffering in death.” He continued to praise God and asked for the highest ranks. The Prophet’s loved ones, his dear daughter Fatimah and others came visiting. Prophet Muhammad informed Fatimah that she would be the first to follow him in death and that she would be the foremost of the women of her time in Paradise. On Monday morning, the 12th of Rabi^ul-Awwal, 11H our Prophet got up, stood at the door of the Masjid and looked at the people making Fajr prayer. The Companions could see him. They felt so happy, and opened their lines for him. Our Prophet signaled to remain in their prayer and not change. Anas narrated that he had never seen our Prophet more beautiful than when he saw him standing there that day. The Companions were hopeful that the sickness of our Prophet had passed. 403

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Prophet Muhammad went back to his small room. God, the Exalted and Wise, had the honorable soul taken from the best of creation, our beloved Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him. His suffering had ended, and his honor and happiness will last forever. After his death, our job is to continue to follow the Religion he taught and to spread it to others until the Day of Judgment. Praise to God, Muslims have the right belief about Prophets. We know that they are all men, whom God created and that they all will die. Prophet Jesus will die as well, but God willed that he live a long life. Jesus did not die yet. He will come back to Earth before the Day of Judgment, and then die. Prophet Jesus will then be buried next to our Prophet Muhammad. Our Prophet was buried where he died, in the house of Lady ^A'ishah in Madinah. Prophet Muhammad practiced what he taught. He was the best of all people, an ideal man, and a model human being. He showed Muslims how to live the teachings of the Qur’an. His example is called the Sunnah. His Sunnah is recorded in his Companions’ reports of his sayings and actions. These reports are called hadiths. The hadiths are collected in many books. Our Prophet said that the Prophets are alive in their graves, praying. Then, on the Day of Judgment, they will rise from their graves along with the other people, and they will have the highest rank and honor. As a special honor, the bodies of the Prophets do not decay while they are in their graves. In his grave, God

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gives news to our Prophet about his followers, as God wills. When we say “as-salamu ^alaykum” (peace be upon you) to our Prophet, angels take that greeting to our Prophet in his grave, and God enables our Prophet to respond to our greeting. We ask God to be in the company of our beloved Prophet on the Day of Judgment and to enter Paradise after him. Amin.

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Chapter 75: Events after the Death of Prophet Muhammad
The Muslims, after the Prophet’s death, paid allegiance to Abu Bakr, we ask God to bless him greatly. Abu Bakr became the Caliph, the leader of the Muslim nation. Abu Bakr immediately addressed many difficult situations. Abu Bakr lived very simply, as the ruler, and followed the example of the Prophet closely. Abu Bakr died less than 2 1/2 years after the death of the Prophet. Abu Bakr elected ^Umar to be the Caliph after him. Abu Bakr had good sons, but he elected ^Umar, showing the people that the Caliphate is not decided by blood, but by religious rank. ^Umar was a good strong ruler. The Islamic state grew a lot during ^Umar’s rulership. ^Umar ruled for about ten years. Again, ^Umar lived very simply, and did not get involved in the luxuries coming the way of the Muslims. ^Umar was extremely fair and diligent in carrying out the rules of the Religion. When ^Umar was dying, he appointed six very pious Companions to pick the next Caliph from among them. They picked ^Uthman, and he was the next Caliph. Like Abu Bakr, ^Umar had good sons, but none of these six were his sons. ^Uthman again followed the example of the Prophet, lived simply, and ruled fairly. During the time of ^Uthman, some of the Muslims deviated and started to spread lies about ^Uthman. This sedition ended up in the

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murder of ^Uthman, with the exact killers unknown to the next in charge. ^Uthman ruled for about 12 years, extending the Nation, and being diligent in having the Qur’an sent to all the parts of the Muslim nation. When ^Uthman died, the top Muslims elected ^Aliyy to be the Caliph. Those top Muslims were high in piety and knowledge. At that time, in Syria, was a Companion Mu^awiyah, governing an area there. Mu^awiyah was not a pious Companion. Mu^awiyah wanted the rulership for himself. So, he kept concocting reasons, according to him, why ^Aliyy was not really the rightful Caliph. Mu^awiyah was the only governor not to pay allegiance to ^Aliyy. It ended up that Mu^awiyah organized an army of misguided Muslims, and two groups of Muslims fought, those with Mu^awiyah and those supporting the rightful Caliph ^Aliyy. Many thousands of Muslims were killed as a result of Mu^awiyah’s folly. ^Aliyy ruled for over four years, despite the opposition of Mu^awiyah. Eventually a misguided man murdered ^Aliyy. Still, the Caliphate did not pass to Mu^awiyah immediately. The Muslims who deserved to elect the next Caliph, elected Al-Hasan to be the Caliph after ^Aliyy. This is not because Al-Hasan was the son of ^Aliyy, but because Al-Hasan was the most qualified. Al-Hasan was the Caliph for only six months. Al-Hasan decided to make an arrangement with Mu^awiyah in order to prevent the bloodshed of more Muslims. Al-Hasan arranged with Mu^awiyah that Mu^awiyah could be the Caliph, and then, after the death of Mu^awiyah, Al-Hasan would reassume the Caliphate. After Mu^awiyah assumed the Caliphate, it is said that it 407

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was arranged by the son of Mu^awiyah, Yazid, for AlHasan to be poisoned. Al-Hasan died as a result of poisoning long before the death of Mu^awiyah. Mu^awiyah ruled for about twenty years. Mu^awiyah wanted his son Yazid to be the Caliph after him, just as kings do. All the pious Muslims opposed Yazid being Caliph, due to the sins he committed. Hence after the death of Mu^awiyah, there were many power struggles among unjust people who wanted the power of the Caliphate, and pious Muslims who deserved the Caliphate. Al-Husayn, the son of ^Aliyy, was promised support to be the Caliph, but was betrayed and killed. Another of the rightful leaders of the Muslims was ^Abdullah the son of the Companion Az-Zubayr. The unjust leaders of the Umayyad family were always opposing him. ^Abdullah Ibnuz-Zubayr was the true Caliph for about 9 years, but misguided people saw it otherwise. The next guided, rightful Caliph was ^Umar ibn ^Abdil-^Aziz, ruling from 99 H. to 101 H. He only ruled for about two years, but in that short time he worked to reform the mess made by Mu^awiyah and those like him. ^Umar ibn ^Abdil-^Aziz was also poisoned, and his great rulership was halted. After some time the rulership was taken over by a different branch of the tribe of Quraysh, those going back to Al-^Abbas. Hence, this time was called the Abbasid era. Some of those Caliphs were good, like Harun arRashid in 170 H. Still as you study history, you will see that love of money, undesirable love of power and

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suppression of others drove many of the Caliphs. Even though many of the Caliphs were not pious Muslims, still there were many very pious Muslim scholars who lived all through the years, since the death of the Prophet, through the times of unjust rulership, and until today. These great Muslims, by God’s Will, preserved the Religion of Islam, and it remains unperverted and practiced in its proper way. Some of the pious rulers that followed Harun arRashid were Salahuddin, during the time of the Crusades in 583H/1187, and Muhammad al-Fatih that finally opened Constantinople for the Muslim nation in 857H/1453. The Muslims continued to have a Caliph until about one hundred years ago, at this writing. The last Caliph was ^Abdul-Hamid, the Second. The capital of his Caliphate was in Istanbul. Due to the evil workings of some Europeans and others, the Caliphate was dissolved and the Muslim territories were made into national countries, instead of all the territory being under one Caliph. The Muslims will be united under one Caliph again. This man is named Muhammad, the son of ^Abdullah. The Muslims nowadays await his coming, as told by Prophet Muhammad, God’s peace and blessing be upon him. We now present a section of the book, telling you about signs of the coming of the Day of Judgment, and what will happen during the Day of Judgment.

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Chapter 76: Small Signs of the Coming of the Day of Judgment
There are signs that appear before the Day of Judgment. These signs were cited in the Qur’an and the hadith of the Prophet. Among them there are many small signs that come first, and ten major signs. (Will there be small signs mixed with the major signs?) Let it be known that our Prophet was in a session with some of his Companions and told them a lot of things that would occur before the Day of Judgment. Muslim narrated this in his book “As-Sahih” from the Companion Hudhayfah Ibnul-Yaman and others. Among the small signs of the coming of the Judgment Day that the Prophet cited is that killing unjustly would be spread widely. A person would be killed without knowing why he was killed, and the killer does not know why he is killing that person. In regards to that time, the Prophet stated a hadith about the merit of the person who is steadfast to perform the obligations at such a time. The Prophet said that the person who performed the obligations, the actions of worship, when the killing unjustly would be widely spread on Earth, would have the status of the person who immigrated to the Prophet, when the immigration was an obligation on the person able to do so (before the opening of Makkah). Our Prophet said, “A part of my nation shall stay steadfast to the truth in an apparent way and no one can

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harm them (in a way that makes their call disappear) until the Day of Judgment.” The Prophet did not say “until the last moment before the Day of Judgment”. So, we know that as long as the Nation of Prophet Muhammad exists, there will always be people of his nation steadfast to the truth and no one can cancel their call. At one point all the Muslims will die, after which only blasphemers will be on the Earth. Then the Day of Judgment will occur. All the Muslims die after Prophet Jesus dies. Also, among the small signs are that fornication and adultery, along with open drinking of alcohol, will be widely spread. Muslim narrated from the Prophet, “This Religion of Islam started as a stranger among the people. At one point of time it will again be like a stranger. This has already occurred. We are living in that time. This means that the one who adheres to applying the rules of the Religion will face great hardships among the people. This is the case nowadays, just as the Prophet said. The Guided One is Coming Among the small signs is the appearance of AlMahdiyy (The Guided) who is Muhammad the son of ^Abdullah. He is a pious, just person, from the lineage of the Prophet, who will enforce the rules of Islam. Abu Dawud related that our Prophet said, “The Day of Judgment will not occur until a person from my family appears. He will have the same name as mine and his father’s name will be the same name as my father’s 413

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name. He will spread justice on Earth just as injustice would be spread on Earth before his appearance.” This hadith is narrated in a number of books of Hadith. It is in the book compiled by Ibn Hibban ‘Sahih’, and Abu Dawud in ‘As-Sunan’ and Al-Hakim in his book ‘Al-Mustadrak’ and others. ^Abdullah Ibn Mas^ud is the Companion who heard the Prophet say this. A lot of Companions narrated hearing about the Mahdiyy from the Prophet. Other minor signs of the Day of Judgment cited by the Prophet are that the Euphrates River will change its course, so a big amount of gold will appear. Because of this, the people will fight each other severely to get that gold, to a point that 99% among those who fight for that gold will be killed. Also among the minor signs is that the believers will face very great hardships, to a point that a believer will pass by a grave of his Muslim brother and will wish that he were the dead person in the grave. Muslim narrated this from the Prophet. Another minor sign is that some whole mountains would be removed from their places. Another small sign is that several people will claim the status of Prophethood falsely. It is narrated that our Prophet said that thirty people would falsely claim Prophethood after him. This means at least thirty.

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A Great Battle to Come Our Prophet told us about a great battle that would take place between the Muslims and some people of the West before the coming forth of the Dajjal (a man claiming to be God). Al-Mahdiyy will be the leader of the Muslims. This battle will last for four days. The enemies of the Muslims will gather a very big army to fight the Muslims. In the first day some of the Muslims will retreat. At that, a part of the Muslims will make an oath that they would fight and never retreat. They will fight the rest of the day, until the night. Then the two armies will separate, the one from the other, during the night. Most of the Muslims who fight will die. On the second day another group of Muslims will do the same thing. Also, almost all of those Muslims will die. On the third day, also a third group of Muslims will do the same thing: fight and most of them are killed. On the fourth day, all the rest of the Muslims in the army will fight the enemy, all of them at the same time. On that fourth day, by the Will of God, the Muslims will be victorious and the enemy defeated. A lot among the Westerners will be killed, to the point that their dead bodies would cover a very large area. In the battle, the Muslims will lose many people, to a point that if one hundred persons go back to one grandfather, 99 of them will be killed, and one will survive. 415

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While they are in that situation, the news of the Dajjal (Imposter) will come to them. The Muslims will choose ten knights among them to check the roads, as scouts. The Prophet said that he knew about these ten knights. He knew their names, the names of their fathers, and even the color of their horses. The Prophet praised these knights highly, saying that they would be among the best knights on Earth at that time. These are only some of the small signs that the Prophet cited of the coming of the Day of Judgment.

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Chapter 77: The Ten Major Signs of the Coming of the Day of Judgment
The Imposter The first of the ten major signs of the Day of Judgment is the appearance of Ad-Dajjal (the Imposter). He is human that is alive now. He even was alive when the Prophet lived. He was found during the time of the Prophet chained up on an island. This imposter will come forth and proclaim that he is God. Many people will follow him. He will travel all over the Earth, but will not enter Makkah or Madinah. Ad-Dajjal will have two rivers, one that appears to be cool water and one that appears to be fire. The one that he throws into the river of fire will really go to Paradise. Ad-Dajjal will point to the sky and say rain, and the sky will rain. God creates this rain, but some will follow him in his saying that he is God. Ad-Dajjal will split a believing man in half and tell the two halves to come together and they will. Ad-Dajjal will ask that believing man if he now follows him and the believing man will say that he is surer that he is Ad-Dajjal. Then Ad-Dajjal will kill that believing man, dying as a great martyr.

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Prophet Jesus Will Come Back to Earth The second great sign is the descent of Prophet Jesus from the sky. Prophet Jesus will come down at Damascus, Syria. The Mahdiyy will be preparing to lead the believers in prayer. The Mahdiyy will ask Prophet Jesus to lead the prayer, but Prophet Jesus will tell him to lead that prayer, and he will follow. That is to indicate that Prophet Jesus did not come with a new set of laws. Then after that Prophet Jesus will lead the prayers. Remember, Prophet Muhammad is the last Prophet. Jesus was born before Prophet Muhammad. Also Prophet Muhammad received a new Holy Book, after Prophet Jesus received a Holy Book. Just because Prophet Jesus will die after Prophet Muhammad, does not make Prophet Jesus the last Prophet. Prophet Muhammad is the last Prophet, and the Book he received has the rules that Prophet Jesus will follow when Prophet Jesus comes back to Earth. Prophet Jesus will kill the Dajjal. Prophet Jesus will marry and have children and live for 40 years on Earth. Then he will die. During his time on Earth a great peace will occur with all the people being Muslim. Then, Prophet Jesus will die and be buried next to Prophet Muhammad, in Madinah. After the death of Prophet Jesus, at one point all the other Muslims on Earth will die. Then only blasphemers will be on the Earth.

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The Appearance of Gog and Magog The third is the appearance of Ya’juj and Ma’juj (Gog and Magog). They are blasphemous people, humans from Prophet Adam, who exist now. They are extremely numerous. God put them in a place in this Earth unknown to us. It is a concealed place. A great waliyy, Dhul-Qarnayn built a wall to prevent them from harming the other people. This is cited in Suratul-Kahf in the Qur’an. Before the Day of Judgment they will make a hole in that wall. Then they will come out on to Earth. They will cause a lot of tribulations for the other people on Earth. They are so numerous that they will come to a lake drink the whole lake leaving it dry. Prophet Jesus will take the believers to Mt. Tur (Sinai) protecting them from Ya’juj and Ma’juj. Then God will make a worm enter the necks of Ya’juj and Ma’juj. They all will die. The Earth will smell from all their rotting bodies. Then God will make all their bodies go into the sea and the smell will leave. The Sun will Rise from the West, and an Animal will Appear Another of the ten signs is the rising of the sun from the west instead of the east. It will happen one day. On that same day ‘Dabbatul-Ard’ (the animal of the Earth) will appear. This animal will put a mark on the believers and a different mark on the blasphemers. When these 419

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two signs occur, the gate of repentance will be closed, after which no repentance will be accepted. Belief will not be accepted from any blasphemous person, and repentance of a sin will not be accepted from any sinner. A Fog Another of the ten signs is a fog. A fog will spread on Earth. The blasphemers will feel very disturbed and would feel himself suffocating. However they will not be killed from this fog. The believer would not be harmed a lot from this fog. The believers will just have the feeling similar to having a cold. Three-Earth Splits Three of the ten signs are three-Earth splits. In three separate places, the Earth would split and go down. One will be in the East, one in the West, and the third in the Arabian Peninsula. (East means east of the Arabian Peninsula, and west means west of the Arabian Peninsula). There is not a long period of time between these three splits. A Spreading Fire Another of the ten signs is a fire that will spread slowly. It will start in ^Adan, a city in Yemen. This fire will spread slowly, not fast like the wind. People will

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escape from this fire to the Western areas, meaning west of the Arabian Peninsula. One hundred years before the horn is blown the first time, all the believers will die. God will send a good breeze that will take their souls and cause their death. After all of these 10 signs occur, Angel Israfil will blow the horn for the first time. He will blow very strongly into that horn. All the people alive on Earth at that time will be blasphemers. They will be very afraid from this blow. The first one to hear that blow will be a person fixing the basin for his camels to drink. Due to the strength of that blow, the hearts of those blasphemers will rupture and all will die. All the living jinn will die also. All those who had already died will faint, except the souls of the martyrs in Paradise. Concerning Prophet Moses, Prophet Muhammad told us that God gave the mountain the power to see God, and the mountain totally crumbled. When Moses saw that he fainted. Hence, the Prophet said that he did not know whether or not Moses would faint when the horn will be blown the first time. Among the things that occur before that first blow is that people will not inhabit Al-Madinah. Only animals will be there. An unjust ruler from Abyssinia will destroy the Ka^bah to take a treasure from underneath it. These things occur after all the Muslims on the Earth die. As long as this nation (followers of Prophet Muhammad) is on Earth, belief will remain in Al-Madinah. Pious people will be living in Al-Madinah, as our Prophet told us. Also our Prophet told us that there was a great merit in the land of Ash-Sham. He said that angels cover these countries with their wings. This means that the Religion 421

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of Islam will always be practiced in that land despite hardships and calamities. This takes place until all the Muslims on Earth die. Forty years after the first blow, God will resurrect Angel Israfil. He will blow the horn a second time, after which all the people will be resurrected. God will send a rain on the Earth. The people will be resurrected, just as the plants come out of the earth when it rains.

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Chapter 78: The Day of Judgment
The beginning of the Day of Judgment is the rising of the humans out of their graves. This is why the Day of Judgment is called the Day of Qiyamah, meaning the Day people rise out of their graves. The first person to be resurrected is Prophet Muhammad, then the people of Makkah, then Madinah, then Ta’if. They will be the first people to be resurrected with our Prophet. Even the animals will be resurrected on the Day of Judgment. However, after they get their rights they will be turned to dust. The animals are neither rewarded with Paradise, nor are they tortured in Hellfire. The people will be gathered on this same Earth that will be changed. This Earth will be changed, but not destroyed. It will be flat with no mountains or valleys. The mountains will become like dust. It will be white like silver with no landmarks. When the people have been resurrected and gathered on the changed Earth, the sun will be much closer to their heads, as narrated by the Prophet in a sahih hadith, narrated by Muslim in his “Sahih” and at-Tirmidhiyy in his “Sunan” and others. The Prophet said that on the Day of Judgment, the sun would be closer to the slaves, about one or two miles away. This word “mile” may be something other than the distance we use to measure. Nevertheless, it means that the sun will be very close to people.

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Our Prophet said that some of the people on that Day would be very affected by the sun. They would sweat profusely. The sweat of some will cover their feet. The sweat of others will reach their knees. For some it will cover their whole lower body. Some would have their sweat reach their mouth. The level of sweat increases with the level of sinning. Each will have his sweat unmixed with the sweat of others. With the sun so close, some of the people will be shaded and will not be hurt by the sun. These are the Prophets and their pious followers. They will be shaded under Al-^Arsh, the largest creation. In a hadith, Prophet Muhammad tells us about seven kinds of people that will be shaded from the sun by the ^Arsh on the Day of Judgment. They will be on shining high places on the Day of Judgment. The seven kinds are: 1. The just ruler. Despite being in a position of power over people, he controls himself and is just with the people. 2. The one who grows up adhering to the obedience of God and stayed away from sinning even when young. 3. The one who is attached to the mosque. It is hard for the person to overcome his bad inclinations and come back to the mosque for every prayer. The one who overcomes his weaknesses and loves to come to the mosque for every prayer reaches a high status. 4. The people who love each other for the sake of God. They advise each other to do good deeds and to leave the bad deeds. They come together for the sake of God and leave each other for the sake of God.

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5. The one who is called to fornication by a woman of high social status and beauty and says, “I fear God. I will not do that”. 6. The one who pays charity in secret, to the extent that his left hand does not know what his right hand does. 7. The one who mentions God when he is alone, and cries out of fearing Him. The Prophets and martyrs will feel delighted for these people due to their special status and the endowment they get. In Al-Bukhariyy’s Sahih, and At-Tirmidhiyy’s Sunan, the Prophet said that the people on the Day of Judgment would be gathered like they were first created, without shoes on their feet, without clothes covering their bodies, and uncircumcised. However, some people, like the Prophets, will not be naked. The people would have the same parts of their body that they had when they were born. The Prophet recited a verse of the Qur’an that means, “Just as God created the people at the beginning, God will recreate them.” God said that and this is what shall happen. The first one to be clothed among the people will be Prophet Abraham. When we say, “clothed”, it does not mean that before that Prophet Abraham would be resurrected with his area between the navel and knees bare. Instead it means that he will be the first to receive special clothes. The Prophets will not go through a stage of being naked on the Day of Judgment. According to a saying there are two basins. One basin is before crossing the bridge, and the other is on the land 425

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after crossing the bridge. Our Prophet said that some people that he knew to be his Companions would be drawn away from the first basin. The angels would draw them away from it. The Prophet would say, “O God, these are my Companions.” The Prophet would be told, “O Muhammad, you do not know what they did after you. After you died they apostatized, leaving Islam.” The Prophet would then say, “What a low grade is the grade of the person who apostatizes after my death”. After the Resurrection, the Questioning and the Presentation of the Deeds will begin.

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Chapter 79: The Questioning (Al-Hisab)
The Day of Judgment is 50,000 years long and has 50 stations. Each station lasts 1000 years. The first of the 50 stations is the station of being asked four questions. All the people will be questioned about their deeds. God will enable every slave to hear God’s speech. They will understand that God is questioning them about what they did with all the endowments that God endowed upon them. The pious believer will feel a great deal of happiness. As for the blasphemer, he will not be happy. The blasphemers will be so devastated about what they hear that if death were to occur in the Hereafter, they would die as a result. Yet they do not die. In a hadith narrated by Ahmad and At-Tirmidhiyy, the Prophet said, “Everyone among you will hear the speech of God on the Day of Judgment without the need for anyone to interpret the meaning of this Speech.” They will know the real meaning. This event of everyone hearing the Speech of God does not take a long time. God told us that in the Qur’an in verse 62 of Suratul-An^am and verse 202 of SuratulBaqarah. This is a proof that the Speech of God is not sounds, or made up of letters, because if the Speech of God were like the speech of the creation, it would take a long time for everyone, one by one to be questioned by God. It would have taken longer than the 50,000 years of the Day of Judgment, and this is only one stage of the Day of Judgment. Each one of us does numerous deeds. Some creations live very long as well. The Devil 427

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remains alive until the first horn blow. If the Speech of God were like our speech, it would take an extremely long time to question the Devil exclusively about all the evil deeds he did. Yet God said that the Questioning is very quick. This proves that the Speech of God does not resemble the speech of the creation in any way. When the people are first gathered on the Day of Judgment, in the first stage, no one will move even one step except after being asked about four matters. This is narrated in a hadith narrated by At-Tirmidhiyy. The four questions are: 1. What did you do with the knowledge that you acquired? 2. What did you do with the money you acquired? 3. What did you do with the body that you were given? 4. What did you do with the time you were given? How did you spend it? Among the matters that occurred among people, the first to be judged and settled will be the matters of bloodshed. Imam ^Aliyy, may God bless him greatly said, “I am the first one who will kneel down on the Day of Judgment asking for the judgment of my disputes with others.” Is he first other than the Prophets? Is he first of this nation excluding Muhammad? This is among the people of the nation of Prophet Muhammad. As you learn history, you will know that many Muslims fought Imam ^Aliyy unjustly. On the Day of Judgment, the one who is in the right will be apparent. It will be clear who is right and who is wrong. ^Aliyy

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knew this because it was revealed to the Prophet and the Prophet told him. The Day of Judgment is the Day when all get their rights. The Prophet said that the one who did injustice to his brother or sister, let him clear himself from this injustice before a Day comes on which he cannot use either the dinar or the dirham to clear himself of this injustice. In a hadith narrated by Muslim in As-Sahih and AtTirmidhiyy in As-Sunan, the Prophet said everyone would get his right on the Day of Judgment to a point that the sheep that had horns and butted a sheep without horns in this life would, on the Day of Judgment, be butted by the one who did not have horns in this life. God would give that sheep, on the Day of Judgment, horns with which to butt. After the animals get justice on the Day of Judgment, they will all be turned to dust. No animal will be tortured in Hellfire. The blasphemers, when they see that, will say how they wish to be like that: turned to dust. Instead, they will continue to suffer until they meet the ultimate suffering of Hellfire that will last forever. Complete justice will occur on that Day. God will give all their rights. That is why some pious people, when hit unjustly in this life, do not retaliate. They say, “I leave that for the Day of Judgment”. They have a deep faith in the reality of the coming of the Day of Judgment. At one station on the Day of Judgment, God will make the blasphemers unable to speak. Then instead of them speaking voluntarily, their skin, hands and legs will testify about what they did during their life. Even the

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ground will testify on the Day of Judgment about what the people did on it, as we know from the Qur’an in Suratuz-Zalzalah. Our Prophet, as narrated by At-Tirmidhiyy in AsSunan, recited verse 4 of Suratuz-Zalzalah. This verse means that on that Day the Earth will tell its news. Then the Prophet asked his Companions, “Do you know its news?” They said, “God and His Messenger know best”. The Prophet said, “On that Day the Earth will testify about what the people did on it. The spot where the person disobeyed God will talk on the Day of Judgment and it will say that so and so did such and such a thing at that time. Also the spot where the person did a good deed will testify on the Day of Judgment. It will say, “So and so did such and such good thing at that time…”. The Prophet said, “This is the news of the Earth.” On that Day every person is given the book in which the angels recorded his deeds. The believer will receive his book by his right hand. The blasphemer will receive his book with his left hand from behind his back. Some of the people will be happy when they see their books, and others will feel so bad. The people will see all their deeds written it their book. Receiving the book will be made easy for some. They will receive their book, without being questioned about everything in their book. These people would be safe on that Day, because the one who will be questioned severely that Day about everything will be tortured, as the Prophet told us. ^A’ishah said that she heard from the Prophet that the one who would be questioned severely about everything on the Day of Judgment would be a loser and would be 430

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tortured. Then ^A’ishah said to the Prophet, “God said in the Qur’an a verse that means, ‘As to the one who will receive his book by his right hand, he will be questioned lightly’.” The Prophet told her, “That is only the presentation of the deeds. The one whom God did not will to be tortured will not be questioned about every deed he did.” This was narrated by At-Tirmidhiyy. A narration in As-Sahih of Muslim helps to clarify the last hadith cited. From this hadith, we know that the word “hisab” has more that one meaning. In the verse of the Qur’an that ^A’ishah cited, hisab means, “the presenting of the deeds” and not severe questioning. In other cases, the word hisab means the severe questioning about everything in the book that is only done to those who will be tortured. When the Prophets are questioned on the Day of Judgment, it is done to show their merit and not as a reprimand. The Prophets have no sins written in their books. The only sin that possibly could have occurred from a Prophet will be a small sin without meanness. If a Prophet did that kind of sin, he would immediately repent of it, even before Prophethood. The angel that writes the sins does not write a sin immediately. The angel waits for a certain period of time for the person to repent. Hence, the Prophets do not even have any sins written in the first place, because if they did a small non-mean sin, they repented immediately. Even a person who does get a sin written for him will get it erased if he repents. Among the people who die with sins written for them, some will have those sins

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concealed by God, out of His generosity, on the Day of Judgment, and they will not be exposed.

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Chapter 80: The Balance (Al-Mizan)
On the Day of Judgment will be a Balance. It is a real instrument similar to the balance in this life having two bars connected at the fulcrum with two pans. One of the pans will be for the good deeds, and the other will be for the bad deeds. The deeds of each person will be weighed in this Balance. This Balance is huge, much bigger than the usual Balance you see in this life. God said in the Qur’an that the weighing on that Day is very accurate and just. Some scholars interpret from the texts that on that Day God turns the deeds into objects and these objects will be placed in the pans. Other scholars interpret that that books written by the two angels will be the things that are weighed. Whether is it the one way or the other, definitely the deeds of all the people will be weighed in the Balance. The two special angels of high rank, Gabriel (Jibril) and Michael (Mika’il), will be the ones controlling this weighing of the deeds on the Day of Judgment. The ones whose good deeds have more weight will be safe. Those who have equal good and bad deeds will have a status lower than those first ones. The ones with equal good and bad deeds will have a higher status than the ones whose bad deeds outweigh their good deeds. All those who have more bad deeds than good deserve torture, but some God will forgive.

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The Muslims with more good deeds than bad will enter Paradise without torture. They will not be in need of intercession from any creation. Also, the ones with equal good and bad deeds will not be tortured, but are not of the highest level. They will have to remain on a wall for a period of time. This wall surrounds Paradise. It is a very wide wall. They will wait for the first type to enter Paradise. Then they will be admitted into Paradise. Those Muslims whose bad deeds outweigh their good deeds will be the ones who died without repenting of enormous sins. They deserve to be tortured by God. They are under the Will of God. If God does not forgive them, they will be tortured in Hellfire. Some will receive intercession and get out of Hellfire before the time they deserved to get. Some will not get intercession and will receive severe punishment in Hellfire. It is known for sure that some of the Muslims will suffer in Hellfire before entering Paradise. However, no one who dies as a Muslim will remain forever in Hellfire. Some Muslims on the Day of Judgment would be “bankrupt”. Those are the Muslims who did some obedience, but wronged other Muslims. Those wronged Muslims will take from his rewards. If he runs out of rewards for the people to take, the sins of those wronged Muslims will be added to his sins. He will fall in Hellfire, and be one of the Muslims who will first suffer in Hellfire before entering Paradise. Ibn Hibban and Muslim narrated this from the Prophet. There is a hadith saying that on the Day of Judgment a person will not remember any good deeds that he did. Then the angels will bring a tablet with the Shahadatan 434

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written on it and put it in his pan of good deeds. This is because the person was a Muslim, having said and believed the Shahadatan. Just this tablet will outweigh all of the bad deeds of this person, even though this was not a pious person. (Of course this does not happen for every Muslim because some Muslims will suffer in Hellfire before going to Paradise.) The blasphemer will not have any good deeds in the pan of good deeds. God already compensated any good deed that he did in his life in his earthly life. God gives him food and water during his earthly life because of the good deeds that he did. However he will not get reward in the Hereafter because he neglected the first obligation: to believe in God and His Messenger. All the reward that God gives is from God’s mercy. It is not an obligation on God to reward the obedient people. Once the Prophet said, “No one’s deeds admit him into Paradise.” The Prophet was asked, “Even you O Messenger of God?” The Prophet said, “Even me, except if God endows His mercy on me. Seek the correct path.” God rewards whomsoever He wills out of His generosity, and punishes whomsoever He wills out of His justice. God promises to reward the believers, but God is not obligated to reward them.

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Chapter 81: The Bridge (As-Sirat)
The Bridge is a wide physical body stretched over Hellfire. All the people will go to it on the Day of Judgment. It is smooth, very slippery and dangerous. The entrance of the bridge is on the changed Earth, and the exit is on the land before Paradise. The changed Earth will not be at the same level as Paradise. Paradise will be much higher. Some of the people will not get across the bridge and instead will fall off of it into Hellfire. Those who will fall immediately are the blasphemers. Some of the Muslims who were enormous sinners will step on it and then fall. Others will step on the bridge and cross to the other end. Some will almost fall in, but will not. On the sides of the bridge are hooks. Some people will be dragged by these hooks and be close to falling in Hellfire. Then they will be saved after being scratched and scared by these hooks. Some will cross above the bridge without stepping on it or touching it at all. Some will cross as quickly as lightening and others will cross as quickly as the blink of an eye. The speed of the people going over the bridge is according to the deeds they did in this life. When a nation of a Prophet starts to cross the bridge, this Prophet will start to make du^a’ for these people crossing the bridge, asking God to grant them safety. The Prophet said that the bridge is sharper than a sword and thinner than a hair. This is not literal. It means that the bridge is very dangerous because crossing 436

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it easily is contingent upon the amount of obedience a person did, and no one knows the exact amount they have except God. It was narrated in the hadith that the people cross the bridge in accordance with their deeds.

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Chapter 82: Intercession (Shafa^ah)
Prophet Muhammad spoke of several points, on the Day of Judgment, when God will allow intercession. Intercession is the asking of one for the help of another. On the Day of Judgment, some creations will ask God to help creations other than themselves. Let it be known that the intercession on the Day of Judgment will only be for believers, that is, Muslims. As we said, the Muslims are of two types on the Day of Judgment: Muslims who are not tortured, and Muslims who are tortured but will finally get to Paradise. The Muslims who are tortured are called “great sinners who were not forgiven”. Those Muslims, who were great sinners and were not forgiven, will have various tortures and humiliations, we ask God not to be among them. When the Muslims who are able to intercede see those other Muslims being tortured, they will ask God to lessen their fellow Muslim’s torture, or make it end before the time they deserve. One point when intercession will take place is when the heat of the sun tortures some Muslims. Another time is after crossing the Bridge. After crossing the Bridge, some Muslims will have fallen into Hellfire. Other Muslims, who made it across the bridge, will ask God to take their fellow Muslims out of Hellfire, before the time they deserve. The Prophets will intercede for their own followers. As well as Prophets, other creations are granted the ability to intercede. Some of these are: angels, practicing

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scholars of Islam, martyrs for seventy of their family members, and children for their Muslim parents. Prophet Muhammad said that his intercession is for the major sinners of his Nation. Prophet Muhammad also said that the one who visited his grave would receive his intercession. God said in the Qur’an in verse 28 of Suratul-Ambiya’ that the intercessors do not intercede except for those who died as Muslims.

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Chapter 83: The Basin (Al-Hawd)
When Muslims cross the bridge they come to a land before Paradise. On this land is a Basin (al-Hawd). There is a basin for each Prophet. Our Prophet said that the water of Paradise pours into his basin. This is the river Al-Kawthar, cited in the Qur’an, given to Prophet Muhammad. The people drink from this basin before entering Paradise. The length and width of the basin is each one-month walk long. It has containers to use to drink, as many as the stars in the sky. The drink, which is in it, is whiter than milk, sweeter than honey, and more fragrant than the musk. Although God prepared a basin for every Prophet, the basin of our Prophet Muhammad is the biggest. The people that drink from the basin are of two types. One type drinks from the basin out of pleasure only, without thirst. The other type drinks because of thirst. That thirst that the second type feel will be the last thirst they will ever feel. Then after they drink from the basin, they will never be thirsty again.

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The Coming Day of Judgment

Chapter 84: Hellfire (Jahannam)
Hellfire is already created. The fire of Hellfire was lit for one thousand years until it was red, then for another thousand years until it was white, then for another thousand years until it was black. It is a black fire. The blasphemers will be in Hellfire forever, without dying or their torture lessening; they will only get more. There is also a place of Hellfire, with unbearable cold. There are scorpions that torture them. The people of Hellfire will drink from boiling hot water and pus. They will eat things that will torture them. The blasphemers in Hellfire will mock the Muslims that get in Hellfire. They will say, “Look, you are here also. Your faith did not benefit you”. Then the Muslims will be taken out of Hellfire and only the blasphemers will remain in that misery. Every time a batch of people fall into Hellfire, Hellfire will be asked “Are you full?” and Hellfire will ask, “Are there any more?” and it will not be full. Finally, God makes the last batch fall into Hellfire and Hellfire will say, “Enough, enough, I am full”. Then the parts of Hellfire will come together to surround the people on every side. Hellfire does not have a soul, but God has the Power to enable the things that do not have a soul to speak. God has the Power to create recognition in creations without souls. On the Day of Judgment, the idols that people worshipped in this life will be thrown in Hellfire. The people of Hellfire will be told, “Had these idols been 441

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gods as you claimed, they would not have entered Hellfire”. As to Paradise, it will not be full by the people who will enter it. Then God will create creatures that will inhabit the extra room in Paradise.

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Chapter 85: Paradise (Al-Jannah)
The first to enter Paradise is Prophet Muhammad. Prophet Muhammad will take the ring of the door of Paradise, which is used for knocking. The Prophet will move that ring and the angel of the door will say, “You are the one for whom I was ordered to open. Not anyone will enter before you.” The nation of Prophet Muhammad is the first nation to enter Paradise. The first batch of Prophet Muhammad’s followers is made up of 70,000 Muslims who will enter Paradise without being questioned severely or tortured. Their faces will be shining like the sun or the full moon. With every 1000 of these 70,000, 70,000 enter Paradise. This is 4,900,000. This is only part of the people of this nation who enter Paradise. The second group of 70,000 has faces shining like stars. They praise God. Two thirds of the people of Paradise will be from the nation of Prophet Muhammad and the other one third are from all the other nations. Paradise is already prepared and existing. Paradise is created by God, Who has willed that it will not be demolished. Prophet Adam first lived in Paradise, and then went to Earth. Hence, we know that Paradise has been existent for a long time. On the night of the Night Journey and Ascension Prophet Muhammad said, “I entered Paradise and saw that most of its inhabitants will be the poor believing people”. Paradise is above the

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seventh heaven. Paradise is not connected to the seventh heaven. Part of al-^Arsh is its ceiling. Paradise has levels, with the highest level being AlFirdaws. The rivers of Paradise spring from Firdaws. Four of them are rivers of water, milk, honey, and wine that does not intoxicate. These are not the only rivers of Paradise. There are 100 levels of Paradise. The distance between each rank is like the distance between the Earth and the first heaven. Paradise is very wide. It is much wider than Hellfire. The Prophet said that there are a lot of gardens in Paradise. There are no ruins. In Paradise, there are two specific gardens. They have all the furniture and the containers that people need, all made of gold. There are two others with the things made of silver. God gives some description of Paradise in SuratulGhashiyah. Some of this description is that Paradise has running water that does not get contaminated like the water on Earth. Paradise has places to sit, made of gold decorated with different types of jewels, such as rubies and emeralds. These seats are high except when the people of Paradise come to sit on them. When the person wants to sit on them the seat comes down to the person. The seat will then go high so that the people that sit on them will see the wonders of Paradise. Paradise has goblets to drink from put next to the water. Paradise has pillows to lean comfortably against. Paradise has the finest carpets spread for the delight of the believers. Paradise has trees and every one has a trunk of gold.

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The Prophet said that in Paradise is a very wide tree. If one spent 100 years riding a quick horse one will not leave its shade. From that magnificent tree, the clothes of the people of Paradise come. When the trees of Paradise sway, they give a beautiful sound, much more beautiful than music. The people will love this sound. Some people in Paradise will have such high chambers, that other people will point to their high chambers like we point to the stars of the sky. Each person in Paradise will have many servants who are delightful. The least person in Paradise will have 100,000 of these servants, carrying trays of gold and silver, for serving. These servants are youths, who were not people of the Earth. They are very beautiful, like untouched pearls. The buildings of Paradise are made from gold and silver bricks. The mortar for these bricks is musk with a very strong fragrance. Some homes are one gigantic hollowed pearl, 60 miles high and wide. The pebbles of Paradise are all precious stones and pearls. The combs are of gold. The incense burners contain al-^Ud, the most expensive fragrance. The ^Ud of Paradise does not need fire in order to release a scent. The perspiration of the people of Paradise is musk. Instead of urine and defecation, this is released after eating and drinking,. The men of Paradise have at least two wives. They will be so beautiful and pure to the point that he can see the inside of the bones of their legs. None of the people of Paradise dispute or hate each other. Their hearts are all like one heart, loving each other. Some men will have many more than two wives. The women have one husband and feel happy about that. 445

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All people of Paradise will be at the age of 33 years. No one is unmarried in Paradise. Even the small baby that dies after he is just born will be married in Paradise. There will be more women than men in Paradise. We know this because men will have more than one wife, and all the people will be married. Some of the women in Paradise are called Hurul-^In, who are not descendants of Adam. They never lived on Earth, yet they will be suitable for men who lived on Earth. Their name means that the iris of their eye is very black and the white of their eye is very white. They have big, beautiful eyes. These women will be given as wives, in Paradise, to men who lived on this Earth. If a married couple were Muslim, then they will be married in Paradise. The believing woman in Paradise, one who lived on this Earth with all the struggles, will have a much higher status in Paradise than the Hurul-^In. The wife in Paradise will not be jealous of the other wives. Everyone will be happy and satisfied and will have whatever their heart wishes for. They will not have children, and will not wish to have children. They will never be tired, poor, or sad. The married couples have sexual intercourse in Paradise. Paradise has animals that are all good animals, not nasty ones that bother people. The horses of Paradise fly. The people of Paradise praise God with no difficulty, just like we take a breath in this life. The people of Paradise praise God, in the times that equate to the morning and the sunset, but there is no sun and there is no day and night. There is no darkness in Paradise. Paradise is full of light and is shining. There

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will be signs that let the people know when a day has passed instead of having a sunrise and sunset. The women wear something covering their head that does not hide the beauty of their hair. If a piece of this material came to this Earth, the whole Earth would shine. If a part of the finger of this woman appeared in this life, it would illuminate all of it. Some scholars said that in Paradise the humans see the jinn and the jinn do not see the humans, but we do not know a hadith about this. The people of Paradise have the form of their forefather, Adam, being tall, 60 cubits tall and seven cubits wide. They will all have beautiful shapes. They will not have the body hair that bothers people, but will have beautiful head hair and beautiful eyebrows. The men will not have beards. There is no mucus to spit in Paradise, and no blowing of the nose. Nor is there urinating or defecating. All the enjoyments of this life compared to the enjoyments of Paradise are like a trace of water on a dipped needle compared to the water of the ocean. The last Muslims to get out of Hellfire will exit like a burnt black coal, except for the parts of their bodies that touched the ground in prostration. Then, those burnt Muslims will be immersed in a special river of water. When they come out of the river they will be changed immediately to a very nice shape. Then they will enter Paradise. We humbly ask our Almighty God to grant us entrance into Paradise, enjoying its pleasures forever! O God, protect us from any torture in the Hereafter. O 447

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God, guide us and forgive our sins. We ask You for all of this, O God, by the status of our honorable Prophet Muhammad, the Prophet of mercy! Praise and thanks to God Almighty, the Lord of the Worlds, the One high above having a son or any partner. God knows best.

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