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# Electrodynamometer Type Instrument

Transfer Instrument:
• Calibrated with a DC source and then used without modification
to measure AC

## • Electrodynamics instruments are capable of service as transfer

instrument.
– In these instruments
instruments, the field can be made to reverse simultaneously
with the current in the movable coil if the field coil is connected in series
with the movable coil.
Construction:
• The field is produced by a fixed coil
– Th
The coil
il is
i divided
di id d into
i t two
t sections
ti to
t give
i a more uniform
if field
fi ld near
the centre and to allow passage of shaft

## • The wire of fixed coil is stranded where necessary

– to reduce eddy current loss in conductors

## • The coils are usually varnished and baked to form a solid

assembly
– This makes the construction rigid so that there is no shifting or change
in dimension
Moving coil:
• Single element instrument has one moving coil
– wounded either as a self-sustaining
g coil or on a non-metallic former
• to avoid eddy current induced by the alternating field
• Light but rigid construction is used
• Both:
B th fixed
fi d andd moving
i coils
il are air
i cored.
d
Control:
• Controlling torque is provided by two control spring
Moving System
• Moving coil is mounted on an aluminum spindle
• Also carries the counter weight and truss type pointer
• Suspension
S i may be b usedd in
i case off high
hi h sensitivity
iti it
• Torque
q Equation
q
i1 → instantaneous value of current in fixed coil; A
i2 → instantaneous value of current in moving coil; A
L1 → self inductance of fixed coil; H
L2 → self inductance of moving coil; H
M → Mutual inductance between fixed and moving coil

## Detailed formula is explained on the board.

Electrodynamometer Ammeter:
• In this case, the fixed and moving coils are connected in series
and, therefore carry the same current.
I1 = I2 = I and φ = 0.
Formulae is explained on the board.

• The
h current should
h ld not exceedd 100mA.
• For ammeters of higher capacity, the moving coil is shunted
across by a low resistance
– to limit the current through moving coil to 100mA.
Electrodynamometer Voltmeter:
• The electrodynamometer movement is used as a voltmeter
– by connecting the fixed and moving coils in series with a high non-
non
inductive resistance.
Formulae is explained on the board.
Advantage
• As
A th
the coils
il are air
i cored,
d these
th instruments
i t t are free
f from
f
hysteresis and eddy current errors
• They have a precision grade accuracy for frequencies from 40
up to 500 Hz.
• Can be used on both AC and DC.
Disadvantage
• They have a low torque/weight ratio
– hence, have a low sensitivity
• They are more expensive than either the PMMC or the MI type
• Sensitive
S iti to t overloads
l d andd mechanical
h i l impacts
i t
– Must be handled with great care
Thermocouple Instrument

## • When two metals having different work functions are placed

together, a voltage is generated at the junction.
– Thi
This voltage
lt is
i nearlyl proportional
ti l to
t the
th temperature.
t t
– This junction is called a Thermocouple.
– convert heat energy to electrical energy.

## • The heat at the junction is produced by the electrical current

flowing in the heater element.
– Therefore
Therefore, the scale of PMMC instrument can be calibrated to read the
current passing through the heater

## • Used for AC and DC applications

Electrostatic Instrument
• The deflecting torque is produced by the action of electric field
on charged conductors.
• They are essentially voltmeters
– But, may also be used with the help of external components to measure
current and power
p

## Two ways in which the force act:

– when two oppositely charged electrodes are considered, one of them is
fixed and other is movable.
• due to the force of attraction, the movable electrode is drawn towards the
fixed one.
– when there are forces of attraction or repulsion or both between the
electrodes which cause rotary motion of the moving electrodes.

## – In both the cases

cases, the mechanism indicates a variable capacitor and the
force or torque is related to the moving system.