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Electrodynamometer Type Instrument

Transfer Instrument:
• Calibrated with a DC source and then used without modification
to measure AC

• Electrodynamics instruments are capable of service as transfer

– In these instruments
instruments, the field can be made to reverse simultaneously
with the current in the movable coil if the field coil is connected in series
with the movable coil.
• The field is produced by a fixed coil
– Th
The coil
il is
i divided
di id d into
i t two
t sections
ti to
t give
i a more uniform
if field
fi ld near
the centre and to allow passage of shaft

• The wire of fixed coil is stranded where necessary

– to reduce eddy current loss in conductors

• The coils are usually varnished and baked to form a solid

– This makes the construction rigid so that there is no shifting or change
in dimension
Moving coil:
• Single element instrument has one moving coil
– wounded either as a self-sustaining
g coil or on a non-metallic former
• to avoid eddy current induced by the alternating field
• Light but rigid construction is used
• Both:
B th fixed
fi d andd moving
i coils
il are air
i cored.
• Controlling torque is provided by two control spring
Moving System
• Moving coil is mounted on an aluminum spindle
• Also carries the counter weight and truss type pointer
• Suspension
S i may be b usedd in
i case off high
hi h sensitivity
iti it
• Torque
q Equation
i1 → instantaneous value of current in fixed coil; A
i2 → instantaneous value of current in moving coil; A
L1 → self inductance of fixed coil; H
L2 → self inductance of moving coil; H
M → Mutual inductance between fixed and moving coil

Detailed formula is explained on the board.

Electrodynamometer Ammeter:
• In this case, the fixed and moving coils are connected in series
and, therefore carry the same current.
I1 = I2 = I and φ = 0.
Formulae is explained on the board.

• The
h current should
h ld not exceedd 100mA.
• For ammeters of higher capacity, the moving coil is shunted
across by a low resistance
– to limit the current through moving coil to 100mA.
Electrodynamometer Voltmeter:
• The electrodynamometer movement is used as a voltmeter
– by connecting the fixed and moving coils in series with a high non-
inductive resistance.
Formulae is explained on the board.
• As
A th
the coils
il are air
i cored,
d these
th instruments
i t t are free
f from
hysteresis and eddy current errors
• They have a precision grade accuracy for frequencies from 40
up to 500 Hz.
• Can be used on both AC and DC.
• They have a low torque/weight ratio
– hence, have a low sensitivity
• They are more expensive than either the PMMC or the MI type
• Sensitive
S iti to t overloads
l d andd mechanical
h i l impacts
i t
– Must be handled with great care
Thermocouple Instrument

• When two metals having different work functions are placed

together, a voltage is generated at the junction.
– Thi
This voltage
lt is
i nearlyl proportional
ti l to
t the
th temperature.
t t
– This junction is called a Thermocouple.
– convert heat energy to electrical energy.

• The heat at the junction is produced by the electrical current

flowing in the heater element.
– Therefore
Therefore, the scale of PMMC instrument can be calibrated to read the
current passing through the heater

• Used for AC and DC applications

Electrostatic Instrument
• The deflecting torque is produced by the action of electric field
on charged conductors.
• They are essentially voltmeters
– But, may also be used with the help of external components to measure
current and power

Two ways in which the force act:

– when two oppositely charged electrodes are considered, one of them is
fixed and other is movable.
• due to the force of attraction, the movable electrode is drawn towards the
fixed one.
– when there are forces of attraction or repulsion or both between the
electrodes which cause rotary motion of the moving electrodes.

– In both the cases

cases, the mechanism indicates a variable capacitor and the
force or torque is related to the moving system.