Case Analysis —— Handover

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Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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References
BSC Counter Reference(V900R008C12) BSS KPI Reference(V900R008C12)

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Objectives
Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:
Understand the Measurement Points and Performance Index of handover Analyze, locate and solve handover problems

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Ltd.Contents 1. Page3 3 . Handover Process Flow 2.. All rights reserved. Analysis of Handover Problem 4. Handover Cases Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Measurement Points and Performance Index of Handover 3.

O request(7) BTS1 Preprocessed MR (3) Channel active (5) BSC2 BTS2 BA2 table(1) MS MR(2) Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. •If the target cell is an internal cell. BSC identifies the CGI of all adjacent cells through BCCH frequency and BSIC . MSC searches the target cell. BSC send the “channel active” to the BTS. Page4 •BCCH frequencies of all adjacent cells in BA2 table are sent to MS on system message. •BSC executes handover judgment flow such as basic cell ranking. Once the cell is found. Once a proper target cell is found. •When the measurement report is preprocessed. then send the handover request message to that MSC. the handover request message which includes the target cell CGI will be sent to BSC. and send the handover request message to this BSC. Ltd. •If there is no CGI of the target cell in local MSC. 4 .O (8) BSC1 CGI(6) H. MSC will confirm which BSC is belonged to. MSC will check “Adjacent MSC Table" and search the target MSC. It includes the BCCH . BSIC and signal level of the adjacent cells and serving cells.Handover Process Flow MSC2 Handover judgement(4) Search target cell(7) MSC1 Inter-MSC H. •If the target cell is an external cell. •MS reports measurement report to BSC. •By matching the CGI of the target cell. All rights reserved.. both the CGI of the target cell and that of service cell are sent to MSC via the handover required.

Contents 1. All rights reserved. Page5 5 . Handover Cases Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Measurement Points and Performance Index of Handover 3. Handover Process Flow 2.. Analysis of Handover Problem 4.

Page6 6 . All rights reserved..Measurement Points of Intra BSC Handover MS BTS1(target) BSC BTS2 or BTS1(original) Measure Report from MS CH300: Internal Intra-Cell Handover Requests CH320: Incoming Internal Inter-Cell Handover Requests CH310: Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover Requests MS MSC Channel_Acive Channel_Active_Ack Handover Command (Old FACCH) Handover Access (New FACCH) Handover_Detect PHYINFO PHYINFO First SABM UA Establish_IND CH301: Internal Intra-Cell Handover Commands CH321: Incoming Internal Inter-Cell Handover Responses (Incoming Internal Inter-Cell Handovers) CH311: Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover Commands Handover Complete (New FACCH) CH303: Successful Internal Intra-Cell Handovers CH323: Successful Incoming Internal Inter-Cell Handovers CH313:Successful Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover Handover_Performed Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.

7 . All rights reserved. intra-cell/inter-cell handovers requests >= intra-cell/inter-cell cell handover commands or responses. so Internal Handover Success Ratio per Cell <= Intra-BSC Radio Handover Success Rate. while the denominators are different. IntraRate In practice: If "Internal Handover Success Ratio per Cell“ = "Intra-BSC Radio Handover Success Internal IntraCell Rate". the unsuccessful Rate handovers are caused by radio interfaces. If "Internal Handover Success Ratio per Cell“ < "Intra-BSC Radio Handover Success Internal IntraCell Rate". and there might be data problem or congestion. and the radio reasons like interference and coverage should be checked in the first place.Performance Index of Intra BSC Handover (Cell) RH303B:Internal Handover Success Ratio per Cell = CH303: Successful Internal CH323: Successful Incoming Internal Inter-Cell Intra-Cell Handovers + Handovers CH300: Internal Intra-Cell Handover Requests + CH320:Incoming Internal Inter-Cell Handover Requests ×100% Internal Handover Success Ratio per Cell <= Intra-BSC Radio Handover Success Rate IntraRH303C: Intra-BSC Radio Handover Success Rate = CH303: Successful Internal CH323: Successful Incoming Internal Inter-Cell Intra-Cell Handovers + Handovers CH321:Incoming Internal CH301: Internal Intra-Cell Inter-Cell Handover Handover Commands+ Responses ×100% Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Page7 Difference between " Internal Handover Success Ratio per Cell " and " Intra-BSC IntraRadio Handover Success Rate " : As viewed from formulas. both numerators are success times of handover. Ltd. this indicates that there is no problem with data.. this indicates that failures may exist in the process from Rate “Channel_Activate” to "HO-COMD". While viewed from the measurement points of the counter.

Page8 8 . All rights reserved.Cell Handover Responses i=0 Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd..Performance Index of Intra BSC Handover (BSC) ZK3174: Internal Handover Success Ratio per BSC = ZCH303:Successful Internal Intra-Cell Handovers per BSC ZCH323: Successful Internal Incoming Cell Handovers per BSC ×100% ZCH300: Internal Intra-Cell ZCH320: Internal Incoming Cell Handover Requests + Handover Requests per per BSC BSC + Internal Handover Success Ratio per BSC <= Radio Handover Success Ratio per BSC ZK3175: Radio Handover Success Ratio per BSC= ZCH303:Successful Internal Intra-Cell Handovers per BSC + ZCH323: Successful Internal Incoming Cell Handovers per BSC ZCH301:Internal Intra-Cell Handover Commands per BSC N + ZK3190:Internal Incoming Cell Handover Commands per BSC ×100% Internal Incoming Cell Handover Commands per BSC = ∑ Incoming Internal Inter .

the original BSC measures "Attempted outgoing inter BSC inter cell handovers". After receiving "HO-Command" . The difference between "handover times" and "handover request times": Handover times . 2. the original BSC measures "outgoing inter BSC handovers". 4. After sending "HO-REQUIRED".After "HO-REQUIRED" is sent or "HO-REQUEST" is received Therefore. All rights reserved. the target BSC measures "incoming inter BSC handovers". same as those of intra BSC handover: 1. the target BSC measures "Attempted incoming inter BSC handovers". 5.Measurement Points of Inter-BSC Handover MS BTS(Original) BSC(Original) MSC BSC(Target) BTS(Target) MS Measurement Report Measurement Report Handover Required CH330: Outgoing External Handover Request Inter-Cell Handover Requests CH340:Incoming External Inter-Cell Handover Requests Channel_Active Channel_Active_ACK Handover_Request_ACK Handover Command CH331:Outgoing External InterCell Handover Commands CH341:Incoming External Inter-Cell Handover Responses Handover Access Handover Detect Handover Complete Handover Complete CH343:Successful Incoming External Inter-Cell Handovers CH333:Successful Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handovers Clear Command (HO Successful) RF Channel Release Clear Complete Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. After receiving "HO-Complete". the target BSC measures "Successful incoming inter BSC handover" 6. the original BSC measures "Successful outgoing inter BSC inter cell handover". After sending "HO-REQUEST ACK". Ltd..After "HO-COM" is received or "HO-REQ-ACK" is sent Handover request times . Page9 The key measurement points are as follows. 9 . 3. After receiving "Clear-COM" and the cause value is "HO-Successful". inter BSC inter cell radio handover success rate >= inter BSC inter cell handover success rate. After receiving "HO-REQUEST".

. Page10 10 .Performance Index of Incoming External Inter-Cell Handover(Cell) TH343: Success Rate of Incoming External Inter-Cell Handovers= CH343:Successful Incoming External Inter-Cell Handovers CH340:Incoming External Inter-Cell Handover Requests ×100% Success Rate of Incoming External Inter-Cell Handovers <= InterExternal Incoming Radio Handover Success Ratio per cell RH303D: External Incoming Radio Handover Success Ratio per cell = CH343:Successful Incoming External Inter-Cell Handovers CH341:Incoming External Inter-Cell Handover Responses ×100% Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Ltd.

Performance Index of Incoming External Inter-Cell Handover(BSC) ZK3178: External Incoming Cell Handover Success Ratio per BSC = ZCH343:Successful External Incoming Cell Handovers per BSC ZCH340:External Incoming Cell Handover Requests per BSC ×100% External Incoming Cell Handover Success Ratio per BSC <= External Incoming Cell Radio Handover Success Ratio per BSC ZK3179: External Incoming Cell Radio Handover Success Ratio per BSC= ZCH343:Successful External Incoming Cell Handovers per BSC ZK3191:External Incoming Cell Handover Commands per BSC N ×100% External Incoming Cell Handover Commands per BSC =∑ Incoming External Inter . Page11 11 . All rights reserved. Ltd.Cell Handover Responses i=0 Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co..

Page12 12 . All rights reserved. Ltd..Performance Index of Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handover(Cell) TH333: Success Rate of Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handover = CH333: Successful Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handovers CH330:Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handover Requests ×100% Success Rate of Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handover <= InterExternal Outgoing Radio Handover Success Ratio per cell RH303E: External Outgoing Radio Handover Success Ratio per cell= CH333: Successful Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handovers CH331:Outgoing External InterCell Handover Commands ×100% Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co.

Ltd..Cell Handover Commands i =0 Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Page13 13 .Performance Index of Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handover(BSC) ZK3176: External Outgoing Cell Handover Success Ratio per BSC = ZCH333:Successful External Outgoing Cell Handovers per BSC ZCH330:External Outgoing Cell Handover Requests per BSC ×100% External Outgoing Cell Handover Success Ratio per BSC <= External Outgoing Cell Radio Handover Success Ratio per BSC ZK3177: External Outgoing Cell Radio Handover Success Ratio per BSC = ZCH333:Successful External Outgoing Cell Handovers per BSC ZCH331:External Outgoing Cell Handover Commands per BSC N ×100% External Outgoing Cell Handover Commands per BSC=∑ Outgoing External Inter . All rights reserved.

Performance Indices of BSC Overall Handover ZK3180: Handover Success Ratio per BSC = [(ZCH313: Successful Internal Outgoing Cell Handovers per BSC+ ZCH333:Successful External Outgoing Cell Handovers per BSC )/ (ZCH310: Internal Outgoing Cell Handover Requests per BSC + ZCH330:External Outgoing Cell Handover Requests per BSC )]*100% Handover Success Ratio per BSC <= Radio Handover Success Ratio per BSC ZK3181: Radio Handover Success Ratio per BSC= [(ZCH313:Successful Internal Outgoing Cell Handovers per BSC + ZCH333:Successful External Outgoing Cell Handovers per BSC )/ (ZCH311:Internal Outgoing Cell Handover Commands per BSC + ZCH331:External Outgoing Cell Handover Commands per BSC] *100% Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Page14 14 . Ltd.. All rights reserved.

and signaling of A and Abis interfaces are omitted. CGI of the target cell and the indicator of whether to allocate the handover number are included in this Prepare-HO message. According to this message. Ltd. If VLR has the free handover number. MSC-A will query the "REMOT LAC Table“ (including the LAC and route of the adjacent MSC).Measurement Points of Inter-MSC Handover MS BSC-A MSC-A Prepare_HO MSC-B VLR-B BSC-B MS HO-Required Allocate_HO_NUM Send_HO_Report Send_HO_Report_ACK HO-Request HO-Command Prepare_HO_ACK IAI ACM Process_Access_Signalling HO-Request-ACK HO-Access HO-Complete Clear-Command Send_End_Signal Clear-Complete Send_End_Signal_ACK Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. if MSC-A finds that LAC of the target cell doesn’t belong to this MSC. All rights reserved. the handover number will be sent to MSC-B through "SendHO-Report". After that. If no handover number is needed. After receiving "HO-REQUIRED" of BSC-A (the request message includes CGI of the original cell and target cell). After SCCP link between MSC-B and BSC-B is established. and returns "HO-REQUEST ACK" to MSC-B after receiving the channel activation acknowledgement. 15 . MSC-B sends "HOREQUEST" to BSC-B. and sends "Initialize-Address" (IAI) to MSC-B to help the latter to identify which voice channel is reserved for MS. MSC-B will request the local VLR to allocate the handover number.. proceed to the next step. MSC-A establishes the route to MSC-B according to the handover number. MSC-B sends "Prepare-HO ACK" to MSC-A. While MSC-B returns "Address-Complete" (ACM) to MSC-A. Page15 Note: Signaling flow of A interface and Abis interface of inter MSC handover is the same as that of intra MSC handover. BSC-B activates the target cell’s channel. and send "Prepare-HO" message to MSC-B according to the route. As shown in above figure the signaling with "MAP" is of the MAP layer. if the handover number needs allocating. only the signaling between two MSC is particular for the inter-MSC handover. According to the received "Prepare-HO" message.

Handover Process Flow 2.. Measurement Points and Performance Index of Handover 3.Contents 1. All rights reserved. Analysis of Handover Problem 4. Handover Cases Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Page16 16 .

Ltd.Analysis of Handover Problem Types of handover problems Locating handover problem Causes of handover problem Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co.. All rights reserved. Page17 17 .

. and call drop Frequent handover - Affect the conversation quality and increase load of the system Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. MS must release the original channel firstly. thus affecting the conversation quality. it is meaning. So frequent handover will result in word-loss in handover and break-make of conversation. Page18 Frequent handover: Handover in GSM is hard handover. Ltd. All rights reserved.Types of Handover Problems Types - Possible Results No handover - Result in call drop Handover failure - Affect the conversation quality. before handover to the new channel. 18 .

clock. transmission.Method of Locating Handover Problem Traffic statistics analysis Handover Failure/Attempt/Success Measurement per BSC Incoming/Outgoing Internal/External Inter-Cell Handover Measurement per Cell GSM Cell to GSM Cell Incoming/Outgoing Handover Measurement Neighbor Cell Level Measurement per Cell View alarm Board fault. etc. E interface Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Page19 19 . Drive test Signaling analysis Abis interface. All rights reserved. Ltd. A interface..

All rights reserved. Ltd. Page20 20 .Causes of Handover Problem Coverage Interference Antenna and feeder system BTS hardware Transmission BSC hardware Data Configuration A interface Target cell congestion Cooperation with equipment of other manufacturers Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co..

Causes of Handover Problem Causes Coverage Interference Antenna and feeder system BTS hardware Transmission BSC hardware Data configuration A interface Target cell congestion H.O √ H.O between equipment of different manufactures √ √ √ Types No H. Ltd. Page21 21 . All rights reserved.O Failure √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Frequent H..O √ √ √ Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co.

Problem in Coverage and Interference
Coverage
Poor coverage: forest, complicated topography, building direction and indoor coverage Isolated site: no adjacent cell Over shooting: island effect result in no adjacent cell

Interference
MS can not access network or receive any signal.

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Island Effect Results in Handover Failure
There is no adjacent cell, so handover becomes impossible.

Non-adjacent cell

Adjacent cell N1

Service cell
Non-adjacent cell Adjacent Cell N2 Non-adjacent cell Isolated island resulting from over shooting Adjacent Cell N3

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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In isolated cell coverage area, when MS moves towards the cell edge, the signal becomes weaker and weaker, and since there is no adjacent cell available around, handover cannot be triggered, thus call drop will occur.

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Problem in Antenna and Feeder System
High Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) Antenna is not properly installed Antenna is not parallel The azimuth and downtilt are not correct Poor antenna isolation value RF cables, connectors are loose or incorrect

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Ltd. All rights reserved.DCOM.. splitter/combiner failure TRX failure DTMU failure Clock failure Internal communication cable failure Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Page25 25 .Problem in BTS Hardware DDPU.

Page26 For BTS clock. Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. and MSC clock. 26 . BSC clock.Problem in Transmission and BSC Hardware Transmission Transmission is not stable Serious BER in transmission Fault of BSC Hardware Clock board: the faulty clock board causes clock inconsistency between base stations. the following standards are used to judge whether they are out of synchronization: MSC: △f/f (frequency deviation) ≤ 1E-8 BSC/BTS: △f/f (frequency deviation) ≤5E-8 Inaccurate clock will cause that MS cannot decode BSIC of the adjacent cell correctly. All rights reserved.. Ltd.

Page27 For service cell: Outgoing inter cell handover will fail. Unsuitable setting of P. 27 . BCCH and BSIC in "External Cell Description Table" are different from those in corresponding BSC. For illusory target cell: Incoming inter-cell handover will fail. and successful rate of handover = successful rate of radio handover. Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. N value of statistic time Unsuitable frequency and adjacent relationship configured in BA1/BA2 table CGI.. "Transmitting BS/MS Power Level": If the measurement report preprocess is enabled.Problem in Data Configuration Unsuitable setting of handover hysteresis and handover priority. Ltd. The DPC of BSC in MSC "LAI and GCI Table" is incorrect. this parameter must be set to "Yes". Notes: CI can not be configured as "FFFF". All rights reserved.

Problem in A Interface and Target Cell A interface problem Basically.. the insufficient link resource results in the abnormal handover. All rights reserved. as well as abnormal communication. which causes the handover failure.causing the handover failure. Circuit pool numbers are different . Then the target cell should be expanded or reduce its traffic . Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Page28 28 . Target cell congestion The target cell is congested.

addressing mode (CGI or LAI). Page29 29 . Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. such as voice version.. E interface of the opposite equipment don’t matched with our equipment and can not be recognized or supported. All rights reserved. handover number.Problem in Cooperation between manufactures Handover between equipment of different manufacturers The signalings at A interface. Ltd. which causes the handover failure.

Handover Process Flow 2. All rights reserved. Analysis of Handover Problem 4.Contents 1. Ltd. Handover Cases Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Measurement Points and Performance Index of Handover 3. Page30 30 ..

.Handover Case 1 Fault Description A 1800 cell of a dual-band network (all the 1800 cells belong to one BSC). while the outgoing handover success rate of intra-BSC and inter-BSC are normal. All rights reserved. Ltd. the incoming handover success rate of intra-BSC and inter-BSC are low from the beginning of the service. Page31 31 . Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co.

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. If handover fails from some few cells to this cell.Handover Case 1 Analysis Register the traffic statistics and analyze whether the low handover success rate is due to the failure of handover from all cells to this cell or from some few cells. If data problem is excluded.. All rights reserved. If handover fails from all other cells to this cell. check the data of this cell. Ltd. Check step by step and find out the cause. check the handover data and confirm whether there is co-channel and co-BSIC problem. Check the alarm or perform drive test to locate uplink fault or downlink fault. Page32 32 . check the hardware carefully.

Change the TRX. Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Perform drive test and find that the downlink signal is normal but almost all handovers to this cell are failure. Check the uplink channel. Ltd. antenna.Handover Case 1 Solution Register the incoming inter cell handover measurement function and find that the successful rate of handover from all other cells to this cell is low. All rights reserved. there are no problem. although it is not always 0 percent. everything is normal. perhaps the problem is with the uplink signal. the handover is successful occasionally. But near the BTS.. DDPU. confirm that the data of this cell is correct. Via careful data checking. Conclusion The symptom is that the uplink and downlink at Um interface are unbalanced so uplink voice quality is bad. Page33 33 .

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co..Handover Case 2 Fault Description A subscriber complains that the signal in a place on his way to office is not good. The phenomenon is that the conversation is suddenly interrupted. Page34 34 . Ltd. All rights reserved. and then normal again after several seconds. Call drops occurs several times when he drives his car. The handset signal bar indicates no signal.

the MS re-selects a cell and resides in a good cell. When the cell signal becomes weak. but at this time there is no cell that is a neighbor of the cell. When a signal exceeds the coverage. Ltd. At that place. the MS resides in a good cell again. the signal of a cell suddenly fades drastically. so the signal is recovered. handover is impossible..Handover Case 2 Analysis Neighbor cell relationship Isolated island effect Geographical factors of buildings and mountains result in the weak signal The signal of a cell suddenly fades drastically due to buildings BTS equipment or intermittent transmission Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. In the suburb area where only one BTS is used for coverage. the signal is recovered again. Signal is interrupted due to the BTS equipment or intermittent transmission. After the call drop. so an MS cannot be handed over to the neighbor cell. this problem does not happen. the signal is indeed too weak to maintain conversation due to geographical factors of buildings and mountains. After the call drops. an MS uses the signal even when the MS is far away from the cell that provides the signal. call drop occurs. that there is no signal during call drop. due to buildings. Isolated island caused by cross-coverage also leads to this problem. leading to the call drop. hence the call drops. this problem sometimes occurs. and the MS has not time to hand over. When an MS goes to that place. After the call drop. After the MS passes the place. Page35 The following possibilities can lead to the problem that a call is dropped. the MS re-selects a good cell and displays signal again. and that the signal is recovered after several seconds: The most common possibility is that there is no neighbor cell handover relation. hence the call drop. At that place. All rights reserved. In the urban area where there are many BTSs. 35 .

and cell 3 (southwestward) of BTS D. Ltd. As the vehicle drives on northward. We obtain further information from the subscriber and know that the driver at that time drive very fast. Page36 The customer service technicians go to the site to perform drive test and discovers that the road from south to north is covered by the signals from four cells. the MS hands over to cell 3 of BTS D. Therefore it supposed that this problem may occur under high speed movement. We perform drive test again under high speed for several times and the call drop recurs. Multiple drive tests along the road show normal result and the problem complained by the subscriber does not occur. so it is unlikely that the problem is caused by bad signal.. cell 2 (southeastward) of BTS A. 1 3 D A 2 3 B C Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Therefore we think this problem may occur under high speed movement. we obtain further information from the subscriber and know that the driver at that time drove very fast. The drive test shows that the handover relation is normal.Handover Case 2 Solution Via DT. The drive route is such that cell 1 of BTS C is first occupied. it shows that the signal of several cells is strong and is -70 to -80 dBm. then the vehicle drives northward and the MS can hand over to cell 3 of BTS B and cell 2 of BTS A. To investigate the problem. All rights reserved. cell 3 (southwestward) of BTS B. 36 . which are cell1 (northward) of BTS C. In the complained place the signal of several cells is strong and is -70 to -80 dBm. Then perform drive test again under high speed for several times and the call drop recurs. It is unlikely that the problem is caused by bad signal.

handover cannot be performed.Handover Cases 2 Solution Cell 1 of BTS C is far away from cell 3 of BTS D and the two cells are not defined as neighbor cells. the handover decision time is reduced so that the handover can happen timely. because this problem occurs due to insufficient time to hand over. the handover decision time is reduced so that the handover can happen timely. When a vehicle drives very fast. 1 3 D A 2 3 B C Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. On the other hand. Cell 1 of BTS C is far away from cell 3 of BTS D and the two cells are not defined as neighbor cells. Therefore troubleshooting is difficult.. After a neighbor relation is added. Thus an isolated island is generated. 37 . Thus an isolated island is generated. All rights reserved. handover cannot be performed. On the other hand. Ltd. this problem is solved. and call drop arises. this problem is solved. because this problem occurs due to insufficient time to hand over. The special thing about this isolated island effect is that it occurs at high speed. and call drop arises. After a neighbor relation is added. Page37 Cell 1 of BTS C provides coverage along the road and the signal reaches far away. Therefore troubleshooting is difficult. The special thing about this isolated island effect is that it occurs at high speed. sometimes the MS has not time to hand over to cell 3 of BTS B or cell 2 of BTS A.

Even when the receive level of serving cell B is higher than the receive level of neighboring cell M.. Ltd.Handover Cases 3 Fault Description This case occurs during the drive test at a new site. Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Page38 38 . handover is triggered from cell B to cell M. All rights reserved.

Ltd. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. 3. The priority of the cell with the higher level is lower than the priority of t he cell with the lower level. 2. The handover is emergency handover due to the heavy load or low quali ty of the original cell with the higher level. Page39 39 . The PBGT handover threshold for traffic adjustment is lower than 64.Handover Cases 3 Analysis The possible causes of the handover from a cell with a higher level to a cell with a lower level cell are as follows: 1..

the handover is not PBGT handover.. Check the data configurations and find that the handover due to heavy loa d is disabled. Check the BSC parameter configurations. Thus. The result shows that the thresho ld for the PBGT handover from cell B to cell M is 68 and that the handover hysteresis is 4. Ltd. Thus. the handover is not due to heavy load. the handover is not associated wit h the downlink receive quality and level. All rights reserved. Thus. Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Page40 40 .Handover Cases 3 Solution Analyze the drive test data and find that the downlink receive quality and l evel of the serving cell are normal.

In this way. All rights reserved. the cells are at the same pr iority level. The result shows that the interlayer handover threshold is 20 and that the interlayer handover hysteresis is 5.Handover Cases 3 Solution Check the priority settings of the cells. Page41 41 . handover is initiated from cell B to cell M. when the receive level of cell B is higher than 85 dBm. The handover problem is solved. Thus. Check the inter-layer handover threshold and hysteresis. Modify the priority level of cell B to level 1. Ltd. Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. The result shows that cell B is at level 2 on l ayer 3 and that cell M is at level 1 on layer 3..

. incoming handover success rate lower than 70%. Page42 42 . number of incoming handover failures at busy hours greater than 35. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Huawei BTS3012 M-2 cell.Handover Cases 4 Fault Description Suburb of city A.

All rights reserved. We trace and analyze the handover failure signaling and finds that sometimes the handover failures occur when the MS receives the handover command and sends access pulses to the target cell and sometimes the handover failures occur when the MS reports the SABM frame. The field drive test shows that in times of handover failure.Handover Cases 4 Analysis The hardware such as clock board is checked and no problem is found. Register the traffic measurement of the cell incoming handover. Page43 43 . Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. it is found that most of the handover failures occur from the external N-1 cell of the BTS of company S. It is suspect that the handover failures are caused by downlink inter-frequency interference. there occurs a neighbor frequency in the neighbor cell frequency list.. Ltd.

The cell frequency is planned again and is changed from 113 to 121. 44 . or the MS fails to receive the UA frame from the target cell.Handover Cases 4 Solution Therefore the conclusion is that the MS fails to correctly decode the physical message due to the downlink inter-frequency interference. Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Page44 Signaling tracing is very helpful if there are problems in cooperation with other manufacturers’ equipment. The problem is solved. All rights reserved.. resulting in handover failure. Ltd.

The traffic measurement is checked and it is confirmed that the number of incoming handover failures decreases and the incoming handover success rate reaches 92%. Drive test to trace the signaling. It is desirable to perform careful drive test on the abnormal cells. Suggestion and Summary The downlink interference is not represented in the interference band and the range affected by the partial downlink interference is small. We may miss the faulty place during the drive test due to selection of the drive route. All rights reserved. Page45 45 . The cell frequency is modified.Handover Cases 4 Handling Suggestions The BTS hardware alarms are checked. The cell incoming handover traffic measurement is registered.. Ltd. Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co.

Ltd. KPI indicate that there is very low HO attempt with good success rate. And also “T200 Expired” appears.. All rights reserved. The figure below and the corresponding KPI statistics table is presented as below. Page46 46 . From Drive test using TEMS. we found out “Missing Neighbor Detection” message appears in neighbor list when MS still try to make HO to serving cell. Corresponding KPI Statistics Table Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co.Handover Cases 5 Fault Description BSC6000 has very low HO attempt & during many drive test no HO at all.

Ltd.Handover Cases 5 Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Page47 47 . All rights reserved..

such as “NCC Permitted” Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co.Handover Cases 5 Analysis Neighbors cell configuration is incorrect Data configuration has some problem. Page48 48 .. All rights reserved. Ltd.

the neighboring cells' NCC is 0~3. and we checked the parameters. This parameter consists of one byte (8bit). When the cell's NCC is consistent with the value of NCC permitted. Checked "NCC permitted" . the problem is solved. 49 . we firstly compared the handover times with other BSCs under the same scenario and found out the attempts are less than other BSCs even under the same condition. then MS will not measure the cell level with NCC being N. See Protocol 0508. enabling NCC 4~7 handover while disabling NCC0~3. but after adding. Page49 To solve the problem of low handover attempts.. the problem still existed. that is.Handover Cases 5 Solution Compared with other BSC. Note:As MS cannot report the adjacent cell information where NCC is set to 0. that is. If bit N is 0. Ltd. The value 1 stands for permitted and 0 for forbidden. for some cells. for some cells. We found that the configuration in the problem BSC is set to be 1111000. found out the handover attempts are less than other BSCs even under the same condition. All rights reserved. And MS will report the measurement report to BTS. we also checked the neighbor cell configuration to see whether there are enough neighbors to ensure the handover proper and prompt. but the neighboring cells' NCC is 0~3. Changed “NCC Permitted” to be 11111111. This parameter is sent in system information 2 and 6. but from the feedback. the problem still existed. there were some neighboring cells missing. we found that the configuration in the problem BSC is set to be 1111000. found out There is a parameter "NCC permitted" relative to the low handover times. This parameter can be used to make MS 's measurements on some adjacent cells optionally. enabling NCC 4~7 handover. the definition of this parameter is as follows: NCC permitted Range: 0 allowed~7 allowed Default: 1111111 Description: Network color code permitted. there were some neighboring cells missing. Each bit is corresponding to an NCC (0~7) and the last bit is corresponding to NCC 0. Checked the neighbor cell configuration. then this cell will be measured by MS. the incorrect setting of this parameter will cause MS to be unable to hand over during conversation. Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. in addition. but after adding.

and if the similar phenomenon happened.Handover Cases 5 Suggestions and Summary: “NCC Permitted” parameter is an important parameter to impact on handover but always been neglected. this is a clue to solve this problem.. Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. All rights reserved. Page50 50 .

All rights reserved. When the two BSC are cutovered. the successful handover rate from BSC1 to BSC2 is 0.. where one MSC is attached with two BSC. Intra-BSC1 and intra-BSC2 handover are normal. Page51 51 . Ltd.Handover Cases 6 Fault Description A GSM network. Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. but the opposite is normal. is all configured with Huawei equipment.

Page52 52 . Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co..Handover Cases 6 Analysis Register “outgoing inter-cell handover measurement function” of BSC1 and “incoming inter-cell handover measurement function” of BSC2. All rights reserved. Analyze signaling of handover failure. Check the data related to handover of BSC1 and BSC2. Ltd.

. After BSC1 sends "HOREQUIRED". Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. but opposite is normal. Page53 53 . and sends HO request to the correct BSC base on the description of the DPC of the cell given in the table.Handover Cases 6 Solution Check all data of inter-BSC handover: external cell description data table. BA2 table. BSC2 has not received "HO-REQUEST" message. The path of data search: MSC goes to "LAI and GCI Table" according to the CGI of the target cell in "HO-REQUIRED" message. Ltd. All rights reserved. CGI of MSC. Trace A interface message of BSC1 and BSC2. No problem is found.

Conclusion For the data of inter-BSC handover. Ltd.. the problem is solved. "HO-REQUEST" will be sent to wrong BSC. is sent to BSC1. All rights reserved. Page54 54 . Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co.Handover Cases 6 Solution The HO-REQUEST message. When the DPC is incorrect. besides checking whether CGI at MSC side is consistent with that of opposite and BSC. After correction. MSC look up target DPC based on the CGI of the target cell. check whether the DPC is correct. It is DPC error. which should have been sent to BSC2.

PBGT Handover Proportion = PBGT Handover Requests/Total Handover Requests Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Note: The PBGT handover proportion is one of the key indexes that the operator uses to evaluate the network coverage quality. The number of bad quality handovers increase. Ltd. It thinks that the problem is caused by the interference and coverage. All rights reserved.. Page55 55 . the PBGT handover proportion decreases from the average value 60% to 40%.Handover Cases 7 Fault Description After all BTSs of a certain BSC32 are swapped to the BSC6000.

Ltd. The possible causes are the interference or coverage problems. thus causing an increase in the condition of the PBGT handover and a decrease in the number of PBGT handover attempts. 16-bit value affects the priorities of many neighbor cells with good levels. . Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. (3) The requirements of the PBGT handover are as follows: The PBGT handover is implemented only between the cells with the same 56 layer and same level. The level of the neighbor cell is higher than the threshold for the local cell. The cell meets the system requirements. All rights reserved.Handover Cases 7 Analysis The possible causes of the decrease in the PBGT handover proportion are as follows: The number of other handovers with a higher priority than that of the PBGT handover increases. The system parameters that the PBGT handover requires change. PBGT Handover Proportion = PBGT Handover Requests/Total Handover Requests (2) The possible causes of the decrease in the PBGT handover proportion are as follows: The number of other handovers with a higher priority than that of the PBGT handover increases. The possible causes are the interference or coverage problems. thus causing an increase in the number of requirements for the PBGT handover and a decrease in the number of PBGT handover attempts. The data configurations of PBGT handover change.. Page56 (1) The PBGT handover algorithm is used to find a cell that meets the following conditions on a real-time basis and determine whether to perform a handover: The cell has less path loss.

The level of the local cell is not lower than the value of threshold . the initial threshold is set to 25 and the hysteresis is set to 3. the initial threshold is set to 25 and the hysteresis is set to 3. In addition. Check the settings of the 16-bit priority. All BTSs are configured according to the initial template of the BSC6000. (2) Check the parameters related to the PBGT handover. Check the parameters related to the PBGT handover. The inter-layer handover threshold and hysteresis are greatly different from those configured on the original BSC. The traffic indexes of the interference band before and after the swap are low. the PBGT handover proportion increases to 55%-60%. 57 . The BTS hardware is operational. Ltd.. The parameters of the handovers with higher priories than PBGT handover are proper. Therefore. Check the related traffic measurement. the PBGT handover fails to be triggered. For the existing network. the priority of the neighbor cell is lower than that of the local cell. The traffic indexes of the interference band before and after the swap are low. For the original BSC. The OMC data shows that not all parameters are mapped according to the original network during the swap from the BSC32 to the BSC6000. the initial threshold is set to 40 and the hysteresis is set to 1. Even the level of the neighbor cell is higher than that of the local cell.hysteresis. which is close to the original BSC index value. If the following conditions are met. The threshold for the receiving level is set to 25. There is a great probability that the receiving level of these sites is 25. PBGT Handover Threshold and Decision Time. (3) Check the settings of the 16-bit priority. PBGT Handover Threshold and Decision Time. The level of the neighbor cell is lower than the value of threshold + hysteresis. The BTS hardware is operational. For the original BSC. For the existing network. The parameters of other handovers with higher priories than PBGT handover are proper. All rights reserved. The inter-layer handover threshold and hysteresis are greatly different from those configured on the original BSC. The interference handover proportion before the swap is low. Check the related traffic measurement. the sites covered by the BSC are located in the suburb areas. the initial threshold is set to 40 and the hysteresis is set to 1. Page57 (1) The problem may be caused by interference and coverage. Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co.Handover Cases 7 Solution The problem may be caused by interference and coverage. the settings of 16-bit priority have great impacts on the PBGT handover. After the threshold is set to 40 and the hysteresis is set to 1 in batches on the BSC.

There are multiple parameters at the cell level. you need to take the impacts of the factors in the handover algorithm on the handover priority and handover triggering conditions into consideration. Therefore. All rights reserved. Ltd. 58 . (2) The mapping of all parameters at the cell level is essential to the BSC swap. the impacts of the factors in the handover algorithm on the handover priority and handover triggering conditions should be taken into account. There are multiple parameters at the cell level. the workload of analyzing and checking the parameters is large if the indexes related to the traffic measurement have problems. If parameters are not configured according to the original network. Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. the network indexes may be affected. the network indexes may be affected. Page58 (1) When analyzing the handover traffic measurement. The mapping of all parameters at the cell level is essential to the BSC swap..Handover Cases 7 Suggestion and Summary When analyzing the handover traffic measurement. If parameters are not configured according to the original network.

while the receiving level of the neighbor cell B of another BSC is -60 dBm.Handover Cases 8 Fault Description Huawei BTSs belong to Huawei BSC independently are inserted into a GSM900 network. All rights reserved. After the cutover. Cell B Page59 59 . No Huawei BSC Huawei BSC No handover for a long time? -80dBm -60dBm Huawei Cell A Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Handover does not happen until MS passes across the cell B.. The receiving level of cell A is -80 dBm (no downlink power control). the user complains that Huawei BTS handover is not good and that the BSC outgoing handover success rate is below 85%. The drive test shows that the serving cell is Huawei cell A and that then drive toward cell B. Ltd.

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co.. BCCH. Other parameters are set incorrectly. resulting in no handover. and "minimum downlink power of the handover candidate cell" is high. Congestion of cell B results in no handover. and "whether share MSC". All rights reserved. Page60 60 . including parameters such as external cell CGI. BSIC. are wrong. Ltd.Handover Cases 8 Analysis The reason that the receiving level of the neighbor cell is strong enough to prevent handover is as follows: The BA2 table has the BCCH frequency of cell B but the handover data.

it is found that all the new cells of Huawei BSC have this problem. test MS is used to perform the forced handover. Page61 61 . It is suspected that the problem is caused by a common parameter. Handover succeeds. To verify reasonableness of the data. Ltd. The traffic statistic of the no-Huawei BSCs is checked and confirm that there is no congestion in the target cell B. Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co.Handover Cases 8 Solution Drive test shows that handover does not happen. resulting in serious handover delay. All rights reserved. while only edge handover happens when the edge handover condition is satisfied. Via drive test.. The traffic measurement is analyzed and it is found that no PBGT handover happens in the new BSC.

After changing all internal cells priority of Huawei BSC from 1 to 2.. Because PBGT handover only happens at the same layer and the same priority. the cells that do not share BSC/MSC are sorted at the last positions. Therefore the PBGT handover of the BSC outgoing handover does not happen. After “Co-BSC/MSC Adj” is set to NO. Ltd. priority 2". Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. priority 1" and the external cells are "layer 3. Page62 62 . Drive test shows that BSC outgoing handover is not delayed. it shows that PBGT handover happens by analyzing the traffic measurement. the default configuration does not trigger PBGT handover. The data is further checked and it is found that the default parameter configuration shows that internal cells of Huawei BSC are "layer 3.Handover Cases 8 Solution One of PBGT handover condition is target cell must be the first position in the 16bit criterion.If “Co-BSC/MSC Adj” is set to YES. the problem persists. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co.Handover Cases 8 Suggestion and Summary Note that the following two default parameters need to be modified in the BTS and BSC insertion plan 1. All rights reserved.. Page63 63 . Set “Co-BSC/MSC Adj” to NO 2. set the layer and priority of the internal cells and external cells to the same layer and the same priority. Ltd. If there is no requirement for traffic balance.

the call still hands over to a cell (cell B) with low level of –78 dBm. this place should not be covered by cell B. Viewed from geographical location..Handover Cases 9 Fault Description The drive test of a network in an office shows that in the drive test in a county. Handover occur from high level to low level! -45dBm -78dBm Cell B Cell A Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. The frequency planning of the network is tight frequency reuse. Page64 64 . there is a strange phenomenon: when the receiving level of the current serving cell (cell A) is as high as –45 dBm. Ltd. Therefore the conversation quality becomes worse after handover. All rights reserved.

Page65 65 . Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. To adjust the traffic. When emergent handover occurs.Handover Cases 9 Analysis There are the following reasons that can lead to handover from a high-level cell to a low-level cell. the PBGT handover threshold is set to a value less than 64. The layer and priority of the low-level cell is higher than those of the high-level cell. the uplink signal level is weak and already reaches the handover threshold. such as BQ handover (Because the uplink quality is bad for interference.. BQ handover occurs). Ltd. All rights reserved. Though the downlink signal level of the current cell is strong.

This excludes handover caused by downlink receiving quality and level. All rights reserved. both the downlink receiving quality and the downlink receiving level of MS in the serving cell are good..Handover Cases 9 Solution 1. 2. The drive test data shows that when a handover is triggered. Ltd. Therefore the handover is not a PBGT handover. Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Check BSC data configuration It is found that the [PBGT HO Threshold]=70 and [Inter-cell HO Hysteresis]=3. Page66 66 .

and the priority of cell B is changed to 2. The engineer ever changed data during routine maintenance. Check the cell priority It is found that cell B is at layer 3 with priority 1 while cell A is at layer 3 with priority 2.Handover Cases 9 Solution 3. All rights reserved. In the initial data configuration. Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. The priority of cell A is changed to 1. [Inter-layer HO Threshold]=25 and [Inter-layer HO Thysteresis]=5. Page67 67 . the handover becomes normal. the BSC internal cells are designed at layer 3 with priority 1 and the external cells are at layer 3 with priority 2. Therefore when the receiving level of cell B is greater than –80 dBm.. Ltd. The handover is a better cell handover from a cell in a high receiving level to a cell in a low receiving level. handover is triggered.

All the cells are in the same layer and the same priority. Sometimes handover does not happen until the call drop. Ltd. Page68 68 . and that the handover request is not sent even when the receiving level of the neighbor cell (NT BTS) is much stronger than that of the serving cell (Huawei mini BTS). All rights reserved. Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. [Co-BSC/MSC Adj] is YES. [Inter-layer HO Threshold]=25. that is to say.Handover Cases 10 Fault Description Huawei mini BTSs and NT BTSs are in mixtured networking.. One day the customer complains that during a drive test. few Huawei BTSs are located in a great many NT BTSs. handing over from a Huawei mini BTS to a neighbor cell (NT BTS) is very difficulty. and [Inter-layer HO Thysteresis]=3.

The check result shows that the neighbor cell relationship is right and that the frequencies are correct. Ltd.Handover Cases 10 Analysis Firstly. Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. suspected that the problem of failure to send handover request is caused by improper neighbor cell relationship of the serving cell or by incorrect frequencies in the BA1 table and BA2 table. All rights reserved. Page69 69 ..

⑥. and 13 are 0. and 13 are 0. which is >=–88 dBm.If neighbor cell level < inter-layer handover threshold + hysteresis. Page70 Since Co-BSC/MSC Adj is set to YES. In other words. bit 14 is 0. bits 5~10 of the serving cell are the same as those of the neighbor cell.If neighbor cell level >= inter-layer handover threshold + hysteresis. handover is very difficult to initiate. of the 16bit sequence number. [Co-BSC/MSC Adj] is YES ③. when the level of the serving cell is higher than –88 dBm.If the serving cell level >= inter-layer handover threshold–hysteresis. All rights reserved. For cells of different BSC. bits 5~10 of the internal cells are the same as those of the serving cell. it is recommended to set Co-BSC/MSC Adj to NO. and [Inter-layer HO Thysteresis]=3dB Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. for both internal cells and external cells. if the level of the serving cell is not lower than –88 dBm. bit 14 of the serving cell is 1. if a Huawei BTS is randomly distributed among other BSCs and the vicinity is BTSs of other BSCs.. and bit 14 is 1. so bits 12 and 13 are 0.If the serving cell level < inter-layer handover threshold–hysteresis. and bits 13 and 14 are 0. 12. bit14 is 0. the cells of different BSC are still sorted after the serving cell and no normal handover can be initiated (including edge handover. while bits 5~10 of the external cells are the same as those of the serving cell. If the receiving level of a neighbor cell of different BSC is lower than –82 dBm. when Co-BSC/MSC Adj is YES and the vicinity of Huawei BTS is BTSs of different BSCs. so bits 12.The actual situation is. and 13 are all 0. so bit 12 is 1. and 14 of the internal cells are all 0. the cells can be correctly sorted and can initiate normal handover. if the vicinity of Huawei BTS is BTSs of different BSCs. bits 5~10. and inter-layer inter-priority handover). bit 14 is 0. ③. bit 14 is 0 and the cell is sorted at the front. If the receiving level of a neighbor cell of different BSC is higher than –82 dBm. 12. bit 14 is 1. when the level of the serving cell is lower than –88 dBm. That is. and in the same MSC. bits 5~10 of the serving cell are the same as those of the neighbor cell. 12. ①. 13 and 14 are all 0. which is < –82 dBm. no matter if the level of the neighbor cells is greater than –82 dBm. All the cells are in the same layer and the same priority. which is >= –82 dBm.Therefore. 70 . Since [Co-BSC/MSC Adj] is set to YES. bit14 is 1. bits 5~10. ②. [Inter-layer HO Threshold]=25(-85dBm). PBGT handover. all the most significant bits of the serving cell are 0. ②. Ltd. ④. so bits 12. ⑦. Rx_Lev Serving Cell Serving Cell Neighbor Cell Neighbor Cell Neighbor Cell >= –88 dBm < –88 dBm >= –82 dBm >= –82 dBm < –82 dBm In the same BSC 14th bit 0 1 0 0 1 13th ~ 12th bit 00 00 00 01 00 10th ~5th bit 0 0 0 0 0 / / Yes No Yes or No ①.When the level of the serving cell is lower than –88 dBm. In this case all the cells are sorted by the level. compare the 16bit value between serving cell and neighbor cell. even when the level of the serving cell is higher than –82 dBm. But because bit 12 is 1. bit 14 is 1. bits 5~10. ⑤. 13. which is < –88 dBm.Handover Cases 10 Analysis Secondly.

respectively. Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. handover is triggered very quickly at low level. the level decreases so rapidly due to the complex terrain that call drop happens before handover succeeds.. the geographical environment around the mini BTS is complex and P/N = 5/4s. Therefore sometimes when the MS receiving level is lower than –88 dBm. Therefore P/N are changed to 3/2s. In this case. These values are large. Page71 71 . Ltd. respectively.Handover Cases 10 Analysis Thirdly. All rights reserved.

But when the signal of the serving cell is –90 dBm.Handover Cases 10 Solution The handover performance measurement is registered and it is found that the cell has handover request and that the handover success rate is high. Drive test shows that when serving cell is Huawei mini BTS and the serving level is below –80 dBm. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. handover does not happen even when the signal of the neighbor cell is much stronger than that of the serving cell. the level decreases so rapidly that handover does not happen in time and result in call drop at last. Page72 72 .. The BSC incoming and outgoing handover performance measurement is registered and handover happens normally between the cell and a NT cell. sometimes due to terrain reason. Ltd. sometimes handover happens and succeeds.

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co. Page73 73 . respectively. Ltd.. The [Co-BSC/MSC Adj] is modified to NO and the P/N time of the edge handover and PBGT handover are changed to 3s/2s. DT shows that handover happens when the MS receiving level is high.Handover Cases 10 Solution It is confirmed that all the neighbor cells have configured in the BA1/BA2 table and the corresponding frequency is correct. All rights reserved. The handover-related parameter setting of the cell is configured to be the same as that of other cells. respectively. The parameters that affect inter-BSC cell handover are mainly checked and it is found that [Co-BSC/MSC Adj] is set to YES and that P/N time of the edge handover and PBGT handover are 5s/4s.

com 74 .huawei.Thank you www.

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