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I I’+IL-F-6785C
S November 1980
SUPEHSEDING
hlL-F-8785P
7 August 1969

tiILITARYSPECIFICATION

FLYINGQUALITIES OF PILOTED AIRPLANES

This specificationis approved for uee by all


Departmentsand Asancles of the Oqartment or Defenee.
1. SCOPE

I
-“ 1.1 -. This apeciriaatfoncontains the raquirementaror the flyini?
and
handlinqqualities,in flight and on the ground, of U.S. Hilltary,manned,.
pilotedairplanesexcept for flight at airspeedabelow Vcon (HIL-F-S3300). It
is intended to assura rlylng qualitleethat provide adaqueteIM1sS.1O?!
performanceand flight safety regardlessor dealgn implementationor rlluht
control syatetumechanization, The structureor the.apecirtcationallows ite
uee to guide theee aapactg in desi~n tradeorra,analyseaand tests. ,.

;{rn 1.2 ~. The flying quslitieaor all airplanesproposedor contracted


ror shall be in accordenoewith the provisionsof this apaclrioatlOn. T~.S
requirementsapgly as stated to”tha cc@binatiotiof alrrrame and related
aubsyatems. Stabilityaugmentationand control augmentationare specifically
to be includedwhen provided in the airplane. The eutometlo rlightcontrol
system le alao to be consideredto the extent stated in 1.!IL-F-9490
or
rlIL-C-18244,whioheverappllea. The raquirementaare uritten in terms of
cockpit flight oontrols that prmduce essentiallypitching,yawing and rolling
MOM@nta. This approachla not meant to precludeother modes of controlfor
9peOiEl purptwea. Additionalor alternativere@rements may be imposedby the
procuringaotivitg in order to rit better the intendeduae or the pWticUl~r
design. - . .
.,.
. 1.3 ~. For the purpose.orthis 8paCiCiC8t10n,an
airplane Shall be placed in one or the rollouingClaaees,: .
..- Claas I Small, light airplanessuch aa
Light utility
:

Primary trainer
Light obaervatlon

Beneficialcomments(recommendation,additions,deletions)and any
pertinentdata which may ba of use in improvingthis documentshould
be addreaaed.to: ASO/ENESS,tiright-Patterson AFf!,0!!45433 by using
(- the eelr-addresaedStandardizationOocumentImprovementProposal
(DD Form 1426) appearinsat the end or this documentor by letter.

Fsc 15GP
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MIL-F-87e5c

Class 11 Medium weight,low-to-madium❑aneuverabilityairplanessuch as


heavy utility/searchand rescue
Lixht or medium transportlcar$oltanker
,-. Early wernlng/electroniccountermeasureslairborne
command,
control,or communicationsrelay
Antisubmarine
Assault transDort
Reconnaissance
Tactical bember
Heavy attack
Trainer for Class 11
s
(lese’III Large, heavy,low-to-mediummaneuverabilityeirplanes auoh as
Heavy tran9port/car@tanker
Heavy bomber ..
Patrollearlywarninglelectroniccountermeaaurea
fairbornecommand,
control,or communicationsrelay
Trainer for Class 111

Claas IV High-maneuverability airplanessuch as


Fighter/interceptor
Attack
Taotical reconnaissance
Observation
:: Trainer for Class IV

The procuringactivitywill assign an airplaneto one”of these Classes, and the


requirementsfor that Claag shall apply. Mten no Class is specifiedin a
requirement,the requirementshall apply to all Clessea. When OperatlOflal ---
4
❑issioneao dictate, an airplaneof one Class may be requiredby the proouring
activityto meet selectedrequirementsordinarilyspecifiedfor airplanesof
anotherClass.

~.3.l @@- OP~. The letter -L followinga Clase


designationidentifies an airplana as land-based;carriar-baaedairplme.vare
eimilarlyidentifiedby -C. Uhen no such differentiationis made in a
requirement,the requirementshall apply to both lend-basedand carrier-baaed
airplanea.
:.
1.$ ~. Tha Flight’Pha8ee hava been oq!mbinedinto threa
Categories which are referredto in the requirementstetemaots. Tiaa.ae Flight -.
PhaaeSshall be consideredin tha context of total misaiousao that thera will
be no gap betweam aucceaaivePhaaes of any flightand ao that transitionwill
be smooth. In Oertain cases, requirementsare directed at apeaifle Flight
P&.sea identifiedin the requiramant. When no Flight Phaaa or Categofyis
stated in a requirement,that raquiramentehall apply to all three Categories.
FiiSht Phasaa descriptiveof meet ❑ilitaryairplane ❑iaa50neare:

MMmlnauuKhLP1-laAes :
CaLegoryA - Those nonterminalFllght Phasee that require rapid maneuvering,
precisiontracking,or preoiae flight-path ..control.Includedin
this Categoryare:

a. Air-to-aircombat (CO)

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HIL-F-8785c
I
b. Ground attack (CA)

c. Weapon delivery/launch(MD)
I d. Aerial recovery (AR)
1
e. Reconnaissance(RC)

r. In-flightrefueling(receiver)(RR)

K. Terrairifollowing(TF)
1
h. Antisubmarinesearch (AS)

i. Close formationflying (FF).

CategoryB - Thoie nonterminalFlight Phase9 that are noru+ly accomplished


ueing gradual maneuversand without Drecision tracking,althouqh
accurate flight-pathcontrol mey be required. Inoluded in this
Categoryere:

a. Climb (CL)
I
b. Cruise (CR)

c, Loiter (LO)

d. In-flightrefueling(tanker) (RI)

e. Descent (D)

f. Emergencydescent (ED)

g. Emergencydeceleration(DE).

h. Aerial.dellvery (AD).

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I
! CategoryC - Terminal Flight Phasesare normellYaoeompliebedueing gradual
I maneuveraand ueuallyrequire accurateflight-pathcontrol.
Included in this Categoryare:
I
a. Takeoff (TO)

i b. Catapult takeoff (CT)

I c. Approach (PA)

d, Uave-off/go-arqund(liO)
I
e. Lending (L)

khen necessary,recategorizationor addition of Flight Phases or delineationof


requirementsfor special situations,e.g., zoom climbs, will be accomplishedby
the procuringactivity.

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MIL-F-8785C

1.5 ~. bhere possible,the requirementsof section 3


have bee,!stated in terms of three values of the stabilityor control parameter
I being specified. Each value is a minimum conditionto meet one of three Levels )
d
of acceptabilityrelated to the ability to complete the operationalmissions
I for which the eirplane is designed. The Levels are:

Level 1 Flying quelitieaclearlyadequate for the mission Flight Phase


I
Level 2 Flying qualitiesedequate to accomplishthe misgion Fliqht pha9a,
but some increaaein pilot werkloador degradationin miesion
effectiveness,or both, existe

Level 3 Flying qualitiessuch that the airplane can be controlledasfely,


but pilot workload is exceseiveor misdon eff’ectlvenees1s
inadequate,or both. Category A Flight Phaaes can be terminated
ssfely, and CategoryB and C Flight Phsses can be completed.
I

I
I 2“ APPLICABLEDOCUMENTS
I 2.1 ~. The followinqdocuments,of the issue in effect on
the date of invitationfor bids or request for proposal,form a pert of this
I
I specificationto the extent apacifiedherein:

I SPECIFICATIONS
,.
MILITARY
[
MIL-D-8708 DemonstrationRequirementsfor Airplanea
! ‘./’
MIL-A-6861 Airplane Strengthand RigidityFlight Loads
I MIL-F-9090 Flight Centrol Systems- Design, Installationand Test nf,
Piloted Aircraft,General Specificationfor

HIL-C-1824U Control and StabilizationSystems, Automatic,Piloted Aircraft,


General Specificationfor

MIL-F-18372 Flight.Control Systems,Design, Installationand Test of,


Aircraft{GeneralSpecificationfor)

MIL-U-251U0 Weiaht and F!alsnceControl Data ‘(forAirplanesand flOtOJWafZ) ..

nxL-F-83300 Flying Qualitiesof Piloted V/STOL Aircraft

t41L-S-B3691 Stall/Peat-Stall/Spin
Flight Test OamonstrationRequirementsfor
Airplanes

STkNDAROS

nIL-sTo-756 ReliabilityPrediction

(COPiesof specificationsand standdrdsreaufredby contractorsin connection


with specificprocurementfunctionsshould be obtained from the procuring
activityor as directed by the contractingofficer).
..

I.-
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1<
HIL-F-8’785C
3. REQUIREMENTS

3.1.1 ~. The procuringactivitywill specify the


operational❑lsaions to be consideredby the Contractorin designing the
airplaneto meet the flying qualitiesrequirementsof this SpSciflcStlOn.
These missions will includeall .ase.mciated
Flight Phases and taeka, such as
takeoff,takeoff abOrt, landingend missed apDrOaCh. Operationalmissions
include the entire spectrumof intendedussge to include aircrew upgrade and
training.

3.1.2 ~. The coritractorshall define the envelopesof center Of


gravity and correspondingweights that will exist for each Flight Phaae. These
envelopesghall include the most forwsrdand aft center-of-gravityooeitiOn9as
defined in M.IL-U-25140.In addition, the contractorshall determine the
maximum center-of-gravityexcursionsattainablethrough failuresin eYstemsor
.. componem,ts,such aa fuel sequencing,hung stores, etc., for each Flight Phase
to be consideredin the FailureStates of 3.1.6.2. h’ithinthese enveloPes,
plus a growth margin to be specifiedby the procuringactivity,and for the
excuraionacited above, this SpSCificatiOnshall aPPIY.
~
3.1.3 ~. The contractorshall define the
momentsand produots of inertia of the airplaneassociatedwith all loadingsof
3.1.2. The requirementsof this specificationshall apply for all moments and
productsof inertia so defined.
‘(-,
3.1,4 ~. The r?quirementaof this specificationshall apply for
all combinationsof extarnaletores requiredby the operational❑issions. The
effectsof sxternal storeson the weiqht, mmments of inertia,center-of-gravity
position,and aerodynamiccharacteristic.9 of the airplane shall be considered
for each mission Flight Phase. When the atoreg contain expandableloads, the
requirementsof this specificationapply throughoutthe range of store
lmsdinga. The external stores and store combinationsto be consideredfor
flying qualitiesdesign will be SpecifiedW Me ProcuringactivitY. In
establishingexternal store cmmbtnationsto be lnvestlgated,consideration
shall be given to aaym.metricae well ag to symmetricoombinatione.

3.1.5 ~. The requlrementaof this specificationshall apply for


all confiqurationarequiredor encounteredin the applicableFlight Phaaes of
1.4. A (Qrew-) selectedconfigurationis defined by the poeitionaand
adjustment of the various selectorsand controlsavailableto the crew except
for pitch, roll, yaw, throttleand trim controls. ExamPlesare: tbe fl~P
control setting and the yaw damper ON or OFF. The selectedconfigurationsto
be examined must consist of thoee required for performanceand mission
accomplishment. Additionalconfigurationsto be investigatedmay be defined by
the procuringactivity.

3.1.6 ~. The.State of the airplane is defined by the


selectedconfigurationto8etherWith the functionalStatus of eaoh ‘f the
airplanecomponeoteor sy.vtemg, throttlesetting,weiijht,momente of inertia,
center-of-gravitypeaition,and externalstore complement. The trim settinq
and the positioneof the pitch, roll and yaw controls are not included in the
[- definitionof Airplane State since they are often specified in the
requirements.

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MIL.F-8785c

3.1,601 ~. The contractorshall define and tabulateall


pertinentitems to describethe AirplaneNormal (no component. or eystem
failure)State(s)associatedwith each of the applicableFlight Phasee, This
tabulationshall be in the format and 9hall use the nomenclaturesDecifiecl
in
6.2. Certain items, euch 89 weight,moments of inertia,center-of-gravity
position,wing sweep, or thrust settingmay vary continuouslyover a range of
values during a Flight Phase. The contractorehall replace this oontinuoua
variationby a limitednumber Of values of tlteparameterin questionwhich will
be treatedas spaoificStates, and which includethe most criticalvalues and
the extremesencounteredduring the Flight Phase in Question.

3.1.6.2 ~. The contractorshall define and tabulateall


I “1 AirplaneFailure States,which consist of AirplaneKormal States modifiedby
one or more malfunctionsin airplane’cmmpmnentaor syetems;for axamDle,a
.

discrepancybetween a selectedconfiqtirationand an actual configuration.


Those malfunctionsthat result in center-of-gravitypositionsoutside the
center-of-gravityenvelopedefined in 3.I.2 shall be included. Sach ❑mde of
failureshall be considered. Failureeoccurringin any Flight Phase shall be
consideredin all subsequentFlight Phaaes.

3.1.6,2.1 ~. .
Certaincomponents,systems,or
Combinationsthereofmay have extremelyremote probabilityof failureduring a
given flight. These failureprobabilitiesmay, in turn, be very difficultto
predictwith any degree of accuracy. Special FailureStates of this type need
not be consideredin complyingwith the requirementsof Sectioo 3 if
I justificationfor consideringthe Failure States as Special 19 submittedby the
contractorand approv’edby the promuringactivity.

j.1.l ~ . The operationalflight envelopeedefine UP


the boundariesin terms of speed, altitude end load factorwithin uhlch the
airplanemust be capable of operatin$in order to accomplishthe miesionsof
3.1.10 Envelopas for each applicableFlight Phase shall be establishedwith
the guidanceand approvalof the proeurinqactivity. In the abaenoeof
specificguidance, the contractorshall use the representativecondition of
table I for the applicableFllght F’lWaS.

i. 3.1.6 &)-v
~Qv~.

FllghL Envelopesshowing”
For each AlrpleneNormal State the contractor
shall establish,subject to the approval of the procuringactivity,‘Service
combinationsof spaed, altitudeand nO~l
accelerationderlVed from airplane limits as distlnguiahedfrom mission
requirement. For each applicableFlight Phaee and AirplaneNomnal State, the
boundariesof the Service Flight Envelopescan be coincidentwith or lie
! outside the correspondingOperationalFlight Envelopaa,but in no case shall
they fall inside thoee Operationalboundaries. The boundariesof the Service
Fli%ht Envelopasshall be baaed on conaiderationadiscussedin 3.1.8.1,
3.1.8.2,3.1.8.3and 3.1.8.4.

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uIL-F-8785C
(+, TABLE I. ~

FLluc-c AIRSPESCJ ALTITWE IL)AUrums


ncsss v [m I V {MO I ho he”,
cslE02a’i {L1CV7
-E “.1*“sin “w -= ‘emi,“Oma,
●,n

&lR-lD.
AIR-T (W1 1.4v’ ‘CUT I(SI. cd. z -1.0 ‘t.
C8ilinl
- Amlft(u) I.s~’~ %1 KSL SMlm -1.0 n,,
9’SAPQN
OELIVtRY/Ull vrasp KSL {:*4I .s .
mm) “w C*IIi”*
A W.UIAL
ULQVk@V
(~n) 1.2V* % r K+L u-., .5 “1.
Ce,linc
RC~WISSNIC1(w) 1.sv~ !4SL tial . .
‘MT C*S11.:
lN.
FLICICl
EEl=lE1. IVER) 1.1Vs
l@Ecc !SL .s t.0
(en
] %W war
@lliog
I ~=.klnWLLMIW (Tf] v,.”,, % SSSL 10.
mft . .0 J.s

smai (4.$) 1.2v~


Alfnsususlm %sl ml mim 0 2.0
-E FOW!4TIIYU
FLV1%
(W) ].4v, =1 C4mat -1.0
%,+? ceiling ‘L
( CLtfSS
(CL) .[SVR,C I s V,,c MsL :~ru;:
I .s :.0
“r”
CNIISE
(cl] vr.... %1 16L Cmlisia
# .s 2.0
.-.111”.
tnll’ss
[m) .ssV* 1.sV4 lSL cruls~ns.~ ~,~
cd s1.9
-~10c7
MEFUF.L
(T4XSSI
DESCfJll
(01 1.4Vs %csl
mssGsLcY
0- (=0 1.4v~ v98 16L C*ilins
mRcslcYDCCP.LEBAT1*, ..-
,~v.~ vU* MSL Cruhal.ag
.s 2.0
1. I ,“s\
(- .
colsin~
MIN. OELIVSRY
[M) 1.2V6 00lt o *8
.. TAEMVFno) -.
Spn4
Tskmf(
c.s74nl.T
TASSOFF[a) M&y”a&wlf Vomim F6L - .s %
.30kt
~ I APPS0401
[PAI I Ssir.lu
NOm v -L Io,ooort.
.s :.0
ppredS# “

(, -
.
-?’”
I
.I.. i0n,
WPmri.t.toih.epcr.tlm.l
I
Lan4iw 5A’
I
9
-’
‘“’“o”
I
USL lo.000tt.
.s 1.0

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MIL-F-8785C

3.1.8.1 ~~. ,~,”i,,- The maximum .vervice


speed, Vmax or Mmax, for
II each ali.
itude is the lowest of: .-
“.4
a. The maximum permissiblespeed
I

1
h. A speed whioh ie a safe marqin below the apeed at which intolerablebuffet
or structuralvibrationis encountered
I
c. The.maximum airspeedat MAT, for each altitude,for dives [at all angles)
~ from VI.IAT
et all altitudes,from which recoverycan be made at 2,000 feet above
MSL or higher without penetratinga safe margin frOM 109s Of COntIWl,Other
dangerouebehavioror intolerablebuffet, and without exceedingstructural
limits.
I 3.I.8.2 ~. The minimum service speed, Vmin or t4min,for
each altitude is the highe9tof’:

a. 1.1 v~ ..

b. VS + 10 knots equivalentairspsed

I
I
c. The speed below which fUIL airplane-nose-uppitch control power and trim
are insufficientto maintain straight,steady flight

d. The lowest speed at which level flight can be maintainedwith lfRTand,


I . . .
I for Category C Flight Phases:

e. A speed limited by reduced vi91bllityor an extreme pitch attitude that d


I I would result in the tail or aft fuselagecontactingthe ground.

I I 5.~.8.3 ~. The mesimum aervioe altitude,hmax, for a


given speed is the maximum altituda at which a rate of olimb of “1OOfeet per
minuta can be maintainedin’unaooeleratedfliqhtwith MAT,

3.1.8.u Servic<~. Usximum and minimum sewice load factors,n(+)


[n(-)], shall be establishedas a functionof speed for several significant

I /“ altitudes. The maximum [minimum]eervice load factor,when trimed for 1S


flightat a particularspeed and altltude,is the lowest [highest]
algebraicallyof:
,

I
I
a. The positive [neqative]structurallimit load faotor

b. The steady load factorcorrespondingto tbe minimum all&sble ValUe of lift


coefficientfor stall warning (3.4.2.1.1.2)

I c. The steady load factor at which the pitch“controlis in the full


airplane-nose-up[nose-down] position

d. A safe ❑argin below [above] the load factor”at,which intolerablebuffet or


I,. structuralvibrationis encountered.’.
1,
3.1.9 & ~. b The contractorehall define Permissible
Flight Envelopeswhich encompaasall regions in which operationof the airplane
is both allousbleand possible,consistentwith 3.1,10.3.3. These Envelopes L.
define boundariesin terms of speed, altitudesnd load factor.
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MIL-F-B785C

( 3.1.10 ~. Levels of flying qualitiesas indicatedin 1.5


are employed in this specificationin realizationof the possibilitythat the
.P
airplanemay be required to operate under abnormalconditions. Such
abnormalitiesthat may occur as a result of either flight outside the
OperationalFlight Envelope, failureof airplanecomponents,or both, are
permittedto comply with a degraded Level of flyingqualitiesas specifiedin
3.1.10,1 through 3.1.10,3,3(ace also 4.1.1).

“3.1.10.1 ~. The minimum requiredflYinS


qualitiesfor Airplana Nor+salStetas (3.1.6.1)are ae specifiedin table II.

TABLE H. ~.

“ 3.1.IO.2 ~.
P5EEssl’ When AirplaneFailure
States exist (3.1.6.2), a degradationin flying qualltiee1s permittedonly if
the probabilityof encounteringa lower Level than specifiedin 3.1.10.1is
sufficiently9mall. At intervalaestablishedby the preaurincactivity,the
contractorshall determine,besed on the most acourateavailabledate, the
probabilityof occurrenceof each Airplane Failure State per flight and the
effect of that Failure State on tpe flying quelitieawithin the operationaland
((- Service Flight Envelopes. These determination shall be based on HIL-STD-T56
except that:

a, All airplane componentsand systems are aaaumed to be operatin~for a time


period, per flight, equal to the longest operationalmission time to be
consideredby the contractorin deaignin~the eirplane,and

b. Each specific failure is assumed to be presentat whicheverPoint in the


Flight Envelope baing consideredis mo9t critioal(in the flYinS Qualitiee
sense). From these Failure State probabilitiesand effect8, the oaatractor
shall determine the overall probability,per flight,that One or more flYing
;, qualitieeare degraded to Level 2 beoause of one or more failUIWa. The
t. contractorshall alao determinethe probabilitythat one or”more flying
qualitiesare degraded to Level 3. These probabilitiesShall be leaa than the
values specified in table 111.
#-
IO no case shall a FailureState (exceptan approvedSpeoial FailureSt8te)
degrade anY flyins quality perameteroutaide the Level 3 Mmit.

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!
MIL-F.8785C

TABLE III. @rels for ~e FailureStates.

Probabilityof Within Operational Within Service


. Encountering Flight Envelope Flight Envelope

Level 2 after failure < 10-2 per fright

~ l.~velj after failure < 10-4 per flight < 10-2 per flight

3,1.10.2.1 ~t 8 for ~ . The requirementson the


I effectsof specific tyoes of failures,e.s., propulsionor flightcontrol
system, shall be met on the basis that the specifictype of failurebaa
occurred,regardlessof its probabilityof occurrence.

I 3.1.10.3 ~

3.I.10.3.l ~~~ terminal Fli~ . Some requirements


I pertainins.to takeoff,landing and taxiing involveoperationoutelde the
OperaLional, Service and PermissibleFllaht Envelopes,as et VS or on the
grOund. khen requirementsare steted at conditionssuch ae these, the levels
shall be appliedes if the conditionswere in the OperationalFlight EnveloPe.
I Within the Operationaland Service
3J.1O.3.2 ~.
F1iqht Envelopes,all requirementsthat are not identifiedwith soecificLevels
I shal1 bm met under all conditionsof componentand system failureexoept

I approvedAirplaneSpeciel failureStates (3.1.6.2.1).

3.1.10.3.3 F~~Lside the S_ ~. From all points in the


I PermissibleFlluht Envelopee,it,shall be poseiblereedily and 9efely to return
---
to the Service Flight Envelopewithout exceptionalpilot ekill or teohnique,
re@rd less‘ofcomponentor system failures. Tbe requirement on flight at high
I andv. of attack, dive characteristics,dive recoverydevices and daogerous
fIiRh(.conditionsshall 81s0 apply.

~. I.II ~~e~r~t,on or subi~. In eeveral instances


I t!r$nh:houtthe specificationsubjectiveterme,Such as objectionableflight
characteristics,realistictime delay, normal pilot techniqueend excessive
loss of altitudeor buildupof apced, have been employedto pefi.t latitude
utmw nhnolute quantiLative criteriamlqht.be onduly restrictive. Final
I rielcrmlnatlon
of compliancewith requirementsao worded will be made by the
procurinractivity (1,5). .,
I 3.1.12 ~.~~ Of .U~. v The numerical
requirementsor this specificationgenerallyare stated in terms of a linear
mathematicaldescriptionof the airplene. Cert%in factors,for example fliqht
control system nonlinearitiesand higher-ordercharacteristicsor aerodynamic
I
nor,l
inearities, can cauae the aircraftre9ponseto differ aignifiaantlyfrom
I that of the linearmodel. The contractorshall define equivalentclassical
systemswhlch h.av?response?. most closely IIIatChj
nu those of the actual
I alrcrall..Then Lhosc numorlcalrcquirementeof section 3 which are atnted in
terms of 1lnear system parameter (such as frequency,damchg ratio and mdal
phase angles) apply to the“parametersof that equivalentsystem rather than to
any part.
icular’mdes of theactual higher-ordersvstem. The procuringactivity
snail be Lhe“.judqeof the adequacy of the responseahztchbetweenequivalentand
actual aircraft. ‘4”

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MIL-P-8785C
I

3.2.1 ~

3.2.1.1 ~ . For Levels 1 and 2 there shall be no


tendencyfor airspeed to diverge aperi.cdlcslly when the airplane is disturbed
from trim with the cockpit controls fixed and with them free. This requirement
will be consideredsatisfiedif the variationsOf Pitch cOfitrO~force an4 pitch
control poaltionwith airspeed are smooth and the local qradientestable, with:

a. Trimmer and throttlecontrols not moved from the”trim aettlnusby the crew,
and

b. lg accelerationnormal to the flight path, and


I
c. Censtantaltitude

over a range shout the trim epeed of :15 ee.rcentor %0 knots equivalent
airspeed,whichever is lees (exceptwhere limited by the boundariesof the
Service Flight Envelopes). Alternativey, this requirementwil1 be considered
satisfiedif stabilitywith respeot to apeed is provided through the fliuht
control system,even though tha re.vultln% pitch control ropoe and deflection
gradientsmay be zero. For Level 3 the requirementsmay be relaxed, nub-lectto
i aPPrOVd by tha procuringactivityof the ❑aximum instabilityto be allowed for
the particularoaae. In no event shall it9 time to double amP1it~e be less
than 6 seconds. In the presenceof one or more other Level 3 flyinq qualitles,
no static longitudinalinstabilitywill be permittadunless the flight sefety
of that cembinatlonof characteristicshas been demonstratedto the
satisfactionof the procurinqactivlty. Stable gradientsmean that the pitch
controllerdeflectionand force incrementsreauired to maintain straight,
steady flight at a diffarentepeed are in the game sensa as those requiredto
i initiatethe speed chanRe; that is, airplane-nose-downcontrol to fly at a
faster speed, airplane-nose-up”control to fly at a slower speed. The term
gradientdoee not include that portionof the.control force or control poaltlOn
versus airspeed curve within the breskout foroe ranqe.

3.2.1.1.1 . The requiremanta“of3.2.1.1~Y be


relaxed in the trsnaonicaveed ranse providedanY divereentairPlanemOtiQnaor
reversalsin C.1ODSof pltCh control force and position with speed are qradual
‘1 and no’toDJeotiOnableto the Dilot. In no Oase, bowe~er, shall the
requirementsof 3.Z.1.1 be relaxedmore than the followinu:
‘/ a. Levels 1 and 2 - For oenter-stickoontrollera,. no l~al rOrce $radient
shall be more unstable theh 3 pounde per 0.01 u nor shall the force c.hanse
I I exceed 10 pounds in the unstabledirection, The cOrre~pOndinqlimits for *eel
,. controllersare 5 oeunda per 0.01 M and 15 pounds, respectively

b, Level 3 - For center-stickcontrollers,“no’local rOrce Sradient shall be


more unstable than 6 pounds per 0,01 M nor shall the force ever axceed
20 pounds in the unstabledirection. The corr@spondinKlimits for wheel
contiolleraare 10 pounds par 0.01 t4and 30 pounds, re”apectively.

Thi9 relaxationdoet!not apply to Level 1 for any Fli.%htphaae fii~h rsquiree


prolonsedtrsnsanicOperatiOn.

11
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MIL-F-8785C

3.2.1.1.2 Yitch controL force vari~~eed c-. When the


airplaue is acceleratedand deceleratedrapidlythrouuh the operationalspeed
range and through the transonicspeed innqe by the most criticalcombinationof J
chanw,esin power, actuationof decelerationdevices, steep turng and pullups, .=/
1“ the maqltude and rate of the associatedtrim chanqe shall not be so Great as
to cause dlrficultyin maintainingthe desired load factor by normal pilot
technlquc3.
I
3.2.1.2 ~. The long-periodairsc.eed
oscillationswhich occur
I when the airplane seek9 a stabilizedairepeedfollOWlnga disturbanceshall
meet the followingrequirements:
I a. Level 1 --..- Cp at least 0.04

I h. Leval 2 ----- Cp at least o

c. Level 3 ----- T? et least 55 aeconde


I ..
These requirementsapply with the pitch control free and also with it fixed.
They need not be met transonicallyin cases where 3.2.1.1.1 permits relaxation
I of the static stabilityrequirement.

3.2.1.3 ~ . Flight-path9tabilityis defined in terms of


flight-path-angle change where the airspeed fs changed by the use of Ditch
control only (throttlesettinc not chenqed by the crew). For the landinq
aPDF~ac~ Flisht f’~se, the curve of fliqht-pathangle“versus true airspeed
shallhave a local 81OPS at Vomin which is negativeor less positive than:
I a. Level 1 ----- 0.06 deqreea/knot

b. Level 2 ----- 0.15 deqreeafknot


I
c. Level 3 ----- 0.2U deqreeelknot.
I
The thrust settim?,shall be that required for the normal approachglide path at
. The slope or tha curve of fliqht-pathangle versus airspeed at 5 knote
‘JOqin
I shall not be more then 0.05 degreesper knot more positive
;i~~h~h~o%it V%in, a9 illustratedby:
I
+ -5) , “%”
‘“%1,
I
:! — — v (1ss),
11
I 5
g
.
I z
t

I
/
I [“h
lamOF
Olmnmc[ In / KOAIIVE
;LOPIS SLOPES
$LO?f$
ROTTO
EXCEED ~
.0SLIfG/tl
i
12

I
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HIL-F-8785C

3.2.2 ~c teristm

3.2.2.1 ~. The short-periodresponseof an@e of attack


which occurs at approximatelyconstantspeed, and which may be pro@ced bY
abrupt pitch control inputs, shall meet the requirementsof 3.2.2.1.1and
3.2.2.1.2. These requirementsapply, with the c=kPit control tree and With ‘t
fixed, for respon9esof any magnitudethat ❑ight be experiencedin serviceuse.
If oscillationsare nonlinearwith amplitude,the requirementsshall aDPIY tO
each cycle of the oscillation. In addition to meetinR the numerical
requirementsof 3.2.2.1.1 and 3.2.2.1.2,the contractorshall show that the
airplanehas suitable resDonsecharacteristicsin atmosphericdisturbances(3.’/
end 3.8).

3.2.2.1.1 ~v ~d ~ . The equivalent


y, ‘nSp, ehall be within the limits shown
short-periodundamped natura1 frequent
on figures 1, 2 a“CI3. If suitable!aeanaof directlycontrollingnO~al fOFce
are provided,the lower bounds on %sp and n~~ Of fiuure 3 maY be relaxed if
aPProvedby the procurin~activity.
3.2.2.1.2 ~ . The equivalentshort-oeriodds@PinK ratiO~

CSp, shall be within the limits of table IV.

I TABLE IV. ~ .

I Cstegory k and C Flight Phases CatesOry B Flight phases

Lavel Minimum Maximum Hinimum Maximum

/ 1 0.35 1.30 0.30 2.00


I
2 0.25 2,00 0.20 2.00

3 0.15’ -“ .0.15. -

●Hay be reduced at altitudesabove 20,000 feet if approved by the proCUt’ifI~


activity.

3.2.2.1.3 ~. Any suetainedresidualoscillations in calm


[ air shall not interferewith the pilotssabilitg to perform the taeka required
, in service use of the airDlane. For Levels 1 and 2, oscillationsin normal
\ accelerationat the pilot!s stationgreater than KI.05s w*11 De considered
1 excessivefor any Flight Phaee, ae will pitch attitudevacillationsgreater
than :3 mile for Category A Flight Phaae9 reauirinqPrecise control of
attitude. These requirementsshall apply with th@ pitch control fixed and ‘ith
I it free.

3.2,2.2.Q@rol f~tv ti ~ .
In steady turning flightand in pullupsat constant speed, there shall be no
tendencyfor the airplanepitch attitudaor aogle of attack to diverge
aperiodlcally with controls fixed or with COntrOIS fr’be. For the above
conditions,the incrementalcontrol force and control deflectionrequiredto
maintain a change in normal load factor and pitch rate shall be in tha same
eense (aft-morepositive,forward-morenegative)aa those requiredtO initiate
the change. These requircmentgapply for all local sradlente threuqhoutthe
ranse of service load factorsdefined in 3.1.8.4.

13
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UIL-F-8785C

,-

—llolE: THE&
OUTSI“E
4J2*
p
~r S166
(-)
%
10.0

S.6

10

0.28

O.lb
Uq N
8P
J?A@.wc

1.0~ - w

-LEVEL2 G

o.I
l.”

\
.—
— .“
FIGURE 1. ti~mencv re~ Ca~. )
14

—.
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nIL-F-6785c

1..................!......
L......_ ........
...*......
L........
L....
9K
I ....... ...............
,: i.. :.. ...i.

0.085

O.osa

1.0 10 , 100

I P
FIGURE 2.
15
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HIL-F-8785C

la J
I
‘-k-iITE: THE

~G!@)
80UHDAR
IESFOR VALUESOF n k 63UATER
I THAII100AR[OEFIIIEDIY STiA18RT-LIME
EXT~SIOMS.
THE LEVEL3 OOUNOARTFOR nk LESSTHM 1.01$
I ALSOOEIIIIEOBY A STRAISHT-LlfiE
EXTEHS
1011.

I
I
H10,0

10

I I I 1 Ill 0.16
I flnx
I
L
I
I I
I

I
1’

I I &n
I

I
UOTE: FoECiASSI. “D-C,
” MO 11 41RPLAIIES,
‘n SHILLALWAYSBE 6REATERTHAN0.6
SP 31&o
IANsPERsEcoKoFoRL[vELx
I O.IL I 1 I I I I II
1.0 10”’ 100
+z”9~yf14D
,

FIGURE 3. Shore.-neriod
fre~ - ca~.
I 16
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)41
L-F-8785C

3.2.2.2.1 ~. At cOnatantspaed in
I
(-.. steady tUrnlng flight,pullupaand pushovers,the variationin pitch controller
fOFCe with eteady-statenormal accelerationshall have no objectionablenon-
linearitieswithin the followingload factor ranges:

class Iiin. hall


.

I, II & 111 .5 .5[no[+)+ 1] or 3


I
!
I IV 10 I whichever la less

outsidethis range, a departurefmm linearityresultingin a local gradient


which differs from the avarage gradient for the maneuver by more than
50 percentis consideredexcessive,except that larger increaaesin force
gradientare permissibleat load factoragreater than 0.85 nL. All local force
gradienteshall be within the limits of table V. In additiOn,Fahz should be
naar the Level 1 uppar boundariesof table V for combination of high freqWncY
and low damping. The term gradient does not include that portion of the force
versus nz curve within the breakout force.

SlnCe the range of acceptableforce gradianta for side stick controllersVarlea


vith the control deflectiongradient and the task to be psrformed,the
Contractorshall show that the contrcl force gradientswill produce suitable
flyingqualitiee.

3.2.2.2.2 ~. ‘Or all ‘y~s ‘f pitch


controllers,the control mtiona in maneuveringflight shall not be so large or
i x, ao small ae to be objectionable. For Category A Flight P!??Se9,the aVer8Ee
I gradientof pitch-controlforoe per unit of pitch-controldeflectionat
censtantspeed.ehall not be le9a than 5 pund~ P= inch fOr wheel and
I center-stickcontrollersor 2.0 pounds per degree for side-stickcontrollara
for Levele 1 and 2.

3.2.2.3 &~. There shall be no tendency


for pilot-inducedoscillations,that is, auatainedor uncontrollable
OSCillatlOnaresulting from the efforts of the pilot to control the airplane.
The Pitch attitude responsedynamics of the sirframa plus control system shall
not change abruptly with.the mction amplitudaaof pitch, pitch rate or normal
accelerationunless it can be shown that this will not result in a pilot-
.. inducedoscillation. The r@irements in 3.2.2.3.1 and 3.2.2.3.2 shall be ❑et
fOr all expectedairplane!mXion amplitudesand frequencies,startingat any
e.ervioeload factor.

,. 3.2.2.3.1 1 forces in ~. The fraquancy


respenseof normal accelerationat tha pilot to pitch control foroe shall ba
suoh that the inverse amplitudeis greeter than the followingfor all
frequenciesgreater than 1.0 radlsea. Units are pOunda Per 8.

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3

One-handedControllers *’* -L
‘L-1 ‘L-1

I JCL -22 L
(- Two-handedControllers nL-1 q-1 nL-1
I
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MIL-F-8785C

TABLE V. ~verinc force urad~.

Centnr Stl@k Controllers

I Level Maximum Gradient, MinimumGradlent


(Fa/n)~x, pund9 per g (Fs/n)minF wunds Per g

1 ~ The hiqher of
“/ a 23-
but not more than 28,0 nL-1
nor less than J& ● and 3.0
nL-~
2 36.Q The hiaher of
n/ a L
but not more than 42.5 nL-1

nor leas than & and 3.0


nL-1

‘1
,. 3 56.o The hiuher of
L
nL-1
and 2.0

●For nL<3, (F=/n)maxia 28.0 for Level 1, 42.5 fOr Level 2.

maximumGradient, MinimumGradient,
Level (F~/n)=x, pounde per g (F~/n)tin,pounds oer g

w The higher of
n/a x
1 but not more than 120.0 nL-1

nor less than u and 5,0


nL-1
m The hiuher of
n/a $
2 but not more than 182.0
I nor less than J& and 6.o
nL-1
3 Zho.o 5.0

I
I
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MIL-F-S785C

$-%,
3.2.2.3.2 ~rol fe~, The deflectionof the pilot!econtrol must not lead
the control force throughoutthe frequencyrange of pilot control inputs. In
addition,the peak pitch control forces developedduring abrupt maneuversshall
not be objectionablylight, and the buildupof ContrOl force during the
maneuver entry nhall lead the buildup of normal acceleration.

3s2.3 ~
3.2.3.1 ~. In erect unaccelerated
flight at all service altitudes,the attainmentof all speeds between Vs and
V~, shall not be 1imited by the effectivenessof the longitudinalCOntrOl or
c=trols.

3.2.3.2 ~. Within the C9erational


Flight Envelope,it shall be possible to develop,by use of the pitoh control
alone, the followingrange of load factors:

Levels 1 and 2 ----- no(-) to no(+)

Level 3 ----- n s 0.5g to the lower of:

a) no(+)

b) n= 2.0 for nn(+) ~ 3S


0.5 [no(+) + 11 for nO(+) ~ 3g
. .
YhIs maneuveringcapabilityis requiredat the 1S trim speed and, with trim and
{ -’ throttlesettinge not changed by the crew, over a range about the trim speed
the leaaer of 215 paroent or SO knote equivalenteirn~ed (exceptwhere
I limited by the boundariesof tha OperationalFlight Envelope). Within the
Service end PermissibleFlight Envelopes,the dive.reooveryrequirementsOf
3.2.3.5and 3.2.3.6, respectively,shall be met.

3.2.3.3 ~. The effectivene’~Of the pitch


control shall hot restrict the takeoff performatmeof tbe airplaneend shall be
auffioient to prevent over-rotationto undesirableattitudesduring takeoffe.
Satisfactorytakeoffsehall not be dependentupmn uae of the triucuer control
during takeoff or Oricomplicatedoontrol manipulationby the pilot. For
.. nose-wheelairplanea it shall be poeaible to obtain, ●t 0..9Vmino the Ditch
attitudewhich will result in takeoff at Qmin. For tail-wheelairolaneasit
shell be possible to maintain any pitch ●ttitude up to that fOr a level
thruet-lineat 0.5 VS for Claea I airpleoceand at Vg for Claes 11, III. and Iv

I
r
19
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,:

HIL-F-87B5C

airplanes. These requirementsshall be met on hard-surfacedrunway9. In the


event that an airplane has a mlasion requirementfor operationfrom unprepared .
fields,these requirementsshall be met on such fields. u “’)
3,2.3.3.? L~~ ~. On airplaneadesiqned for
c:JLapultI.mkootf,Lhe Cff’ectivonoox
of t.hopitch control shall be suffiolentto
prevent the airplane from pitchingup or down to undesirableattitudesin
catapult takeoffaat speeds ranging from the minimum aare launchingspeed to a
launchlngspeed 30 knots higher than the minimUm. SatisfactorycatePult
takeorrsshall not depend upon complicatedcontrolmanipulationby the Dilot.

3.2.3.3.2 ~. With the trim


settingoptional but fixed,the pitch-controlforces requiredduring all tynes
of takcorfefor which the airplane is deaiqned,includingshort-fieldtakeoffs
and aasisted takeofrssuch as catapultor rocket-augmented,shall be within the
followinqlimit9:

MQskHfwaJ311d.M c vcle-eeard.u&ulu

Claeses 1, IV-C --------20 pounds pull to 10 pounds push

Claa9ee II-C, IV-L ----- 30 pounds pull to 10 pounds push

Classes II-L, 111 ------ 50 pounds pull to 20 pounds push

m~
I
Classea1, II-C, IV --- 20 pounds push to 10 pound9 PU1l

Clasaes II-L, 111 ------ 35 pounde push to 15 oounds Pull

me pitch-controltrevelduring these takeOffsshall nOt exceed 75 Percentof


the total travel, stop-to-stop. Here the term takeoff includesthe ground run,
rotationand llrt-ofr,the ensuinsaccelerationto Vmax (TO), end the trsnaient
cauaed by assist cesaatlon. Takeoff power shall be ❑aintaineduntil Vmax (TO)
is reached,with the landinggear end biqb-lirtdevices retractedin the normal
manner at epeeda from V%in(TO) tO vmax(TO).

3.2.3.U lcQIIsUU~malns. The Pitch control sba~l be


aufricientlyeffectivein the landinq Flight Phase in close proximityto tbe
ground, thaL in cslm air: ..-

a. The geometry-limitedtouchdohnattitudecan be maintainedin level flight,


or

b. The lower of VS(L) or the ,zuarenteed


lendinq spead oan be obtained.

This requirementehall be met with the airplane tri~ed for tbe approachFlight
Pha$e at the recommendedapproach apeed. The .requlrementa of 3.2.3.4and
3.2.3.U.1 define Levels 1 and 2, and the requirementsof 3.U.1O define Level 3.

20
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HIL-F-B785C
I
(r 3.2.3.4.1 ~. The pitch-controlforces
required to meet the requirementsof 3.2.3.4shall be pull forcesand shall not
“1 exceed:
1 Classes 1, II-C; IV ----- 35 pounds

Classes II-L, III -------50 Pounde

3.2.3,5 . VIth
the airplane trimmed for level flight at speeds throughoutthe Service Flight
Fmvelopc,the control foroe9 10 dives to all attainablespeeds within the
ServiceFliqht Envelope ehall not exceed 50 pounds push or 10 pounds pul1 for
cent.er-stiokcontrollers,nor 75 pounds pueh or 15 pounds PU1l for wheel
I controllers. In similardives, but with trim optional followingthe dive
entry, it ehall be possiblewith normal pilotingtechniquesto maintein the
forcee within the limits of 10 pounds push or Pull for center-stick
controllers,and 20 pounds push or pull for wheel eontroller9. In event that
operationof the trim gystem requiresremoval of one hand from a wheel control
the force limits shall be aa for a center-stiok, The forces required for
recovery from theee dives shall be in aooordancewith the gradientsspecified
in 3.2.2.2.1although apaed may vary during the pullout.

I 3.2,3.6 .
With the airplane trimmed for level flight at VMAT but with trim optionalin
the dive, it 9hall be possibleto maintain the pitch control force within the
limits of 50 peunda pueh or 35 pounds Dull in dives to all attainableepeede .
within the PermissibleFlight Envelope. The f’oroerequired for reoovary from
(, -. the.vedivee shall not exceed 120 pounde. Trim and decelerationdevioes,etc.,
may be used to”aoaist in reoovery if no unusual pilot techniquela required.
I
I 3.2.3.7 ~. Uith the airplanetri~ed ‘or
straight,level flight with zero aideslip,the pitoh-oontrolforce requiredto
maintainconetant aoeed in steady‘eideslioswith UP to 50 Pounds of pedal fo~e
in either direction shall not exceed the pitch-controlforoe that wmuld result
in a lg change in normal acceleration. In no caee, hOWevertehall the
pitch-controlforce exceed:

Center-stiakoontrollera---- 10 ~unds PU1l tO 3 oounds pueh

Wheel controllers------------15 pmunda pull to 10 pounda push

If a variationof pitch-controlforce with aidealipdoes exiet, it ie preferred


that inoreaaingpull force accompanyincreasingsidealip,and that the
❑agnitudeand directionof the force change be similar for right and left
eidealips. Theee requircmentadefine Levele ~ and 2. FOr Level 3 there a~ll
be no uncontrollablepitohing ❑otionsassociatedwith tha eidaslipsdiaaueeed
above.

3.3

3.3.1 ~

3.3.1.1 . The frequency, ‘nd,


(= and damping ratio, cd, Of the lateral-dir=tional o~cillatiOn~‘O1lOwinga yaw
disturbanceinput shall exceed the minimum values in table VI. The
requirementsshal1 be met in trimmedand in meneuverirrg flight with cockpit
I 21
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MIL-F-9785C

controls fixed and with them free, in oscillationsof any ❑agnitudethat miQht
be experiencedin operationaluse. If the oscillationis nonlinearwith
amplitude,the requirementshall aPPIY tO each cYcle Of the Oscillation. ‘n -)
. . oalm air residualoscillation may be toleratedonly if the amplitudeis
9ufflcl.XILIYsmall that the motions are nOt objectionableand do not impeir
mission performance. For Category A Fli~ht Phase9,angulardeviationsshall be
lees than ?3 mile.

TABLE VI. ~.

Flight Phase HillCdlJnd* Min WW


Level Cateqory Clae9 Min cd- radfeec. rad/sec.

A (CO and GA) IV O.u 1.0

A I, IV 0.19 0.35 1.0

11, III 0.19 0.35 0.4”

1 E All 0.08 0.15 o.4m9

c I, II-C,
IV 0.08 0.15 1.0

II-L, 111 0.08 0.10 0.4”

2 All All 0.02 0.05 O.U*’

3 All All 0 o.4*b =’)


The governingdamping requirement19 that yieldingthe larger VfilUeOf cd,
except that a 6 OF 0.’7is the maximum required for Claes III.

Class 111 airPlanesmay be exaepted from the mlnimm ‘n requirement,


subject to approval by the procuringactivity,if the r$quirementsof 3.3.2
throu~h 3.3.2.4.1,3.3.5 and 3.3.9.4are met.

Hhen ~~dl$lsld iS greater than 20 (rad/sec)2,the minimum Cdun shall be


increasedabove the’Cdun minimums listed above by: d
I Level 1 -
d
ACdWnd, .014(~~d!$/tlld- 20)

Level 2 - ACdWn . .I)i)9(~~d!$/91d


- 20)

Level 3 - ACdWnd, .005(W2 I$/Bld - 21-1)


d ‘d
with Un in radlsec.
d

22
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I
FIIL-F-8785C

3.3.1.2 EULmmk. The roll-modetime constant,TR, shall be nO Sreaterthan


the appropriatevalue“intable VII.

TABLE VII.

Flight
Phase Claes Level
Category 1 2 3

A I, IV 1.0 1.4
II, III 1.8 3.0

)
B All I.& 3.0 10

c I, II-C, IV 1.0 1.4


II-L, III 1.4 3.0

3.3.1.3 ~. The ccabinedeffectsof spiral etability,


flight-control-system characteristicsand rolling ❑oment ohange with speed
ehall ba such that followinga disturbancein bank Of w to 20 de.qreee,the
time fOr the bank SMgle to doubla ehall be greater than the ValUeS in
table VIII. This requirementshall be mat with the airplane trimmed for
wlnga-level,zero-yaw-rateflight with the oockpit controls free.

I TABLE VIII.

I
I
3.3.1,.4 For Flight Phaeea which involvemore
than gentle ❑aneuvering,such aa CO and &, the airplanecharacteristicsshall
not @Xhibit a coupled rell-spiral❑mde in ras@nse to tha pilot roll control
ccamamda. A ooupled roll-spiral❑mde will be permitted for categoryB and C
Plight Phases providedthe produot of frequencyand damping ratio exoeeds the
followingrequirememti:

J&xa CR+ , radlaeo


%s
1 0.5
2 0.3
3“ 0.15

3.3.2 ~. Leteral-
directionaldynamio respmnseOharaoteristiosare etated in terme of responeeto
atmosphericdisturbancesand in terms of ellowableroll rate and bank
oscillations,aidealipexcursions,roll control$forceeand yaw oontrol forces
that ooour during specifiedrelling‘andturningmaneuveraboth to the right and
to the left. The requlremantsof’3.3,2.2,3.3.2.3and .3.3.2.4apply for roll
cmmmeads of all magnitude up to the magnituderequired to meet the roll
performancerequirementsof 3.3,4 and 3.3.4.1.

23
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MIL.F-8785C

3.3..?.
1 hakr3,L-.dlfwUmal.r.
combined erfec,t of %,j. ‘:d,lRYm,:-J:;RtY:e%’%%%:d ‘h’

I.
Cliqht-control-sy stem nonlinearltie9on responseand controllability
characteristicsin atmosphericdisturbancesshall be considered(eee 3.8.3).
.--)
In partl.cular, the roll acceleration,rate and displacementresponsesto side
gusts shall be investigatedfor airplaneswith large rollingmoment due to
Slllenlip.

3.3.2.2 ~. Pollouinqe yaw-control-freestep roll


control command, the roll rate at the first minimum followingthe first peak
shall be of the same sign and not leSs than the followingpercentageof the
roll rate at the first paak:

Level plight Phasa CategOry Percent

1 A&c 60

B 25

2 A6C 25

e o

for a“llLevels, the change in”bank anqle shall always be in the directionof
the roll control Command.
” The roll cmumand shall be held fixed until the bank
angle has changed at leaat 90 degrees.

3.3.2.2.1 MdMQmLa?M_mte reou~remen t for smalUxwLs . The value of the


parameterPose/Pav followinga yaw-control-freestep rOll cmnd shall be
within the limits shown on figure U for Levels 1 and 2. This requirement
aPDlieS rOr 9teP roll-controlcemmandsUD to the maqnitudewhich 6auae9 a
60-degreebank angle change in 1.7Td seconds.

3.3.2.3 ~. The Value Of the pSr~eteP i30.s@Av


rollowinqa yaw-control-freeimpulse roll control command shall be within the
1imits as ehown on figure 5 ror Levels 1 and 2.. The impulseshall be a.9abrupt
as practicalwithin the strengthlimite of the pilot and the rate limitsof the
roll control system.

3.3.2.U ~QLc-&. Followinga ysw-control-frsestep roll control


command, the ratio or the eldeslipincrement,Ag to the parameterk (6.2.6)
shal1 b? leas than the Vfal
LWS speciriedherein. The roll cemmand shall be held
rixcd until the bank angle has changed at leaat 90 degrees.

AdverseSide91ip ProverseSideslip
F1tqhL Phase (Rtqht roll cmmmand (Riqht roll oommand
Level Cateqory cauecs riqht sideslip cauaee left aideslip
1 A 6 degrees 2 degreee

B&C 10”d.+rees ‘ 3 deqrees

2 All 15’degrees b de~rees

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MIL-F-8785C

1.1
1.0
.9
.8
.?
6
~“
% .5
g .b
1

.3
.2

I I I I I I
I I I I -2JO”
II 1 i I -280° -320° -3 0
o 40” -00”* -120” -160° -200” b5°lC 225”
0 (DXG)UWPPS=
, -3@ -*O” -20” -@* -lW” -lkoO -lmO
-180” -=0 -*o”
*p,(oEs)wm P-~~=5°-n *“ti”5°

.
I
I

,
I
I

I
FIGURE 5. ~“
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UIL-F-8785C

3.3.2.4.1 ~ sides1iv reauirement for small The amount 0?


sideslip followinga yaw-control-freestep roll Controlccvnmandshall be within
the limits aS shOn on riqure 6 fOr Levels 1 and 2. This requirementshall e)
aPPIY for step roll controlcommands UP to the maqnitudewhich causes a
60-degreebank anqle chsn~e within Td or 2 seconds,whicheverie 10nqer.

[1 An -80 -12C -160 -200 40 -200 -320 -360

I
I
I 3.3.2.5 D in rob. In the rollingmaneuversdescribedin
3.3.4, but with coordinationallowed for all Classes,directional-control
effectivenessehall be adeouateto maintainzerO sideslipwith pedal fO~e not ~
greater than 50 pounds for Class IV eirplaneain Flight Phase CategoryA, Level
1, and 100 pounds for all other coiabinationsof Claas, Fli!?htPhase Categor.V
and Level.

3,3.2.6 ~coord~. It ehall be possibleto ❑aintainsteady


coordinatedturns in either direction,using 60 deqree9 of bank for Class IV
.Iirplanes,45 deqreea,of bank for Clasa I and 11 airplanea,and 30 deveaa Of
hank for Class 111 airplanes,with a pedal force not exceedins40 pound9. It
ehnll be possibleto performet.eadyturns at the same bank angles with yaw
controls free, wiLh a’roll atiok force not exceedins 5 kmmda or a rOll *eel I
force not exceedinq 10 Dounds. These requirementsconstituteLevels 1 and 2,
with the eirplene trimmedfor wings-levelstraightflight.”

3.3.3 Ukt.-induced QXUMMQW There shel1 be no tendencyfor sustainedor


uncontrollablelateral-directional
oscillationsresultingfrom effortsof the
Pi1ot LO control the airplane.

3.3.4 ~. Roll performancein terms of a bank angle


change in a given time, Ot, is specifiedin table IXa for Class I and Clasa 11
airplanes,in 3.3.U.1 for Clasa IV airplanes., and in 3.3.4.2 for Class 111
airplanes. For rolls from banked flight,the initialconditionshall be
coordinated,that is, zero lateral acceleration. The requirementsaDPIY to
roll commands to the right and tc the left, initiatedboth from steadYbank
an@es and from wings-levelflight except as otherwise~teted. InPuts shall be”
abrupt, with time measured from the initiationof control force application.
The pitch control sr.
all be fixed throughoutthe maneuver. Yaw control pedals ‘\
shall remain free for Clas9 IV airplanes for Level 1, and for all carrier-baaed

26

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(

,;

:.

l’lIL-F-e785c

.!
i (p airplanesin CategoryC Flight Phases for Levels 1 and 2; but otherwise,yaw
control pedals may be used to reduce sideslipthat retards roll rate (not to
produce sideslipwhich augments rOll rate) if such control inputs are simple,
easily coordinatedwith roll control inputs and consistentwith piloting
techniquesfor the airplane cla9s and ❑ission. For Flight Phase TO, the time
requiredto bank may be increaaedproportionalto the ratio of the rolling
moment of inertia at takeoff to the largeat rollingmoment of inertiaat
landing,for weights up to the maximum authorizedlanding weight.

T&BLE IXa, for ~ .

lims tO A~
, .. CategoryA CateqoryB CetegorvC
Claas Level 600 lJ50 600 q50 Joel 25°

I 1 ! 1.3 1.3
I 2 1,7 H 1.8
I 3 2.6 3.4 2.6

II-L 1 1.4 1.9 1.8


II-L 1.9 2.8
i II-L : 2.8 3.8 :5

II-C 1 1.4 1.9 1.0


II-c 2 1.9 2.8, 1.5
I
(,> II-C 3 “ 2.8 3.8 2.0

3.3.4.I ~. Roll P@-ante in ten” ‘f


tltfor Claaa IV airDlanea is specifiedin table IXb. AdditionalOr alternate
roll performancerequirementsare apecifled.in3.3.4.1.1 and 3.3.4.1.2; these
requirementstake precedenceover table IXb. Roll perfomanoe for Claes IV
airplene9is soecifiedover the followingranSes of airspeeda:

SDeed Range EquivalentAirspeedRange


.. symbol For Level 1 For Levels 2 6 3

VL v%Mn ~ v ( Vmin + 20 KTS Vmin & v i %,i~ + 20 ~s


.- L v~f) + 20 Kss(l)<v < 1.4 v~~ V~n + 20 KTS L V < 1.4 Vmin

~ v,< .7 Vmx(z) 1.4 Vmin~V ~ .7 Vmax

(1) or Vomin whichever 1s greater . ‘ .(2)or Vmax uhiohev@rla le~~

(-’
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MIL-F-8785C

TABLE IXb. Roll nerformance for ClaSS IV air~.

lhu.?Ad!.c!&ve
The Fol10H@Q3DIs Angle Wmd&swM -)
Soeed Cateyxy A CateqoryB CategoryC
Level Ran4e 300 .jOo 9130 900 30°
VL 1.1 2.0 1.1
1 L 1.1 1.1 1.1
M 1.? 1.7 1.1
H 1.1 1.7 1.1

VL 1.6 2.8 1.3


2 L 1.5 2.5 1.3
I M
H 1“.3
1.7 2.5
2.5
1.3
1.3

VL 2.6 3.7 2.0


3 .L 2.0 2.0
!4 2.6 ;:: 2,0
H 2.6 3.U 2.0

3.3.4.1.1 wl~ase CQ. Roll performancefor Class IV


airplanesin Flic!htPhase CO is specifiedin table IXO in terms of Ot for 360°
rolls initiatedat lq, and in table IXd for rolls initiatedat load factors
between .8no(-) and ,8no (+).

3.3.4.1.2 ~~. The roll performance b


requirementsfor Class IV airplanes in Flight Phase GA with large complements
of’externalstores may be relaxed from those specifiedin table IXb, subject to
apprOvalby the procuringactivity. For any externalloading specifiedin the
contract,however, the roll performanceshall be not less than that in
table’IXe where the roll performanceis sDecifiedin terms of Ot fOr r0119
initiatedat load factorsbetween .8%(-) and .8%(+), For any asymmetric
loadingspecifiedin the contract;roll control power shall be sufficientto
hold tho win~s level at the msximum load factorsspecifiedin 3.2.3.2 with
adeauatecontrol marqin (3.4.10).
3.3.U.1.3 ~. Stick-controlledClasa IV alrpl~eS In CategOrY A
P1lght Phase shal1 have a roll respense to roll control foro”enot greater than
15 dp~recs in 1 second per pound for Level 1, and not urester than 25 degrees
in 1 second per pound for Level 2. For Cateqor.v C Flight Phasee, the roll
sensitivityshall be not greater than 7.5 deqreee in 1 eecond’per pound for
Level 1, and not rgre.ater
than 12.5 degrees in 1 second per pound for Level 2.
In case of conflict between the requirementsof 3.3.4.1.3and 3.3.4.3,the
requircmcnLe of 3.3.U.1.3 shall govern. The term aenaitivitydoee not include
breakoutforce.

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HIL-F-87fJ5c

TABLE IXC. ~“”-’

I . I I 1
I I
VL 1.6 1
2 L 1.3
1.3 2.0 3.4
M
1.7 2.6 11.
u
H

VL 2.5
3 L 2.0
n 1.7 3.0
H 2.1

TABLE IXd. ~“
~v~ The w mwlnn Bank w Chanilc~.

Speed
300 Ij(Jo 900 1000
Level Ranse
VL 1.0
1 i 1.1
1.1 2.2
n
H 1.0

VL 1.6
2 L 1.3
H 1.Q 2.8
i -“ H 1.4

.. VL 2.5
3 2.0
1.7 3.&
i
H 1.7

I (-
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t
MIL-F-8785C

TABLE IY.e. FJ.&WJJase Gk rOll Derformnw.

w
Ilmlme The f~.
L I I

T
Speed
Level Ran&e 300
.—
VL 1.5
1 L
n
H

VL 2.8
2 L,. 2.2
M 2.4 4.2
H 2.4

--L
VL 4.4
~ 3.8
L
H 3.4 6.0
H i---t-3.4

3.3.u.? mUEKWMU~. ROU perro~~ce in terms


of Ot for Class III airplanes 1s gpecifledin table IXf over the followinq
ranw,esof airspeeds:

Speed Range AirspeedRanSe


Symbol For Leve\ 1 For Levels 2 & 3

L.V
-)
Omin L v < 1.8 Vmin Vmin ~ V < 1.8 Vmin
n 1.8 Vmin (1) ~v < .7 Vmax (2) 1,8 vmin~v < .’/Vmax
H .7 Vmx (z) ~ v iv%,, .7 v~~* i v i V*X

(1) Or Voni,,whicheveris greater (2) or VOmax whicheveris lese

Speed
Lavel Ranqe CategoryA CateqoryB. CategoryC

L 1.8 2.3’ 2.5


I 1 M
H
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.3
2.5
2.5

L 2.4 . 3.9 4.0


2 M 2;0 4,0
H 2.5 ;:: 4.0
L
3 All 3.0 5.0 6,o

30

I
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I
I

nIL-F-87e5c

I
(.-. 3.3.4.3 ~. The stick or wheel force required to obtain the
rolling performancespecifiedin 3.3.4, 3.3,U,1 and 3.3.4.2shall be neither
.P greater than the maximum in table X nor less than the breakoutforce Plue:

a. Level 1 ---:- ane-fourththe values in table X

b. Level 2 -----~one-eighththe values in table X

c. Level 3 ----- zem

TARLP.x. ~.
Flight Phase Maximum Maximma
Level Clees Cetaqory Stick Force Wheel Force
(Pound) (Pound)

1 I, II-C, IV A, P 20 L’o
c 20 20

II-L, 111 A, B 25 50
I c 25 25

2 I, II-C, IV A, B 30 60
c 20 20

H-L, 111 A, B 60
c : 30
(, -,
3 All All 35 70

3.3.4.4 ~, There shall be no objectionable


nonllnearftieein the variationof rollingreaponae with roll oontrol
deflectionor force. Sensitivityor sltiggiahnesa in responseto e~ll cOntrol
deflectionsor foroe shall be avoided.

3.3.a.5 . For airplanesWIth wheel controllers,the wheel


.. threw neceaaaryto meet the roll Parfo-oe requir~~ts apeeifiedin 3.3.q
and 3.3.4.2 shall not exceed 60 degream in either dirtition. For caple@lY
❑eohanioaleyatew, the requirementmay be relaxed W 60 degreee.
.- 3.3.’5~. Dimotional etabilityand oontrol
charaoterieticsshall enable the pilot to ba2anoe yawing moments and oontrol
YOU and sideslip. Sensitivityto yew oontrol pedal fomee shall be
sufficientlyhigh that directionalcontrol and fome requirementsoan be met
and aatiafactorycoordinationoan be aohievedwithout unduly high pedal fomaa,
yet aufficientl
y low that oocaaionalimproperlyaoerdinatadoontml inputs will
not seriouslydegrade the flying qUalitlee.

3.3.5.1 ~. When initiallytrlaIMCd


directionaly with symmetricpower, the trim change of umpeller-driven
airplaneswith epeed shall be such that winge-levelstraightflight can be
(, - maintainedovar a speed range of :30 ~ment of the trim speed or t100 knote
equivalentairepeed,.whioheveria leaS (excepthere limitedby bOundarieaof
the Service Flight Envelope) with yaw-control-oedalforoeanot greater than

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I UIL-F-8785C

100 pounds for Levels 1 and 2 and not greater than 180 pounds for Level 3,
withoutretrlmmins. For other airplanes,yaw-control-pedalforcesshall not
exaeea 40 pounds at the 9peoifledcondition9for Level 1 and 2 or 180 pounds
for Level 3. -~
I 3,3.5.1.1 .. When initiallytrimmed
directionallywith eaOh asymmatrloloadingspecifiedin the contractat any
epeed in the OperationalFlight Envelope,it shall be possibleto maintaina
~ straightflight path throughoutthe OperationalFlight Envalopewith
yaw-oontrol-pedalforces not ereater than 100 pounds for Level.?1 and 2 and not
greaterthan 180 pounda for Level 3, without retrimming.

3.3.5.2 wave-off (zo-arw . For propeller-driven


1 Class IV, and all propeller-drivencarrier-basedairplanesthe responseto
thruet,oonfigurptionand airspeedchanqe shall be such t~t the Pilot can
,, maintainstraight flightduring wave-off (go-around)initiatedat speeds down
to Vs (PA) with yaw-cantrol-pedalforcesnot exceeding 100 Dounda when trimmed
at V. (PA). For other airplanee,yaw-oontrol-pedal forces shall not exceed
~’ 40 P.##s for the specifiedconditions. The precedinq requirementsapply for
Levels 1 and 2. For all airplanesthe Level 3 requirement1s to mnintain
straight flight in these conditionswith yaw-control-nedalforcesnot exceeding
180 poundg. For all Levelg, bank anqlea up to 5 degrees are permitted.

3.3.6 ~ . The
~ requirementsof 3.3.6.1through 3.3.6.3.1and 3.3.7.1are expressedin terms of
characteristicsin yaw-control-induoedgteady,zero-yaw-ratesidealipgwith the
airplane trimmed for wingg-leveletraightflight. Requirementsof 3.3.6.1
I 1“ ~~ through3.3.6.3apply at sideslip’ angles up to those produoedor limited by:

a. Full yaw-control-pedaldeflection,or ‘ L

b. 250 pounde of yaw-control-pedalforce,or

c. na~imum roll controlor surfacedeflection,

except that for single-prnpsller-drivenairplanesduring wave-off (go-around),


yaw-control-pedal deflectionin the directionopposite to that requiredfor
wings-levelstraightflight need not be consideredbeyond the deflectionfor a
10-degreechange in aideslip from tbe winqx.-level
straight flightcondition.

3.3.6.1 ~. For sideslios.specified in 3.3.6,


right yaw-control-pedal deflectionand force shall preduce”left sidealipsand
left yaw-control-pedal deflectionand fome shall pmduoe right sideslips. For
Leve19 1 and 2 the followingrequirementsshall apply. The variationof
sideglipangle with yaw-control-pedal deflectionshall be essentiallylinear
for sideslipanglee between +15 degrees and -15 degrees. For larger sideelip
anqlee,an increaaein yaw-oontml-pedsldeflectionshall always be required
for an increasein sideslip. The variationof aideslipangle with
yaw-control-pedalforce shell be essentiallylinear for sideslipanglea between
+10 degrees and -10 degrees. Althougha liqhtenictg Of pedal fOJWM ia
acceptablefor sideslipangles outside this raqge, the pedal fome shall never
reduce to zero.
I 3.3.6.2 ~. For the gid~sliP9Or 3.3.6,an
increasein right bank angle shall accompanyan increagein right aidealip,and
an increasein left bank angle shall accompanyan increase in left sideslip. ~

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UIL-F-8785C

(; 3.3.6.3 ~. For the fJlde’l@’“r 3“3”61leR


roll-contreldeflectionand force ehall accoml)any
left eideelips,and riqht
roll-controldeflectionand force shall accompanyright sideslips. For Levele
1 and 2, the variationof roll-controldeflectionand force with sidealip
angle shall be eseentiall
y linear.

3.3.6.3.1 . The requirementof 3.3.6.3ULSY,


if necessary,be excepted for wave-off (go-around)if task perfonnanoele flOt
1 impairedand no more then 50 percentof roll control power availableto the
I pilot, and no more than 10 pounds of roll-controlforce, are required in a
directionopposite to that epecifiedin 3.3.6.3.

3.3.6.3.2 ~. For Levela 1 and 2, positive


effectivedihedral (right roll control for right aideelipand left roll COfltrOl
for left sideslip)shall never be so great that more than 75 Percent Of FO1l
control power availableto the pilot, and no more than 10 pounds of roll-stick
force or 20 pounds of roll-wheelforce, are required for eideslipangles which
might be experiencedin service employment.

3.3.7 . It shall be possibleto take


I off and lmd with normal pilot akil1 and techniquein 90-degreecrosswinds,
from either side,.ofvelocitiesup to thoee specifiedin table XI.
Roll-controlforce ehall be within the limits specifiedin 3.3.4.2,and
I i yaw-oontrol-padalforoee shall not exceed 100 pounds for Level 1 or 180 pounds
for Levels 2 and 3. Thie requirementoan normallybe met.throughcompliance
with 3.3.7.1and 3.3.7.2.

I Level Class I Croeawind

.1 I 20 knots

and

2 II, III, & IV 30 knots

Water-baaed 20 knots
airplenee
- I
3 All
I one-halfthe valuee
for Lavele 1 and 2

3.3.’7.1~. For all airplaneeexoept land-based


airplaneiequippedwith crosswind landinggee?, or othemfiaeConetruotedto
land in a lerge crabbed ettitude, yaw- and roll-controlpower ehal1 ba adequate
to develop at leaat 10 degreee of aidedip (3.3.6) in the power approaohwith
yaw control pedal forces not exoaedingthe valuea ap~ified in 3.3.7. For
Level 1, roll control ehall not exoeed either 10 pounde of fOrCe or 75 Percent
of control power availablato the pilot. For Levels 2 and 3, roll-control
force Shall notexceed 20 Pouads.
(-
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MIL-FJ3785C

3.3.7.2 LakQU. f.wLAvUaILw13 rol1ou~ in cr~. Yaw and roll control


power, in conjunctionwith other normalmeans of control, shall be adequate tO
maintain a straightpath on the eround or other landina surface. This
requirementapplies in calm air and in crosswindsup to the valuee c.pecifled in L“
1-
table XI with cockpitcontrol fOPCeS not exceedingthe valuea .speclfled in
3.3.7.

3.3.7.2.1 ~r owr~. The requirementsof 3.3.7.2‘apply


on wet runwaya for all airplanes,and on snow-packedand icy runways for
airplanesintended to oparate under such conditions. If ommpllanceis not
demonstratedunder these adverse runway condition, directionalcontrol shall
be ❑aintainedby use of aerodynamiccontrolsalone at all airsmeedsabove
50 knots for Class IV airplanesand above 30 knots for all others. For very
S1ippery runways,the requirementneed”not apply for crosswindcmmponentaat
which the force tendingto blow the airplaneoff the runway exceeds the
.. oppoains tire-runwayfrictionalforce with the tires supportingall of tne
airplane’sweight.

3.3.7.2.2 ~ . All carrier-basedairplanesehall be


capable of mainta’ininq
a straightpath on the ground without the use of wheel
brakes, at alrspeedaof 30 knota and above, during takeoffaand landingsin a
90-degreecrosswindof at leaet 10 percentVs(L). Coakpitcontrol forces shall
be as specified in 3.3.7.
:.
.3.3.7.3 ~. It shall be possibleto taxi at any anRle
to a 35-knot wind for Class I airplenesand to a 45-knot wind for Claes II,
111, and IV airplanes.

i 3.3.8 . Yaw and roll control power ehall ki


be adequate to maintainwinge level and eidesllpzero, without retrimming,
,“ throughoutthe dlVe8 and pulloutsof 3.2.3.5and 3.2.3.6.
—. _- In the Sarvioe
Flight Envelope,roll control forCeS shall not eXCeed 20 pounds ror
propeller-drivenairplanesor 10 pmunds for other airplanes. Yaw-control-pedal
forcee shall n“ot
“exceed180 mounds for prmpeller-driven airplaneaor 50 pounds
1 for other airplanes.

3.3.9,,~ . Asymmetricloss or
thrust maY be caused OY many factorsincludingengine failure, inlet unstart,
propeller-failureor piopalier-drivefailure.- Foilowingsudden a.aymmatric 10s3
of thrust from any factor,the airplaneshall be aafaly oontkollablein the
cmaewinde of table XI from the unfavorabledireation. The’requirementsof
3.309.1 throush 3.3.9.4.apply for the apDropriataFlight Phasea when any single
failureor ❑alpcrformanceof the prmpulaivesystem,lnclUdinq inlet or eXhWSt,
causee lose of thruston one or ❑ore enginesor pmpellera, coneiderinqalso
the efract of the failureor ❑alperformanoaon all aubeyatemapowered or driven
by tha failed pmpulaiva system.

3.3.9.1 . It akiallbe poaaible for the pilot to


1. I maintain control of an airplane on the tekeof.f
e.urfaeefollo~nfxsudden loaa of
thrust from the meet critical factor. Thereafter,it shall be poaaible to
i , achieve and maintaina straight path.on the takeoffsurface without a daviation
,, ! of more than 30 feet from tha path originallyintendad,,.withYew-uontrol-pedal
forces not exceeding180 pounds. For the continuedtakeoff, the requirement
shall be met when thrust is lost et e.eeedefmm the refusal spaed (based on the
shortestrunway from which the airplanela designed to operate) to the maximua
j takeoff speed, with takeoff thrust maintainedon the OperatiVeengine(s), Ualng
I
3U

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MIL-F-8785C

( only COntrOlsnot dependentupon frictionagainst the takeoff surfaceor upon


I r releaseof the pitch, roll, yaw or throttlecontrols. For the aborted takeoff,
the requirementshall be met at all apeedg below the maximum takeoff speed;
however,additionalcontrolssuch aa nogewheelsteeringand differential
brakingmaY be used. Automaticdevices which normallyoperate in the event of
a thrust failuremay be used in either case.

3.3.9.2 ~. During takeoff it shall be possible


withouta change in selectedconfigurationto achieve straight fliqht follotilng
eudden asymmetricloss of thrust from the most critical fector at speeds frOM
Vmin (TO) to Vmax (TO), and thereafterto maintain straight flight throughout
the climbout. The yaw-control-Dedalforce reouired to maintain straightflight
with asymmetricthrust shall not exceed 180 pounds. Roll control shell not
exceed either the force limits specifiedin 3.3.4.2or 75 Percent Of available
controlpower, with takeoffthrust maintainedon the operativeencine(s)and
trim et normal setting for takeoff with symmetricthrust. AutomaticdeVICea
which normallyoperate in the event of e thrugt failuremay be used, and the
airplanemay be banked up to 5 degreee avay from the inoperativeengine.

3.3.9.3 ~. The airplanemotiong followingsudden asymmetric


I loss of thruet ehall be such that dangerouaconditionscan be avoided by pilot
I \ correctiveection. A realistic time deley (3,4.8) of a least 1 second shall be
incorporated.

3.3.9.4 Ust vaw ~. The static directional


stabilityshall be such that at all speeds above 1.4 Vain, with aSYUIMetricloe~
( of thrust from the most critical factor while the other engine(s)develop
(- nomal rated thrust, the airplane with yaw control pedalg free may be balanced
directionallyin eteady straiqht flight. The trim Settingsshall be those
I
required ror winge-leveletraight flight prior to the failure. Roll-control
I
forcesshell not exceed the Level 2 upper limits specifiedin 3.3.U.2 for
Levels 1 and 2 end shall not exceed the Level 3 upper limits for Level 3.

3.3.9.5 ~. At the one-engine-outeoeed for maximum


range with enY engina initiallyfailed,it shall be possible upen failureof
the most critical rem.aininq
engine to stop the traneientmotion and thereafter
to maintainstraight flight from that speed to the speed for maximum range with
.. both engines failed. In addition, it shall be peesibletn,effeet a safe
recoveryat any service epaed above V% (CL)”followingeudden aimulteneoue
I failureof the two critical failing engPnea.
..
3.Q.~ ~. Danaerousconditionsmay exist where the
airplaneshould not be flown. When approachingthese flight conditions,1t
shell be possible by clearlydlecerniblemeans for the pilot to recoqnizethe
impendinsdengera and take preventiveaction. Final detenoinationof the
adequacyof all warnin3 of impandin~dangeroua~flightcondition will be made
by the procurinK activity, consideringfunctionaleffectivenessand
reliability.

3.4.1’1 ~. Warning or indicationof approach to a


(, - dangerouecondition shall be clear and unambiguous. For example, a Pilot MU9t
be able to distinguishreadily among gtall warning (which requires pitching

35
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I
I
1
MIL.F-8785c

down or incmasinc speed), Mach buffet (whichmay indicatea need to decrease


speed), and normal airplanevibration(which indicatesno need for pilot
action).
1- I
3.U,1.2 pevices for ind~cation.~~in. recoverv. It is intended
that dangerous flight conditionsbe eliminatedand the requirementsof this
aoecificatlon ❑et by appropriateaerodynamicdesiw and ❑ass distribution,
of e specialdevice or devices. Such deviceg
rather than through Incorp-aration
may be used only if the procurin~activityapproves the need, the desiqn
criteria,poaslbleSpecial FailureStates (3.1.6.2.1) and the devices
themselves. As a ❑inimum,these devices shall PerfO~ their functionwhenever
needed but shall not 1imit flightwithin the OperationalFlight Envelope.
Neither normal nor inadvertentoperationof such devices shall create a hazard
to the airplane. For Levels 1 and 2, nuisanceoperationshall not be possible.
Functionalfailureof the devices shall be indicatedto the pilot.

3.Q.2 .p~~ ~~ aLLa!2k. The requirementsof 3.4.2 through


3.ii.2.2.2concernstall warninq, stalls,departure from controlledflight,
post-.vtallqyrations,.sDina,recoveriesand related characteristics. TheY
“aPPIYat”spacds and .Sn.71es
of attack which in qeneral are outside the Service
Fliuht Envelope. Tnev arc intendedto aeeure safety and the abeence of mission
limitationsdue to hiqh angle of attack characteristics.
3.u.2.1 ~. The stall 1s defined in terms of airSDCedand an@e of attack
in 6.2.2 and 6.2.5 respectively. It usually is a phenomenoncaused by airflow
.veparationinduced by hiqh aogle of attack, but it mey insteadbe determinedby
‘somelimit on uaablc anqle of attack. The stall requirementsapply for all
Airplme Normal State9 in straightunacccleratedflight an~ in turna and
PUIIUPS with att:ninablenormal accelerationsup tO nL. Specifically,the J ,
AirplaneNormal Statea associatedwith the confiquratima, throttlesettings
and trim settin~gof 6.2.2 shall be investigated;alao, the requirementsapply
to AirplaneFailure Stetes that affect etall characteristioa.

3.4:2.1.1 ~~1.1-~~. The etal1 approachshall be accompaniedby an


easily perceptiblewarninqconslstinqof shaking of the cockpit controls,
Ouffetlng 01.shaking of the airplane,or a Combinationof bOth. The Onset Of
this warminq shall occur within the ran-es soecifiedin 3.4.2.1.1.1and
3.U.7.1.1.2 but not within the OperationalFliqht Envelops. The increasein
buffctin~ intensitywith fur+.he? increasein angle“ofattack shall be
sufficientlymarked to b@ nnted bv the pilot. The warninu,ehall continueuntil
the an?le or attack 1$ reduced to a value leas than that for warning onset. At
all an~lcs or attack up to L.hestall, the cbckuit cOntrOIS shall FeMain
crfcc~iv? in khCir n’orml sense. and renal
1 control inputs shall not result in
denarturc from conLrolled fLiqht. Prior to the stall, uncommandedoscillations
shrillnOt,Se objectionableto the pilot.

~.u.2.1.1.I ktmtim.selk~~wt-ml to the ~. Warning


onsrt rar stalls OL lq normal to the fli%ht path shall occur betwean the
followim? 1imitswhen the stall is aDoroached. eraduallv:

36

L
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IUL-F-8785C

..
‘i- ElM&was
Apprmach
‘~
Higher of 1.05Vsor
~
Higher of 1.1OVSor
Vs + 5 knots Vs + 10 knots

All Other Higher of 1.05VSor Higher of 1.15VSor


Vs + 5 knot9 Vs + 15 knots

3.~.2.f.1.2 ~. Oneet Of stall ~rnins


shall occur outside the OperationalFlight Envelope.esmciatedwith the
AirplaneNormal State and within the followingrange or percentageof 11ft
stall at that airspeed,in that AirplaneState, uhan the.stall is approached
gradually:

~.~

Approach 82t CL Stall 90f CL stall

All Other 751 C; stall 90S CL stall

3.~.2.l.2 ~. In the unacceleratedatalla of 3.4.2.1,the

I airplaneshall not exhibit rollinq,yawing or downward pitchinqat the stall


which oannot be controlledto stay within 20 degrees for Claeses 1, II and 111,
or 30 desreee for Clase IV eirplenes. It is desired that no pitehuptendencies
occur in unacceleratedor acceleratedstalls. In uneoceleratedetalle,mild
nose-uppitch may be acceptableif no pitch control Coma reversalocours and
if no dengereus,unrecoverableor objectionablefliqht oonditionaresult. A
‘-F”
❑ild nose-up.tandanoymay be acceptablein acceleratedetalle if the
operationaleffectivenessof the airplaneis not comprmieed and:
!
a. The airplane hae adequate stall Mrning

b. Pitch oontrol effectivenessis such that it is poeeible to stop the pitchup


promptlyand reduce the anqle of attack,and

c. At no pdnt during the stall, etall appreaahor reeovery doea any portion
of the airplane exceed structural1imit loada.

The requlrementaapply for all atalle, includingatalla enteredabruptlY.

.. 3.4.2.1.3 ~.’ It ehall be poseiblete prevent the


stall by moderate uae of the pitoh oontrol alone at the onset of tbe etall
I warning. It ehalI be poesible to recover frem a stall by simple uee of the
pitch, roll and yaw controle with oookpit control fomas not to exceedthose of
3.U.U.1, end to regain level flight withoutexceaaiveloaa Of altitudeor
buildupof epeed. Threttlea ehall remain fixed until apeed hee begun to
inoreaseand an angle of attack below the stall hae been reqainedunleae
compliancewould result in exoeedipgengine operatinglimi~tiOna. In tha
straight-flightstalla of 3.4..?.1, with the alrDlane trimmed at an airepeed not
greater than 1.UVS, pitch control Pewer shall be Sufficient to recover from eny
attainableangle of attack.
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flIL-F-8785C

3.+.2.1.3.1 On ❑ulti-enqineairplanes,it shall be


ponslble to recover safely from stalls with the criticalenrjineinoperative.
Th$s requirementapplieswith the remalninq en@ne3 at up to: 41
1-

TO Takeoff
CL Normal climb
PA Normal approach
I Uo Waveoff

3.4.2.2 ~. The post-stallqyrationand spin


requirementsapply to all ❑odes of motion that can be entered from upsets,
decelerations,and extrememaneuversappropriateto the Cliaa and F1iqht Phaee
Category. Sntries from invertedflight shall be includedfor Clasa I and IV
airplane.’ Sntry angles of attack and sideslipup to maximum control
capabilityand under dynamic flight conditionsare to be included,except es
limited bv structuralconsiderations. For all Classesand Flight Phaee
Categories,thrust settingsup to and includingHAT shall be included,with and
without one critical engine inoperativeat entry. The reauiramentshold for
all AlrDlaneNormal Stateeand for all states of stabilityand control
augmentationsystems,except approved Soecial FailureStatee. Store release
shall nOt be allowed during loss of control, spin or gvration,recovery,or
subsequentdive pullout. Automaticdisengagementof au~entation eyatema,
however,is permissibleif it is necessaryand does not preventmeetins anyL
other requirements;re-engagementghall be ooseib~ein flight following
recovery.

3.4.2.2.1 “~. All Classea of airplaneashall be u


extremelyresistantto departurefrom controlledflight,post-stallqyrations
and spins. The airplaneshall exhibit no uncommandedmotion which cannot be
arrested promptlyby simple applicationof pilot control. In”addition,the
procuringactivitymay designatethat certain trainingeirplanesshall be
capable of a developedspin and consistentrecovery.

3.u.2.2.2 ihuoverv ~. For airplaneswhich,


1. secordingto 141L-A-8861 ❑ust be structurallydesigned for epinning,the
followln~requirementsapply. The proper’recovery technique(a)must be readily
ascertainableby the pilot,and simple and easy to apply under the motions
encountered. Whatever the motions, aafe conaietentrecovery. and pulloutshall
be possible,without exoeedingthe control foroee of 3.4.4.1and wtthout
exceedingstructurallimitation. A single techniqueshall provideprompt
recovery fcom all mat-stall gyrationsand incipientspins, titbout requiriag
the pilot to determinethe directionof ❑otion and without tendencyto develop
a apln. The same techniqueused to recover from peat-stallgyrationsand
incipientepina, or at leaet a compatibleone, la also desired for spin
recovery. For all modeg of spin that can occur, these recoverleeshall be
attainablewithin the number of turns, measured from the initiationof reoovery
action, specifiedas follows:

LIBss
I CategoryA, B 1-1/2
I PA 1
Other Claaess PA 1
Other Claeses A&B 2 ..

38
a
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I
MIL-F-8785C

( AvOidanOeof a gpin reversalor an adverseMtie chanqe shal1 nOt dePend ‘~n


It 19 desired that all airolanes
precise pilot control timing or deflection.
P be readilyrecoverablefrom all attainableattitudeaand ❑otions. The
~st-stall characteristicsof those airplanesnot required tO com@Y with
shall be determinedby analysie and model test.
requirementsof this paragraph
I
3.4.3 s couQllrw?in roll ~. For Claas I and IV airplanegin
yaw-control.~ree, pitch.oontrol-fixed,❑aximuwPerfO~ance rOlle through360
degrees,entered frOm straight flisht or from turns,puehovere,or PU1lUOS
ranging Og to 0.8 nL, the resultin~ yaw or pitch ❑otions and sidesliP or an@e
of attack changea shall neither exceed structurallimits nor CaUsa other
dangerousflight conditionssuch as uncontrollablemOtiona Or rOll
autorotation.
I Wring c~bat-type maneuversinvolvincrolls throuahangles UP tO 360 deqrees
and rolls which are checked at a miven bank ankzle,the YawinS and oitching
ahalL not.be so aevera aa to impair the tWtlCal effectivenessof theIII
For Clasa H and maneuver.
These requirementsdefine Level 1 and 2 Operation-
airplanea,these requirementsapplV in rolls thrOuah 12fJdeqreeg and ‘O1ls
whioh are checked at a given bank angle.
~.ti
.U ~. The pitch- ~d rO1l-contrOlforca and displacement

I aensitivitieaand braakout forces


inputs to one control axia will
shall
not beinadvertentinwta
cause compatibleeo thatto
intentional
the othar.

. me cockpit control forcee reouiredtO


3.4.4.1 m “~1 force coord~
(,> ❑
perform aneuvera which are nO~al for the airplaneahOuld bva ‘agnicudea
which are related to the pilot’s capabilityto Produceauoh forces in
combination. The followinqcontrol force levels are consideredtO be limiting
valuea compatiblewith the pilotla capabilityto aPPIY Simultaneousforces:
~. w

50 pounde 25 pounds
Side-stickor
Center-stick 40 pc.und.v
Wheel 75 pound$ 175 vounda
Pedal
.. 3.U.5 IlufC2k. Within the boundariesof the Operatioml F1ight P.nvelooe, there
I Shall be no objectionablebuffet which might detract from the effectivenea~of
the airplsna in executingits intendedmiaaiOna.
\
..
3:11.6_ Of ater= . The intentionalreleaaeof any atoms shall nOt
However,
result in objectionablefliqnt characteristic for Levala 1 and 2.
the intentionalreleaSe of atorea shall ‘ever ‘suit ‘n ‘ameroua ‘r
intolerableflight cmracteristica. ~is requirementapP1iee ‘or all ‘i‘qht
condition and store loadingsat which normal.or emerKencYstore raleaae is
permissible.
. OperationOf
3.4.7 ment
moveabla parts such as bomb 5ay doors, oargo doors, a-merit Podsv refuelin~
devicesand re.vcueequipment,or firingof weaWna, release of b~b~ ? or
deliveryor pickup of cargo shall not cause buffet,trim chan%ee,Or other
effectivenessof the airplme under
(, - characteristic which impair the These
tactical
requirementsshall be met fOr Levels 1
any pertinentflight condition.
and 2.
39
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MIL-F-8785C

[ 3.4.8 Merits followinufail.res. The airplanemotions followingsudden


airr)lanesystem or comDOnentfailuresshall be wch that dangerousconditions
! can be avoided by pilot correctiveaction. A realistictime-delaybetween the
failureand initiationof pilot.correctiveaction shall be incorporatedwhen
I determiningcompliance. This time delay should includean intervalbetween the
occurrenceof the failureand the occurrenceof a cue wch as acceleration,
rate, displacement,or sound that will definitelyindicateto the pilot that a
failurehas occurred,plus an additionalintervalwhich representsthe time
required for the pilot to diegnose the situationand Initiatecorrective
action.

3.lt.9~. No single failureof any componentor system shall result in


dangerousor intolerableflying qualities;Special Failure States (3.1.6.2.1)
are”excepted. The crew ❑ember concernedshall be previdedwith Immedlate and
‘easilyinterpretedindicationswhenever failuresoccur that require or limit . ..
any flight crew action or decision.

3.4.10 Q20frol mar-. COntrol authority,rate end hinge ❑oment capability


shall be aufficient to aesure safety throughoutthe combinedrange Of all
attainableangles of attack (both positiveand negative)and eldealip. ?hig
re~uirementapplies to the preventionof lose of control and to recovery from
any situationfor all maneuvering,includingpertinenteffects of factorseuch
as ‘regiOnSof control-surface-fixed instability,inertialcoupling,fuel slosh,
Che influenceof symmetricand asyaxuetric stores (3.1.4), stall/post-9tall/spin
characteristics(3.4.2 through3.4.2.2.2), atmospheric‘disturbances (3.8) and
AirplaneFailure States (3.1.10.1 amd 3.1.10.2; maneuveringflight appropriate
to the FailureState is to be included). Considera:”ion ehall be taken of the
degreesof effectivenessand certaintyof oparationof limiters,cg control
malfunctionor mismanagement,and transientsfrom failuras in the propulsion, w
flight control and other relevant systems.

3:4.11 Q&ect force c~ . Use of devices for direct normal-forcecontrol


and directside-force control 9hall not produceobjectionablechanges in
attitude for any amount of control up to the maximum available. This
requirementehal1 be met.for Levels 1 and 2.

3.5 “of the nrimarv fliuht


Characteristl.cs
3.5.1 Qeneral c~acterist ics. As u8ed in this specification,the tarm
primary flight control 3yatem includesthe pitch, roll and yaw controls,
etabllity augnentation syetems,and all mechanism and devioea that they
operate. The requirementsof this sectionareconcerned with those aspects of
the pFIInaryflight COntrol System which ara directly related to the flying
qualities. These tW@rWWIta are in addition to the r~”ire~nts of t,he
applicablecontrol system ~a%n e.pacification, e.g., f41L-F-9490or
HIL-C-18244.

3.5.2 ~ ~. Some of the importantmechanical


characteristicsof control systems (inoludingservo valves and actuators)are:
frictionand preload, lost ❑otion, flexibility, mass imbalanceand inertia,
nonlineargearing,and rate limiting..Requirementsfor some of these
characteristicsare COntalnedin 3:5.2.1 through.3.5.2.4i Meeting these
separaterequirement~,however,wi11 not nece~aeril y ensure that the OVerall
System WI11 be adequate;the ❑echanicalcharacteristicsmust be compatiblewith
the nonmechanicalportionsof the control system and with the airframe dynamic d
characteristics.
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I
1 MIL-F-8765C
1
3.5.2.1 ~- LO@tudlnal I Iater’1““d
directionalcontrols should exhibit positivecenteringin flight at any normal
trim Setting. AlthouShabsoluteC!enterinb? la nOt required,the combined
effectsof centering,breakout force, stabilityand force gradientshall not
produceobjectionableflight characteristics,Such es poor precision-trackinq
ability,or permit large departuresfrom trim conditionswith controls free.
Breakoutforces, includingfriction,preload,etc., ehell be within the limits
of table XII. The values in table XII refer to the cockpit control force
requiredto start movementof the control surface in flight for Levels 1 and 2;
the upper limits are doubled for Level 3.

Classes 1, II-C, IV Clesses II-L, III I


Control Min. Usx. Min.. Hex.

Pitch Stick 112 3 1/2 5


Wheel 1/2 u \12 7

Roll Stick 1/2 2 1/2 4


Uheel 1/2 3 1/2 6

I Yaw Pedal 1 7 1 Ill

(, - Measurementof breakout forces on the ground will ordinarilysuffice in lieu of


actual fllqht measurement,provided that Qualitstive agreement between qreund
I measurementand flight observationcan be established.
I 3.5.2-2 ~.” The free play in eaoh cockpit contrel,
that is, any motion of the cockpit controlwhich does not move the control
surfacein flight, shall not result in objectionableflight characteristics,
particulary for small-emplitudecontrol imputs.

3.5-2.3 ~. The ability of the airplane to perform


the operationalmaneuversrequiredof it shall not be limited in the
.. atmosphericdisturbancesepecifiedin 3.7 by control surfece deflectionrateS
(3.8.3.1,3.8.3.2 end 3.4.10). For poweredor becated controls,the effect of
enginespeed and the duty cycle of both primary and seoondarycontrel together
with the pilot control techniquesshall be includedwhen eatablishln?,
campliancawith this requirement.

3.5.2..4~. When e ceckpitoontrol is adjustablefor pilot


physicaldimensionsor cc-f’crt,the oontrol forces defined in 6.2 refer to the
mean adjustment. A force referred to any other adjustmentshall not differ bY
more than 10 percent from the force referredto the ❑ean adjustment.

3.5.3 ~- A “linearor smo&hly varying airplanereaponee


to cockpit-controldeflectionand to control forCe shall be provided for all
amplitudesof control input. The responseof the contrtiisurfacesin flight
shall not lag the ceckpit-controlforce inputs by ❑ore than the angles
specifiedin table XIII, for frequenciesequal to or less then the frequencies
gpecifiedin table XIII.
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MIL-F-8785C

TAPLE XIII. -able contr01 s~.

AllowableLaq, deg Control Unper Frequencv,rad/3ec _


Cate!?,ory
A h C Catecory B Pitch the larger of Wsp
Level Fliu,htPhases Flight Phases and 2.0

1 30
2 ;: ti5 roll h the larqeat of ‘nd,
3 60 60 yaw l/TR and 2.0

In addition,the responseof the airplane❑otion shall not exhibit a tine


deliy longer than”the followinqfor a pilot-initiatedstep control force inLwt.

u
Further,the velues of the equivalenttime delay derived from equivalent
syetem match of the aircraft reeponse to oookpit controls”
values of table XIV.
shall not exceed the

.-

I
3.5.3.1 ~. All controi system oscillationsshall be well damcad, unless
they are of euch an amplitude, frequencyand phasingthat they do nOt reaUlt in
objectionableoscillationsof the cockpit controleor the airframedurina
abrupt maneuvers and during flight in atmosphericdisturbance.

3.5.4 u!-~m~. Operationof stability’augmentationand control


augmentationsystems and.devices”shall not introduceany objectionablefliqht
or ground handlinq characteristics.
I

3.5.5 ~. The followinqevents shall not cauge danqerousor intolerable


flying qualitias:

a. Complete or partial loss of any functionof the augmentationeyatem


followinqa single failure

b. Fallure-inducedtransientmotiorm ~nd trim chanueseither iuanediatelv


after
fallUreor Upon eUbSFQUenttrnnsferLO alternatecontrolmodes

c. Canfiuuretionchan~es required or recommendedfollowlnqfailure.

I
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I
)

PIIL-F-8785C
I
3.5.5-3 ~~. With controlsfree, the airplanemotions due to
I {
P failuresdescribedin 3.5.5 shall.not exceed the followinulimite for at least
2 seconds followingthe failure,as a functionof the Level of fWn6 Qualities
after the failure trcnsienthas subsided:

Levels 1 and 2 k.5q incrementalnormal or lateral accelerationat the


(after failure) pilot’sstation and 210 degrees per second roll rate, eXCeDt
that neither stall anqle of attack nOr Structurallimite
shall be exceeded. In addition for CateKorYA, verticalor
lateral excursionsof 5 feet, ●2 desreesbank an@e

Level 3 No dangerousattitudeor structurallimit la reached,and


(after failure) no dangerousalterationof the flight pcth resulte from
which recoveryis immssible.

I 3.5-5-2 ~. The ohaneee in control forces reauired


to maintcin attitudeand sideslipfor the failureadescribedin 3.5.5 shRll not
exceed the followinqlimits for at least 5 seconds followingthe failure.:

Pitch -------------------------
20 pohds
Rol1 --------------------------
10 Peunds
Yaw ---------------------------
50 Pounde
I
3.5.6 . The transientmotions and trim
changes resultingfrom the intentionaleni?aqement or diwk’,?c:nentOf anY
pertionof the primary flight control system by the pilot shall be such that
danqerouaflying qualitiesnever result.
1-
3.5.6.1 ~. With controls free, the transientsresulting

1 fmm the situationsdescribedin 3.5.6 shall not exceed the follawinglimite


for at least 2 secondg followingthe transfer:

Within the 20.lR normal or lateralaccelerationat the pilot’9


Operatlonal station and 23 deqrees Per.,seaOnd
roll
F1ight Envelope

Uithin the 20.5g at the pilot9s station,-3 degrees per


Service F1ight second roll, the lesser of s deqrees sideelipand the
.. Snvelope structurallimits.
These requirement apply only for AirplaneNo-1 St=.tes.

3.5.6.2 ~. The chanqea in control fomea required te maintein


attitudeand sideslip for the situationsdescribedin 3.5.6 shall nOt exceed
the followinglimits for at least 5 seconds followingthe transfer:

I Pitch ---.--—------=------- 20 paunds


Roll -----,--.-----------,
------ 10 oounds
Yaw --------------------------
50 pounds

These requirementsapply only for AirplaneNormal States

I
r
43
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HIL-F.8785C

3.6 Cs of sec~ol 3VSU

3.6.1 Irim svs,teq.In straiqht flight,throughoutthe OperationalFlight


Envelope the trimmingdevices shall be capableof reducingall the cockpit 4
control forces to zero for Levels 1 and 2. For Level 3 the untrimmed
steady-state ceckpit.controlforces shall not exceed 10 pnunde pitch, 5 pounds
rOll and 20 pounds pedal. The failureeto be consideredin applying the Level
2 and 3 raquirementeshall includetrim atiokinqand runaway in ●ither
direction. It ie permissibleto ❑eet the Level 2 and 3 requirementsby
providinqthe pilot with alternatetrim ❑ echanismsor overridecapability.
Additionalrequirementson trim rate and euthorityare containedin HIL-F-9490
and $lIL-F-18372.

3.6.I.1 ti~. For all multi-engineairplenes,it ghall


be possible to trim the cockpit-controlforces’to zero in etraightflight with
up to two engines inoperativefollowingasymmetricloss of thrust from the ❑ost
critical factors (3.3.9). Thig requirementdefinegLevel 1 in level-flight
cruise at speeds,from the maxim~ranqe epaed for the engine(a)-out
configurationto the speed obtainablewith normal rated thrust on the
funotioninqengine(a). System8 completelydependenton the failed en~inee
shall alao be consideredfailed.

3.6.1-2 ~. Trim devioesehall operate rmpidly enough to


enable the pilot to maintain low control forcesunder changing“conditions
normallyencounteredin service,yet not sn rapidlyas to cause oversensitivity
or trim precigiondifficultiesunder any cnnditiona. SpaoificellY,it shall be
poesibleto trim the pitih contrel foroe9 to less than ~10 peunda for
center-stickairplanesand 220 pountl.e for wheel-controlairplanea throughout
a. dives and ~rc.undattack ❑ aneuversrequiredin normal serviceoperationand
b. level-flightacceleration “atmaximum au~ented thrust frnm 250 knots or ‘w
VR/C, whichever ie legs, to Vmx at eny altitudewhen the airolane ie trimmed
for level flight prior to initiationof the maneuver. In tbe event that
nparatInn of the trim system requiresremoval of one hand from the
wheel-control,Level 1 forcelimite shall be as for a center-etick.

3.6.1.3 ~R of ~. Stallingof a trim system due to


aerodynamicloads durinq ❑aneuvers ehall not result in an uneefe condition.
Specifically
y; the lon.qitudinal
trim system shall be caoable of operatingdurinq
the dive recoveriesof 3.Z.3.6 et any attainablepermissiblen, et any pessible
posLtionof the trinimin~device.

3.6.I-~ ~wrahuuw All trimminqdevices shall maintain a


given eettinq indefinitey umlesa changedby the pilot, or by a speeial
automaticinterconnect(euch es to the landin.qflaps), or by the omerationof
an augmentationdevice. If an auteaatiointerconnector a~entetion device la
used in conjunctionwith a trim’device,provisionshall be”made to ensure the
accuratereturn of the device to its initialtrim positionon removal of each
interconnect& augmentationcunmand.

3.6.2 Ws-ed and UshkWh c0 ntr@—d?W&a . we e ffectivenem and response


times of the longitudinalcontrolg a,hallbe sufficientto provideadequate
control of flight oath and airsgeedat eny fliuhtconditionwithin the
OperationalFlight”Erjvelope.Thie requir~ent-may be met by use of devices
such as throttles,thrust reversers,auxiliarydrag devices and flaps.
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FUL-F-8785C

3.6.3 ~- The transientsand steady-statetrim


changes for normal operationof secondarycontrol devices (such as throttle.
thrust reversere,flaps, slats, speed brakes, decelerationdevices,dive
recoverydeviceg,,win~ sweep end landinggear) shall not imposeexce9.9ive
control forces to maintain the deeired heading,altitude,attitude,rate of
olimb, spaed or lmad factorwithout uae of the trimmercontrol. This
requirementapolies to all in-flightconfigurationchangeg and ocmbinationsOf
changeemade under service condition, includinqtbe effeota of asymmetric
operationssuch as unequal operationof landinggear, apaed brakes, SJats or
flaps. In no case shall there be any objectionablebuffetfnqor oaclllation
caused by such devices. More specificrequirementson secondarycontrol
devicesare oontained in 3.6.3.1,3.6.U and 3.6.5 and in MIL-F-9490and
HI1-F-18372.

3.6.3.I ~. The pitch trim changes cauged by operationof


eecondarycontrol de’vicesshall not be so large that a peak pitch cOntrOl force
in excess of 10 poundg for center-stickcontroller or 20 pounds for wheel
controllersis requiredwhen such configurationchanges are made in fliqht
under conditionsrepresentativeof operationalprocedure. Generally,the
condition iistad in table XV will suffice for determinationof compliancewith
this requirement. (For airplaneswith variable-sweepwings, additional
requirementswill be imposed consistentwith operationalemploymentof the
i vehicle). With the airplanestrimmed For each specifiedinitial condition,the
peak foroe required to maintain the specifiedparameterconstant followinqthe
specifiedconfigurationchange shall not exceed the stated value for e time
intervalof at least 5 seconds followinqthe completionof the Dilot action
initiatingthe configurationchange. The maqnitudeand rete of trim chanqe
subsequentto this time period shall be euoh that the fOt’cesare easily
trimmableby use of the normal trimminqdevices.. . Thaae requirementsderine
I Level 1. For Levels 2 and 3, the allowable forces are increagedby 50 percent.

3.6.4 v dive recoverv devic~. Ooerationof any auxilierydevice


intendadsolely for dive recoveryshall always produce a positiveincrementof
normal acceleration,but the total normal load factor shall never exoeed 0.8nL,
controla free.

3.7 ~

3.7.1 ~. Uhere feasible,the ion Karman form


shall be used for the continuousturbulencemedel, so thet the flYini3qualities
analysegwill be consistentwith the comparablestructuralanalysea. When no
c.anparablestructuralanalyaia la perfonuador whan it la not feasibleto use
the von Karman form, use of the Dryden fom will be permissible. In general,
both the continuousturbulencemedel and the discrete gust medel shall be used.
The scales and intensitiesused in determiningthe @uet magnitudesfor the
diecrete gust model shall be the same as those in the Dryden turbulence❑mdel.

‘ {-
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MIL-F-8785C

TABLE xv. Ws.~@anae cmditiOns.


,

m:*
1- w;

I I 1 f I

.--
4-.__.l_l.__l%%’c”
,,
1
“.{.

-r
-ILLEEL

..-.
,t, ● tud.

J.- k
“lhrotrl. ..t Ti.. “y * ctism..d du. i., *b. .s..-. s
Ilm,.. . ...1,.., 4.., J....*. . .. . ,.,”,,. ,,. rrt,.,,
d. .d .81 d.,. ,1. .0
,“”(,, ”..! ,.- ..@ .F..!(, <.ll, -., I,H.J . .. . ..-1 (., fh.-. I It’h! rh. s..

. Iffc-e,
..~.~
,- a.r.rw,tl.d
I.->i.,thedm.l.r.,,
m r..auiVc-c.1*
..t+lt.r.cd
1.rlh..,s.1-.
.Ctu,lm of,* *C*I.,*,1-
*.)..In
,11.tit14*.11h-.C.
-i.d e,,& .,, m..b,.
-r -. 1-.

46

L
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I
I
HIL-F-8785C

[ 3.7.1.1 e mod 1 ( n Ka~ The von Karman form of the


p gpectra for the t.rbule%e ~~locitiesis: “

~2 .2~ 1
.$U(fl)-uu
g ~ [ 1 + ( 1.339LUQ)Z]”Z6

7 1 + ;( 1.339 l.vfl!~
*V (n) = “v &
~ -’n [ 1 + ( 1.339 Lvl!)’l’fi

02 L 1 +:( 1.339 LVSI)2


‘$
W(n)=ww
~ ~ [ 1 + ( 1.339 LW$I)Z]l’X

3.7-1.2 ~~- The Dr.vdenform of the spectra for


the turbulencevelocitiesi9:

I 02 2LU 1
$U (n) = u
g ~ 1 + (LUQ)Z
(, -
02 Lv 1 + 3(L 11)2
@v (I-i)
- v
E -7 !1 + (1.jw

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141
L-F-E1785C

3.7.1.3 Discrete Kust ❑odel. The discretequst model tnay be used for any of
the three gust-velocitycomrmnent$and, by derivation, any of the three angular
components.
.
The discrete qust has the “1 - COSh?e” sh9Pe KiVefl by:
v=.) .;:,::

dm

V-vm ,x>dm

4--”--7 (lm
distance,x, ft
The dlscreLe cust above.may be used simzly or in multiples in order to assess
airplane renponse to, or pilot control of, larqe diaturt.antes.
“‘Step function
or linear ramg pusts may also be used.

The scalesand intensitiesare based on the

I
3.’/.
2 Jic.4Lm/JLi@-al.LLLudS-
.WONKL1..
:l!I:l!Jmpl.
ior,I.hatI.llr:nll
r.tint.
abov,:>,00(1fr’(.
L i?.ir.o
LrfIplc.Then

,, . ... = ,. .-
uvw
illld
1. = I.v= 1.
w
t,

3.7.?.1 S@LU1-c-n-IP--s.ale
lew.. The .9Calea to be ueed are

L,,= L“ = I.w= 2,50n f-et uainq the von Karma” f’*rmor


I‘II= l.v= Lw . 1,“7’>0
fret u.qincthe l~rydcnform.
3.?.2.2 ~~<< fil&oQ&& q. RooL-mean-squareturbulenceintensitiesare
shown on finure 7 as functionsof altitudeand probabilityof exceedance.
Simpllr!ed vnriatlonsfor apolicatinnto the requirementsof thla specification
are indicated.

3.7.2.3 !Z@,_lemLhs. Several”values or dm shall be used, each chosen so that


the p.ustis tuned to each of the natural frequenciesof the airplane and its
f1ighL control SVSL?M (hieher-freauencystructural❑odes ❑ay be excepted). For
the Severe intenairics modes MlL.hwavelenqths less thnn the turbulencescale
l.?ncthmny be cxccptcd.

. Ih,’1.1
1-7-;’. JJ LW.L .R.lw U J l~j:>-$ qlll.
:IndModeratequst macnitudegu
shall IN:dCL6W’min Os.t
l’rovf’l?ttf.p IJx,dv, d= dete~ f’
R USISM:values.ol. ‘q’ ‘g
ned
accordins La 3.7.2.‘.,and t.h?appropriateRHS turbulencelntengitiesfrom
fi~ure 7. Severe ..,jst magnitudesshall be:
-,
a. 66 rt/scc llASat VG, gust penetrat.ton
gpeed

Uh
I
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!41L-F-8785C

:.,.
“i
, .,

I ,,
.
4

I >
,,

,.
.,

1:

0
.

I ;- .

!U3.4 .!0 soNvsnoHL ‘ 3onm-iv

FIGURE ‘7. ~“

49
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MI L-F-8785c

1 I 0
,+
!1

,., l-. .1 0-
n., !
,, .:,.’
.J]
y ,..
.. XA “?.
!ILI,; ~:s 3,1.?}!X!C C4ZIT.fISi(III
!:!vi: .,....0!
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MIL-F-8785C

(r b. 50 ‘t[=e= ‘As at ‘%ax

c. 25 ft/sec EAS at Vmax

d. 50ft/sec EAS at mceds UP to Vm~x (PA) with the landinggear and other
devices which are open or extended in their maximum open or maximum extended
p03iti0n9

e. For altitudesabove 20,000 feet the gust ❑agnitudesmay be reduced linearly


\
from:

(1) 66 ft/sec EAS at 20,000 feet to 38 ft/secSAS at 50,000 feet for the
VG condition
i.
(2) 50 ft/sec EAS at 20,000 feet to 25 ft/sec EAS at 50,000 feet for the
condition
‘%ax
(3) 25 ft/sec EAS at 20,000 feet to.12.5 ft/seo EAS at 50,000 feet for the
Vmax condition
For altitudeaabove 50,000 feet the equivalentgust velocity specifiedat
~~,000 feet shall be multipliedby the factor - , the Sauare r~t Of the
ratio of air density at altitude to standardatmosphericdensity at 50,000
feet.

3.7.3 ~ de disturb~-. This sectionspicifieethe medel of


(; \ atmosphericdisturbancesto be used for all CateqoryC operations.’The effeCt9
of wind shear, turbulenceand qu.stemay be analyzedseparately. Some analvels
an~ pilotedsimulation1s requiradCOnSid@rinQa COMPlete enVlrOn*ental
representation,demonstratingcompliancewith the requirementswith the
I cumulativeeffects of wind shear, turbulenceand Kusts. A non-Gaussian
turbulencereprfiaentation toqetherwith a wind model may also be used to
representthe patchy, intermittentnature of actual ❑easured turbulence.
3.7.3.1 ~. The wind speed at 20 feet above the %round,u20, 19
shown on figure 9 ae a function of probabilityof occurrence. The valuee to be
used for the different’intensitiesof atmosphericdisturbanceare indicated.
-. 3.7.3.2 ~. The magnitudeof the wind scalar shear 1s defined by the
I use of the followingexpressionfor the mean wind profile ae a functionof
altitude:
..
10 (h/zO)
u
v,“ ’20 In ( 20/2.$

,
where Z. . 0.15 feet for CategoryC Flight Phase

= 2.0 Ceet for other Fliqht Phases.


(-

51
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. .

El

I
1
:.

I
I
o 10 20 30 Lo 50

Mean Wind Speed, Knots

FIGURE 9. at 20 f@.

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HIL-F-8785C

~ 3.7.3.3 VectQr shea Differentorientation of the mean wind.relativeto the


runway for Category ;; or relative to the aircraft flisht path for Other Flight
Phases, shall be considered. In addition,Changea in directionof Lhe mean
I I wind speed over a given height change shall be considereda3 follows:

Disturbance Change in Height of


intensity mean wind vector shear
heading feet
I
degrees

LIGHT o ----

14DDERATE 90 600

SEVEIIE 90 300

A range of values fir the initialwind orientationand the initialaltitude for


OnSet of the shear shall be considered. Relativeto the runway, magnitudesof
u20 sin ‘+’w greater than the crosswind values in 3.3.7 or tailwind componentat
20 feet greater than 10 knots need not be considered. At”any altitudeother
than 20 feet these limits do not apply.

I 3.7,3.4 ~. The turbulencemndels of 3.7.1.1or 3.7.1.2 shall be


used. The appropriatemale lengths are ehown on figure 70 as function9of
altitude. The turbulenceintensitiesto ba uead are o = 0.1 u20, and a“
I and CIV given by figure 11 e.afunctionsof Ow and altl~Ude.

3.7.3.5 JILS.ta.Discretegusts of the form specifiedin 3.7.2.3 shall be uged,


with both single and double ramps to be considered. Several values of dm ghall
I be uged, each chosen so that the gugt is tuned to each of the natural
frequenciesof the airplaneand ita flight control system. The gust magnitudes
shall be determinedtram figure 8 using the appropriatevalues frOm fiwres 10
and 11. The two halves of a double gust do not have to be the same length or
magnitude.

3.’7.4~. Tt’Iis
9ection specifies the model of
atmosphericdieturbancegto be used for carrier landing operations. This model
1 shall be used in analysisand piloted simulationto determineaircraftcontrol
responseand path controlaocuracy during carrier landing. -Thismode1
supplementsbut does not replaoe the low-altitude❑edel Of 3.7.3.

The terminal approachcarrier landing disturbancemode1 shall be used


during simulationof the last 1/2 ❑ ile of the carrier apprmacb. The u velocity
I compenent ie aligned with the wind over deck. Total disturbancevelocitiesare
cemputed by edding aegmentacauaSd by random fr-se-air turbulence,u,, v1, wI;
ateady ship.wakedisturbance,U2, u.2;periodicship-motion-inducedturbulence,
I i u , w3; ~d r~dOm ~hip-w~e di~turbanoei uu 1,VII ! wo. The total air
d1aturbancecomponentsUg, Vg, afid ,wg are then computedas:

Ug = u, +u~+u3+ll&.

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I
1. !
I
HIL-F-8785C
I

I J)
“Chcinput to all of the random disturbancefiltersshall be generated
I by f1ltcrinR the wide-band,Gaussianoutput of zero-mean,unit-variance
rmdmrrnunber generators.
I
3.7.4.1 Free-air turbulenceconvmnents. The free-airturbulencecomponents
vhlch are independentof aircraft relativeposition ara repraeentedby
I filteringthe output of white-noisegeneratorsdescribedin.3.7.4 to produca
1“ the follawingspectra:
!1
,’ 200
o (11)- per radicnlfoot
I ‘1
I + (100 n)?

I 5900L1 + (400 Sl)pl


o (Q) = per radianlfoot
1, ‘I [1 + (10009 )21[1 + (WC-2)2;

71.6
per radianlfoot
@wI(*) - I + (loo $-2)2

I 3.7.IJ.2 ~~. The steady componentsof the


-ISL of a reductionin the steadywind and a predominant
carrier alruake .:0,..,
I upwash aft of the ship uhlcn are functionsof range. Figure 12 llliIStrate9the d
steady wind funct10n8 u2/Vw/4 and w2/$’v/das functionsof positionaft of
the ship center of pitch.
I
3.7.4.3 W 1001C co!nco~t of carrier airti. The periodiccompmnentof tha
I airwake varies with Ship pitching frequency,pitch magnitude,wlrtd over deck
and aircraft range. Theee componentsare computedas follows:

I
* ~,d(z.zz + n. Iloo9x)c
‘3 =fiv
I .+:,
=eva “,d(4.98 + 0.0018X)C
v - vw,d~,
c - cosine u
p
{1(
tl+—+
O.85VWfd
)
x
O.85Vw,d
+P
1}
where: ‘9 s Ship pitch frequency,radians/second.

I % . Ship pitch amplitude,radians. .

P z Random phase, radians.


I I
I I nlc u compenent is set to zero for X < -2236 feet, and the w componentis set
to zero f’orX < -?536 feet. L

I
I

[ .’
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I
I FIIL-F-8185C

1200 % = % = (0.177+ g.000823h)”


for 10< h <1000 ft

I 1000

I
800

60C

L, Scale LengthS,m.

(,-”

55
.-. ,.
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flIL-F-8785c

,-
-’)

1200

1000

(0.177 + 0.000823h)”.b belOv 1000 N

800

600

L00

20(1

I
o
$’
I 0 1.0 1.? 1.L 1.6 1.8 2.0

FIGURE .11. Horizontal turbulence $!4S ~.

56
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..-
____ ._---—

(.

t41L-F-8785c

Q
,.

n
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-. .

MIL.F-8785C

3.’1. U.4 of carrier air W*. The ship-related random


Velocitycomponentsare computed by filter~ngwhite noise (3.7.4)89 follows:
-1
o(x)~(Input)
u= T(x)jw + 1
4
0.035 Vw ~KZwnPut)
=v-
‘4 4 3. 33jw + 1

where: ~(x) = RJ4SAmplit.de-ft/a.ec.(Figure 13)

T(X) = Time constaat-sec. (Figure 13)

Invut

3-7.5 . The gust and


turbulencevelocitiesshall be applied to the airplaneequationsof aotion
through the aerodynamicterms only, and the direot effeot on the aerodynamic
seneors ahali be includedwhen such sensors are part of the airplane
augmentationsystem. Mhan using the discrete gust model, all significant
aepects of the penetrationof the gust by the airplaneshall be incorporatedin
the analyses. Applicationof the disturbancemadel depende on the reage of
frequenciesof concern in the analyses of the airframe. Mhen atruotural mdea
arc significant, the exact distribution”
of turbulencevelocitiesshould be
considered. For this purpmse,it 1s acceptableto considerUg amd Vg as being
mne4im+en5ionalfumctionsonly of x, but wg shall be”consideredtti- u
dimensional,a functionof both x and y, for the evaluationof aerodynamic ..
forces and ❑oments.

When structural mmdee am not significant,airframarigid-bodyresponsesmay be


evaluatedby consideringuniform gust or turbulenceimmersionalong with linear
gradientsof tha disturbance velocities. The uniform imnersionis aocountad
for by Ug, Vg and Wg defined at the airplane center of‘gravity. The angular
velocitiesdue”tm turbulenceare equivalentin effeot tn airplnne angular
velocities. Apprmximatimna for theaa angular velocities are dafined (preciaaly
at very 10U frequenciesonly) aa follows:

Tbe spectra of the angular velocitydisturbancesdua to turbulenceare then


given by:

58
..-
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MIL-F-8?8SC

1’
i (
ip

!
I

I
(, -

I
..
I ..

..

+ 1 I , .0. (>
<.,..- .- ““. -.. m.
.!.1
,Cputlma
‘1

59
t
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I I
I FIIL-F-8785c
I where b = wing span. The turbulencecomponentsUg, v , W8 and pg shall be
consideredmutually independent(uncorrelated ) in a sfatistical,venge.
However, qg iscorrelated with Wg, and rg is correlatedwith Vg. For the
I.
discreteguste Lhe Iinear gradtenL gives angular velocityperturbationsof the +
form:

I
For the low-altitude❑odel, the turbulencevelocitycomponentsUg, v and w
are to be taken along axee with Ug aligned along the relative ❑ean wff.
nd vec or
I and wa vertical.
I
3.8 ~rement.c for use of the di6turbancemedels
I Explicit considerate
ion of the effects of disturbanceson flying qualities,if
required by the procuringactivity, shall be in accordancewith requirementsin
3.8.2 through 3.8.3.2. In particular,3.8.3.1will replace 3.1.10.1and
I 3.8.3.2 uill replace 3.1.10.2.

3.8.1 J9e of disturbancemadeis. Paragraphs3.7.1 through3.7.4.4 specify


I models of’wind shear, continuousrandom turbulenceand discretegusts that
shall be used to assess:

I ‘ a. The effects of certain environmentalconditionson the flying qualitiesof


the airplane.

b. The ability of a pilot to .reooverfram upsets caused by environmental


I
I conditions.

Flight piithcontrol precisionduring manual and automaticcarrier landing,


w

11=”
For the purpose 01 this specificationthe atmosphereshall”be consideredto
consist of three regions: low altitude (groundlevel to approximately2,000
I L’eetML) . medium/highaltitude (aboveapproximately2,000 feet) and, for
carrier landingOnly, terminalapproach (0-300 feat,eltitudeand 1/2 mile to
,, touchdown). The low altitude model shall apply to CategoryC’and any other
Flight Phase (e.g. ground attack, terrain following)designatedby the
I Procuringactivity. The mediu!cdhigh-alt itude model ie intendedto apply to
those Flight Phases where pmximlty to the ground is not a factor,generally
Il. CategoriesA and 6. in applicationit will be permissibleto use conditionsat
an average altitude for the medium/high-aititude ❑odel only. The carrier
landing disturbancemodel will apply to carrier-basedaircraftonly.

I 3.8.2 ative dexrees of euitab-. In assessingtha qualitative


s.uitabil
ity of flying qualitiee th+ee intensitiesof disturbancesshall be
considered. These intensitiesare Light, hoderateand ~vere *S defined in
I 3.7. Tha requirementsfor the effects of these disturbancesare containedin
3.8.3.1 and 3.8.3.2 for the differantFlight Enielopesand AirplanaStatee.
I

60
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\
I

I
UIL-F-8785C
I
The qualitativedegrees of auitabllityof flYingqualitiesare cate60rfzedaa
r0110w9:

satisfactory Flying qualitiesclearlyadequate for the mission Flight


Phase

Acceptable Flying qualitiesadequateto accomplishthe mission Flight


! Phase, but some increaaain pilot workload or degradation
in ❑ission effectiveness,or both, exiete

Controllable Flying qualities such that the airplane can be controlled


safely,but pilot workloadis exceseiveor mission
effectivenessis inadequate,or both. Category A Flight
Phesee can be terminatedsafely,and CategoryB and C
Flight Phases can be completed.

Recoverable Flying Quelltles such that control can be maintainedlong


enough to fly out of a disturbance. All Flight Phases can
be terminatedsafely and a wave-offlgo-aroundcan be
accomplished.

3.8.3 heric disturbance. Levels of flying qualitlegas

I
indicatedin 1.5 are employed in this apecificatlonin realizationof the
possibilitythat the airplanemay be requiredto operata under abnormal
conditlona. Such abnormalities❑ay occur alao as a result of extreme
atmapherlc disturbances,or some comblnetlonof conditions. For thege factors
a degradationof flying quelitiasis permittedas specified in 3.8.3.1and .
3.8.3.2 (see also 4.1.1).

I 3.8.3.1 ~. In at~spheric di’tu’b=’c’=


the minimum required flying qualities for AirplaneNormal State9 (3.1.6.1) are
I as specifiad in table XVI.

‘fA~LEXVI. ~.
I
Atmospheric Uithin OperationalFlight Mltbin Service Flight
Diaturbsncea Snvelope Envelope

LIGHT TO Qasntitative requirements Quantitativerequirements


CAM Level 1; @alitative Leval 2; qualitative
~ requirementa Sstisfactory requirement Aooeptable

U)DERATE TO Quantitativerequtremente QuantitStlVerequirement


LIGHT Leval 1; qualitative Level 2; qualitative
requiremantaAcceptebla requirementsControllable
or batter or better
I
SSVSR.ETO Qualitativerequirements Qualitativerequiremante
HODERATE C.entrollable
or better “ Recoverableor better
&
3.8.3.2 ~. ~~e” AirPlme ‘allure
Stataa axi.st(3.t.6.2), a degradationin flyins WaMtia is permittedonly if
the probabilityof encounteringa lower”L=eveLthan specifiedin 3.8.3.1 la
sufficientlysmhl. At intervalsestablishedby the procuringactivity,the
contractorshall determine,based on the most accurateavailabledata, the
probabilityof occurrenceof each AirplaneFailure Stete par flightand the

61
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I

MIL-F-8785C

I effect of that FailureState on the flying qualitieswithin the Operationaland


Service Flight Envelopes. These determination shall be ba9ed on UIL-STD-756
exCept that:
!-
a. All airplane componentsand systemiare as9umed to be operatin~for a time
1
period, per flight,equal to the lo&st operationalmission time to be
consideredby the contractorin designinSthe airplane,and

b. Each speciric failureis a9sumed to tieP+eientat ~lchever point in the


FlightEnvelope being ooneideredin moit ‘OritlOal(in the flying aualitie9
I een9e).
I ~
From these Failure State probabilitiesand effects,the contractorshall
I I determinethe overall’probability,per flight,that one or ❑ore flyinq
qualitiesare “degradedto Level 2 becauseof Orieor more failures. The
I contractor9hall aleo determinethe probabilitythat one or more flying
qualitieaare degraded to Level 3. Table XVII sDecifiesthe requirement as
I functionsof the probabilityof encounteringthe degradationin flyinq
qualitiee.
I
TABLE XVII. Levels roP ~.
I
Atmospheric Failure State I@ Failure State II**
Disturbances .,. .
I .....

I LIGHT TO Quantitativerequirements Quaitikti~6 requirements


CALM Level 2 and qualitative ~ei$t”~~,
~tia”
qualitative
“requirementsAcceptable req-uir~mentsControllable
I
or better or better
.%
I
UODERATETO Ouantitative requirements ~antita tive requirement
LIGHT Level 2 and qualitative L@el 3 iha qualitative
I requirementsControllable r’aqui~ents Recoverable
or better or”better
I
SEVERE TO Qualitativerequirements
I ‘MODERATE Recoverableor better
● For flight in the OperationalFlight Envelope: .
I
Probabilityof encounteringdegraded levels of flying quaiiti’ee
due to
I failure(a)c 10-2/fliqht

I ● * For flight in the OperationalFlight Envelope:


Probabilityof encounteringdegradedlevels of flying qualitiesdue to
I failure(a)< lD-~/flight,and for flight in the Sawice Flimht Envelope:
Probabilityof encounteringUecyadad Ievela of flying qualitiesdue to
failure(9)< 10-2/fliqht
I
u. QUALITY ASSURANCE

4.1 ~. Compliancewith all requirementsof aeotion 3


shall be demonstratedthroughanalysis. In addition,compliancewith many of
the requirement will be demonstratedby simulation,flight test, or both. The
methods for damonatratin~complianceshall be establishedby agreementbetween
the procuringactivityand the contractor. Representativeflight conditions, .d”
configuration, externalstore complements,loading9,etc., shall be detemined

I 62

I .s
?.,-.
I ——__—
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MIL-F-8785C

for detailed investigationsin order tO restrictthe number Of desi6n and ‘est


(7 conditions. The selecteddesign pointsmust be 9ufficientto allow accurat@
extrapolationto the other conditionsat which the requirementsaPPIY-

Table XVIII epecifiesgeneral guidelinesbut the peculiaritiesof the SPecific


airplane design may requireadditionalor alternatetest condition. The
requiredfailure analyses9hall be thorcmmh,exceptingonly approvedSpeolal
FailureStatee (3.1.6.2.1)-

~.~.~ ~
.

4.1.1.1 EukQu2LEiMtQm- To determinetheoreticalcompliancewith


the requirementsof 3.1.10.2,the fOllOwing,~tePsmust be PerfO~ed:
1
a. Ident!fY those Airplane FailureStates ~ich have a 9iWificant effect.‘n
flying qualitiee(3.1.6.2)

b. Define the longest flight duration to be”encountereddurin5 OPeratiOnal


mi99i0ns (3.1.1)

c, Oetermine the probabilityof encounterintivarious AirplaneFailureStatee


per flight,based on the above flight duratiOn (3.1.10.2)

1’ d. Wtermine the degree of.flying qualitiesd@adation aesociated with each


AirplaneFailure State in term9 of Leve19 as defined in the epeOiflC
requirements

(, ~. e. Oeterminethe most criticai AirplaneFailure States (assumingthe failurea


are Presentat uhlcheverpoint in the Flight Envelopebeing consideredis M08t
critical in a flying qualitieesense), and compute the total probabilityof
eacounterimeLevel z flying qualities in the operationalFlight EnvelOpedue ‘o
e~uipaentrailures. Likeuiee,coemute the pmbabilitY of enoounterin~bvel 3
qualitiesin the OperationalFlight Envelope,etc.

f. CamPare the computedvaluee above titb the reauire=ent~w=oif led in


3.1.1O.2end 3.1.10.3. An example.*ich illu~trateean aPPrOxi~te estimateof
encounter follows: if the failuresare all statistically
th9 probabilitiesof..
independent,detecminethe sum of the probabllitieeof encounteringall
... AirplaneFailure Statea which degrade flyin,gqualitiee to..
Level 2 im the
OperationalSnvalope. lmis eum must be lese tham 10-2 w flight.

.. If.the requirement are not met, the designerrmumtcomaider altermetecourses


such as:

a. Impreve the”airplame f1yinq qualitiesaesociated with the more probable


FailureStatea, or

b. Reduce the probabililty of encounteringthe more probableFailureStatee


throughequipment redesign,redundancy,etc. ‘

Regardlessof the probabilityof encountering’anY given Airplane FailureState?


I (with the exceptionof SpecifllFailure States) the flyinq qualitiesshall not
degradebelow Level 3.
(-

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t41L-F-8785c

4.1.1.2 ~cts Of ~. Paragraph4.1.1.1 indicatesa


procedure f’orsatisfyingthe requirementson the degradingeffects of Airplane
Failure States, w’ithoutconsideration.ofdisturbances. Atmospheric > 1
dist.urhancesalso may cause a degradationin pilot opinionaa apeoifiedin
3.8.2. in application,numericalvalues of COntrol force and deflection,and
teady-stateand dynamicrespon9eparameters(for e=Ple ~ # Fe/n ‘d
g:)‘ar, t. be ~Onaideredaa mean nlues in the prasanoa of atmJsp~eriC
disturbances. These frequentlyare equivalentto the valuee in celm air.
Numericalvalues of frequency-response parameter and of control euthorityare
affective value9 for the airplane in ‘eachparticularintansityof atmospheric
diat.urbance.The qualitativerequirementsof 3.8.3.1 and 3.8.3.2 should then
be assessed for both AirplaneNormal States and criticalFailure Statea
identifiedin 11.1.1.1.

4.1.1.3 ~. Aasumption9a and b of 3.1.10.2 are


somewhat conservative,but they simplifythe requiredoomputationain 3.1.10.2
and provide a set of workableground rules for theoreticalpredictions. The
reaaons for these assumptionsare:

a. n.. componentsand systems are ... operatingfor a time period per flight
equal to Lhe longest operationalmission time ...● . Since wat ommponent
failuredata are in terms of failuresper flight hour, even though continuous
operationmay not be typical (e.g. yaw damper ON during 8UparSOniCflight
only), failureprobabilitiesMU9t ba predictadon a per flight basis using a
‘typicalntotal flighttime. The ‘longestoperationalmission time” aa
‘typicalm is a natural result. If acceptancecycles-te.failurereliability
data are available”(HIL.-STO-756)
, these data may be.used for prediction
purpnses based on meximum cycles per operationalmig?,io”, gubjact to pmouri~
activity approval. In any event, compliancewith the requireaenteof 3.1.10.2,
aa determinedin accordancewith Section U, is baaed on the probabilityof 4
encounter per flight.
b. ..... failure la aasumcd to be presentat whicheverpoint ... ia uayst
critical ...m. This assumptionla in keepingwith the requiremantaof 3.1.6.2
regardingFlight Phages subsequentto the actual failure in question. In casea
that are unrealisticfrom the operationalstandpoint,the apeOlflC Airplane
Failure States might fall in the AirplaneSpecial Failure State classification
(3.1.6.2.1).”

U.1.2 ~. The danger, extent or difficultyof flight tasting may


dictate simulationrather than flight teat to evaluate some aOnditlOosand
events, auoh as the influenceof Severe disturbances,evante close b the
ground (except3.2.3.4shall be demonstratedin flight), mmbined Failure
States and disturbances,etc. In addition, by agreamantwith the pmouring
“activity, piloted simulationshall be performadbefore first flight of a new
airplanedesign in order to demonstratethe suitabilityof the handliog
qualitIcs, and also l.!,
d,naunat.rate
compliancewith qualitativer~ui~&ts in
atmmapherlcdieturbanoesMCI in the criticalconditionsidentifiedin 4.1.1.1.
Uhere simulationis the ultimate!m?thodof demonstratingcompliancefor a
requirement,the simulationmodel shall be validatedwith fltght teat data and
approved by the procuringactivity. “

64
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\

MIL-F-8785C
I

I (
,P
4.1-3 ~- The required flight tests will be definedby
operational,technicaland safetv considerationsa9 decided @intl Y bv th~
PrOCWlng aCtivity,the test agency and the contractorusing results from 4.1.1
and U.I.2. It is IIOL expected that fliqhL test demonstrationof the
( requirementsin Moderateand Severe disturbanceswill be done unless reouired
by the airplane ❑ission. Some flightscan be expacted to encounteractual
disturbance; then the qualitativerequirement would apply if the disturbance
intensitycould be cate~orized.

4.2 ~. The parametersdefining AircraftStates shall be


tabulated. Table XIX illustrate an acceptableformat.

4.2.1”~. Terms specifiedin table xVIII such aa


‘heavieatueightn and ‘greateat ❑oment of inertia”mean the heaviestand
~reatestconsistentwith 3.1.2 and 3.1.3. When a critical center-Of-? ravitY
., positionla identified,the airplaneweight and aswciated m~ents Of ibertia
I shall correspondto the most adverse service loading in which that critical
center-of-gravitypositionis obtained.

U.2.2 &em&r --of Eravitv DO~- Terms specifiedin table XVIII such as
n mean the moat forwardor aft C!onsl
“most forwarde.g.” and most aft c.c,. .s.
tent
with 3.1.?. When a critical weight‘nrmomrnt or incrtla is identtflrd, Lb,*
center-of-gravityposition shall correspondto the mo9t adverse eervice 10adinZ
in which that criticalweiqht or ❑oment o.finertia is obtained.

4.2.3 ~. Thru9t”settinqeehall be as listed in table XIX.

{ . U.3 &SJ,SD and test ~

4.3.1 ~. For tet%ainal


Flight Phasee, it will normallY 5Uff1ce tO
examine the selectedAirplane States at only one altitude below 10,000 feet
(low altitude). For nonterminalFlight Pha9es, it will normally suffice to
examine the selectedAirplane States at one altitudebelow ?0,000 feet or at
the lowest operationalaltitude (low altitude),the maximum OPeratiOnal
altitude (h% ~), and one intermediatesltitude. When the maximum operational
altitudeis a~ove 40,000 feet or whan atabilltyor control characteristicsvary
rapidly with altitude,more intermediatealtitudesthan specified in table
2VIII shall be inveatiuated. Uhen the Service Flight”Envelope extenda rar
. above or below the OperationalFlight EW!310De,the service-altitudeextremes
mat be considered.

4.3.2 ~. In addition to the flight conditionspreviously


indicated,the epeed-altitudecombinationsthat result in the followingshall
all be investigated,where applicable:
I ,
a. Maximum normal accelerationrasp0n9e oar degree of controllerdeflection

I b. Maximum normal accelerationreeponse per p+und of control forca

c. Highest dymamic pressure and.highest Uach vumber. ,.

65


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I —.. - -—---------. —,—.. —.-...-


.-- ...-—
.--.
—-.-
——.---
1.
MIL-F-8785C
I
TABLE XVIII- ~
I
.,
,
.,
-.
..., ,,,,,
,,,,
,..,
!JMm.: Uul,
,,,,.
,,..1.1, +-, *L~,m~*
l,.].,] ~=~ ,’,
“.must.
___ -.-)
r ,,,,,,. .. .

-,
,,.
,.,,! .,,,.,, .,, ,,,, - !~w.,ltl,,.

., ,., ,.-, !!.,,...) ., .!,. .!.!


!,!!, *. I .1, ! .1. ,., ‘..,., “-. ‘. ,.‘“m m.rs.ln,
‘.1. u,
”.,..,. ,,.

I
I
M.-,!
mm.n

,,,
!,, ,,.
!, ,.,..., ,.-

..-!
..

..>! !.,..
!,-..-!. I!.*!

. ..!.!.””.
J ,s Ir,”i”i ,‘“‘.”,Ol,rA,m
“..,
I ! , , ,,. .!..
AH!., !.,.,4 .I.d d-u..
.-
6 ,F9w.ic

1,.
,: ,..,..,.
..,,.,
,,,
, -, (.,.. N . .,! !.0 “i.‘“‘- O.in. m.m
I “.,,,.
!. :.,., ,,,,:.! ,.,. .!4,, !,. ‘Oa,m, s“ “
I ‘.1. ‘“‘i.,y’.’’.’’.t.
,.,.,.
,, u“.,! ,.0,4
Ir.-+r.., @ *C.,
Am.!
(,r...l.l
●l!
..,.,
... !,
. . . . . . . ...” . . . . . .. .. .

,.,
,,: .*,! .-, ,“d +!,.. *. I r.”. d r .,. “m *•““, :-.*’J
,,,., ,.. ,..,J..,, !.. LI ,., ,..!. ‘.d
.‘““.-
, ..“
t
I ,,.
..... ,A, ,., ,“, -J .! . ....!. ,. .m.l .1, . .C. .,. , ,. “,.1 ‘u.●.‘“i y-.’’.’,
“-r,., ,(, IW

I ,.,.,.,,
, ,-,,.,

,...
!.,.
,..”,.

,.,.

!
.
!,,*!

!-,

,.-,
. ..
!..,
,,,11.,

),-1,.,,
0 ,,.,
-.!

,.”,..
,”..

,,,.,
1. .

,“ “.ro”

,.
.

I”!..I
..-..”4

r,”,
m., ,.,.,?4 ..,. , ..1.
A

m.,
-! .,! ..,. ,$

,.!...,,

.. .
..,. , ..{.,

.,,
.,..
) 1.

,,,F,.,,

.1.)

.(. )
I
..wr.m.m,l
C7
,. “,.

P-,*.$,,.
I 1.?.,. >.1
I.-I, *.-L,.,,
_,,,#w, r.-.i.
,,,,>, -St f.”.ld . .. ! l..
._

*! .,, ..,.!,
1.1.1 .8.? ,-”~-,
Bf-t
I ,, :.1.1 ,+,,
-..
d,”,
!.,.!.,
a,,.)
,,, @
,. m.., t.”. d ,., O.*
f

,.,.1.: ,.., I,I..>! ..,, tit (.”.,* t:, ? . r.dl.d “.-.‘““.~ Co.u.
~,,, u.rr.
..-,,.,fl.
!,
p!
,.! !.
t
,.,.1. I ,~,,,,1,.., ,e,,d B. ,.*..lr w, ‘kw=d
..,. 1.8 ,- u W#f.d m
1.. Wm.-l
.,.?,.”.. -t
.,, ..,, f.,
!.,,.*!
.,7,=
,,, ,., . ...,,44”, .-, ,., .. n., ,.....+ . .,. . . “+d .,.. ..1. c1

I ... *,,, ..L-!+ A -., .,1 . . ,, ;~”..?.&d

,. .,. .,’ ,..U,,.A,


W, ,-.,. ! 0..;.
..-I MO.. 4....-.
.., ..“VI-4 e,.~-.~j ~fi
d -! . . .,!,. .

I
r..., ,. .4..., !
.——
-, ,-!4..
!$.., ,.... ... .. IA-< -., t.-... ., l.. V-,,1” L

t ~ .,. ,
,,, ,., ,, ;%; :;L!..-! !.., 1..!.. ,. D.., ,.”..4 c,,. 1.0

,,, .. ,,-,,.4,
=,,.-,,..,
l..
-.,.. 0-. -t {.-.,. . .,.$
● ’ -i -’ 2,!’.: %. ‘“‘- “.m
J”J’
.-, .,.. I,!*! l..- bl- d .-,.’,, .,?

!.
.,, ,.-,,,..,, -, ,-.
1’-”,.,.,.,. ,O!,b.
,.! 1.,..-
1 ...1.-
4. d ! -.
1 al -1-d ., R@r.d
%1 ‘“-‘
“1.l* #AM.
n--.0

‘“. m,mm. t
,, .,, ,,”,,,..4, ”, .-,,,”, 0. .!ti.llb — I .0 ‘.d. c‘i-.’ .-, %. -

,,,-.,”,.,!. b,..,.., .-, ,!!


,~ ..”.,”..
.,,,.,,”,,..! .-, ,.!

66

I
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MIL-F-87B5C

TABLE XVIII. test ~. (Continued)


(-
,, L!W. ,,,,., w,.:. UJ.1,
,,,,, .,.,,
‘f,lll ,. !,,, 4.:.;, , u,,. ,, ”,. ,, !.,’ .Sr, , 1!

A
crow >. ~L.oIu,
_— rim., IL7W wwrit.~
,.,.., ,-, .0 “d ““I., d!.., “ ,..
,.4, , ...,,,..!
,.,.,., ,’,,,,.,, ,W, ,.., I ..(, ,1.,;.”. ”,
“., .! ,“?”,.
m., -Ill
, ,., .“. ,!..,.. !
,.,,,1 -I I!., ,.” “J .“, .1
1,,, ,., ,1, -
.,., ., .. . . .. ‘,”.
,. ,. ,U, ,,, . .. ,,,!..1
. !.”
.!’..,
1.,.,.1

.4, .,.,,
*,,, ..,,..,,,. t .(-.. . ,.. ..4 . ..(. !
— —
L.,.,. < ..<,l!
— —
,.,.l. , ,,.,.,.4, ”.,, -.1 “.P-.. 1.
-..
,XK,,C ,,, !”M-U..
1 ,,.,,..,
,.,.,., ,,, “,. .“. !,, #l!-.

1.,.2 .,.1 “,,,*., m,, ,.(. m“, m-.!


., . ...1 1.?.!.

.4 “,,, -.,1,.. s-. .


$.1.2. s

3.,.,. * ,*.,
,,,...
”!-l. ..,.. I ,-,.,
d ,.,,,.,
-, .( .“. !!!

1,1.,.4.1 40..-1 .,*(4, ..s.1”-”!


., *U,, l.pn, f
,..,..!
,,,,.. ”.,)
.( .,&.,
i,L. -11!.,

I
1.,.,.s -.”, “Il. ,., .,,
-, of ,“r!l

,,!.,. ,,. !.r.


L 1.Z.4 W“ ‘-,,”.l ,00

=. -, ,,m
,..“m .
m3-- ,,,., .,4., . .. 011...-. “.

I -. “at..! -Il..,
i“. r!i
L.,
m.-’- V,!..
,.,..!.
”,rl

( L3.4 -, of
‘.-.
1,>. a,l
1.s.4 .!. ‘..,
” co
,.
I 1.!.4 .1.

M,,..,”
I —.
!.3.4 .1.
-.,
ImIl(nl
.( I-”i
‘..,
m.-’-
..-, IKl,l’’. ”,o
1. J.4. Z mu— * c-” :,1 -..!
..,,..*
-4
..11-4
,. .,..,.
,FN””
-, .f !“rll

i ,,,.,.. ”.,1
3.3. #.1 al ‘nu.d h-r” .mti,$! IoIllw ,..,,.,
- ., ,-,, ,
3.$.4. a ,-1”. tit a.-

3.3.4. s
I I
?.wt :.-

. .{, .. . ..
1.1. s
.(.
I .. ... ‘..,..
-’-
,“..’.,..0
1.0 ‘.”m

1=
1.3. s.1 ,,.,

-.

,I-
1.1. *. I mf..t i-., c..*.. I .i*h ,.0 ‘..’.”
““..
“-!rm l.dtw

‘.,. (N1. -,

,.
r.! i. . . . ..fl ,.. P r“. .9d
3.,.,, / 011-;,~; *t ,-,” w.

,!., ,.,. ,., ,,,.. ,,-., . ..0..4..!.!!. ,!. $



... -’,
- ‘.,.‘.. ,,.,,.,,, .,
‘,,
,,, . ,. ,. ..4. , ...,!,,..
,!,, ....-
.
. . ...
).,...
1.1,..

c
67
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I
nIL-F-a785c
I
TABLE WIII. ~. (~”ti””’d)
I
,. warn
T1lU
I 1.,,7 L.,.,.l.,, ”.tl-..l -1”1 1.
,m., .’,ii
,.,. -., ,,”, -w ,. cm. .1*8
I
I 1
1.I.7.
Z

,,.,.,.1.1
%.3.7.2,21
I
rd..<l
““””’”’
m

.id
“d I-4,* Idlm i.

a==-
8,1.1,1 1-;1.4 .-4 Iti.11.

I
I

lmmt M-t,
I ,,,.,.2 M. .n.t

3.$.*.1 1~..”.m! .ffnI*

I
I ~4 WSCCL- ?L119C @MLlll U

,.6., rims . . MO wt.


I I
,,,.,,SC,
SN Mn4-w4>.*Ire-.

-1
I.b.J.l mall. Ull$b-r 1. W1..r.l. r.. nt&8t
mn ..- UaaLlml
I ,J.b. z.,.l

,. L.,.,.,. I
-,m,tnn.
.WnllJ
Md@.
.iub8 In.o.tlmtld W
d ti.1 %“.hc.

I ,.,.2., 11..-.N I
I
I
I

I
I

I
I
I

I I

68
I
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,.. . . .. .
,,..
i::,

[.j

. .{.,
..,.,
MIL-F-L778SC

(Centinued)
TABLE “XVI1. Design and test condition guidelines.

M#m. tmwlu4 -1= 5?!r>

r%E!E!=l
,,nl ,,.1.1. d.I.21
7

-
— h - ●, “m.““‘-
1.s., *.I. -.

k
S
(1, s.1.1.
1.LJ. B.
,. l,s.l .1}
,.. —
,.,.,
11.
s.1.1.
l.s.s
.11

.11 —
1.,.s k,,-
O.s.s .1.
I ,,i.,. n

,.,.. -1., ,. .,,-. -“l -. -. ,.. ●.W,$ 40-. *
“-s
13..,6.1,
1.s...11
w~

1,,.1 ,,,. .“t-


-,
A
t.r...’,,..,.
-.,
,*
.I1 c.,.
1...,;
--.,.-1,.,.,.-, —

L-1=-&’
t,t ,,* f.. --,1. “-=!
I... -, fa.md ..,.
A -, .1, ..,.

a.,.,. z lat. .1 . . . . --! 1- --


1..,1.
s U.tll” .f ,.I. .“w- -, 1.na14..,.
,* I- .,,,
*..1.., -I*,
1,,.1.4l,A. p*- immi.111*. —- -
..”.

d
m.n .
,...2 - ti ,,,*,+.U -s”1 —. m.- .CA
ti,-
,.,.1 ,-4”,. d *.1. m —
* -y M .--i
- ,...4-4 m.m. m.ro.m
,...,.1 ,,,6 *i. a-c”
~ *OL9
1..., -Ill.” *I”—v -.1-, -c, .n .,,. . -,nd - I*k ‘.a.
1“‘-
<at-d .,lh
l.-!”, -,*!
-.
~ —*,C
——
e4--
.—— --

?Ez!!u — -

69
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I
I
t41L-F-8785c
I

I
..
I

-.

I
I
:,

I ,,
I
I
I
I

I
I
I }.
1’
~.

I !.

I I

70
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141
L-F-R785C

4.4 ~- Certain tests, by their nature, can be


conductedonly at specializedfacilitieswhich are not accessibleto either the
procuringactivity or the contractorexcept at the option of a third
or~anization
- In such cases, when an aereementof teet suPoartat the
specializedfacility is obtainedby the procuringactivity,an analysisof
resulteobtained in the tests ie a nece.veary
part of the analyticalcompliance
demonstration.

5. PREPARATIONFOR DELIVERY

5.1 Section 5 is not applicableto this specification.

6. NOTES

‘6. I xn@@aAM. This specificationcontainsthe flYinc qualities


re@IWLIe.fitsfOP pilotedalrp18ne9and 10I%o9one Of the bases fOr determination
by the procuringactivityof airolaneacceptability. The sDecificatiOn
consietsOf design requirementsin terms of criteria for use in stabilityand
control calculations,analysis of wind tunnel test results,.vimulatOr
evaluations,flight testing,etc. The requirement should be ❑et a9 far as
possibleby providingan inherentlywad basic airframe. Cost, Performance,
reliability,maintenance,ktc. tradeoffsare necessary in deternininqthe
properbalance between basic airFramecharacteristicsand aucimented dynamic
responsecharacteristics. The contractorshould advise the precurinqactivity
of any significantdesign penaltieswhich may result from meeting any
particularrequirement.
(“ , 6.2 ~. Tarm9 and sj?nbolsused throughoutthis specificationare
dafined as follows:

6.2.1 ~.

s“ - wing araa

9 - Laplace oparator

Q - dynamic prassure

. NSL - maan sea level

T2 - time to double amplitude;12 . -.693/OUn for


osoillationa,T2 = .693t for first-orderdivergences

Airplane Normal - the nomenclatureand format of table XIX shal1 be


States used in defining the AIPpl~a Normal States (3.1.6. 1)

(-
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MIL-F-8785C

Service ceilinq altitudeat a given airspeedat which the rate of


climb is 100 ft/minat stated weight and engine
thrust
i-
Cembat oeiling altitudeat a given airapeedat which rate of climb
1 19 500 ft/minat stated weight and engine thrust

Cruisingceiling altitudeat a given airpseedat uhioh rate of climb


I 1S 300 ft/minat NRT at stated weight

I hmax ❑aximum servicealtitude(definedin 3.I.8.3)

h maximum operationalaltitude (3.1.7 )


Omax
h minimum operationalaltitude (3.1.7)
Omin
C.q. airplanecenter of gravity

6.2.2 =

Equivalent true alrapeedmultipliedby %, whereo is the ratio


airspeed,EAS of free-streamdensity at the given altitudeto
I standardsea-levelair density

I Calibrated airaDeed-indicatOPreadin~correctedfor positionand


airspeed instrumenterror but not for cmmpresaibility

Refusal speed the maximum 8peed to which the airplane can


accelerateand then atop in the availablerunway

I
L’
length

H Mach number

I v.” - airspeedalonq the flightpath (where appropriate,V


may be replacedby H in this SDeCifiCatiOn),
I
I - stall speed (equivalentairspeed),at lq normal to
4 the flight path, defined as the highest of:
I
a. soe.?dfor steady straightflight at C
I fir9t local maximum of the curve of 115 ~ “ ‘he
coefficient(L/qS) vs. anqle of attack which
occurs as CL 19 increasedfrom zero
I
b. speed at which uncommandedpitching,rollingor
I yawing occurs (3.4.2.1.2)

c. s?eed at which intolerahlcbuffet or structural


vibrationis encountered

72

I
L —
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MIL-F-8785C
I
~.
,

- I The airplaneshall be initiallytrimmedat


approximately1.2 V,ywjth the rollnwinqset.tlnaa,
after which the trim nnd throLtl@ setl.lns?s
shall be
held constant:

1 WwLwMSa’
Climb (CL) Normal climb For straightfliqht

Descent (D) Normal descent Fcr straightflight

I?sergency
deecent (ED) Idle Fcr straightflight

Emergencydeceleration(DE) Idle For straight flight

Takecff (TO1 Takeoff Recommendedtakeoff settin$ .


, Approach (PA) Ncrmal apprcach For normal apprcach

Uave-cfflgc-arcund(HO) Takeoff For ncrmalapprcach

Landing (L) Idle Fcr normal epproach

All otlter TLF at 1.2 vs For straiqht fliqht

● Either on all engines cr on remainingengineswith criticalengine


I inoperative,vhlchever yields the tii8hervalue of VS.

In flight test, it is neceassryto reduce speed very


slowly (typically1/2 knct per ~econdor ~e.vs)tc
minimize dynamic lift effects. The load facLcr will
generally not be exactly U when stall Cccurs; when
this 1s the case, VS is def’inadaa follcws:
~
VS = &

where V and nf are the measured values at stall, nf


being the load factor normal to the flight path.

‘i Vs(x), v~n(x) ,
V*(X)
short-handnotation fcr the apeade ‘Js,Vminu Vmax
for a given Oonfiquration,weight, cenLer-
of-gravitypoaiticn,and external stcre Comblnaticn
associate~with Fliiht Phssa X. For @XamPIC. the
designationVmx(TO) is tiaedin 3.2-3.3.2tO
emphasizethst tbe speed intendad(for the wei~ht,
center cf gravity);and externalstOre c~binaticn
under oonslderation)S9 Vmax for the configuration
associatedwith the ~kecff FIWht phase. This is
necessarytc ‘avoidccnfusicn,“since tha ccnfiquraLicn
and Flight Phase change frcm Lskecffto climb during
the msneuver.

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I
t41L-F-8785r

Vtria trim speed

vend speed for maximum endurance


.. .
‘L/D . speed for maximu~ lift-to-dragratio

VR/C speed for maximum rate of climb

‘ran<e speed for maximum ranqe in zero wind conditions

VNRT high speed, level flight, normal rated thrust

v“~~ high speed, level flight,militaryrated thrust

‘MAT’ high speed, level flight,maximum augmentedthrust

Vmax maxtmun service*peed (definedin 3.1.8.1)

‘aln minimum serviceepeed (definedin 3.1.8.2)


v maximum operationalspeed (3.1.7)
%lrlx

‘Chin minimum operationalspeed (3.1.7)

v~ gust penetrationspeed

6.2.3 ~
Thrust and power for propeller-drivenairplanes,the word ‘thrust” \
shall be replacedby the word ‘pmwern throughoutthe
specification

TLF thruet for level fliqht

NhT normal rated thrust,which ie the maximum thrust at


which the enqlne caribe operatedcontinuoudy
!4qT mllit.?.rv
rated thrust,which is the maximum thruet at
which the engine can be operated for a specified
period

HAT

I ““
maxlmum augmentedthruet: maximum thrust,auqmented
by all means availablefor the Flight Phase
I Takeoff thrust maximum thrust availablefor takeoff

Pitch, roil, the gtick or wheel and,pedals manipulatedby the


yaw controle pilot to,prmduce pitching,rollingand yawing momente
respectively;the cmckpit controls

74
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IUL-F-8785C

Pitch control force, Fs - ccanpanentof applied force, exerted by the pilot on


,- the cockpit Oontrol, in nr parallel to the plane of
symmetry,acting at the Center of the stick grip or
wheel in a directionperpendicularto a line between
Lhe center of the stick grip and the stick or oontrol
aolumn pivot

Roll control force - for a stick control, the componentof control force
exerted by Che pilot in a plane perpendicularto the
plane of syametry,aoting at the center of the stick
grip in a directionperpendicularto a line between
the ‘centerof the stick grip and the stick pivot.
For a wheel control,the total moment applied by the
pilot about the wheel axis in the plane of the wheel,
divided by the average radius from the wheel pivot to
the pilot*9 grip

1 Yaw-controlpedal force - differenceof push-foroe component of forces exerted


by the pilot on the yaw-controlpedale, lying in
planes parallel to the plane of syemetry,measured
I parpandlcularto the pedals at the nortml point of
aPPliOatlOnof the pilot’e instep on the respective
yaw-controlpedals
Direct normal foroe - a device producingdirect normal force for the
control primary purpose of controllingthe flight path of the
airplane. Direct normal force control ia the
descriptivetitle given to the concept of directlY
modulatingthe normal farce on an airplane by
changing its liftingcapabilitiesat a constantangle
of attack and constantair9peedor by controllingthe
normal force componentof such items as jet exhausts,
propellers,and fane

Controlpower effectivenessof control surfaces in applying forcee


or emaenta to en airplane. For example, 50 percent
. . of’available roll control power is 50 percentof the
maximum rolling mment that la availeble to the pilot
with allowableroll control force”

6.2.5 ~
{
SP damping ratio of the short-periodoscillation

%P . uadamped natural frequenoyof the short-period


oscillation
c damping ratio of the phugoid oscillation
P
‘np undampeUnatural frequencyof..
the phugoid oscillation
n normal accelerationor normal load factor,meaaured
at the O.g.
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P41L-F.FJ785C

‘L symmetricalflight limit load factor for a given


AirplaneNormal State, baaed on structural )
considerations

‘max, nmi~ maximum and minlfnumservice load Cactor9

n(+), n(-) for a given altitude,the uc.perand lower boundaries


of’n in the V-n die!zrams
depictinqthe ServiceFlight
Envelope

n - aaximum and minimum operationalload factors


Omax* ‘%in

no(+), no(-) - for ~iven altitude,the upper and lower boundariesOr


n in the V-n diaaramsdepletingthe OperationalFlight ..
Envelope

%x .—— — ————
\
nom, ———— ——

\’

——— ——— —— — )-
>j.,>&-
75% --
=Z= I.
J j

+
\
. ~ # JAIRsPEED

n“mi8
——. ———
——— ——— —-\.—.d

- IIa(+)
Anoq-) (OPUIATIOPLaL
FLIOHTEIIVELOfE]
—-— m(+)AIIO
a(.) (SERVltE
FL16NTEwELOPE)

,, anqle of attack; the anqle in the plane of symmetry


between the fuaelaqereferenceline and the tangent
to the flizht oath at the airplenecenter of gravity ‘
;,

“s the stall anqle of attack at constantspeed for the


conriguratlcm,wctqht,center of qravity o.JsltlOn and
exI.wn:+l
-sLoro ,?c.mhinat
inn associated with a KIVen
AIrrIl
anr NOIWII StaLe.;d,ellnedas the lowest of the
following:

9. Anqle o; atteck for the highest steady load


factor,normal to the flight oath, that can be
attainedat a qiven spaed or Mach number

d“

76
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I MIL-F-8785C
I b. Angle of attack, for a given speed or Mach
number, at which uncommandedpitching,rolling or
I
yawing occurs (3.U.2.1.2)

c. Angle of attack, for a 4iven speed or Mach


number, at which intolerablebuffeting is
encountered.

C%m lirt coefriiientat as derinedabove.


0/0 the steady-statenormal accelerationchange per unit
chan~e in angle or attack ror an incrementalpitch
control deflectionat constant speed (airspeedand
Mach number)

Fs/n gradientor steady-statepitch control rorce versus n


at constantspeed (3.2.2.2.1)

Y climb angle, positive ror climbinR rlight

Y = sin -1 (verticalspeed/trueairspeed)
8 pitch attitude,the angle between the x-axle and the
horizontal

L aermdymamic 1ii’tplus thrustcempenent normal tO the


flight path
6.2.6
5
As displacementor the roll control stick or wheel alonq
its path

‘R first-orderroll mede time constant, poeitive for


stable mode

% rirst-orderroll mede time constant, Dositive ror


stable mode
I
(-l/tR)
5

% (-1/T5)

cmdampednatural frequencyof numerater quadraticOr


“$ $./6AStr~sf’errunctio”

damping ratio of nunawatorquadraticor +/6AS


c+
transfer function

u undamped nitural rrequencvor.the Dutch rol1


‘d oscillation

I % damping ratio of the Putch roll oscillation


2n
T~ damped period of the Dutch roll, Td = w d 1 -c:
‘d
77
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IIIL-F-8785C

%Rs - undampednatural frequencyof a coupled roll-spiral


oscillation ,
.! - damping ratio of a coupled roll-spiraloscillation
u’

,[ - bank angle ❑easured in the y-z plane, between the


y-axis and the horizontal(6.2.1)

- bank angle change in time t, in reepone.eto control


deflectionof the form given in 3.3.4
1,
P - roll rate about the x-axis (6.2.I)
I P06c - a ❑easure of the ratio of the oscillatorycemponent
7av of rOll rate to the averageocaponentof roll rate
I followinga yaw-control-freestep roll control
cemmand:
P P1 + P3 - 2P2
I cd $ 0.2: ?.
av P, + P3 + 2P2
P PI - P*
Cd>o. z: +=——
av PI + P2
where p,, p2, and p~ are roll rates at the first,
second and third peaks, reapectlvely. (Figuree 14
and 15).
I
- a ❑ easure of the ratio of the oscillatory~~~nent
I of bank angle to the averagecomponentof bank angle
followlng a pedals-freeimDulseaileron control
L
commane:
I cd <0.2:

% > 0.2:

where $’1, $2, $3 are bank angles at the first,


I ‘secondand third paaka, respectively.
B - aide.vlip angle at the center of gravity,angle
I between undisturbedf20w amd plane of symmetry.
Positive, or right sideellpcorrespondsto incident
I flow approachingfrom the right side of the plane of
epmetry

I I A13 - maximum change in eidesiipOacurringwithin 2 eeconds


or one half-periodof the Dutch roll, whicheveria
greater, for a step rollJcontrolcnmmand (figures Ill
I I and 15) “

k - rat10 of ‘onmmand roll parformancento ‘applicable


rOII performancerequirement.of 3.3.4 or 3.3.4.I,
where:

78
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I
1

.....
I
1: t41L-F-E7f15c

-----
,,-
oi-

4+’
- . ..---—. . ..

!~
4--- ......... .
6. -..
----.-.-: i ~ ....
g E

;“ * . 9.!, .

.
,—..—- -—— .-

“L_. :
$a2S3””’
u.!

J. 4 .,. . : %..4,,, 3 J ‘ ,- ,, -,
t.9.
im ,,, (:1,,,

(a) 0 .%*.1,.; (h)

.,. . (.)0 ,.~:

I
c
..:. ..1 .1;
:“ @.w#Ljs.Lw ,., :
d,; (-,)(*-*.W+J% ‘“%”,.,:
O.*

*..

L
.*.4.9., -1.1*J -o.- a‘
$’
~,MA, ,1ss
FIJNCT
10N
e IS,c?TRANSFER fZZ&=–..-

“-

342..’

(EaE J I

$#.d+- J.

J:i
mm, *L-
.J—
,, ,.
,-. =
[c) [Ii)

FIGURE 14.

79
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MIL-F-8785C

I
0=’=”<
.-
;;
...
.,!
~. . .._ -.—- .—

*~. )

j’;
::,
.:./
.. L+
..!.

:.~,,
:;
; g ,.. . .
I E
:
I J/ *. . .. .... .:

1’ ,’:,
J=--’ * r.
...-.
............‘;“:’”;”
:“:””;”
,,,..
1.,, I

+’-- !;.
!
:0,

,,.”..:.
..&--
.“ ““- “,-
l--
. ...

“k !FF. “t! ;-.&””


,.
,,[. ,.. ‘-,”: . . .!
I
.

.. . -.__-—
,,.
>
I 131

u Jo”’
-L* .!., .1.1-0.0 +~, 0
. . cutil!l

Jf I,,[,TRANsFER FuNCT”I ON
<
“.!
I ..
... .- .-. .. .-. .. -. --- .

I . .. . .
: .“

I .-
““’\
.>.- .-
I . .... . .
““J ..... .1
L ,,,,,~:-\.- RI +

,,!!

j,: : .’-:”:,:

I ,,,.
[8 I

FIGURE 15. J
I

I
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,5

flIL-F-8785c

( ‘Applicableroll Performancerequirement”,
,.
r ( $t) retirement;
3.3.4.1
ia determined from 3.3. Q and
for the Class, Flight Phase Categoryand
Level under conalderatlon

‘Commandedroll perfOm~cem, ( ‘$t)cO~and, iS the


bank angle attained in the stated time for a qiven
etep roll command with yaw contrnl pedals employed ae
specified in 3.3.0 and 3.3.4-1

I
‘n time for the Cutch roll oscillationin the eideelip
! B reaponee to reach the nth local maximum for a rieht
step or pulse roll-controlcommand, or the nth local
minimum for a left command. In the event a step
control input cannot be accomoliehed,the control
shall be ❑oved ae abruptlyae praCtiCSland, for
purposesof thie definition,time shall be measured
from the inetantthe cockpit control Qeflectlon
passe9 throu!?hhalf the amplitude of the cemmanded
I value. For
-. nulr,einouta. time ehall be meaaured from
a Point halfway through the duration of the pulee
phaee an~ie expressedas e W fnr e CO~ine
(- representationof the Dutch roll oscillationin
t
I sideslip,where

I *B = -~.t
d ‘6
+ (n - 1)360 (degreee)

,
with n aa in tn above
\p/B phase angle between roll rate and sideslipin the
Free Outch roll osoillatlon. Angle is pnsitivewhen
p leads B by an angle between O and 1800
..
at eny instant,the ratio of amplitudesof the
I bank-angleand aidaalip-engleenvelopasin the Outch
I roll mode

Examplesshowing measurementof rolI-sidesl~pcouBling paremetarsare shown on


figure 14 for right rolle and figure 15 for le’ftrolle. Since several
oecillationaof the Outch roll arerequired to measure these parameters,and
S.inOefor proper identificationlarge roll ratee and bank angle changea must
generallybe avoidad, step roll control inputs should’be emall. It shOuld ba
noted that eince $’B la the phase angleof the Outch roll componentof
sideslip, care must be taken to 9elect a peak far enough downstream that the
(. -“ positionof the peak is not influencedby the roll mode. In practice,waks
occurringone or two roll mode time constant?after the aileron input will be
relativelyundistorted. Care must also be taken when there is rampingof the

81
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!41L-F-8785C

sideslip trace, since ramplnq will displacethe positionof a peak of the


trace from the oorreapondin~peak of the Dutch roll component. In practice,
the peaks of the.Dutch roll componentof aidealipare locatedby first drawing -)
a line through the ramping portion of the sidesliptrace and then noting the
timas at which the verticaldistancebetween the line and the aidesliptrace is
the greateat. (sae followingsketch for Case (a) of fisures 14 and 15.)

I 1lr6117

I 2. ;:
:; -.
I .............+.
........... .

I 0

L2FT
. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . ..
Blwl;:::: :1::::
:! :: :. ::
z

I
* ? ~;

$
1
t
:! ~~

d 1 2 8 4 6 6
I TIME- SEC

I
Since the firsL local maximum of the Outch roll ~.of the aideslip
response occurs at c = 2.95 geconds,
I
I ~ -t -360
*R Td nB + ‘n - 1)360 =7(2”95) = ’303 ‘egrees
I Level 1 flying qualitiesof a Class IV airplamein the approach are under
examination; so the roll performance requirement frc.wtable IX upnn which the
parameter“km in the sideslipexcursionrequirement(figure 6) la baaed, la
I $t = 30 degrees in 1 second with rudder pedals frea (as 10 the rolls of
3.3.2.u). From the definitions,●km for this conditionla.
I
I
~ - ($l)c_d
I ($.llrequirement
I
Thereforei’romfigures 14 and 15: .

Cam (a), k : 9.1/30 = 0.30 Case (c), k = 6.8/30 = 0.23


J
Case (b), k = 8.1/30 = 0.27 Case (d), k = 6.o/30 = 0.20

82
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t41L-F-8785c

( 6.2.7 ~
P
~ Ci
n spatial (reduced)frequency(radiansper foot)

temporalfrequency(radlan9per second), where w - ‘V

t - time (e.eoonda)

%! disturbancevelmcityalons the x-axis, positive


forward (feet per second)

disturbancevelooityalong the y-axis, poeitive to


’13 pilot’s right (feet per second)

disturbanceve16clty.
alonq”theZ-aXiS, 009itive
- (feet per sacond)

Note: ~:b:&&* ‘6 have .Oaussian(normal)

WC! magnitudeof wind over the aircraft carrier deck


(feet ”persecO@)

root-mean-square disturbance intensity, whare


,(.
1)” 0
02 - J@M - f~$(w)dw

u - root-mean-square intensity of ug

9 mot-mean-aware inten~W of Vg
v
a romt-mean-squareintensityof wg
w

% scale for Ug (feet)


1.. scale for Vg (feet)
Lv

f% scale rOp wg (feet)


.’
Oug(n) . spectrum for Ug, where o%(r2) - V$”g(u)

I %K(n) spectrum for Vq, where %g(~) _ ‘%JW)

kg(n) spectrumfor Wg, uhere kg(a) - ‘kg(u)

% . general$z~ddiaoretegust int@eitY, positive along


the pasitiveaxes, m = x, y,’z (feet per second)

generalizeddiscrete gust length (aluayg pogitive)


❑ c x, y, z (feet)

. uind speed at 20 feet above the ground

83
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t41L-F-8785C

x - distance from airplane to 9tIipcenter of pitch,


negative aft of ship (feet)

$$” - mean wind direction relative to runway (3.7.3.3)


I
6.2.8 ~~

I Post-stall- The flight regime involvingangles of attaok greater than nominal


stall angles of attack. The airplanecharacteristic in the post-etallregime
, may consist of three more or less distinctconsecutivetypes of airplanemotion
followingdeparture from controlledflight:peat,-stall gyration, incipient
spin, and developedgpin.
1. Post-stallgyration (PSC) - Um.?ontrolledmotlOnsabout one or more airplane
axis followingdeparturefrom controlledflight. While this type of airplane
motion involvesanglea of attack higher than stall mgle, lower angles may be
I encounteredintermittentlyin the oourae of the ❑otion.
I
Spin - That partof the peat-stallairplanemotion which la characterizedby a
au9talned yaw rOtatlOn. The spin ray be ereat or inverted,flat (hiqh angle of
attack) or steep (low but still stalledangle of attack) and the rotary motions
may have oscillationsin pitch, roll and yaw superimposedon than. The
incipientapln is the initial, transientphaee of the motion during which it is
not possible to identify the spin mode, usually followedby the developedspin,
the phase during which it 1s possibleto identifythe spin ❑ode.

6.3 Interpretation of F~/n limits of table V. gacauaethe limits on F#n are


a function of both nL and flfa, table v in rather ccaplax. To illustrateit8
use, the limits are presentedon fiqura 16 For an airplane having a
center-stickcontrollerand nL . 7.0.

I
I
1.01 :::, ::::: :::: :,:;
I.0 10 ma
I
Tfi- duo
FIGURE 16.. :
I
Center-stickcontroller,nL
—— -—---- = 7.0

I
84i
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MIL-F-8785C

6.4 ~. Changesof ❑echanicalgearingsand stability


(---
I
augmentationgains in the primaryfli$ht control eystem are sometia!es
accomplishedby schedulingthe chances as a functionof the settlnqsof
secondarycontrol devices,such as flapa or winS sweep. ThiS practice19
Senerallyacceptable,but <earingsand galn9 normallyshould not be scheduled
as a functionof trim control settingssince pilots do not always keep
airplanesin trim.

6-5 ~- Secondaryeffect9of enqine operationmay have an


importantbearing on flying qualitiesand should not be overlookedin daaio.n.
These conaideratfonaare: the influenceof ene.ineqyrnacopicmomenta on
airframedynamic motions; the errects of en~ine operation (includincflameolnt
and intentionalsnutdmrn)on Maracteristlcs nr flight.at hich anele ,~fat~*ck
(3.U.2); a“d the red”ctlo”at low rpm of c“ginc-derive.l
Oouer for Op<?ratin<
thl?
flightcontrol system.

6.6 lXG2~ c ity. control ea~.


Since aeroelasticity,control equipmentand structuraldynamicsmay exert an
importantinfluenceon the airplane flyinz qualities,such effects shoulj nnt.
be overlookedin calculationsor analysea directed toward inveatiqationof
compliancewith the requirementsof this apeclficvition.

6.7 of Le eh Part or the intentof 3.1.10 is to ensure that the


I probabilityof encount~rin~aianificantl y degraded flVinB Wall tie9 becauseOf
componentor subsystem failuresis small. For example, the probabilityy of
I encounteringvery degraded flylng qualities(Level 3) must be leaa than
apecifledvalues per flight.
(“-” 6.7.1 Level QflWUia 0. To determine the degradationin flYinU Qual i ties
P8rSLX?t.W9
fOr a given AirplaneFailure State the followinqdefinitionsare
I provided:

a, Lavel 1 is better than or equal to the Level 1 boundarv,or number,


epecifiedin Section 3

b. Level 2 ia worse than Level 1, but no woree than the Level 2 boundary,or
number

c. Level 3 la worse than Level 2, but no worse than the Level 3 boundary,Or
number.

When a given boundary,or number, is identifiedaa Level 1 and Level 2, thie


means that flying qualltleeoutside the boundaryconditionsahoun, or Wmrse
than the number given, are at beat Level 3 flYing qualities. A~~et since
Level 1 and Level 2 requirementsare the same, flying qualitiea❑ust be within
this cauaon boundary,or number, in both the operationaland ServiceFliqht
Envelopes for AirplaneNormal States (3. 1.10.1). Airplane Failure s~tee t~t
do not degrade flying qualitiesbeyond this“cemmonboundary are not considered
in meeting the require!nentaof 3.1..IO.2.AirPianeFailure States that
representdegradationst.aLevel 3 ❑ust, however,be inoluded in the computation
of the probabilityof encounteringLevel 3 degradation’k in both the Operational
and Sarvice Flight Envelopes. Again degradationbeyond the Level 3 boundaryla
not permittedregardlessof componentfailures.

P
85
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IIIL-F-8785C

6.8 &lated dot-. The dccumentslisted below. while thev do not form a
part of this specification,are ao closelyrelated io it thet ;heir contents
should be taken inta aCCOtCIt
In any applicationof this specification.

SPECIFIC&TIONS

MILITARY

HIL-C-5011 Charts; Stendard AircraftCharacteristicsand P&io&nce,


Piloted Aircraft
MIL-M-7700 Iienual,F1iaht
MIL-A-B860 AirplaneStrengthand Rigidity~ Gener$l ‘Specification for
UIL-A-8871 AirplaneStrengthand RigidityFlight.~d. Grpund OperationsTeet
?41L-G-38U78 General Requirementsfor Angl@-of-Attack-BaeedSystems

STANDARD

HILITAflY

MIL-STO-882 Syatems Sefety Prcsrem for Systems and AeeociatedSubsystemsand


Equipent: Requirementfor

PUBLICATIONS

AFSC 0eei3n Handbooks

DH 1-0 General
DH 2-O AeronauticalSy9tema”

AFFDL TechnicalRepcrt

TR 69-72 SackqroundInformationand User Guide for iiIL-P-S7S5B,


Military
Specification- Flying Qualitiesof Piloted Airplanee,Auquet
1969

6.9 ~. Asterisksare “notused in this raviaion to identify


changes with respect to the previcusissue due to the extensivenessof the
chaneea.

CuatodIan:?: PraparingActivity:
Army - Av Air Force - 11
NnvY - AS
Alr furce - 11 Project 15GP-0030

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!KL-F-8?85C

NuMERICALINDEX

Pa.e

1. SCOPE . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ...-.1
1.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Classlficar,ionOr airplanes . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.3.1 Land- or carrier-baseddesignation . . . . . . . ~
1’ 1.4
1.5
FllRht Phase Categories . . . . . .
Lev& of flying i!ualities. . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
- 2 - 3
. 4

2. APPLICABLEDOCUH!MTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h
2.1 ksuesofdeoteaents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h

3. RETIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 5
3.1 General.requirements . . . . . . . . . . . - . . 5
3.1.1 Operationalmissions . . . . . . . . . . . - . . 5
3.1.2 Loadings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3 14amentsand productsof inertia . . . . . . . . - ;
3.1.4 External stores.... . . . . . . . . . . . . - 5
3.1.5 Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
I 5
3.1.6 State of the airplane.. . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.6.1 Airplane Nomal Statea . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.6.2 Airplane Failure States . . . . . . . . . . - . . :
3.1.6.2.1 AirplaneSpeoial Failure Statea . . . . . . . . .
3.1.7 OperationalFlight Envelopes . . . . . . - . - - :
3.1.8 Service Flight Envelopes . . . . . . . . . - - -
3.1.8.1 Pfaximumservice apeed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;
;.1.8.2 Uinimum service speed.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.1.8.3 Maximum servioa altitude . . . . . . . --- . . . 8
1’ 3.1.8.4 Service load factors . . . . . . . . . . . ..- 8
8
3.1.9 Pemiasible Flight EIIVelOWS . . . . . . . . - .
3.1.10 Applicationof Levels . . . . . . . . . . - . . .
3.1.10.1 .Requirements for AirplaneHormal Stetea . . . . . :
3.1.10.2 Requirementsfor AirplaneFailure States . . . . 9
I 3.1.10.2.1 Requirementsfor apeoifio failurea . . . . . . - 10
. 3.1.10.3 Exceptions . . . . . . . . . . . ..”...... 10
3.1.10.3.1 Orouod operation and terminalFlight Phaaes . . . 10
3.1.10.3.2 ifhenLevels are not specified. . . . . . - . . . 10
3.1.10.3.3 Flight outside the Servioe Flight Bnvelope . . . 10
3.1.11 Interpretationof aubjeotiverequirement . . . 10
3.1.12 Interpretationof quantl tetive requirements. . . 10
3.2 .Longitudinal flying qualities. . . . . . . . . . 11
3.2.1 Longitudinalstabilitywith
respect to speed . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.2.1.1 Longitudinalstatic stability . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.2.1.1.1 Ftelaxation,in”tranaonicflight . . . . . . . . . 11
3.2.1.1.2 Pitch control force variations ..
durin% rapid Soeed changes . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.2.1.2 PhugOld stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

‘ r“ 3.2.1.3 Flight-pathstability . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 12
3.2.2 Longitudinalmaneuveringcharaoterlatics . . . . 13

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I NUMERICALINDEX (Continued
)

‘.

3.2.2.1 Short-periodresponee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2.2.1.1 Short-periodfrequency and
acceleration 9&sitiiity . . . . . .:. . . . . . 13
3.2.2.1.2 Short-nerioddamping . .. . . : . . .. . . . . . . . 13
3.2.2.1.3 Residualoscillations. ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2.2.2 Cmntrol feeland Stabilityin
❑aneuveringflightat .oWstamt speed .“. . . . . 13
3.2.2.2.1 Control forcesin memeuveringflight “. . . . . . 17
3.2.2.2.2 Control ❑otions in maneuveringflisht . . . . . . 17
3.2.2.3 Longitudinalpilot-inducedOscllla’tibhs . . . . . 17
I 3.2.2.3.1 Dynamic control forces tn memeuverine
I flight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..”17
,,. 3.2.2.3.2 Control feel . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ...19
3.2.3 Longitudinalcontrol . . . - . . .... : . . . . . 19
3.2.3.1 Longitudinalcontrol in unaccelerated
flight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...19
3.2.3.2 Longitudinalcontrol in !naneuverlnq :
flight . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..: . . ...19
3.2.3.3 Longitudinalcontrnl in takeoff . . .... . . . . . 19 - 20
I 3.2.3.3.1
3.2.3.3.2
Longitudinalcontrol in oatepult~keoff . . . . 20
Longitudinalcontrol foroe and travel
int..akeoff. . . . . . . . . . . . ..’ . . ...20
3.2.3.4 Longitudinalcontrol in landing . .. : . . . . . . 20
3.2.3.4.1 Longitudinalcontrol forces in lantiing . . . . . 21 ‘-
Longitudinalcontrol foroea in dives
I i. 3.2.3.5
- Service Flight Envelope . . . : . : . . . . . 21
3.2.3.6 Lonqitudinal control fomea in divea
I 3.2.3.7
- PermissibleFlight Envelope . . : : . . . . . 21
Longitudinalcontrol in sideslips. . . . . . . . 21
3.3 Laterel-directional flying”qualities : . . . . . 21
I 3.3.1 Lateral-directional mode characteriatioe . . . . 21
3.3.1.1 Lateral-directional oscillations(Outch
roll) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...21-22
3.3.1.2 Roll mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . .23
3.3.1.3 Spiral stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...23
3.3.1.U Couplod roll-spiraloscillation. . . .. . . . . . 23
3.3.? i,ateral-directicmaldyna~ic respnnee
characteristioe. . . . . . . . . . . . . ...23
3.3.2.1 Lateral-directional responseto
atmosphericdisturbances. . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.3.2.2 Roll rate oacillationa . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.3.2.2.1 Additionelrmll rate requirement
for small inputa . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.3.2.3 Bank angle oscillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
I 3.3.2.U Sideelip excursions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

d
I
I
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NUMERICALINDEX (Continued)

eam

3.3.2.4.1 AddltlOna’1sldesllprequirement
forrxna~~inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . ...26
3.3.2.5 Control of aideslip in rolls . . . . . . . . . . ~~
3.3.2.6 Turn coordination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I 3.3.3 Pilot-inducedoscillations . . . . . - - - - - . 26
3.3.4 RO1l control effectiveness . . . . . . . . . . . 26 - 27
I 3.3.4.1 Roll performancefor Class IV airplanes . - . . . 27
3.3.4.1.1 Roll performancein Fliqht Phase CO . . . . . . . 28
3.3.4.1.2 Roll performancein Flisht Phase GA . . . . - . - ~~
3.3.4.1.3 Roll response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.4.2 Roll performancefor Class III airplenes . . . . 30
3.3.4.3 Roll control forcea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~1
3.3.4.4 Linearityof roll response . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.3.4.5 Uheel control throw.. . . . . . . . . . . . . -31
3.3.5 Direotional centrol characteristics. . . . . - . 31
3.3.5.1 Directionalcontrol with speed change . . . . . . 31 - 32
3.3.5.1.1 Directionalcontrol with asymmetricloadins . . . 32
3.3.5.2 Directionalcontrol in wave-off (go-around)- . . 32
3.3.6. Leteral-direct ional characteristics
int!teadyslde?liPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.3.6.1 Yawing momente in etaady aiaealips . . . . . , - 32
3.3.6.2 side forces in steady eideslips . . . . . . . . . 32
3.3.6.3 Rollingmoments in steady eideslips. . . . . . . 33
3.3.6.3.1 Exceptionfor wave-off (go--~d) . . . . . . . 33
3.3.6.3.2 Positiveeffectivedihedral ltiit . . . . . . . . 33
3.3.7 Lateral-directional control in ormaswinds . . . . 33

1’ 3.3.7.1
3.3.7.2
Final approach in cro~swinda . . . . . - . . . - 33
Takeoff run and landing. rollout in
crosswinds. . . . ...”.. . . . .-.....34
3.3.7.2.1 Cold- and wet-weatheroperation . . . . . . . - . 34
3.3.7.2.2 Cerrier4aaed airplanes . . . . . . . . . - - - . 34

1 i.
“.
3.3.7.3
3.3.8
3.3.9
Taxiing wind awed limits . . . . . . . . . . . - 3&
Lateral-directional oontrol in dives. . . . . . . 34
Lateral-directionalcontrolwith
asymmetriotcrust.... . . . . . . . . . ..3$
.. 3.3.9.1 Thrust lees during tekeoffrm . . . . . - . . . 34 - 35
3.3.9.2 Thruatloss after tikeoff . . . . . . .“. . - . - 35
3.3.9.3 Transienteffeota . . . . . . - . . . . . . ...35
3.3.9.4 Asymmetricthrust - yaw oontrols frae . . . . . . 35
;.:.9.5 Two engines inoperative. . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Hiacellaneouaflying qualitiee . . . . . . . . . 35
3:4.1 Dangerousfliuht conditions. . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.4.1.1 !darninqand indication .’. . . . . . . . . . . . 35 - 36
3.4.1.2 Devices for indication,warnins,
prevention,recovery . 1 . . . i . . . . . . . . 36
3.4.2 flight at high an%le Of attack . . . . . . . . . 36
3.0.2.1 Stalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.4.2.1.1 Stall approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...36
3.4.2.1.1.1 ~arnin.q speed for Stalls at 1S no~al
tothe flight path..-.. . . - . - . . ...36-37

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NUN2R1CAL INDEX (Continued)

..
EAsa

3.4.2.1.1.2 warningrange for acceleratedatalle . . . . . . 37


I 3.4.2.1.2
3.4.2.1.3
Stall characterietlos . . . : . . . . . . .
Stall preventionend recovery. . . . . . . .
.
.
. 37
. 37
3.4.2.1.3.1 One-eneine-outstalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
I 3.4.2.2 Post-gtallgyrationsand apina i . . . . . . . . 38
3.4.2.2.1 Denarturefrem controlledfli~ht . . . . . . . . 38
3.4.2.2.2 Re~overyfrom post-stallgyra~ionaand spins . . 38-- 39
3.3.3 CrOss-aXi9couplins in roll maneuvers . . . . . . 39
3.4.4 Control harmony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.4.4.1 control force ceordlnation . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.4.5 Buffet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.4.6 Release ofstoree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.h.7 Effecte of armament delivery and
spaeial equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.Q.8 Transients followingfailures . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.4.9 Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.4.10 Controlm.ar~in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.U.11 Direct foroe oontrols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.5 Characte.ristiosof the primary flight
a0ntr018yatem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ho
3.5.1 General characteristics. . . . . . . . . . 1 . . 40
3.5.2 Mechanicalcharaoteristica . . . . . . . . . . . 40 .
I 3.5.2.1
3.5.2.2
Controloenteringand breakoutforces . . . ...
Coakpitcontrol free play . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
41
41 L ‘:
3.5.2.3 Rate of control dieplaoement . . . . . . . . . . 41
I 3.5.2.4 Adjustablecontrols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.5.3 Dynamic charaotaristiaa. . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.5.3.1 Damping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
I 3.5.4
3.5,5
Augmentationsysteme . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
42
42
3.5,5.1 Failure treneienta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
I ;.5.5.2
3.5.6
Trim changeadue to failurae . . . . . . . . .
TranWer to alternatecontrol modes . . . . . .
.
.
43
113
3.5.6.1 Tranerertreneientci... . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 “
I j.;.6.2 Trim changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
. Characteristicsof secondaryaontrol systeme . . 44
3.6.1 Trim system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
I 3.6.1.1 Trim for aagmmatricthrust . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.1.2 Rate of trim operation. . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6,1.3 Stallingoftrimaystem . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I 3.6.1.4 Trim system irreveraibllity. . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.2 Speed and flight-pathcontroldevioaa . . . . . .
3.6.3 Transientsand trim ohanges ~ ., . . . . . . . . .
I 3.6.3.1 Pitch trim changea . . . . . ... . . . . . . . .
3.6.11 Auxiliarydive recoyerydevioea . . . . . . . . .
3.7 Atmosphericdisturbances . . . . . . .,. . . . .
I 3.7,1 Form of the disturbancemedels. . . . . . . . . .

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( NUMERICALINDEX (tintinued)
p
had

3.7.1.1 Turbulencemodel (von K=IWIIMfOMI) . . . . . . . ~J


3.7.1.2 Turbulence model (DrYden fo~) . . . . . . s . .
3.7.1.3 Dlacrete gu*t model . . . . . . .. s...+.” 86
, 3.1.2
3.7.2.1
Uadium/hisb-altitudemodel . . . . . . . - . . . ‘S
Turbulencescale lengths . . . . . . - . . . . . ~~
3.7.2.2 Turbulenceintensities . . . . . . . . - . . . -
. 3.7.2.3
3.7.2.U
Gust lengths .’........ .----
Gust magnitudea . . . . . . . .-. ..----
”’””46
”485~51
3.7.3 W-altitude distur~nce mOdel . . . . . . . . .
3.7.3.1 Uindspe.3Ls . . . . . ..-. . . ..-. ---”51
3.7.3.2 Uind sheer . . . . . . . . . . . . ----...51
3.7.3.3 Vector shear . . . . . . . . . . . ..-.-..53
3.7.3.4 Turbulent @ . . . . . . . . . . . .-.....53
3.7.3.5 Caste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...-53
3.7.b Carrier landing disturbance model . . - . . . . . 53
3.7.4.1 Free-air turbulence CIXWnentE . . . . . . . . . 54
3.7.4.2 Steady component of carrier alfi~e . . . . . . . SQ
3.7.4.3 Periodic component of aarrier airwake . . . . , . 54
3.7.4.4 Randau oceu~nent of carrier alrwake . . . . . , . se
3.7.5 Applicationof the dlsturbenee
mdell.n malyses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 & 6D
3.8 Requirementsfor uee of the dlsturMnce models . 60
/ “ 3.8.1 Uaa of disturbancemodele . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.8.2 Qualitativedegrees of suitability . . . . . . . 60 - 61
3.8,3 Effectsor atmosphericdiaturmnaes . . . . . . . 6~
i Requirementsfor AirplaneNomaal Statea . . . . . 61
3.8.3.1
3.8.3.2 Requirement for AirplaneFailureS~tes . . . . 61 - 62
4. QUALITY ASSURANCE ...:.... -.......6363
4.1 ccinplianc+demmstration . . . , . . . . . . . . 62
U.1.l Analyticalcompliance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
4.1.1.1 Effects of Failure States . . . . , . . . . . . . 63
U.I.I.2 Effects of n-spheric disturbances. . . . . . . 64
; 4.1.1.3
4.1.2
cuaputational.ea.mmptiom. . . . . - . . . . . . 64
Simulation . . . . . . . . . . .-.......~
U.1.3 Flight test demo~trattin . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 4.2 AirplaneStatae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...65
ti.2.l wei~ts SIXImeaents of ioertia . . . . . . . . . 65
4.2.2 Center-ef+ravlty rueitione . . . . . . . . . . .
4,2.3 Itruatse
otiose.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %
4.3 ~eigo and teat aonditiOna . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4.3.1 Altitudes
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...65
4.3.2 switiconditio ~...... ...,..-..~~
4.4 Teats at specializedfacihitlae. . . . . . . . .

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I
NUK2RICAL INDEX (Continued)

I
..
Rn2A

5. PNSPARATIONFOR DELtiERY . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
5.1 Hotapplioable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...71

6. NOTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...71
Intendeduse . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . ...71
::: Definitions. ...’..... .: . . . . . ...71
6.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...71-72
6.2.2 Speed s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...72-74
I 6.2.3
6.2. t!
Tbrust and power . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...74
Control parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74-75
6.2.5 Longitudinal parametera . . . . . . . . . . ...75-77
6.2.6 ~teral-directional perametere. ~, . . . . .7~, 78, 81. 82
Atmospheric disturbance Pkmaeteqt . . . . . . . 83 - 84
Term used in high angle of hktaok
requireuenta. . . . . . . ..: . . . . . ...84
Interpretationof Pa/n limftk 0? table V . . . 84
Cain eoheduling ...,... . . . . . . . ...85
Snslne’eonsideratione . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
6.b Effeota ef aereelaaticlty, control
equipmentand structural dynamioi . . . . . . . 85
I I
6.7
6.7.1
Applicationof Levele . . . . . . .
L%vel definitiona . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. . .
...85
85

6.8 Relataddocumanta . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...86 L


6.9
I Karginel indioia . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...86

II TABLES

TABLE I OperationalFlight Envelop6a . . . . . . . . . .


11 Levels for Airplane Normal States . . . . . . . . :
III L@Sls for Airplane FailureStatea . . . . . . . 10
xv Shert-paricddamping ratln limits . . . . . .~. . 13
v Pitch maneuveringforoe gradient limits . . . . . 18
! VI Minimum Dutch roll frequencyarxidampl;~ . . . . 22
VII 14aximumrolloede time oonatant,aacenda . . . . 23
I VIII Spiral etebility-minimamtime ta
double amplitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...23
1; Xxe Roll psrformanesfor,‘ClaseI aod IX
airplane. .”..... . . . . . . . . . ...27
IXb Roll Wrfonnanee for Claae IV airplanes . . .. . 28
Ixc Flight phase CD rell perfomanae
in36W rolls . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 29
IXd Flight phaee CQ roll perfomanoe . . . . . . . . 29
IXe Flight phase GA roll parfomanoe . . . . . . . .
I IXf Class III roll.performance . . . . . . . . . . . :

I 1

,;
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1 (p INDEX (Continued)
NU#9ZRICAL

TASLE X Naximumroll oontrol force . . . . . . . . . . . - 31


xx &egswifi velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..~~
1: XII Allowablebreakout forces, potids . . . . . . . .
XIII Ulowable control surfa~ lass. . . . . . - . . . ‘2
XIV Allowableairplane -smae delay . . . . . . , . ‘2
xv Pit& trim chenga oonditiOw . . . . . . . . . . ~~
XVI Levels for AirDlaneNamal Statee . . . . . . . .
XVII Levele for Airilane Failure Staten . . . - . . . @
XVIII Design and test conditionguidelines . . . . . . 66 - 69
XIX AirplaneNormal StataS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

FIGURES

FIGURE 1 Short-periodfrequencyrequiremante
- CategoryA Flight PhasctI. . . . . . . . . . . 14
2 Short-periodfrequencyrequi.remnta
CategoryB Flight Pbasea . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3 Short-periodfrequencyrequlremanta
CategoryC Flight Phases . . . . . . . . . . . 16
ions . . . .
Roll rate osclllation 11.mltat . . . . 25
Sank angle oaoillation liuitat10IIS . . . . . . . 25
SideSlipexcursion Iimitatiow . . . . . . . . . 26
turbulenceexceedanceprobability. . . . . . . . 49
nagnitudeof discreteguate . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Probabilityof exceediogmean wind
speelat 20 feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
10 Lew-altitudeturbulenceintegralaCalee . . . . . 55
11 NoriznntalturbulenceRUS intensities. . . - . . 56
12 CVA chip burble steady wind ratioa . . . . . . . 57
13 U-ecmWnent burble time oonetant
“end variance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
14 Roll-8ideallP OWPliCIS pr=e~ro-
right rills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
,
15 Nell-sideslipCOU211iMSPa=eter-
left rolle.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
..
16 Srample of pltoh maneuveringform
gradient limits: oenter-stickcontroller
nL = 7.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

93
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