Phantom Transmissions: The Radio Broadcasts of Ezra Pound Author(s): Daniel Tiffany Source: SubStance, Vol. 19, No.

1, Issue 61: Special Issue: Voice-Over: On Technology (1990), pp. 53-74 Published by: University of Wisconsin Press Stable URL: Accessed: 11/08/2010 07:10
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Phantom Transmissions: The Radio Broadcasts of Ezra Pound

I go my way with theassurance a somnambulist. of -From a radio speech of Adolph Hitler, March 14,1936 Words theliving eyesof secrecy. are -Velimir Khlebnikov Whoknowswhatevil lurksin theheartsof men? TheShadow knows. -From a popular radio programof the 1930's A whiteskullin thesandSINGS withouttiring,it sings andsings: "Allemein! Allemein! Wewill return!" -Translated from the Italianof Pound's Canto 72

Demon Pantechnicon


Two years before he died, Ezra Pound added a brief "Foreword" to the 1970 edition of his memoir of the sculptor, Gaudier-Brzeska. His final assessment of the memoir, which was originally published in 1916, is almost apologetic in tone: "it falls into place as a footnote on what was visible to one spectator in 1913 and 14"-a "footnote" to an era he once called "the romantic period of my life" (RB 245). That Pound describes the memoir as the work of a "spectator" is a modest claim, indeed, for a work whose polemical vigor often disturbs the task of mourning. The unassuming yet anomalous presence of this stranger, who appears for the first time in the appended Foreword, alerts the reader to a silent breach, a schism, in the one who remembers the dead. According to the views which Pound held during the time he compiled the materials for the memoir, the passive figure of the spectator would be harshly judged as a relic of antiquated poetic values, a counter-

SubStanceN? 61, 1990


but the Pound of 1970:an observer of the distant past. after all. Pound's use of the radio should be understood as a media seancewith the dead. a blind spot in the purview of the "spectator.54 Daniel DanielTiffany Tiffany part to the "sensitive" poet who is susceptible to ghosts. Pound calls the to memoir "a footnote on what was visible. These phantom transmissions must therefore be understood as effects of an unmournable death: not only the loss of Gaudier.2 In the radio broadcasts. A footnote "falls into place" beneath a mound of words as a cadaver falls away from itself into resemblance (Latincadere. intercepts. a final. Ultimately. a dwelling place for Gaudier's restless phantom. Amplified by textual and biographical coincidence. are haunted by a passive regime of spectatorship and spiritualism. from the vantage point of the "spectator. and because the remoteness of one voice from the other is essential to their proximity. which Pound views as extensions of the artist's hyper-sensitive faculties. the "spectator" referred to by Pound is not himself as he was in 1913. and the doctrine of the Image which it enunciates. the memoir is a crypt of another sort: a place that holds what must be sequestered from discourse. Because the link between Gaudier's crypt and the radio broadcasts is not strictly one of influence. The belated Foreword to this book of mourning. Swayed by the "tribalmagic" of radio. the submerged pattern of mourning which disfigures the memoir is projected into the technical media (principally the radio). devastating episode in the history of Imagism. so to speak. a literary crypt."It is a footnote that anchors." The memoir is. the origin of certain unwelcome transmissions. the underworld of a text. these transmissions eventually intercept the Fascist radio broadcasts made by Pound during World War II. so easily overlooked. a militant figure in the artistic developments of the period. who installs the passive figure of the spectator in a final attempt to appease the vengeful ghosts of Gaudier's crypt. but only in retrospect. fall). the memoir. Pound automatically "translates"the signals emanating from Gaudier's crypt-a footnote broadcasting the garbled "text"to which it will one day be appended. The memoir is thus a footnote to an era that can only be recognized posthumously. it may be useful to say a few words . but the final interment of the Image as corpse and phantom. and eventually betrays a missing "text". Yet. as a footnote to a missing text." a garbled missive from the grave that falls outside the picture. Hence the Image lying in Gaudier's crypt looms as a vengeful ghost in the radio broadcasts. Clearly.a footnote to a catastrophe that has not yet occurred. a man on the brink of his own grave. Thus even as late as 1970. is a Vor-text of passivity that threatens to engulf the defiant voices of its narrator and its subject.

"In undertaking this book I am doing what little I can to carry out his desire" (GB 19). as well as to various phantasmic relations in Pound's family history. that is to say phantasmic. The atrocious enthusiasm of Pound's views on race and economics. It takes away from the masses numbersupon numbersof unimportant activities becomenoxious.whoseeconomic haveshownus (GB27). This "undertaking" culminates in the radio broadcasts. where Pound mistakes his own desire for that of Gaudier. the phantom who wreaks vengeance on Pound through the broadcasts is reluctant to identify itself. "Such a debt. Not surprisingly. the identity of the phantom exceeds that of Gaudier alone. the phantom that disfigures Pound's voice in the radio broadcasts can be understood as a source of speech. The broadcasts are the catastrophic end to a period of aberrant mourning that coincides with the spell exerted by the Image over Pound's poetry and thought. for example. as we shall discover. rising to a question that is nothing more . since his words are constrained by his debt to a legendary. pride. its disruptive presence can be detected in the panoply of bizarre voices. figure whose premature death in World War I shocked and saddened the London avant-garde. who can be traced in turn to a figure of the the recenttradecrises units. In theindividual killsarrogance. Will Smith.3 While the phantom's identity remains ambiguous. might be heard as an imitation of youth. "always falls due to a figure whose loss is as deeply desired as it is regretted" (4-5). Pound's debt arises." according to Avital Ronell. the words of the phantom surface unexpectedly. and the vicious accusations repeated obsessively in the broadcasts. For Gaudier is already a displacement of an earlier figure. a cache of real words. it self-esteem.Phantom Transmissions 55 about the unorthodox channels which sustain my reading of the radio speeches. vengefully conceived and later summoned by the "medium" of radio to fulfill their vengeful task. from a death wish that inadvertently comes true. Although it is Gaudier's crypt that transmits the interference translated by Pound. Remembering his friend. a re-play that is also a disfiguring. Authorized by twenty years of silence. Pound writes. In certain limited respects. the incoherence. Nor is Pound's own account of his relation to the phantom any more revealing. an attempt to master Gaudier's "Vortex"("written from the trenches": Thiswaris a greatremedy.

Roosevelt is no more than a zombie. Faced . for example. the technology of the radio speeches (which were recorded in batches of four or five at a sitting) establishes the idea of a posthumous voice. so that it might rise from the grave of the Image." he declares. Elsewhere. Although Pound would not admit to external controls operating within himself. haunted not only by the ravenous ghost of the young sculptor. Pound warns his audience of dangers that have a special bearing on his own internal predicament: "Can you MEET one another? Your air isn't free. but by the specter of mass death rising from the battlefields of World War I.. Recording technology allowed Pound to lay his own voice-or that of a phantom-to rest. an automaton manipulated by forces beyond his control. is not words actually spoken by the "the dead. and by reconstructing the submerged relation between the Image. that is.. he is continually alert to what he calls "the history of secret controls" (RB326). he declared to the Foreign Minister of the Sal6 government that his broadcasts were "guided by an interior light" (Carpenter 632). "Roosevelt. Open organizations have been 'put inside'. Aside from the question of whether Gaudier's influence is real or virtual. and the phantom in Pound's poetics. according to Pound. according to Nicolas Abraham.. What haunts Pound. can only be recovered from the "ambient air" by coincidence. however. the trail disappears. During the broadcasts. by and large.. but "the gaps left within us by the secrets of others" (287). "is MOVED by others. by circumstantial evidence.56 56 Daniel Tiffany~~~~~~ Tiffany than a lure for ghosts. but by words the dead never dared to utter.. The inscrutable link between one place of hiding and another. a question so simple that Pound cannot answer it alone: 'Well. Beyond this rudimentary observation. both public and private. Pound is forced to speak for the dead. is not. In spite of the paucity of direct evidence. they point to a gap. and does not act propriomotu" (RB 94). why pick on the Jew? I have heard the term 'Jewish impertinence. the pressure exerted by the phantom in the radio broadcasts is unmistakable. between transmitter and receiver.Nothing but SECRETorganization" (RB68). At the other end of the line is Gaudier's crypt.. do not refer to a source of speech . The radio speeches are haunted by the unspeakable: not only by views and opinions that are unforgivable among the living. The correspondence between Gaudier's crypt and the radio broadcasts may be said to originate in a common awareness of death. therefore. however. technology. the unspeakable" ("Phantom"290).' in fact Gaudier-Brzeska used to use it" (RB 53). Gaudier's actual words. Instead. exerted over himself and others. The source of this pressure. but the unspeakable: words which the phantom uses to carry out its return .

Generally. The Imagist movement. following the example of his early crypt poems."5Indeed." meaning to "transport" spiritually: "to convey or remove from one condition or place to another. materiality. of course. is to "bring a dead man to life" (L 149). Yeats.6 . More specifically. when one aims to exceed Freud's own calculations. where the poet upholds the prohibition against passively receiving the Image in the guise of a phantom. action and passivity. Like a somnambulist. even as he assumes the place of the phantom (the one who does the talking. B.Phantom Transmissions 57 with a similar problem of absent witnesses.4 The tensions inherent in the concept of magical realism culminate in the radio broadcasts. Avital Ronell makes the following observation about her cryptological analysis of Goethe and Freud: "Any gamble on a type of intertextuality that would deal with telepathic channels involves a risk. or susceptibility to the pleasures of the grave: ghosts. science and mimetic enchantment. "of course. Dictation and Oblivion The aim of the translator. Pound would have been familiar with this usage from his association with W." is that one's investigation may prove to be interminable: "the calculation which takes into account some apparent coincidences in order to unmask them might turn out to be inexhaustible" (5). The risk. implicitly." sprang from a desire to eliminate the risks of uncertainty and excess. for example. This view of translation subscribes. Pound associates these dangers with passivity. to an archaic usage of the verb "to translate. the calculation at which one arrives could amount to a seemingly extravagant reliance on coincidence and chance" (5). for example. the German Fascist ideologue). allow the poet to yield to the enchantment of the grave without abandoning the principles of Imagism. His translations from the Noh theater. and from his wife Dorothy's interest in spiritualism. his poetry frequently manages to circumvent these prohibitions without actually violating them. In spite of the powerful taboos against such dangers enunciated by Pound in the name of the Image. Under these circumstances the Image becomes an emblem of what I will call "magical realism" (borrowing a phrase from Ernst Jiinger. sentiment. "of course. Pound's theory of translation may owe something explicitly to spiritualist doctrines that commonly use the verb "to translate" in this fashion. "to resurrect the damaged shade of the author" (SR 182). the poet speaking over the air walks a tightrope between technology and unreason. who gives dictation instead of receiving it). according to Pound.

yet which comes forward in translation.. whose theory of language has been compared to Pound's. subject to a voice from the "distant shore. In addition. she notes. a means of thinking.7The translator's destination is a "distant shore" of meaning-the place of death-yet he can only reach his destination "by questioning from within the matter"(43). "this writing takes as its point of departure the remoteness of the original author. reductive system of lexicography. in fact. There is. from a distant shore. The translation or "transport"of meaning is undertaken by means of "dictation. the fact that the appropriate meaning is "dictated"suggests that translation is part of a larger command structure. "one discerns the playing out of a struggle and a shattering effect that disfigures at once the origin and the copy" (xvi). the mode of dictation stands in contrast to a "preoccupation ." with the calculating. Further. Indeed. Evoking the "experience of Being's oblivion." Heidegger surely intends to convey the idea of forgetfulness: the source of dictation lies in what is long forgotten.." What does Heidegger mean by "dictation" in this context? To begin with. Thus to attain the place where language and death intersect. or controlling thought. it is unfathomable. or being transported by words to the place of the dead. the translator must remain behind.. nor is he alone in holding such a view. . than the definitions offered by a dictionary. Yet the source of authority-oblivion-is not only remote. Heidegger. The word 'usage' is dictatedto thinking in the experience of Being's oblivion [my emphasis]" (54). for example. the incalculable distance of the one who dictates. What is received through dictation therefore discloses a meaning that is at once less rigorous. with dictionary meanings.58 58 Daniel DanielTiffany Tiffany~~~~~~ The idea that translation entails transporting a dead man into the present." Heidegger explains the manner in which one word "speaks for" another: "The translation of /i~/3." the word also points to a catastrophic loss that is sequestered in time."yet a form of dictation whose source is "oblivion. but somehow more authoritative.. By "oblivion. ineluctable. no choice in the matter: the word received is absolute. as 'usage' has not resulted from a preoccupation with etymologies and dictionary meanings . The resulting texts are bound to assume the function of a double" (xvi). Avital Ronell's theory of "haunted writing" reiterates the essential features of Heidegger's understanding of translation as dictation received from oblivion. says of translation: "we let ourselves be transported by the poet to the distant shore of the matter spoken here" (32). Ronell's idea of "dictation"accounts for "the writing couple whose sustained encounter takes place on the grounds of a catastrophe" (xv). the place of the other. does not originate with Pound.

9The loss of Gaudier should therefore be understood as an erotic casualty that marks the origin of Pound's political extremism. is precisely what enables authentic translation and the transport of the soul. to be simply a biographical or psychological formation. may appear. reveals the interdependence of Pound's belated mourning for Gaudier and his fascination with the Image. and the poet who sends him to a missing grave. however. that discloses the erotic. which he originally conceived as a means of legitimating or disguising his unnatural affection for the dead in his early poetry. The link between Pound's submerged erotic life (his love for the dead. we should have no trouble identifying the catastrophic basis of the "writing couple. display the "shattering effect.Phantom Transmissions 59 Pound's radio speeches. the radio couple. he did acknowledge. that is. The specter of mass death rising from the battlefields of World War I (not to mention Gaudier's descriptions of the physical carnage) would certainly provide a threshold adequate to the devastation that occurs between the beloved. from oblivion." or. and economic grounds of the catastrophe. like Ronell's examples of haunted writing. Both are distorted nearly beyond recognition in the course of their extended encounter in the subliminal echo chamber of radio. as garbled transmissions from Gaudier's crypt. which culminates in the hysteria of the radio broadcasts. It is Gaudier's individual death. A closer look. becomes a "savage messiah" that takes possession of Pound's voice over the air. an apparition of the unborn. the inhabitant of Gaudier's crypt. however." If we are correct in viewing the radio broadcasts as a "translation"of Gaudier's phantom. Although Pound often failed to recognize the phantasmic consequences of Gaudier's death. a dead sculptor. This mutilation of "character"(both linguistic and psychological). and although one may detect the signature of Pound's voice in the broadcasts. that it marked a turning point in his career. The experience of being haunted by the inhabitants of Gaudier's missing grave. Pound's radio speeches must therefore be understood as "translations" in a Heideggerian sense. years later. Thus. at first glance. political. however. The improbable origin of these transmissions-Gaudier's crypt-confirms Ronell's insistence on "the incalculable distance of the one who dictates." or disfiguration of original and copy. Gaudier is not . Pound's belated mourning for Gaudier (which is recorded in the memoir) should be viewed as a vivid and perilous staging of the poetics of Imagism. as instances of haunted writing.8 Although Gaudier bears a distant resemblance to the legend that flourished after his death. Under the pressure of dictation. which extends to Gaudier) and his politics is supplied by the figure of Image. in this case. the effect of dictation on both figures is grotesque.

Just as the proximity of the dead originally forced Pound to abandon the verbal excess of his early poetry in favor of the Image. but Pound's theory of images and "new organs" erupting from the surface of the body. The erotic. the translation of Gaudier's "damaged shade" into Pound's radio personality constitutes a revival of the Image in the context of Pound's idolatrous regard for fascism. both disorders are wresting with the same 'complex"' (254). mania is characterized "by high spirits. and the one in most need of explanation.60 Tiffany 60~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ DailTifn Daniel merely a source of inspiration or ideas about the Image.'? Freud's essay on mourning and melancholia helps to explain the puzzling relation between the resurgence of the Image. "the content of mania is no different from that of melancholia .. an exquisite corpse. that is. "Themost remarkablecharacteristicof melancholia [a condition associated with mourning]. and the demonic fulfillment of his racial and political doctrines in the radio speeches.12 In the context of his prolonged yet often submerged mourning for Gaudier. Freud observes. so the formal constraints of the ideogrammic method (the "totalitarian"Image) are transformed by the visitation of ghosts into the "acoustic mirror" of the radio broadcasts. mania discharges the bounded energy of mourning. or aesthetic energies tied up in repression of hostility or forbidden desires for the dead are suddenly released in the form of a vengeful ghost or imago. The OxfordEnglishDictionaryadds that mania is characterizedby delusions and intense hallucination." Mania is thus the flip side of melancholia. In contrast to the torpor and inactivity of melancholia. by succumbing to what Pound calls . by the signs of discharge of joyful emotion and by increased readiness for all kinds of action" (254). Pound's aberrant mourning. he also accomplishes the "final" interment of the Image in his poetics. Nevertheless. political. Triggered by an unknown mechanism. The fact that the Image returns to life as a disembodied voice alludes to the rivalry of verbal and visual values that gave rise to the figure of the Image in the first place. the recurrent activity of the phantom would represent an imagistic disturbance that is characteristic of mania. by what may be described as a dischargeof images. is its tendency to change round into mania-a state which is the opposite of it in its symptoms" (SE XIV:253). he becomesthe Image: a vengeful phantom. Pound's figure of the Image as a vortex also calls to mind the frenzied. boundless energy of mania. Freud writes.. Similarly. This recalls not only Freud's account of mania. that must be slain repeatedly.The survivor escapes persecution by assuming the place of the phantom. When Pound appears to relinquish his grief over the loss of Gaudier following World War I.

(Pound's middle name is Loomis. Elsewhere. The Spiritof Romance(published in 1910). and a microphone" (Carpenter 633). a process which later finds literary expression in his theory of translation. or is often as far from the aegrumvulgus as is the serious scientist."whose faculties are extended by the technical media. and occasionally signed his letters as "X-ray" (Stock 9). As a child. to a phantasmic relation with a dead relative. deceased relative. Pound was called "Ra" (pronounced "Ray") by his family. Desperate for access to the airwaves after the fall of Rome in 1943. for example. Pound exclaimed to the station manager of Salb Radio. Pound equated the work of the "serious artist" with Marconi's theory of radio waves: "The serious artist is usually. whose name he shares. radio communication would therefore be associated with a distant. Through pseudonyms and various theoretical channels. in his first book of criticism." which evokes his relation to his distant . The dead erupt therefore like images from the cryptic body of the one who remains behind. a chronology whose only justification may be that it coincides with the disappearance of the Image and Gaudier's memory from Pound's work.Phantom Transmissions 61 "the more difficult art in which we are half media and half creators" (P/S 76). throughout his career Pound liked to think that he maintained what can only be described as a telepathic relation to certain ancestors. without wires. Yet long before he had become "the Shadow" in his own radio drama. he describes the modern era as "the age of Marconi.14It is possible. His first published poem. a bowl of soup. embittered grief falls under a technological spell . preserver and destroyer of the unborn. His conception of the "mediumistic artist. In Pound's case. "Give me a bed. Nobody has heard of the abstract mathematicians who worked out the determinants that Marconi made use of in his computations for the wireless telegraph" (LE 47). In the mind of the young Pound. Pound claims that the civilization of the West is "by 1918 entering the radio phase" (GK 258). was published under the pseudonym "Weston Llewmys. in fact. Looking back on the period when this essay was written. to trace Pound's fascination with undetected beams or signals to a childhood nickname and.what Marshall McLuhan will later call the "tribalmagic" of radio (Media297). Pound established radio contact with the dead. the manic Image erupting from his stubborn."13 Pound's fascination with radio technology comes to light even earlier. Young Ezra's identification with a spirit beam capable of imaging hidden regions of the body may help to explain his memory of a story about an eccentric relation: "a sixteenth cousin named Loomis was said to have sent an 'electric signal' between ships.) Indeed. is based on the analogy of a radio set. ultimately. in the 1860's and was thought to be crazy" (Stock 2).

Loomis. they have an effect on consciousness. as an enthusiastic and perceptive reader of Pound's work. but "translates" his own identity into that of a phantom. from the past. he viewed the media not merely as instruments. as Pound claims. Ultimately. such as savages and wild animals have of the necessities and dangers of the forest. new vibrations sensible to faculties as yet ill-understood" (quoted in Nanny 26).15The fact that radio communication and madness are linked in the figure of his ancestor suggests an ominous relation to Pound's wartime activities. By "sejunct communication. The reference to psychology suggests that the "faculties as yet ill-understood" may be related to the Freudian Unconscious. but as new formations of consciousness: "We have several new media. whatever they are worth. to foster a conception of the mind as a radio receiver and transmitter: "Now that mechanical science has realized his [the artist's] ancient dream of flight and sejunct communication.62 DanielTiffany cousin by mutilating their common name. McLuhan began his career as a student of modem literature and. on the watch for new emotions."17If. Pound believed that the media. he writes "In our time the wireless telegraph has produced a new outbreak of ancient speculations" (GK 75)." Pound means telepathy. should be seen as a harbinger of the poet possessed by the spirit of radio. were capable of releasing certain energies. His earliest publica- . and radio in particular. it is to have a subtle and instantaneous perception of it. which is capable of tracking the "ancient speculations" issuing from the technical media. The similarity between Pound's ideas and McLuhan's is no mere coincidence."16The effect of the media on consciousness is to enhance its mediumistic properties. It is to be no less vital or alive than the savage. more importantly. or demons. then radio can be said to function as a hidden link between "civilization" and the primitive mind. The idea that radio is a "magical transformer" with the power "to retribalize mankind" is the centerpiece of Marshal McLuhan's eccentric yet widely influential theory of radio (Media 304). the media must be called upon to account for Pound's thoughts on the relation between high culture and the primitive mind: "To be civilized is to have swift apperception of the complicated life of today. Further. he is the advance guard of the psychologist. Just as Pound viewed his Grandfather Thaddeus as the daimon of his economic radicalism (Carpenter466). Thus Pound not only communicates with the dead through this pseudonym. a dream that is realized in the modern age by radio technology. modern consciousness is shaped by an influx of "ancient speculations" from the technical media. so the figure of his cousin. In an extremely suggestive phrase.

he writes. in a word. he wrote. "Printed word or drum telegraph are neither without bearing on the aggregate life of the folk. is therefore a "medium" that provides access to a lost dynasty. McLuhan holds similar views: "radio is a profound archaic force.Phantom Transmissions 63 63 tions. believed that he had captured the phantasmic effect of radio in the first thirty Cantos.) So substantial is this transference that McLuhan's thoughts about radio should be regarded as a ghostly rendering or amplification of Pound's own cryptic observations on the subject. as he sees it. which are characterized by a montage of voices. in turn. Both Pound and McLuhan think of radio as a technological effect of "tradition"-an ahistorical moment in which the past "awakens" in the present. This analogy. As language becomes the most powerful instrument of perfidy. a time bond with the most ancient past and long-forgotten experience" (Media301).'8 In EzraPound:Poeticsfor an ElectricAge." Headline Athenian on bill-board. In all probability. "Gorgias All knowledgeis builtup froma rainof factual atomssuchas: . McLuhan's favorite analogy for radio-the tribal drum-is borrowed from Pound. which seems to link technology and the perversion of language (as well as modernity and the primitive mind). appears again three years later in Guideto Kulchur: debunksthelogicalprocess. "I anticipated the damn thing [the radio] in first third of Cantos" (L 343). of radio's effect on the sense of "tradition" is deeply indebted to the integration of past and present that occurs in The Cantos:"Tradition. Pound. disclose the literary basis of his later theorizing about the media. In 1940. "radio neutralized nationalism but evoked archaic tribal ghosts of the most vigorous brand" (301). is the sense of the total past as now. to the elaborate protocols of the dead. McLuhan's understanding. Discussing the impact of technology on forms of consciousness. Further." The radio. "I desire to hear the music of a lost dynasty" (L 128). Max Nanny reveals the degree to which McLuhan's understanding of modern media consciousness is derived from Poundian concepts such as the ideogram. which attempt to link the work of writers such as Joyce and Pound to the effects of the modern technical media. who first mentions it in an article in 1934. It's awakening is a natural result of radio impact" (Media301).19(The ideogram is one of the figures that Pound employs to describe the Image. so language alone can riddle and cut through the meshes" (LE 77). When Pound writes in 1918. he anticipates his later assertion that the radio produces an "outbreak of ancient speculations.he writes. for example.

is an extension of the "drumming language" that fulfills the ancient dream of telepathy. Finally. This passage not only re-inscribes the figure of the "drum telegraph" in a political context. In this "ideogrammic" passage.20McLuhan carries the figure of the drum a step further by imagining radio as "a subliminal echo chamber of magical power to touch remote and forgotten chords" (Media302). In addition. Pound will claim that the modern incarnation of the tribal drum-radio--exerts a spell-binding control over the minds of its listeners. seizes upon the figure of the tribal drum to emphasize the relation between radio and primitive mentality. he claims. McLuhan's speculation discloses a link between radio and oblivion. and with the recovery of a forgotten culture. Yet he also gives this figure a specific political identity by linking the emergence of radio to the rise of fascism.ten miles from camp he remembers No for African feaston. No matter.Blackstartsdrumming. Later. he writes. Pound associates the "drum telegraph" (a precursor of radio) not only with primitive culture. the idea that radio elicits and broadcasts "subliminal echoes" further supports our attempt to locate a "remote" and improbable source for the phantasmic bearing of Pound's "on-air" personality. Frobenius forgetshis notebook. "They danced entranced to the tribal drum of the radio that extended their central nervous system" (298). . to evoke the "archaictribal ghosts" of our past. Culture (GK possessedandforgotten 98).Drum telegraph in worksand sketching materials arrive timeforthebeano. In the United States. Indeed. time Special to returnto camp.andno meansof sketching therecords. the reference to radio's "magical power" calls to mind the Fascist ideology of "magical realism.64 DanielTiffany Tiffany it. with the materiality of knowledge. following the example of Pound. Indeed. the "magical power" of radio derives precisely from its capacity to "touch" and to expose that which has been long forgotten. which accounts for the paratactic structure of this passage. McLuhan. First." and suggests that radio is the natural medium for a fetishized encounter with the dead. it calls to mind Pound's conception of the mediumistic artist whose senses are extended by the technical media. radio is to be blamed for "150 millyum peasants being turned into robots" (P/L 263). This passage reiterates and brings together a number of associations which have an important bearing on the crypt effects of Pound's radio broadcasts. He claims that the "tribal magic" of radio "began to resonate once more with the note of fascism" (Media297). the ideogrammic method. but with the demise of logic. Describing those who listened to Hitler's radio speeches.

and to hidden controls. According to Robert Casillo. Pound attempts to "vaccinate" himself against the "unconscious agents" flooding the airwaves. a small sized medium wave apparatus. like radio waves. so he describes "How far the evil is brought in by carriers. Although there is a trace of humor in this recollection. with those of infectious diseases. The only benefit to its listeners would be the development of "a faculty for picking the fake in the voices. Just as Pound remembers his first radio (the "devil box") being "planted" in his home by friends. Goddamn destructive and dispersive devil of an invention" (L 342). In doing so. precisely because it is "the ONLY medium still open for free (if you .Phantom Transmissions 65 While McLuhan's theorizing about radio is essentially a rationalized account of superstitious attitudes. describing his first impressions of radio: "Blasted friends left a goddam radio here yester. he repeats the story. Pound makes no effort to abstract or qualify his superstitious feelings about the new medium. He regarded the "devil box" as a cacophonous assortment of voices and music that was riddled with falsehood and delusions." a capacity to detect the lie or the secret intent of a familiar voice (L 343). the contamination spread through radio ("adispersive devil of an invention") is nothing more than a biological account of the phantasmic effects of radio. In the same letter. in one of the radio broadcasts. These superstitions are fully exposed in a letter of 1940. Pound links the "fake in the voices" to a network of "secret controls" and malevolent forces which infiltrate society (and Pound's own mind) through radio (RB 326). germs travel on the air and work their greatest effects on crowds" (296). In his radio speeches. like germs. are invisible and inclined to attach themselves to "unconscious agents. Pound is drawn to the medium of radio because "radio is the only free speech left" (RB 182). Pound calls the radio a "devil box" and compares it to a devouring serpent (L 342)." Indeed. Phantoms. that bring an Anschauung. evil voice of mendacity and needless excitement" (Carpenter 581). and then fled the village" (RB 236). Pound was entirely serious when he called radio in 1940 "the cold. poisonous as the germs of bubonic plague" (RB238). Several years later. Unconscious agents. Gift." a figure of the unborn whose ghost has not yet been laid to rest. Yet radio is subject to infection. attitude towards life. that is given me. "Pound compares the effects of the radio. in his time theinstrument of mass communication. emphasizing the memory of his first radio set as a mysterious gift "planted" in his home by friends with malevolent intent: "two friends determined to break down my antipathy to radio had planted. his own voice is subsumed by "the fake in the voices. By overcoming his antipathy to radio and joining the Babel of voices over the air.

The influence of aestheticism. is not the only danger faced by an "open" medium. is shrouded in uncertainty. The trail of secret controls also leads. Pound remembers. Pound suggests that there is an ominous link between his early infatuation with Decadence and the peril that faces Europe during the time of the broadcasts: "The aesthetic angle. Twenty-five. "You might remember that during my last broadcasts I was guided from within America" (RB 246).2 Rumor spreads irresistibly. uncontrollably. Possibly a little espionage. he informs his listeners. Looked diverting. who are seeking.66 DanielTiffany Tiffany call it free) communication with the outer world" (RB 281). yet he also asserts that radio has already fallen under the influence of an insidious power. is implicated in the history of secret controls. Pound's views reflect this contradiction: on the one hand. but to the rumored voices of ghosts from within. for example. because it thrives on secrecy and because it is steeped in fantasy. a contagion of speech that mimics the effects of the phantom in Pound's radio broadcasts. it is also vulnerable to dangerous forces from within. At any given moment. 27 years ago night life. that has a radio out by San Diego or somewhere" (RB 100). The unnamed race of "invaders" is the Jews. all LOOKINGharmless. The openness of radio provides access for a multiplicity of voices (it is a democratic medium). he describes the effect of "4 to 8 million invaders. yet it also makes it an easy target for manipulation. however. so HARMLESS" (RB 75). the "fake in the voices" originates in the most exotic-and improbable-locations. it turns out. that my whole generation grew up in. Indeed. like that of the phantom who plagues the radio broadcasts. in Pound's radio broadcasts it is impossible to distinguish between the phantasmic effects of rumor and the hidden forces that control and disrupt the speaker's voice. nobody wondered WHY?Ole Frida started the cave of the calf. probably . On another occasion. however. he extols radio's immunity from the "evil" forces that have infiltrated the medium of print. Pound believes. This hidden danger (whatever it is) extends to his involvement with the group of artists and writers that formed the basis of the Imagist and Vorticist movements. According to Pound. The threat of external control. nobody thought evil. In one speech. to gain control over the technical media: "All the means of intercommunication pass into the hands of the secret and largely Semitic control" (RB 172). the "free speech" of radio is liable to give way to what Laurence Rickels calls the "primal medium of rumor" (269). to an unlikely source in Pound's early career. all part of a widely distributed RACE. In an early broadcast. Thus the open medium of radio is vulnerable not only to hidden controls from without. 26. The source of a rumor. or night dance clubs started in London.

The authenticity of this story is undermined further when Pound claims that he had found the drawings in a suitcase in Genoa. can be traced back to the Cave of the Golden Calf. GaudierBrzeska. out a second in havin'been number 1915and thatendedit. which was about to find expression in the Imagist manifesto. cuttingaway. but with the "romance" of London-including Pound's acquaintance with Gaudier-Brzeska. an emblem of idolatry. and other members of the group. or Pound has transposed the details of an incident that may have occurred during World War I to his present circumstances in Italy. The reference to the figure of the golden calf. it does seem to be generally as to accepted meaninga signof something come. would have linked the memory in Pound's mind (perhaps only unconsciously) to his own infatuation with the Image. Indeed. Pound alludes to Gaudier's death and remembers rescuing his drawings from a bombed-out studio (an incident which Pound had never mentioned in any of his previous published writings). whenever Pound mentions Gaudier in the broadcasts we are sure to find evidence of historical disarray and garbled memories-evidence of the pressure exerted by the phantom. as he reveals in a comment about the magazine BLAST: And the magazineor manifesto was in its way a harbinger. London's first avantgarde night club. it was decorated with murals by Wyndham Lewis. a cryptic place that is associated not only with "night life" and the Image. Gaudier-Brzeska sculptor the killedin the interim(RB107). and in hat tal spiritof England's Just MayDay.Phantom Transmissions immornot even that. In Pound's mind.chained a brothel. am never (I but quite sure about that word harbinger. Wheredid she get the money to do it? (RB 57-58). 67 Pound is thinking about the Cave of the Golden Calf.Wakeup onemorning findthespiritof England. Italy (RB 293). opened by Frida Strindberg (the third wife of the playwright) in 1913.) This story is either a complete fabrication. for example. undermining. the events of this period in his life are mysteriously linked to a scene of devastation in the future. In one speech. The fact that Pound stumbles over the meaning of the word "harbinger"in a speech that refers to Gaudier's death signals a wave of interference emanating from Gaudier's crypt.)Welltheotherwarcame andprevented beinga periodical annual its or got publication. another trick. Thus the in- . The club was not only a favorite haunt of the Rebel Art Centre crowd. Thus the cultural plague disseminated by the radio. and the "secret controls" that go along with it. (Gaudier never lived or worked in Italy.

"22 Regarding line." meanTennyson's ing we should expect the German phantom to triumph over the delusions of the "Anglo-Jew"(RB 137). It assails "the phantom that the Anglo-Jew world is fighting. its anger. we recall. In this report." This citation anchors the broadcast in Pound's earliest poetic tastes: a weak spot for Tennysonian "rhetoric"coincides. We also have reason. In the broadcast of May 18. and Yeats's poem "The Magi. It also reveals that he conceives of his broadcast voice in visible terms. are inconsolable. In addition. Throughout the broadcasts.68 Daniel Tiffany habitant of Gaudier's crypt has come forward in the radio broadcasts and lodged himself in a scene of devastation that rehearses the legacy of improper burial: Pound imagines a belated attempt to salvage Gaudier's artistic remains. A phantom never lets go. 1942. Pound urges his listeners. This phantasmic disturbance only confirms what Pound had learned many years earlier from the "ghost psychology" of the Noh plays. At the beginning of the speech. Pound wrote. he reveals the demons caged in his own mind. From the standpoint of technology. with his illegitimate affection for the dead. . an image that recalls the poetic Image of 1913 in its desire for clarity. for example. "With Phantoms" is the title of the broadcast. Pound quotes a line from Tennyson's "Idylls of the King" (which gives the speech its title): "Shall come to fight with phantoms and to fall. viewing it as an image projected through the radio. Pound is anxious about the intelligibility of his speeches. "Takeit as a prophecy." a phantom "built out of lies" (RB 137). to read Tennyson's line as prophetic of the outcome of Pound's own struggle with the phantasmic Image in Gaudier's crypt. Voice absolutely clear and every word 'visible.' except for a few ORful KRRumpzzz! of static or atmospheric or whatever BLITZEDout a few phrases" (Carpenter592). Pound all but acknowledges the constant presence of ghosts in his radio speeches and their link to the earliest features of his poetic development. By constructing a demonology for others. "There is nothing like a ghost for holding to an ideefixe" (T 226). Shortly after Gaudier's death. the line evokes certain poems that Pound associated with World War I and his commitment to Imagism. he comments. After listening to one of his speeches over the radio (they were pre-recorded in batches of four or five at a time). we find Pound worrying about various kinds of interference that would interrupt his delivery (a concern that touches the basic question of who or what is controlling the broadcasts). a poem by James Joyce that begins with an image of a phantom army in the sky. however. "Excellent delivery last night. on a variety of levels. he is concerned about the clarity of the signal and the receptivity of the apparatus. its sorrow.

an Englishman living in Berlin who made broadcasts for the Nazis.Phantom Transmissions 69 The "acoustic mirror" of his voice should therefore be understood as an expression of the dominant analogy between image and phantom. I was wonderin' if anybody listened to what I said on Rome Radio" (RB 227). Pound's fear that no one is listening coincides with a deeper fear that his speeches are incoherent. eager for the solicitations of the living. It may . Pound's concern about where to begin. His words emanate from oblivion. At one point he says." which Pound first discovered in the ghost plays of the Noh theater (T 241). I suspect I talk in a what is called incoherent manner: 'cause I can't (and I reckon nobody could) tell where to begin . It also emphasizes the aesthetic and ultimately political character of the link between Imagism and the radio broadcasts. he complains. from the Cave of the Golden Calf. Pound is troubled by the inattention of his listeners just as the dead are angered by the neglect of the living. is echoed throughout the broadcasts: "And after a hundred broadcasts it is still hard to know where to begin" (RB 192). Indeed. "I go it blind. the tomb where the Image is preserved and concealed. a fate conjured by the medium of radio. riddled by interference from beyond the grave. he communicates the grievances of the dead because he is now one of them: he has realized his dream of the "mediumistic artist" whose senses are extended by the technical media to the realm of the dead.. Pound's concern about the clarity of the signal verges upon the more troubling question of whether or not anyone is listening-a fear that he expressed repeatedly. "Sometimes I try to tell you too much. of abandonment? If it is true that Pound occupies the place of the phantom by speaking over the radio-that he is broadcasting from the realm of the dead-then his fears are not at all surprising: for the dead are jealous spirits. What are we to make of this sense of isolation. Writing to William Joyce. Pound still wonders if anybody is listening: "What I am in absolute ignorance of is: whether anyone actually heard my broadcasts" (Carpenter 590). What is it that he finds so daunting? The idea that he is giving voice to the unspeakable (as Abraham suggests) may help to explain the massive case of stage fright that grips the whole undertaking. In either case. where to enter the maze of the past. The elision of voice and image in the radio broadcasts creates "a special medium for expressing emotion. Even as late as 1945. Once again.. he risks being cut off from the world. sealed in a crypt that revives the prehistory of the Image. I have no idea if anyone listens" (Carpenter 594). Pound mixes verbal and visual elements in describing the sense of isolation that he feels as he surrenders to the "tribalghosts" of radio.

disfigured. and you know NOTHING about it. so far as making this statement clear to the hearer or reader is concerned" (RB 262). In a lucid moment.I try to get too much into ten minutes(RB192). by other voices. On another occasion. The fact that Pound is trying to transcribe "two scripts at once" reveals the effects of "dictation" and the presence of the phantom in the broadcasts.Don't know which. You know NOTHING about the forces that caused it" (RB 202).70 70 DanielTiffany Tiffany~~~~~~ also be that he finds it hard to begin because his voice is continually being interrupted. yet it conveys with perfect fidelity the . hybrid speech forced upon the living by the dead." a torn. he acknowledges. I am held up. for example." exclaims. the delayneededto changea typingribbon. enraged. is Pound himself: "You are in black darkness and confusion. utterly distraught by the flood of words and he thoughts being dictatedto him out of "NECESSITY. performing a "translation"of the Image and Gaudier's phantom. uttered by the phantom. come in pell-mell. he makes reference to a double source of speech that eludes him: "Had I tongue of men and angels I should be unable to make sure that even the most faithful listeners would be able to hear and grasp the whole of a series of my talks" (RB 190). This pronouncement. a mind. like Pound's. is largely incoherent. These words paint a portrait of a mind baffled and piloted by sinister forces. At one point. It came" (RB 197). Pound is speaking "in tongues" to his listeners. The ultimate target of the following indictment. ideas. so by muchis therethatOUGHT be put intothe youngAmerican to head. disguised. In fact. NECESSARYFACTS. a voice speaks in the broadcasts that displays an astonishing. You have been hugger-muggered. The accusations that Pound levels against his listeners during the broadcasts offer the most telling portrait of his own state of mind. Indeed the opacity of his translation is the mark of its fidelity. The transmissions are necessarily garbled because he conveys the unspeakable. At other times. the living and the dead) that animates the broadcasts: "An assault on mortal man.what to put down. Usually. an assault on the exaggerated privileges accorded to the whims and greeds of the dead was NEEDED. he finds himself in the middleof a "conversation. The impassioned voices of the dead simply won't let him get a word in edgewise. Pound speaks throughout the broadcasts in the "tongue of men and angels. and carom-shotted into a war. that is ignorant of the forces controlling it. "I am perfectly aware that I might as well be writing Greek or talking Chinese with a foreign accent. can'twritetwo scriptsat once."as he refers to one of his speeches (RB 367). By his own admission. almost clairvoyant sense of the rivalry (between word and image.

Through the medium of radio. the guise of madness only conceals the hidden grounds of treason.he was a maker of images who died at an early age. California NOTES 1. precision and passion. technology and unreason. the devastation recorded by the broadcasts extends to events awaiting the prophet in the future: "Whom God would destroy. he first sends to the bughouse" (RB 27). 2. Wyndham Lewis applied this epithet to Pound in the second issue of BLAST. which appeared in 1915. Although most critics limit the role of the Image in Pound's career to his involvement with the Imagist movement. Will Smith was a painter whom Pound knew as a student in Philadelphia. The Image encrypted in Gaudier's missing grave comes forward in the radio broadcasts as a voice. Ultimately. what speaks through him-a submerged "tradition" of idolatry and illicit affection for the dead. 3. but the "hyperaesthetic" qualities of his earliest poems. The treachery of Pound's behavior over the radio therefore discloses. (Smithdied in 1908 at the the a becomes occasion thememoir. if nothing else. It is poetic justice. It suggests not only that mortal man and the dead are identical. Venice.Hence the traitor is necessarily bound to the past.Phantom Transmissions 71 71 catastrophic logic that underlies the "magical realism" of the broadcasts." which he first discovered in the ghost plays of the Noh theater. Hencethepublictaskof mourning deadsculptor . Although he pleaded insanity at his trial. Like Gaudier. to the substance of what he betrays. The word "treason"derives from the same Latin verb that gives us the word "tradition" (tradere). Pound's most important statements on the figure of the Image are gathered in for a dramatic obituary of the poetics of Imagism. the Image casts a political shadow that encompasses not only Pound's commitment to Fascism. but that the radio broadcasts are the site of a monumental conflict between the living dead and an unnamed race of immortals (who are led by the prophet. I would argue that the demise of the Image only occurs with the temporary disappearance of Gaudier's memory from Pound's work. that requires Pound's radio speeches to be judged either as the product of madness or as a record of treason. Through the "devil box"-the new medium of radio-Pound fully realizes the political aesthetic of "magical realism. an "acoustic mirror" that synthesizes rationality and magic. Ezra). but also disfigures.

1988).Pound. 13. PoliteEssays(London:Faberand Faber. Pound was translatingthe ghost plays of the Noh theater and formulating the principles of Imagism. Gaudier was 23 when he was killed in the first World War. and through which. future wife of Yeats]had an amusing dream about you two nights ago. H. Pound once used the Freudianterm. At the same time. ThirdReich(New York:Cambridge University Press. Stone Cottage." appears as the sigFor natory of the epigraph to Pound's second volume of poems.and Modernism (New York: Oxford University Press. said of the death of the righteous." 6.72 Tiffany Daniel Tiffany age of 25.S. A Quinzaine ThisYule . Erst Jiinger.1937) 106. see James Longenbach. In a letter to Wyndham Lewis in 1949. TheAcousticMirror. Yeats. Culture. A letter from Pound's wife. 5.see his essay "A Retrospect"in Literary Essays4. got 7. is what I can. 1984)83. His vision of technology's role in society focuses on the role of what he calls "magicalrealism. 1986) 1-11. 8." See and Modernism. Dorothy."a figure that aims to naturalize the integration of "precisionand passion. On the relation between Heidegger and Pound's conception of language see in Jean-MichelRabate. The phrase "acoustic mirror"is from KajaSilverman's account of the posthumized voice in the cinema. written to him in 1913. and into which. You were hanging to the top of a very straight pine tree-all stem-and-a-burst-of-branches-at-the-top kind and had not climbed it-but there by 'translation'as she says" (quoted in Longenbach5). 92-95. appears 15. A variation of this pseudonym. "Weston St. and all his turn since has been revenge for the boy's death" (Carpenter 280). 11. ideas must perforce call a VORTEX. outer form and hidden will.TheFemaleVoicein Psychoanalysis and Cinema (Bloomington:IndianaUniversity Press. On this period of Pound's career. Pound came under the influence of Yeats's interest in spiritualism and the occult. 4. 1988).a conservative social theoreticianwho was active in Germanyin the late twenties and early thirties. Pound and Yeats spent three winters together at Stone Cottage from 1913 to 1915. Llewmys. After speaking with Pound at St.) See Pound's Selected Letters 165. 'The image is not an idea. are constantly rushing" (GB92). Charles Olson wondered whether "Gaudier'sdeath is the source of his hate for contemporaryEngland and America. and from which. in later use. It is a radiant node or cluster. Reactionary Technology. 105. 12. Pound confirms the gist of Olson's speculation:"seriouscuriosity startin'@death of Gaudier re: why?" (P/L 250). rationalityand magic. 1931). 14. made important contributions to the ideological formation of National Socialism. Elizabeth's Hospital in 1946. Pound. The OxfordEnglishDictionary also offers a more technical usage of the verb to translate: "To carry or convey to heaven without death. Sexualityand Ideology Ezra Pound'sCantos(Albany: SUNY Press. Language. 9. "complex. offers an example of this eccentric usage of the verb "to translate":"Georgie[GeorgieHyde-Lees. Ede published a biography of Gaudier-Brzeskaentitled SavageMessiah (New York:LiteraryGuild.and Politicsin Weimar the Jeffrey Herf. See The Spirit of Romance. People who knew Pound noted the importancehe assigned to Gaudier'sdeath in the development of his political and economic interests (which may be said to culminate in the radio broadcasts). During this period. The phrase "mediumistic artist" first in the memoir of Gaudier-Brzeska(GB106)."and whether "in 1915 his attackon democracy got mixed with Gaudier'sdeath. 10."to describe the Image.

1970. 1973) for Age 88-89. 1963. 1964) vi. Eliot. New York:New Directions. 1982. McLuhan published an article entitled "Sight."Exile3 (Spring 1928) 108. Pound. TheSpiritof Romance.New York:New Directions. Sound.Edited by D.Edited by Hugh Kenner." (LE414). 18.Media18). York:New Directions.The Extensionsof Man (New Understanding York:McGraw Hill. Pound praises the "phantomvision" of Joyce'spoem. Walton Litz. and Joyce alike as exploiters of the cinematic aspects of language will arrive at appreciation more quickly than the one who unconsciously tries to make sense of them by reducing their use of the new media of communications to the abstractlinear forms of the book page. 20. The 18. 21. 1971)406.1915) 278. Rumor. Doob. and Fury" in which he argues. 16.. passim. New Guideto Kulchur.. Westport. "Ezra PoundSpeaking. Pound/Lewis-Letters EzraPoundand Wyndham Lewis. a phantom that secretly alludes to Pound's dead relation. 19. 1963. 17.New York:New of Directions. CEP GB GK L LE P/L P/S RB SR T Collected EarlyPoems.Edited by Omar Pound and A. EzraPoundand DorothyShakespear. Literary Essays. 1984. according to Rickels. Pound. Memoirof Gaudier-Brzeska. TheirLetters 1909-1914. "Affirmations. New York: Letters. New York:New Directions. Connecticut:Greenwood Press. New York:New Directions. S. 1960. 1978. 1970. "the reader who approaches Pound. for example. New York:New Directions. 1985.New York: of New Directions. EzraPound:Poetics an Electric (Bern:FranckeVerlag. Edited by Leonard of W. . 83. TheTranslations EzraPound. In 1954.Phantom Transmissions 73 (Published in 1908). follows a "double trajectorycharted by telepathic prediction and advance surveillance"(289). Paige." RadioSpeeches WorldWarII. "Desideria." (PortWashington: KennikatPress. The epigraph refers to the awakening characterof the artist as "a figure in the mist" (CEP58). New Directions. Selected 1907-1941. just because he is an expert aware of the changes in sense perception" (McLuhan." New Age (January14.According to McLuhan. the manner of thinking fostered by the media revolution is ideogrammic. D. 22. which is entitled "Ihear an army charging upon the land . Max Nanny. 109. Media. Pound's conception of the "serious artist" ("Artistsare the antennae of the race"LE 297) is the basis of McLuhan'snotion of the artist as a kind of high priest of technology: "The serious artist is the only person able to encounter technology with impunity.Edited by T. ABBREVIATIONS USED The following abbreviationsare used for Pound's works. 1971. Eliot.

13. Culture. Trans.New York:LiteraryGuild. Avital. On Haunted Writings. Fascism. Max. and Fury. University McLuhan. Understanding Media. no. EzraPound:Poetics an Electric in Rabate. Sexuality. Press.Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1988. Aberrationsof Mourning. New York:Harperand Row. S. Babcock.David Thinking. The StandardEditionof the Complete Psychological JamesStrachey.Language. for Nanny. Ede. of Pound. Capuzzi. Nicholas Rand. 1988.74 Daniel Tiffany Tiffany WORKS CITED Abraham.Edited by Freud. and Silverman.Jean-Michel. New York:McGraw of Hill. Martin.and the Myths of Ezra Casillo. Ronell.Marshall. Indiana University Press.Albany: SUNY Press. 1988.TheExtensions Man.Reactionary Technology. H.Humphrey.and Ideology EzraPound'sCantos. Port Washington:KennikatPress. Age."EarlyGreek Krell and FrankA.Anti-Semitism. 1986. "Sight.287-292. 1960 (Notes cite volume and page). M.The FemaleVoicein Psychoanalysis Cinema. . ogy. Dictations. New York: Oxford Longenbach. A Genealogy Demons. ThirdReich. Nicolas. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.New York:Cambridge University Press. London:Hogarth Press. Jeffrey. 1964.Sound.and Modernism. Heidegger. 2 (Winter1987). Politicsin Weimar the Herf. Works. . 1982. Lifeof EzraPound. 1986. The Carpenter. 1975."TheAnaximanderFragment.San Francisco:North Point Press.Edited by C. 1984.Pound. TheLifeof EzraPound. Rickels. The AcousticMirror. Sigmund.Evanston:Northwestern University Press. Robert. 1988. Writingon GermanCrypts. Critical Inquiry. 1971. Noel. and and Modernism. SavageMessiah. 1931. Kaja. Bloomington: Stock."Ideasin Process.Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1973. "Notes on the Phantom:A Complement to Freud's MetapsycholVol. James. Yeats. A SeriousCharacter. Laurence A." Trans. Stone Cottage. Bern:FranckeVerlag. 1988.

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