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Motor control Performing a familiar movements are coordinates by using a central store of nervous pathways Motor program: A set

of muscle commands that are structured before the motor act begins an these muscle commands can be sent to the muscle with the correct timing so that the entire sequence can be carried out in the absence of peripheral feedback. Discontinuous movememnt when you carry out a movement that you have not performed before Continuous muscle movement – the agonist muscles are moving and the antagonists form a movement but not perfectly coordinated and so the agonist is activated again to adjust the movement It is partially perfected and require peripheral input. Ballistic – perfectly learnt and the movement can be produced without any final adjustments, no peripheral inputs. The velocity is greater Can we store a memory of every movment? Not really, so our definition for motor progam is altered slightly Motor Program: A set of abstract instructions that can be translated into muscle commands that are structured before the motor acts begin and that can be sent to the muscle with the correct timing sot that the entire sequence can be carried out in the absence of peripheral feedback. We progam the output and not the muscle commands.

Early phases of motor movements is learnt by mimicking the mother… Table of the learning of movments by a child from 12 weeks to 4 years from J.Z. Young, Introduction to the study of months corticospinal tract is still developing so the their fine coordination with their fingers isn’t accurate.

Peripheral feedback is used to develop motor programs, but if the motor program is perfect, then peripheral feedback is not needed. However, in everday life, we do need peripheral feedback. If peripheral sensory sensation is lost, then learning new tasks becomes difficult because peripheral feedback is needed to adjust the new tasks in to perfection.

knee jerk) 3) loss of superficial reflexes (e. . spasticity 2) exaggerated deeep reflexes (e. Although the responses may vary in magnitude.Emotive Cognitive Highest level  middle level  lowest level Limbic system (demands)  association system (selects)  projection system (guides) spinal system (executes) -> skeletal muscular system (movements) REFLEX _ A response or pattern of responses reliably evoked by a specific stimulus or set of stimuli. the toes extense outwards. These are: 1) abnormal distribution of muscle tone with excessive muscle tone in some muscles i. The middle level.e normally tickling toes moves the toes inwards. but in a CST lesion. their spatial and temporal pattern remains stereotyped. Babunski’s sign appears – extensor movements = lesion of the corticospinal tract – i. Hemiplegia Also. Internal capsule is the very likely The acute effects of stroke are the loss of muscle tone and weakness on the side contralateral to the stroke i. Later (usually 2 or 3 weeks but highly variable) the chrnic signs appear.g abdominal cremasteric and plantar reflesed 4) babinski’s sign – which appears acutely but is maintained in to the chronic stage.e.g.e.