Neuro-linguistic programming History of neuro-linguistic programming NLP and science Methods of neuro-linguistic programming Positive and negative (NLP) Meta-model (NLP) Milton model Anchoring (NLP) Therapeutic metaphor Reframing Representational systems (NLP) Submodalities Perceptual positions Meta-programs Therapeutic use of Neuro-linguistic programming List of Neuro-linguistic programming topics List of studies on Neuro-linguistic programming 1 11 16 22 29 31 40 46 51 53 55 60 63 64 68 72 74

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Neuro-linguistic programming


Neuro-linguistic programming

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Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) is an approach to psychotherapy and organizational change based on "a model of interpersonal communication chiefly concerned with the relationship between successful patterns of behaviour and the subjective experiences (esp. patterns of thought) underlying them" and "a system of alternative therapy based on this which seeks to educate people in self-awareness and effective communication, and to change their patterns of mental and emotional behaviour".[1] The co-founders, Richard Bandler and linguist John Grinder, believed that NLP would be useful in "finding ways to help people have better, fuller and richer lives".[2] They coined the term "Neuro-Linguistic Programming" to emphasize their belief in a connection between the neurological processes ("neuro"), language ("linguistic") and behavioral patterns that have been learned through experience ("programming") and can be organized to achieve specific goals in life.[3] [4] [5] In early workshops by Bandler and Grinder and in books that followed, it was often claimed[6] that through the use of NLP, problems especially phobias could be overcome in a single short session whereas traditional therapies would have taken weeks, or even months of regular sessions to make progress.[7] [8] It was claimed that NLP was capable of addressing the full range of problems that psychologists are likely to encounter, such as phobias, depression, habit disorder, psychosomatic illnesses, and learning disorders.[9] It also espoused the potential for self-determination through overcoming learned limitations[10] and emphasized well-being and healthy functioning. Later, it was promoted as a "science of excellence", derived from the study or "modeling"[11] of how successful or outstanding people in different fields obtain their results. Bandler and Grinder claimed that if the effective patterns of behaviour of outstanding therapists (and other exceptional communicators) could be modeled then these patterns could be acquired by others.[12] NLP has been largely ignored by conventional social science in part due to a lack of professional credibility and insufficient empirical evidence to substantiate its effectiveness[13] [14] , and is characterized by critics as a fringe or cargo cult psychotherapy. NLP is seen from certain scientific, linguistic, and neuroscience perspectives as having a pseudo-scientific name, concepts, terminology, and characteristics. NLP is used as an example of pseudo-science for facilitating the teaching of scientific literacy at the professional and university level. NLP also appears on consensus based expert-derived lists of discredited therapies and interventions.

Neuro-linguistic programming


History and founding
NLP originated when Richard Bandler, a student at University of California, Santa Cruz, was listening to and selecting portions of taped therapy sessions of the late Gestalt therapist Fritz Perls as a project for Robert Spitzer.[15] [16] Bandler believed he recognized particular word and sentence structures which facilitated the acceptance of Perls' therapeutic suggestions. Bandler took this idea to one of his university lecturers, John Grinder, a linguist. Together they studied Perls's utterances on tape and observed a second therapist Virginia Satir to produce what they termed the meta model, a model for gathering information and challenging a client's language and underlying thinking.[17] The meta model was presented in 1975 in two volumes, The Structure of Magic I: A Book About Language and Therapy and The Structure of Magic II: A Book About Communication and Change, in which the authors expressed their belief that the therapeutic "magic" as performed in therapy by Perls and Satir, and by performers in any complex human activity, had structure that could be learned by others given the appropriate models. They believed that implicit in the behavior of Perls and Satir was the ability to challenge distortion, generalization and deletion in a client's language. The linguistic aspects were based in part on previous work by Grinder using Noam Chomsky's transformational grammar.[18] Challenging linguistic distortions, specifying generalizations, and recovery of deleted information in the client utterances, the surface structure, was supposed to yield a more complete representation of the underlying deep structure, and to have therapeutic benefit.[19] They drew ideas from Gregory Bateson and Alfred Korzybski, particularly about human modeling and ideas associated with their expression, "the map is not the territory".[20] [21] Satir and Bateson each agreed to write a preface to Bandler and Grinder's first book. Bateson also introduced the pair to Milton Erickson who became their third model. Erickson also wrote a preface to Bandler and Grinder's two-volume book series based on their observations of Erickson working with clients, Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. Erickson, Volumes I & II.[22] These volumes also focused on the language patterns and some non-verbal patterns that Bandler and Grinder believed they observed in Erickson. While the meta model is intentionally specific, the Milton model was described as "artfully vague" and metaphoric; the inverse of the meta model. It was used in combination with the meta model as a softener, to induce trance, and to deliver indirect therapeutic suggestion. In addition to the first two models, Bandler, Grinder and a group of students who joined them during the early period of development of NLP, proposed other models and techniques, such as anchoring, reframing, submodalities, perceptual positions, and representational systems. At the time, the human potential movement was developing into an industry; at the centre of this growth was the Esalen Institute at Big Sur, California. Perls had led numerous Gestalt therapy seminars at Esalen. Satir was an early leader and Bateson was a guest teacher. Bandler and Grinder claimed that in addition to being a therapeutic method, NLP was also a study of communication, and by the late 1970s Grinder and Bandler were marketing it as a business tool, claiming that "if any human being can do anything, so can you". After 150 students paid $1,000 each for a ten-day workshop in Santa Cruz, California, Bandler and Grinder gave up academic writing and produced popular books from seminar transcripts, such as Frogs into Princes, which sold more than 270,000 copies. According to court documents, Bandler's NLP business made more than $800,000 in 1980.[17]

The early books about NLP had a psychotherapeutic focus especially given that the early models were psychotherapists. As an approach to psychotherapy, NLP shares similar core assumptions and foundations in common with some contemporary brief and systemic practices,[23] [24] [25] such as solution focused brief therapy.[26] [27] NLP has also been acknowledged as having influenced these practices[25] [28] with its reframing techniques[29] [30] which seeks to achieve behaviour change by shifting its context or meaning,[31] for example, by finding the positive connotation of a thought or behaviour.

reviews in The Journal of Counseling Psychology[45] and by the National Research Council (1988.[43] Criticism and controversy Empirical validity In the early 1980s. in particular Sharpley's literature review.[36] 3 Other uses While the original goals of neuro-linguistic programming were therapeutic.. In an article published in 2005. in 1984. the committee "found little if any" evidence to support NLP's assumptions or to indicate that it is effective as a strategy for social influence. "It assumes that by tracking another's eye movements and language. NLP was heralded as a breakthrough in therapy."(Druckman.[38] sports. However.[47] followed by another review in 1987 in response to a critique published by Einspruch and Forman. In the mid-1980s. public speaking. and opinions (Dilts.[39] and interpersonal influence."[50] Secondly. (1997) state that "the most telling commentary on NLP may be that the latest revision of his text on enhancing human performance. There is no scientific support for these assumptions.. psychologist Grant Devilly stated that at the time it was introduced. and (2) as a specific therapy called Neurolinguistic Psychotherapy[33] which is recognized by the United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy[34] with accreditation governed at first by the Association for Neuro Linguistic Programming[35] and more recently by its daughter organization the Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy and Counselling Association.[37] sales. marked a decline in empirical research of .[41] A research review conducted by Christopher Sharpley which focused on preferred representational systems. 1983[49] ). and on the whole was unsupportive of the central assumptions and core models of NLP.[42] A range of books have been published related to the application of NLP to coaching. The technique was developed from careful observations of the way three master psychotherapists conducted their sessions. negotiation. Michael Heap also concluded that objective and fair investigations had shown no support for NLP claims about "preferred representational systems".Neuro-linguistic programming The two main therapeutic uses of NLP are: (1) use as an adjunct by therapists[32] practicing in other therapeutic disciplines.[41] and communication. controlled studies shed such a poor light on the practice. management training. The UK Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development includes a number of NLP courses including an application of NLP to coaching in its 2010 training programme. It consisted of laboratory experimentation testing Bandler and Grinder's hypotheses[46] that a person's preferred sensory mode of thinking can be revealed by observing eye movement cues and sensory predicates in language use. and those promoting the intervention made such extreme and changeable claims that researchers began to question the wisdom of researching the area further. Druckman (Druckman & Bjork 1991) omitted all reference to Neurolinguistic Programming.[40] used for coaching. team building.[14] A research committee[40] working for the United States National Research Council led by Daniel Druckman came to two conclusions. an NLP trainer can shape the person's thoughts.[44] The experimental research that does exist was mostly done in the 1980s and 1990s. NRC) committee[40] found little or no empirical basis for the claims about preferred representational systems (PRS) or assumptions of NLP."[51] These studies. the patterns have also been adapted for use outside psychotherapy for interpersonal communications and persuasion including business communication. The workshops provided certification. feelings. and advertisements for training workshops. Reviewing the literature in 1988. videos and books began to appear in trade magazines. NLP was hailed as an important advance in psychotherapy and counseling. emphasizing imitation of verbal and nonverbal behaviors.[44] and attracted some interest in counseling research and clinical psychology.[48] concluded that there was little evidence for its usefulness as an effective counseling tool. First. This then led the committee to take up the topic of expert modeling in the second phase of its work. 2004)[50] Von Bergen et al. the committee members "were impressed with the modeling approach used to develop the technique.

concepts and terminology.[52] [53] Gareth Roderique-Davies (2009) stated that "Phenomenological research is free from hypotheses. and NLP appears on lists of discredited therapies. and has outlined a number of characteristics that identify such pseudo-sciences. He says this is to obfuscate and to give the impression of a scientific discipline. Certain neuroscientists. The fact remains that NLP proponents make specific claims about how NLP works and what it can do and this compels providing evidence to substantiate these claims. Science and Pseudo-science in Clinical Psychology (2002) The Skeptic's Dictionary (2003) and Tall Tales about the Mind and Brain (2007). According to Beyerstein (1995) "though it claims neuroscience in its pedigree. and submodalities. NLP has more recently been used as a key example of pseudo-science to facilitate the understanding of the importance of rational and critical thinking in a number of academic subjects. presuppositions. ."[56] With regard to the perceived promotion of popular myths and anti-scientific perspectives. non-accessing movement etc. vivid appeals. Such characteristics include the promotion of unobtainable goals.[55] Witkowski (2010) states that NLP uses impressive sounding and similarly empty expressions such as. Given the claims made by proponents of NLP. the use of common misconceptions. self generated persuasion. neurological levels. micromodeling. accessing cues. and particularly in matching sensory predicates and its use in counsellor-client relationship in counseling psychology. the Encyclopedia of Pseudo-science (2000). NLP exhibits characteristics that identify pseudo-scientific developments. Lum (2001) uses NLP as an example for understanding the difference between science and pseudo-science in language and speech therapy. representational systems. a set of specific beliefs. NLP has also been included in literature critiquing pseudo-science in general. linguists and psychologists have written that. this adds little to the credibility debate and would produce reports concerning the experience from the perspective of the individual rather than confirmation of the claimed efficacy. designed to give the impression of scientific respectability". pragmagraphics. metaprogramming. deep structure. Sources include books such as Crazy Therapies (1997). surface structure. Roderique-Davies (2009) says that the name of neuro-linguistic programming is pseudo-scientific and wholly inappropriate as it offers no explanation of behavior at the neurological level. pre-conceptions and assumptions. metamodeling."[54] 4 Scientific criticism NLP has been criticized beyond its lack of reliable evidence for effectiveness. NLP practitioners and academics Tosey and Mathison have argued that the experimental approach is not always appropriate for researching NLP." He argued that the proposal to conduct phenomenology research using NLP modeling "constitutes an admission that NLP does not have an evidence base and that NLP practitioners are seeking a post-hoc credibility. instead proposing that NLP should be researched phenomenologically. neuro-linguistic programming is a pseudo-scientific title. Witkowski (2010) also states that at the neuronal level NLP provides no explanation at all and it has nothing in common with academic linguistics or programming. NLP uses pseudo-scientific claims. The term neuro-linguistic programming has been identified by some sources as a pseudo-scientific title. Devilly (2005) has used NLP as an example of a type of pseudo-science called a “power therapy”. rationalization traps. Similarly. and Lilienfeld et al (2001) and Dunn et al (2008) have used NLP as an example of pseudo-science for teaching undergraduates how to identify pseudo-scientific psychological interventions.Neuro-linguistic programming NLP. and attacks on critics through the use of innuendo. NLP's outmoded view of the relationship between cognitive style and brain function ultimately boils down to crude analogies. and seeks to describe rather than explain. Beyerstein (1995) also says that NLP contains pseudo-scientifically applied terms such as eye accessing cues. Corballis (1999) has stated that "NLP is a thoroughly fake title. manufactured credibility. Beyerstein (1995) has implicated NLP in promoting a set of neuro-mythologies of the New Age involving a relativistic perspective and the use of “you create your own reality” in an attempt to gain immunity from scientific testing.

The Guardian reported that in 2006 that a seven day course by Paul McKenna's company for 600 delegates produced £1m of revenue. new ways of training were developed and the course structures and design changed.87 (SD=0. and in Glasner-Edwards and Rawson (2010).[65] However. a 20-day NLP practitioner certification program had been in existence for training therapists to apply NLP as an adjunct to their professional qualifications. after many years of legal controversy. [57] have rated NLP on a continuum of discredited procedures. following attempts to put NLP on a regulated footing in the UK.[40] Some time afterwards. According to Peter Schütz.[64] Despite the NLP community's being splintered. Lilienfeld et al (2003) and Singer and Lalich (1996) on identifying “pseudoscientific. In 2001. individual trainers and practitioners having developed their own methods. NLP continues to be an open field of training with no "official" best practice. Amidst acrimony and intellectual property lawsuits. books and audio programs in the form of exercises and principles intended to influence behavioral and emotional change in .[67] The multiplicity and general lack of controls has led to difficulty discerning the comparative level of competence. a derivative of NLP. John Grinder collaborated with various people to develop a form of NLP called the New Code of NLP which claimed to restore a whole mind-body systemic approach to NLP[21] [60] Richard Bandler also published new processes based on submodalities and Ericksonian hypnosis. They listed “Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) for treatment of mental/behavioral disorders” at “3. As NLP evolved. there are many competing organisations offering varying forms of NLP training and certification in what can be a lucrative business.[66] the training standards and quality differ greatly. concepts and labels. and also the sole right to use the term under trademark. in Australia. 5 Intellectual property disputes In the 1980s. NLP also appears on “the list of discredited therapies” published in the journal. Della Sala (1999). In the 1990s. skill and attitude in different NLP trainings. and emotional freedom technique (EFT). claiming retrospective sole ownership of NLP. a Graduate Certificate in Neuro-linguistic programming is accredited under the Australian Qualifications Framework. often branding them as "NLP". shortly after publishing Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Volume I[59] with Robert Dilts and Judith Delozier. and the applications began to be extended beyond therapy. In June 2001.Neuro-linguistic programming According to Witkowski (2010). the length of training in Europe varies from 2–3 days for the hobbyist to 35–40 days over at least nine months to achieve a professional level of competence. equine therapy.[68] Today. or “quack” psychotherapies”. workshops. in order to clarify legally that "NLP" was a generic term rather than intellectual property. most NLP material acknowledges the early work of co-founders Bandler and Grinder. Subsequent literature by Norcross et al. the European NLP therapy association has been promoting its training in line with European therapy standards. unvalidated.[61] In July 1996. was recognized by the United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy as an experimental constructivist form of psychotherapy. With different authors. Grinder and Bandler fell out. Bandler filed a lawsuit against John Grinder and others. the lawsuits were settled with Bandler and Grinder agreeing to be known as co-founders of NLP. other governments began certifying NLP courses and providers. With reference to work by Carroll (2003). neuro-linguistic psychotherapy. Tony Clarkson (a UK practitioner) successfully asked the UK High Court to revoke Bandler's UK registered trademark of "NLP". NLP is listed as “certainly discredited”. [58] shows that “neurolinguistic programming for drug and alcohol dependence” was rated among the top ten most discredited of the interventions included in the study. as well as the development group that surrounded them in the 1970s. for example. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice.92)” which achieves a similar level of discredit as dolphin assisted therapy. Norcross et al. Course lengths and style vary from institute to institute. the NLP brand was adopted by other training organizations. Practitioner standards Since 1978.[62] [63] At the same time. scared straight programs. psychosynthesis.[67] In Europe.[69] Many variants of the practice are found in seminars.

"A Guide to Transformational Grammar: History. [8] Bandler and Grinder state. 169) Bandler and Grinder make the claim that by combining NLP methods with hypnotic regression. pp. J. after a session of therapy. R. Delozier. HJ. Cupertino. Nuessel. Taylor & Francis. pdf).) Hypnosis: Current Clinical. p. op.59–62. Grinder. so you may begin or continue the never-ending process to improve." Bandler. Jr. oed. and can even cure a common cold (op. Introducing Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Psychological Skills for Understanding and Influencing People. given the appropriate resources. Bandler selected portions of Perls transcripts to be published in The Gestalt Approach and Eye Witness to Therapy (1973).(see p. com/ cgi/ entry/ 00323586/ 00323586se1?single=1& query_type=word& queryword=Neurolinguistic+ programming& first=1& max_to_show=10& hilite=00323586se1) [2] From the book jacket of Bandler and Grinder (1975b) [3] Tosey. R. Practice". 166) that a single session of NLP combined with hypnosis can eliminate certain eyesight problems such as myopia.. automated programs that work by themselves to take care of boring. or are not.ii. [10] e.xii) [13] Berne. [20] Bandler. thus freeing up our minds to do other. p. John & Carmen Bostic St Clair (2001). London: Croom Helm. 'You're saying we're like machines. (Steve Andreas in Bandler & Grinder. Crown House Publishing. a model of interpersonal communication chiefly concerned with the relationship between successful patterns of behaviour and the subjective experiences (esp. R. Bandler. United Kingdom. more interesting and creative. The Modern Language Journal. According to Michael Heap in a paper on NLP written in 1988 for The Psychologist (the monthly magazine of the British Psychological Society p. The Structure of Magic: a book about language and therapy. Heap (Ed. pdf). R. and Stephen Lankton. Whispering in the Wind... enrich and enlarge the skills you offer as a people-helper". or placing a man on the moon – has structure and is. In M. UK: Thorsons. ISBN 4-88848-212-8.. No. 2. University of Alberta (Canada). one NLP workshop announcement claimed that spelling problems may be eliminated in five minutes (NLP Training Programme). but also rendered amnesic for the fact that they had the problem in the first place. Joseph & John Seymour (1993). ISBN 1-85538-344-6. J. We only desire to present a specific set of tools that seem to us to be implicit in the actions of these therapists. 58.. Rinehart and Winston. CA: Meta Publications. Experimental and Forensic Practices. [5] However. ISBN 0-03-080126-5. "neurolinguistic programming n.. E. There is great variation in the depth and breadth of training and standards of practitioners. [21] [22] [23] [24] Grinder. Research. P. School of Management.6 Bandler. We especially do not wish to make the claim that we have discovered the 'right' or most power approach to psychotherapy.. surrey. – Oct. (2009) Pretreatment expectations of psychotherapy clients. 174). Practice. Neither is it our intention to claim that reading a book can ensure that you will have these dynamic qualities. University of Surrey. not robots. pp.. "NLP". [9] It was even alleged (Grinder & Bandler.cit. M. & Mathison. 282–283 [19] Bradley. nlpanchorpoint. They said things like. [15] According to Robert Spitzer (1992). "Our desire in this book [The Structure of Magic] is not to question the magical quality of our experience of these therapeutic wizards. and Bandler." Psychotherapy: Theory. (1976) Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. mundane tasks. a system of alternative therapy based on this which seeks to educate people in self-awareness and effective communication. Richard & John Grinder (1975). things. 1975b. com/ nlp1. 261–262). "When I started using the term 'programming.. 6(7) [17] Frank Clancy and Heidi Yorkshire (1989) "The Bandler Method". ISBN 0-916990-07-9. 1979 forward p. patterns of thought) underlying them.g. We're the only machine that can program itself.(Also." (http:/ / dictionary. p. composing music. London. (1988) Neurolinguistic programming: An interim verdict (http:/ / www. (2006) " Introducing Neuro-Linguistic Programming (http:/ / www. smokers may deny that they smoked before. Bandler has claimed that people are literally programmable..' We can set deliberately designed. Biedermann. Grinder. Training 22(1) pp. Holt. Suzette Elgin (1973). J. Draft revision September. uk/ NLP/ Resources/ IntroducingNLP.268–280. [16] Spitzer. 1980. (1992) Virginia Satir and the Origins of NLP (http:/ / www. J. We are 'meta-programmable.[45] [70] 6 Notes and references [1] Oxford English Dictionary. therefore learnable. (1980).' people became really angry.' Actually. Vol. Bandler & Andreas 1985 [11] p. mheap. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Volume I: The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience. 1981. Theory. even when their family and friends insisted otherwise.g. ISBN 0-9717223-0-7. p162–180. J. S. som. and some disagreement between those in the field about which patterns are. & Grinder. p. R. 2009.. (2008) Richard Bandler's Guide to Trance-formation: How to Harness the Power of Hypnosis to Ignite Effortless and Lasting Change Publisher: Health Communications (HCi) ISBN 0-7573-0777-9 [6] e. but rather to show that this magic that they perform – psychotherapy.. Anchor Point. (1985) "Bandler and Grinder's neurolinguistic programming: Its historical context and other complex human activities such as painting. pp 9–13) [7] Full reference missing.cit. Eric (2005) "Chapter 10: How useful are 'popular' models of interpersonal communication?" in Interpersonal Communication. 'Mother Jones' Magazine [18] John Grinder. a person can be not only effectively cured of a problem. 1974). CA: Science & Behavior Books. ISBN 978-0-415-18107-5 [14] Heap. Erickson Volume I ISBN 091699001X Rubin Battino (2002) Expectation: The Very Brief Therapy Book. ac. Palo Alto. and to change their patterns of mental and emotional behaviour. Reviewed by Frank H. The Structure of Magic I: A Book About Language and Therapy. 5/6 (Sep. [4] Dilts. pdf) Centre for Management Learning & Development. .. Thus. com/ Satir395. We're human beings. and they are unable to account for such evidence as nicotine stains.. Palo Alto: Science and Behavior Books [12] O'Connor.. what I was saying was just the opposite. ISBN 1-84590-028-6 Kerry. R.Neuro-linguistic programming self and others. CA: J & C Enterprises.

pp. nap. 2000 [32] Field. .1108/ 00197850610645990 [38] Zastrow. (1990) Neurolinguistic programming as an adjunct to other psychotherapeutic/hypnotherapeutic interventions. Intervention in School and Clinic 35.Neuro-linguistic programming [25] Beyebach.. 4(3) p.1037/0022-0167. gov/ pubmed/ 2296919) [33] Bridoux.103. Volume 34. nlm. uk/ experiential_constuctivist. Number 1. 26th–28th June 2007 [42] (http:/ / www. pp. 9–18.. 84/ sfa." In Therapeutic perspectives on working with lesbian. & Lages.F. J. pp. Retrieved 29 January 2010. pp. pp. doi:10. A. psychotherapy. Some thoughts on integration in solution-focused therapy. google.. Daniel J. E. 38(1).1002/hrdq. . org. ISBN 0-911226-19-2.. Meta Publications.2005. (1984). C. [31] Bandler & Grinder 1982 as cited by Maag 1999.. & Forman. Robert (1983) Roots of Neuro-Linguistic Programming. (2006) "Can NLP help or harm your business?" Industrial and Commercial Training. [47] Sharpley.x [45] Sharpley C. view/ cs1. 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[48] Einspruch. 45. ncbi. research.x [51] Von Bergen et al (1997) Selected alternative training techniques in HRD. html).24. 32(4). "Research Findings on Neuro-linguistic Programming: Non supportive Data or an Untestable Theory" (http:/ / Sage. asp).8 (quote). Google books (http:/ / books..52). OCLC 42614014 [40] Druckman and Swets (eds. [36] "Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy Counselling Association NLPtCA" (http:/ / www. edu/ books/ 0309037921/ html/ 133.3920080403 [52] "Neuro-Linguistic Programming and Research" (http:/ / www. C. Journal of Counseling Psychology. (1999). Journal of Systemic Therapies. som. University of Surrey Paper presented at the 8th International Conference on Human Resource Development Research & Practice across Europe. 73–90). Capitola. uk/ validation. (1985). . Element Books Ltd. [46] Bandler. November 2004. Oxford Brookes Business School. pp.F. G. A.1. au/ books?hl=en& lr=& id=nT8jqeRXBmYC& oi=fnd& pg=PR9#v=onepage& q=Bandler Grinder& f=false) [28] By Pesut. 12–17(6) doi:10. 589–596. 5th edition. [35] "The road to recognition: NLP in Psychotherapy and Counselling" (http:/ / www.01601. 149 (p.L. html). html) on 2008-06-12. Buckingham. [53] Mathison. B. R. psychotherapy. nih. Sage.1111/j. & Rodríguez Morejón. com.9 (http:/ / books. science. [26] Bill O'Connell (2005) Solution-focused therapy (Brief therapy series). surrey. 2010 . cipd. (pp. Journal of Counseling Psychology 34 (1): 103–107.34.15. J. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. Vol 48(7-B). htm) [43] O'Connor. Human Resource Development Quarterly8. 105. uk/ training/ COACNLP/ about. doi:10. CA. google. Neal. 30. html).3920010212 [41] Tosey P.3109/01612849109058206 [29] John W Maag (1999) Why they say no: Foundational precises and techniques for managing resistance. Vol 12. uk/ media/ files/ documents/ 2009-07-17/ JARHE_V1.7-16 [39] Ingalls. gay and bisexual clients.

International Journal of Mental Health 19(3): 27–36. htm#law). nlpschedule. ISBN 978-1-57958-207-4 pp. . [60] Grinder. R.. [61] Bandler. com/ random/ lawsuit-nlpc. John & Judith DeLozier (1987). Margaret & Janja Lalich (1997). co. [68] McDonald.L (1990).169 • William F. . [66] Carroll RT (2009-02-23). xxii • Dunn. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. 182–191 pp. org/ web/ 20080328182654/ http:/ / www. 253 • Della Sala (Editor) (2007) Tall Tales about the Mind and Brain: Separating Fact from Fiction Oxford University Press pp. Randolph A. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Andreas. Pages 93–104 pp97 • Lilienfeld. Halonen. Turtles All the Way Down: Prerequisites to Personal Genius. Krame S. guardian. Retrieved 2006-12-24. R. Issues 2-3. Scientific Thinking in Speech and Language Therapy. org/ web/ 19990224225605/ http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-06-25. (2010) Evidence-based practices in addiction treatment: Review and recommendations for public policy. 297–302. Scots Valley. Smith (2008) Teaching critical thinking in psychology: a handbook of best practices (2008). 190 • Lum. html). P. vol 41 (2). . ISBN 0-7879-0278-0. PP. Williams. . Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Volume I: The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience. htm). Hogan.. archive. "Don't worry. ISBN 0-916990-07-9. doi:10. NLP Research Data Base. Lohr. (ed) and Andreas. [63] "NLP Schedule" (http:/ / web. jonronson1). pp. The teaching of courses in the science and pseudoscience of psychology. Mahwah. Crazy Therapies: What Are They? Do They Work?. Volume 97. htm) on 1999-02-24. John C. 27. Ed. J. Oxford University Press. C. com/ neurolin. The Skeptic's Dictionary. ISBN 1-55552-022-7. and Dangerous Delusions pp. CA: Meta Publications. nlpschedule. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. archive.. MC. Retrieved 2009-08-19. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. (ed. p167–195. Cupertino. (2001). R. html) on 2008-03-28. uk/ lifeandstyle/ 2006/ may/ 20/ weekend. Brainscams: Neuromythologies of the New Age.41 [56] Beyerstein. October 2010. [64] "ANLP News: NLP Matters" (http:/ / web. [65] "NTIS: Graduate Certificate in Neuro-linguistic programming" (http:/ / www. In France J. 235 • Witkowski "Thirty-Five Years of Research on Neuro-Linguistic Programming. L (2001).. com/ random/ lawsuit-nlpc. D. . au/ ?/ AccreditedCourse/ 21576VIC). . Retrieved 2009-08-19. J. Delozier . . 12 • Glasner-Edwards. 28. and Bandler. [69] Jon Ronson (20 May 2006). Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Fitzory Dearborn Publishers. Retrieved 2009-06-25. [67] Schütz. [57] Norcross et. get therapy" (http:/ / www. html). (1980). NLP Schedule. Gerald P. 58–66 pp. 16 • Singer. com. CA: Grinder & Associates. (2006) Discredited Psychological Treatments and Tests: A Delphi Poll. archive.. State of the Art or Pseudoscientific Decoration?" Polish Psychological Bulletin 2010. ANLP. (ed) (1985) Using Your Brain-for a Change ISBN 0-911226-27-3 [62] "NLP Knowledge Centre" (http:/ / web. John & Sons. Amusing Deceptions. Grinder. S. S. USA ISBN 978-0-19-533532-3 (Page 198) [59] Dilts. Koocher (2008) Clinician's Guide to Evidence-based Practices. gov. nlp. ntis. M. ISBN 978-1-4051-7402-2. ISBN 1-85302-732-4. Web. [70] Irish National Center for Guidance in Education's "Guidance Counsellor's Handbook 8 • Carroll R. org/ web/ 20010406091232/ www. Health Policy. C. S. and Rawson. Teaching of Psychology.. "Neurolinguistic programming in mental health". & Morier. ISBN 0-471-98303-9 (pp. al. (2001). au/ action/ state. 25–41) see page p. Communication and Mental Illness. htm). Jane S. New Jersey London) pp. anlp. Mind Myths: Exploring Popular Assumptions About the Mind and Brain Publisher: Wiley. American Psychological Association. nlp. org/ anlpnews.. at/ institutsvgl-english.R. "Are we in our right minds?" In Sala. S. (2000) Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience publ. O. "neuro-linguistic programming (NLP)" (http:/ / skepdic. au/ action/ state.1037/a0015240 [58] Norcross. "A consumer guide through the multiplicity of NLP certification training: A European perspective" (http:/ / www.) (1999). Jossey Bass... The Guardian. com.archive. D.B. Thomas P. nlpzentrum. (2003) The Skeptic's Dictionary: A Collection of Strange Beliefs. 65 .Neuro-linguistic programming [55] Corballis.

ISBN 0-911226-19-2 • Bandler. (1979) Frogs into Princes: Neuro Linguistic Programming.. Training Journal. T. J. "NLP – Neuro Linguistic Programming or No Longer Plausible?". Bandler. R. • Bradbury. S. Washington DC: National Academy Press. Scotts Robert B & Judith A DeLozier (2000).. Theories. 198 pages... Grinder. Enhancing Human Performance: Issues. (1975) The Structure of Magic I: A Book About Language and Therapy Science and Behavior Books. Grinder. • Grinder. Scotts Valley. Hallbom. ISBN 978-1-903776-31-5. (1990) Beliefs: Pathways to Health & Well-being • Dilts. R. UK: Thorsons. J. R. and Techniques (http://www. NY: HarperCollins. United Kingdom: Management Pocketbooks Ltd. NLP: the new technology of achievement. NLP University Press. E J & Heinz J Biedermann (1985). Dilts. ISBN 0-911226-25-7 • Bandler.. ISBN 1-55552-022-7. J. ISBN 0-9717223-0-7.. CA: Grinder & Associates. Psychotherapy. J. (ed) and Andreas. • Grinder. Live Your Dreams Let Reality Catch Up: NLP and Common Sense for Coaches.. • Satir. Joseph & Ian McDermott (1996). • Druckman. The Structure of Magic II: A Book About Communication and Change. Andreas.. Encyclopaedia of Systemic Neuro-Linguistic Programming and NLP New Coding. Ottawa. ISBN 0-688-14619-8. Whispering in the Wind. New York. Seymour. (ed) (1985) Using Your Brain-for a Change ISBN 0-911226-27-3 • Bostic St Clair. Lori Stephens (Ed) (1991) Righting the Educational Conveyor Belt ISBN 1-55552-036-7 • Bostic St Clair.1037/h0088527. Managers and You (http://www. • Grinder. ISBN 0-8314-0049-8. Carmen & John Grinder (2002). ISBN 0-8314-0051-X Journal articles • Bradley. Daniel & John A Swets. CA: Science & Behavior Books. ISBN 0-8314-0044-7 • Bandler. ISBN 0-309-03792-1. Steve & Charles Faulkner (Eds. Principles of NLP. • Platt. Grinder.nap. • Bandler. ISBN Palo Alto. (1976) Changing with Families: A Book about Further Education for Being Human Science and Behavior Books. J. 149 pages. R. C. R. Grinder. Carmen & John Grinder (2002). Scoots Valley. ISBN 0-9701540-0-3. (Eds) (1988). London. May 2001: 10–15.) (1996). John & Judith DeLozier (1987). G. Whispering in the Wind. (1990) Changing belief systems with NLP Meta Publications. R. (1987) Influencing with Integrity: Management Skills for Communication and Negotiation • O'Connor. M. J. Alresford.Neuro-linguistic programming 9 Further reading Books • Andreas. J. (1981) Reframing: Neuro-Linguistic Programming and the Transformation of Meaning Real People Press. CA: J & C Enterprises. Erickson Volume I ISBN 091699001X • Grinder. • Burn. NLP Pocketbook. .. Real People Press. Smith. Theory and Research 22 (1): 59–62. R. S. Canada: Trafford Publishing. R. ISBN 1-4120-4709-9. V. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Time for an Informed Review. Grinder. R. (foreword). ISBN 1-85274-073-6 • O'Connor. "Bandler and Grinder's Communication Analysis: Its historical context and contribution". • Ellerton PhD. Roger (2005). ISBN 0-916990-24-9 • Dilts. John & Richard Bandler (1975). CMC. J. Hants SO24 9JH. Skeptical Intelligencer 11. 2008. (preface) (1995) Introducing Neuro-linguistic Programming: The New Psychology of Personal Excellence Aquarian Press. doi:10. Bandler. (1976) Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H.. ISBN 0-7225-3195-8. CA: J & C Enterprises. Gillian (2005). • Dilts. • Laborde. Garry (2001). 224 pages. Turtles All the Way Down: Prerequisites to Personal Genius.

som. Gary T http:/easyweb. • Von Bergen. 10 External links • NLP and learning research (University of Surrey) (http://www. • Morgan. Spring 1993.nlpresearch. Human Resource Development Quarterly 8 (4): 281–294.asp?menuid=41&id=26) • Article on scientific validity of NLP (http://www. "Scientific Assessment of NLP" ( system/index. Dylan A (1993).inspiritive. Journal of the National Council for Psychotherapy & Hypnotherapy Retrieved 24 August .htm) • Database and review of academic research (http://www.1002/ Barlow Lamar V Wilkinson (1997).uk/~dylanwad/morganic/ hosted The First International Neuro-Linguistic Programming Research Conference (http://www.htm) • Extensive Library of articles in independent collaborative space for NLP ( • Archives of Anchor Point (NLP Magazine) (http://www.Neuro-linguistic programming See NLP – Neuro Linguistic Programming or No Longer Plausible? (http://www. "Selected alternative training techniques in HRD". C Publications/Articles/NLP_Plausible. doi:10.

and Scientology had become financially successful. Context and early influences One of the earliest influences on NLP were General Semantics (Alfred Korzybski) as a new perspective for looking at the world which included a kind of mental hygiene . or of setting guidelines. and Milton H. In general. test. Originally a study into how excellent psychotherapists were achieving results they did. test their value in practice. based around the skill of modeling as used to identify the key aspects of others behaviors and approaches that led them to be capable of outstanding results in their fields.History of neuro-linguistic programming 11 History of neuro-linguistic programming This article discusses the history of the field known as Neuro-linguistic programming. During the 1990s. A second important part of the context was that the founders developed a philosophy of "doing" rather than "theorizing". which had long held sway. This was a departure from the Aristotelian concepts of modern science and objective reality. often under multiple confusing brand names. As part of this. developers have preferred to generate ideas. the field was left open for those interested to explore whatever its principles led them to. there was less regard for the concerns and approval of mainstream science in doing so. With the 1980s. and issues such as the subjective character of experience were becoming more . NLP TOPICS • • • • History NLP and science Methods Positive/Negative view · talk Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) was developed jointly by Richard Bandler and John Grinder under the tutelage of Gregory Bateson (a renowned anthropologist. as well as Gregory Bateson. in countries such as the UK. tentative attempts were made to put NLP on a more formal. NLP tended to be developed in a fragmented and haphazard manner by many individuals. Santa Cruz. Likewise there was little thought of control or standards. leading to a viable human potential industry and associations with emerging New Age thinking. and wherever their personal interest took them. social scientist. the two fell out. This may have been due to the strong counterculture (anti-establishment) mood at the time. at the University of California. and leave rigorous scientific verification to other parties or until later. during the 1970s. Virginia Satir. linguist and cyberneticist). during much of NLP's history. and some opportunistically. it rapidly grew into a field and methodology of its own. and amidst acrimony. By the late 1960s. and trademark lawsuits by Bandler [1]. some ethically. regulated footing. were rapidly becoming disfavored. A final set of influences was that old notions of behaviorism and determinism. Korzybski General semantics influenced several schools of thought. self-help organizations such as EST. such as the gestalt therapist Fritz Perls. and a variety of individuals and representative groups in the field resumed moves to put the field on a more professional footing. Erickson. question). while there was respect for the scientific method (hypothesize. and around 2001. The Esalen human potential seminars in California began to attract a wide range of thinkers and lay-people. Dianetics. the law suits finally became settled. and it influenced notions of programming the mind.

and new age . followed in 1977 by Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. Bandler and Grinder met with Erickson on a regular basis. especially the meta model. Santa Cruz. and recognized as the founder of clinical hypnotherapy and a near-legendary[4] therapeutic genius in his own right. Gregory Bateson who became a major influence on the early intellectual foundations of the field. to attend training by Fritz Perls and Virginia Satir. a means to use deliberately imprecise language to enable a person to work at an unconscious or somatic level rather than a cognitive level. Erickson Volume II. Under the subject title of "Neuro-linguistic programming". Bandler invited assistant professor of linguistics Dr. Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. sales professionals. the models were expanded in The Structure of Magic Volume II (1976). then business managers. such as the meta-model and Milton model. Grinder used his knowledge of transformational grammar. logical types. and sought to understand what their behavior signified. captured the attention of anthropologist. double bind theory. Eye Witness to Therapy. Early models developed into the core of NLP The early work. which together form the basis of the so-called Milton model. firstly with psychotherapists. Richard Bandler was invited by Bob Spitzer. and had begun running Gestalt therapy workshops to refine his skills.[3] At the time. Bateson introduced the co-founders to Milton Erickson. In 1975-1976 they published a first volume set of patterns. First published in The Structure of Magic Volume I (1975). the first core model within what ultimately became an entire field. transcribe and edit recordings of Perls for a book. John Grinder to observe his Gestalt workshops. at that time in his 70's. and was attached to the newly formed Kresge College where Grinder was also lecturing in linguistics. While at UCSC. Just before Fritz Perls died he completed the first draft of The Gestalt Approach which he gave to Robert Spitzer. and Changing With Families (co-authored with Satir herself in 1976).[5] These early studies and models of patterns used by recognized geniuses. 12 Development of NLP Initial studies In the early 1970s. and was later hired by Spritzer to assist. owner of Science and Behavior Books. and the questioning of the entirety of the philosophy of perception and the nature of reality. including Logical levels. which is now considered fundamental in anthropology. rather than a psychoanalytic approach of how they fitted into a theory. Bateson. Bateson was lecturing at University of California. Erickson Volume I (1975). they became increasingly popular. and eventually became known as the meta model (meta meaning "beyond"). recognition of cognitive biases. Such approaches undoubtedly influenced the development of the early studies by Grinder and Bandler which studied the effectiveness of their subjects from an anthropological (observational) basis. strongly supported cultural relativism (the view that meaning could only be found in a context – not to be confused with moral relativism). Santa Cruz. cybernetic epistemology and cultural relativism (the axiomatic anthropological concept that meaning only exists within a context). to resolve clinical issues more effectively. and modeled his approach and his work over eighteen months. The resulting linguistic model analysed how therapeutic recognition and use of language patterns could on its own be used to influence change. Bandler was an undergraduate student at University of California. to help build an explicit model of how Bandler (and Perls) did Gestalt therapy. the two collaborated to produce several works based on these exceptional psychotherapists of the time. bringing with it such questions as the subject-object problem. and starting with Perls and moving to leading family systems therapist Virginia Satir.[2] Bandler helped Spitzer edit this draft and also listen to recordings of Perls working with clients which were transcribed for a second book titled. an anthropologist himself. formed the basis of workshops and seminars.History of neuro-linguistic programming accepted as part of a postmodern outlook.

who like Bandler at the time was a cocaine user. [8] [1] In addition.00" per individual. Bandler. transcripts were published in book by the same name. They published recommendations to the NLP community to become a legitimate field of study. A collection of Grinder and Bandler's seminars were transcribed by Steve Andreas and published in 1979. Carmen Bostic-St. conspiratorial tortious interference and breach of settlement agreement and permanent injunction by Grinder. Frogs into Princes. formed their own associations and modifications of the original work and took NLP is different directions. Bandler's company Not Ltd declared bankruptcy.e.) Ongoing legal threats ensued throughout the 1980s and 1990s surrounding trademarks. 13 Splintered In 1980 Bandler's collaboration with Grinder abruptly ended and also Leslie Cameron-Bandler filed for divorce. Shortly after (1983). that he is the exclusive owner of all intellectual property rights associated with NLP. empty names to be specified later. through his licensing agreement and promotional materials. as well as trademark infringement. Tony Clarkson (a UK practitioner) asked the UK High Court to revoke Bandler's UK registered trademark "NLP". Whispering in the Wind (2001). as regarded NLP and their partnership. In his suit. Archive. Bandler claimed "damages against each such defendant in an amount to be proven at trial. Matters were not helped by Bandler being charged with the 1986 murder of Corine Christensen. A number of agreements were reached as to legal settlement between Bandler and Grinder. between 1982-1987 they began developing the New Code of NLP. a development group formed around the co-founders including Leslie Cameron-Bandler. Stephen Gilligan. Steve Andreas and Connirae Andreas. During this time he held few public seminars. and a desired to create an aesthetic and ethical framework for the use of NLP patterns. The list of defendants included 200 "Does". later declaring Bandler bankrupt in the UK for failure to pay the sum of the ruling. Carmen Bostic St 11 July 2000 [11] Rethinking NLP: "New Code" approach John Grinder began collaborating with Judith DeLozier." [10] Contemporaneous with Bandler's suits in the US Superior Court. 1978) and made significant contributions to NLP. in order to clarify legally whether this was a generic term rather than intellectual property. In July 1996 after many years of legal controversy.000. Grinder and their group of associates parted ways. Grinder ceased providing public seminars. [9] On February 2000 the US Superior Court found against Bandler stating that "Bandler has misrepresented to the public. in their work. causing some of Bandler and Grinder's books to go out of print for a while ('Structure I & II'. Other members of the original development group. .History of neuro-linguistic programming practitioners. Bandler claimed (retrospective) sole ownership of NLP. As popularity for NLP increased. to pursue cultural change in organisations. and David Gordon (author of Therapeutic Metaphors. while he continued to refine the New Code of NLP with his new partner. Their recode was presented in a series of seminars. and the sole right to use the term under trademark. The UK High Court found in favor of Clarkson. Bandler filed a lawsuit against Grinder and again in January 1997 against both Grinder and numerous prominent members of the NLP community including. titled Turtles All the Way Down.[7] and the case remains officially unsolved. In the 1980s. they were heavily influenced by anthropologist Gregory Bateson. intellectual property and copyright. but in no event less than [US]$10. and maintains the exclusive authority to determine membership in and certification in the Society of NLP. i. Clair. Robert Dilts. and that NLP was a generic term. Prerequisites to Personal Genius. and 'Patterns I & II' – considered the foundations of the field – were later republished).[6] (He was acquitted. Judith DeLozier.

NLP has a history of so-called NLP Practitioners overstating the level of their competence. But the research and the findings of the investigators certainly make it clear that NLP cannot help all people in all situations.[12] that is. Drs. national regulatory and certification bodies have begun to be founded. As a result. partly due to the legally-driven fragmentation of NLP practice. (As of 2006. Trademark and IP claims settled. which is frequently what is claimed and what practioners assert. it does not." In the same document. each with their own competing ideas of what training and standards were needed to become a "practitioner". in any fashion.[12] Bandler independently developed Design Human Engineering and authored Magic in Action. it seemed for a time that NLP could be (and was) promoted as the "latest thing". Using Your Brain for a Change.[15] . In this respect. some renowned. Training too became fragmented. A plethora of trainers.. Platt (2001) comments critically[13] that NLP needs to temper its claims." Likewise the Irish National Center for Guidance in Education's Guidance Counsellor's Handbook (current as of 2005) includes the following caveat about excessive claims made by some trainers: "Unfortunately. and of their training. consult and produce media on NLP) 14 NLP buzz A disquieting direction became obvious in the 1990s when.[14] 21st century By the end of 2000 some sort of rapprochement between Bandler and Grinder was achieved when the parties entered a release wherein they inter alia agreed that "they are the co-creators and co-founders of the technology of Neuro-linguistic Programming. Bandler continues to lecture.History of neuro-linguistic programming Richard Bandler together with Todd Epstein and Christina Hall developed much of the theory and practice associated with 'submodalities'. profit. it is a possibility that a more regular platform for the future development of NLP as an ongoing field of endeavour may come into being. notably in the UK. and some focussed upon niches. marketability or New Age appeal proved a stronger motive than realism or ethics. In addition. a panacea. and partly due to lack of a defining and regulating structure to oversee the rapidly growing field. concerning their respective involvement in the field of NeuroLinguistic Programming. "the particular perceptual qualities that may be registered by each of the five primary sensory modalities". The immoderate claims that are made for NLP might be viewed a little more critically when viewed against this background. Time for a Change and Persuasion Engineering (written with John LaValle). with credentials or standing within psychological and psychotherapy association bodies. Grinder and Bandler recognize the efforts and contributions of each other in the creation and initial development of NLP. Dubious models and practices burgeoned. Richard Bandler mutually agree to refrain from disparaging each other's efforts. "Dr. some New Age and charismatic. emerged. or universal miracle solution." ("Release" reproduced as Appendix A of Whispering in the Wind by Grinder and Bostic St Clair (2001)). and accept it has limits on its effectiveness: "Does that make NLP bogus? No. in parallel with bona fide. today there is a range of in duration. John Grinder and Dr.[12] Post-1980 much of Bandler's work revolved around the NLP concept of submodalities. For a number of these new practices. quality and credibility of different practitioner training programmes..

4. com/ random/ lawsuit-nlpc. html) and (http:/ / www. org/ NLP/ random/ lawsuit-text. htm#usa [11] http:/ / web.'s business seminars The Atlantic October. Are you a difficult person? CareerTrack Inc. nlpuniversitypress. com/ Satir395. 1988. htm section 1. htm#law [12] See (http:/ / www. section 1. com/ 1988-01-29/ news/ mn-26470_1_psychotherapist-richard-bandler). nlpanchorpoint. 6(7) Perls. R. ie/ resources_handbooks_guidance. January 29. nlp. org/ web/ 20010406091232/ www. nlpuniversitypress. [8] http:/ / web. 1989 Psychotherapist Not Guilty In Prostitute's Murder. anlp. nlp. org/ anlpnews2.) . Jury Finds (http:/ / articles.No Longer Plausible? [14] Guidance Counsellor's handbook. htm [10] http:/ / web. html Spitzer. org/ web/ 19990224225605/ http:/ / www. html) [13] Platt. latimes. nlpschedule. archive.5 (http:/ / www. C&J Enterprises. F. com/ html/ B08. archive. Anchor Point. org/ web/ 20010210021504/ http:/ / www.. archive. au/ action/ state. anlp.5: http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20021108024906/ http:/ / www. 2001.4.History of neuro-linguistic programming 15 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] http:/ / www. ncge. Los Angeles Times. com/ html3/ StSy40. NLP . ncge. html) (http:/ / www. (2001) Whispering in the Wind. John Grinder & Carmen Bostic St. nlpuniversitypress. Clair. archive. doc) (DOC) [15] (See Appendix of Whispering in the Wind. com/ html3/ StSy38. org/ anlpnews. (1973) "The Gestalt Approach and Eye Witness to Therapy" Science and Behavior Books ISBN 0-8314-0034-X A large number of books of true legends and anecdotes of Erickson have been written. htm [9] http:/ / web. (1992) Virginia Satir and the Origins of NLP (http:/ / www. ie/ handbook_docs/ Section1/ NLP_Guide_Sch. com. pdf).

Richard Bandler and John Grinder.[11] . thought and communication. it was promoted as a 'science of excellence'. psychosomatic illnesses.[1] The founders of NLP. He found "little research evidence supporting its usefulness as an effective counseling tool" and concluded that there was no reproducible support for PRS or for predicate matching.[3] NLP also espoused the potential for self-determination through overcoming learned limitations[4] and emphasised well-being and healthy functioning. several researchers and practitioners have questioned the methodology and validity of the studies. and which gives principles or techniques for identifying thought patterns and behaviour. derived from the study or 'modelling'[5] of how successful or outstanding people in different fields obtain their results. NLP describes how people represent and communicate with the world.[10] A research review conducted by Christopher Sharpley in 1984.[11] followed by another review in 1987 in response to criticism by Einspruch and Forman.[7] Most practitioners. however. originally promoted by it in the 1970s as an extraordinarily effective and rapid form of psychological therapy.[8] Sharpley's review of primary representational systems The majority of empirical research carried out in the 1980s and 1990s consisted of laboratory experimentation testing Bandler and Grinder's hypothesis[9] that an observer can identify a person's preferred sensory mode of thinking by observing eye-movement cues and sensory predicates in language use. and learning disorders. habit disorder. Later.[7] concluded that there was little evidence for the usefulness of NLP as an effective counseling tool. by Christopher Sharpley and published in the Journal of Counseling Psychology in 1984. Sharpley (publishing in the Journal of Counseling Psychology) undertook a literature review of 15 studies on the existence and effectiveness of preferred representational systems (PRS). It was claimed that these skills can be learned by anyone to improve their effectiveness both personally and professionally[6] The majority of empirical research into NLP was conducted by psychologists in the 1980s and 1990s. found little support for primary representation systems and predicate matching which was the focus of the research at the time. Sharpley's review marked a decline in empirical research interest. have taken a pragmatic approach and have been unconcerned with theory and research. depression. such as phobias. However. The most cited review.NLP and science 16 NLP and science NLP TOPICS • • • • History NLP and science Methods Positive/Negative view · talk Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) is an approach to explaining human behaviour. an underlying principle of NLP.[2] capable of addressing the full range of problems which psychologists are likely to encounter.

NLP and science 17 Critique by Einspruch and Forman Sharpley's conclusions have been contested [7] and by Grinder [12] [13] on the grounds that the studies demonstrated an incomplete understanding of the claims of NLP and that the interviewers involved in the many of the studies had inadequate training/competence in NLP. the Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance (United States National Research Council) selected several heavily marketed human performance enhancement techniques that made strong claims for their efficacy. stated that "NLP has achieved something akin to cult status when it may be nothing more than a psychological fad". after Sharpley). and numerous logical mistakes in the research methodology. There was also inadequate control of context. NLP was selected as a strategy for social influence and was evaluated by the psychological techniques committee directed by social psychologist Daniel Druckman.[10] Eric Einspruch and Bruce Forman (1985) broadly agreed with Sharpley. citing predicate matching. Enhancing human performance study As part of a study that investigated various psychological techniques for learning. a study that found no support for the proposed relationship between eye movements. although they criticised his apparent failure to address methodological errors in the research reviewed. using trained NLP practitioners found support for the claim that specific eye movement patterns existed for visual and auditory components of thought. stress management and social influence at the request of the US Army Research Institute. reframing. and that the research lacked a necessary understanding of pattern recognition as part of advanced NLP training. the techniques and underlying theory unique to NLP. spoken predicates. (1985) had tested claims for a 'one-session' treatment of performance anxiety against another method and a control group and found no support for claims of a 'one-session' effective treatment. Many of the techniques evaluated happened to have origins in the human potential movement. Sharpley published a response to Einspruch and Forman with a review of a further 7 studies on the same basic tenets (totalling 44 including those cited by Einspruch and Forman).[18] Buckner et al. and internal imagery. the data are not true evaluations of NLP"[11] adding that NLP is difficult to test under the traditional counseling psychology framework. has a value distinct from the lack of research data supporting the underlying principles that Bandler and Grinder posited to present NLP as a new and magical theory".[14] Sharpley response In 1987. and thus. They also made suggestions for further research. the study did not address whether such patterns indicated a preferred representational system.[17] However. then it may serve as a reference role for therapists who wish to supplement their counselling practice by what may be novel techniques to them. NLP and anxiety treatments Krugman et al. argued for further research into NLP amongst other treatments that have "achieved popularity in the absence of data supporting their utility". (1985). He concluded that as a counselling tool. an unfamiliarity with NLP as an approach to therapy. They claimed that "NLP is far more complex than presumed by researchers. Elich et al. improving motor skills. altering mental states. "NLP may be seen as a partial compendium of rather than as an original contribution to counseling practice and. thereby. were both empirically unvalidated and unsupported but that "if NLP is presented as a theory-less set of procedures gathered from many approaches to counselling. moving sensory modalities.[19] The committee was already aware of the weak support for preferred .[16] Sharpley conceded that a number of NLP techniques are worthwhile or beneficial in counselling." A study by Buckner et al. mirroring clients behaviors. inadequate definitions of rapport. (1987. but argued that none of these techniques originated within NLP. anchoring and changing history. and that trained observers could reliably identify them.[15] This second article included a review of Elich et al.

if any.[25] [26] Heap (1988) argued that to arrive at such important generalisations about the human mind and behaviour would certainly require prolonged. an NLP trainer can shape the person’s thoughts. recording. the committee "were impressed with the modeling approach used to develop the technique. Yet the founders of NLP never revealed any such research or investigation. emphasizing imitation of verbal and nonverbal behaviors. When Heap spoke to academic colleagues who spend much time researching and teaching in these fields. it may well be appropriate now to conclude that there is not. There is no scientific support for these assumptions. and meticulous investigation of human subjects using robust procedures for observing. These assertions are stated in unequivocal terms by the originators of NLP and it is clear from their writings that phenomena such as representational systems. "There is just no other way of doing this". and. indeed. and the failure of investigators to convincingly demonstrate the alleged benefits of predicate matching. seriously question the role of such a procedure in counselling. they showed little awareness. particularly cognitive science and neuropsychology. "It assumes that by tracking another’s eye movements and language. […] These conclusions. "The truth is. the committee "found little if any" evidence to support NLP’s assumptions or to indicate that it is effective as a strategy for social influence. This then led the committee to take up the topic of expert modeling in the second phase of its work. feelings. and particularly in matching sensory predicates and its use in counsellor-client relationship in counseling psychology. and never has been. easily and convincingly demonstrable on training courses by tutors and trainees following simple instructions. then its founders have made remarkable discoveries about the human mind and brain. in view of the absence of any objective evidence provided by the original proponents of the PRS hypothesis."[22] Secondly. which would have important implications for human psychology. Bandler himself claimed it was not his job to prove any of his claims about the workings of the human mind. The present author is satisfied that the assertions of NLP writers concerning the representational systems have been objectively and fairly investigated and found to be lacking. and there is no evidence of its existence. 1983[21] ).[25] Indeed. of NLP. and opinions (Dilts. predicate preferences and eye-movement patterns are claimed to be potent psychological processes. systematic. Yet there is no mention of them in learned textbooks or journals devoted to these disciplines. Therefore. Neither is this material taught in psychology courses at the pre-degree and degree level. it becomes easy to change" (ibid). the effect of matching predicates on all representations showed strong effect on perceptions. any substance to the conjecture that people represent their world internally in a preferred mode which may be inferred from their choice of predicates and from their eye movements. and analysing the phenomena under investigation. The technique was developed from careful observations of the way three master psychotherapists conducted their sessions. and the failure of subsequent empirical investigations to adequately support it. First. However. when we know how something is done. in interactions in everyday life.[23] 18 Heap's review Michael Heap (1988) conducted a systematic review of the research literature on NLP and found that it was lacking in evidence.NLP and science representation systems (PRS) in the literature and noted that the body of research had largely not tested NLP beyond the assumptions related to PRS (consistent with the Sharpley's literature review in Journal of Counseling Psychology).[24] Heap (1988) remarks [25] that if the assertions made by proponents of NLP about representational systems and their behavioural manifestations are correct. Adding."[22] These studies marked a decline in research interest in NLP generally.[20] The NRC came to two conclusions.[27] .

but at a minimum the authors could have critiqued the methodological rigor and conceptual soundness of the variables tested. metaprogramming. modalities and submodalities. and have seldom shown interest in articulating NLP as a theory. It has a large collection of scientific sounding terms."[29] Pragmatism Proponents of NLP often deny that it is based on theory. As noted above. Because NLP has always aimed to model "what works". like eye accessing cues. presuppositions. However.[30] Tosey and Mathison state that "the pragmatic and often anti-theoretical stance by the founders has left a legacy of little engagement between practitioner and academic communities". NLP was heralded as a breakthrough in therapy. metamodeling. Gestalt therapy. Since this is a review of empirical research it may seem unfair to focus on limitations of the studies reported. However. and psychology. controlled studies shed such a poor light on the practice. and it is really a pseudoscience. since it is not based on the scientific method. Beyerstein stated that "though it claims neuroscience in its pedigree.[10] Watkins stated that "Neurolinguistic Programming studies attempted to match eye movements and representational patterns. videos and books began to appear in trade magazines.[8] Pseudoscience argument Skeptics argue that NLP's claims for scientific respectability are fake. primary representational systems. hypnotherapy. one can only speculate what might have been learned with a wider range of outcome variables. family therapy."[28] Methodological issues Several researchers and practitioners have argued that while the body of empirical research that exists to date is not supportive of NLP it was not sufficient to dismiss it. Tosey and Mathison state that: "A question often asked of NLP is that of whether it has a theory. Its very name is a pretense to a legitimate discipline like neuroscience. Psychologist Barry L. and brief therapy. at the time it was introduced. NLP's outmoded view of the relationship between cognitive style and brain function ultimately boils down to crude analogies. neurolinguistics. one can find evidence within its practices of an eclectic approach that draws from (among other things) cognitive-behavioural approaches. The workshops provided certification.[10] [31] . and those promoting the intervention made such extreme and changeable claims that researchers began to question the wisdom of researching the area further. and advertisements for training workshops. neurological levels. These are appropriate tests of the validity of the proponents' claims. authors in the field emphasize pragmatism. micromodeling.NLP and science 19 Research issues Viability According to Grant Devily.

pp 9-13) that by using NLP. Forman. [16] Elich. Experimental & Forensic Practices [25] Heap. (op. Moab.1111/j. 238-248. not just empirical.. 30. "Test of the Eye-Movement Hypothesis of Neurolinguistic Programming: A Rebuttal of Conclusions" Perceptual and Motor Skills. pp.. Neuro-linguistic programming. John & Carmen Bostic St Clair (2001). C. mheap. Meara. Also. (http:/ / books. Volume 34. J. ed. (1987). Predicate matching in NLP: A review of research on the preferred representational system. Journal of Counseling Psychology.Handbook of NLP: A Manual for Professional Communicators. 1975b. 1988. edu/ openbook. Journal of Counseling Psychology. pdf). Whispering in the Wind. 32(4). doi:10. .1559-1816.. doi:10. nap.) Hypnosis: Current Clinical. ISBN 0916990125 [22] Druckman. and Reese (1987) Journal of Counselling Psychology. [10] Tosey P. note: "psychological fad" p. Experimental and Forensic Practices (http:/ / www.1440-1614. Devilly (2005) "Power Therapies and possible threats to the science of psychology and psychiatry" Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry Vol. 1987 Vol. 1: 103–107. L. com/ nlp1. Thus. p ii. p 175-176 doi:10..589 [8] Grant J. vendor neutral. after a session of therapy. p 166) that a single session of NLP combined with hypnosis can eliminate certain eyesight problems such as myopia. 26th – 28th June 2007 [11] Sharpley. "Fabulous Creatures Of HRD: A Critical Natural History Of Neuro-Linguistic Programming ". L. University of Surrey Paper presented at the 8th International Conference on Human Resource Development Research & Practice across Europe. Gower 2002 [2] It is explicitly stated (e. Robert (1983) Roots of Neuro-Linguistic Programming. org/ journals/ ccp/ 53/ 4/ 526) Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology.cit. Oxford Brookes Business School. [19] Druckman & Swets. 2234-2260(27) doi:doi:10. ISBN 0911226192. "Observations Concerning Research Literature on Neuro-Linguistic Programming". 58. J. (1985).58. F.002035 [24] Michael Heap (1988) Hypnosis: Current Clinical.4. & Mathison. .15. Golicz. UT: Real People Press. 625 [17] Buckner. (1984). W. 105. Daniel (2004) "Be All That You Can Be: Enhancing Human Performance" Journal of Applied Social Psychology.. 622-625. [13] Beck.39 p.1. p 174). Mental imagery as revealed by eye movements and spoken predicates: A test of neurolinguistic programming (http:/ / eric. 34(3). According to Michael Heap in a paper on NLP written in 1988 for The Psychologist (the monthly magazine of the British Psychological Society p 261-262) one NLP workshop announcement claimed that spelling problems may be eliminated in five minutes (NLP Training Programme) [3] Grinder and Bandler alleged (1981.cit. "Research Findings on Neuro-linguistic Programming: Non supportive Data or an Untestable Theory" (http:/ / eric.2004. 32(4). Number 11. pp. C. [Bandler. Communication and Cognition. The Structure of Magic: a book about language and therapy. Meta Publications. smokers may deny that they smoked before. Kirsch.01601. pp.41.tb01975. 149 (p. pp. Milling.F. Eric L..1146/annurev. gov/ ERICWebPortal/ Home. Journal of Counseling Psychology 32 (4): 589–596. Vol. 589-596.2005. (1979). M. 34. Wickless. R. but also rendered amnesic for the fact that they had the problem in the first place.. M.A. 526-530. Vol.NLP and science 20 Renewed research interest Several practitioner have expressed interest in investigating NLP further using multiple methodologies.175-176 [14] Einspruch. Neuro-linguistic programming treatment for anxiety: Magic or myth? (http:/ / content.. 1980. and they are unable to account for such evidence as nicotine stains. gov/ ERICWebPortal/ Home. Palo Alto: Science and Behavior Books [6] O'Connor & Seymour (p xii) [7] Einspruch.437 doi:doi:10. php?record_id=1025& page=243) [21] Dilts. B. 1988 see pages 138-149.4. 1979.32.g. Journal of Counseling Psychology. p 169) Bandler and Grinder make the claim that by combining NLP methods with hypnotic regression. ed. J.020190. (1988). problems such as phobias and learning disabilities may be disposed of in less than an hour's session (whereas with other therapies.1037/0022-0167. and Harry Adler. Reese. Vol 53(4). [4] e. In M.E.32. "Observations Concerning Research Literature on Neuro-Linguistic Programming". progress may take weeks or months). and can even cure a common cold (op. Bandler & Andreas 1985 [5] Bandler & Grinder 1975b p. Frogs into Princes: Neuro Linguistic Programming. Bandler & Grinder.. NLP Research Conference was held in 2008 sponsored by University of Surrey with the aim of encouraging improved research collaboration.[32] References [1] Heap 1988.x [23] Gelso and Fassinger (1990) "Counseling Psychology: Theory and Research on Interventions" Annual Review of Psychology doi:10. & Miller. [15] Sharpley C.g. November 2004.2466/ Lankton. E. No.283-287 [18] Krugman.1037/0022-0167. R. 1984.x [9] Bandler. see p.24. Capitola. . Heap (Ed.589. php?record_id=1025& page=138) [20] Druckman & Swets.. 31(2). & Grinder. ISBN 0-9717223-0-7. [12] Grinder. portal?_nfpb=true& _pageLabel=RecordDetails& ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ327573& ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_accno& objectId=0900000b800561ca). Journal of Counseling Psychology. London: Croom Helm.8 (quote). Grinder.1111/j. portal?nfpb=true& _pageLabel=RecordDetails& ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ352101& ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_accno& objectId=0900000b8005c1ac). CA. & Forman. (1985). CA: J & C Enterprises. & Toth (1985). apa. Thompson. R. 45.243 (http:/ / books. nap. Bruce D..52). The first. even when their family and friends insist otherwise. edu/ openbook. D. a person can be not only effectively cured of a problem.. & Beck E. (1985).6).

(Thompson.NLP and science [26] See also Efran and Lukens (1990). nlpresearch. structure. [29] Karen E Watkins.B.Tosey and Mathison 2007 [32] Neuro-Linguistic Programming and Learning . and change: frameworks of meaning in psychotherapy. (Ashok & Santhakumar 2002). claiming that "original interest in NLP turned to disillusionment after the research and now it is rarely even mentioned in psychotherapy"(p. ISBN 0393701034 [27] Bandler 2008 [28] Beyerstein. which investigated two particular notions from within NLP. Iss.W. Published by W. International Journal of Mental Health 19(3): 27-36. J S. San Francisco: Winter 1997. New York. There has been virtually no published investigation into how NLP is used in practice. [31] They add that "The literature in academic journals is minimal. pg. (1990) Language. . Norton. and the notion of the "primary representational system". Brainscams: Neuromythologies of the New Age. according to which individuals have a preferred sensory mode of internal imagery indicated by their linguistic predicates (Grinder & Bandler 1976). in the field of HRD see (Georges 1996).Efran. 2008): http:/ / www. Courtney.122) -. 27. 295. Lukens M. org/ ) 21 .D. The empirical research consists largely of laboratory-based studies from the 1980s and 1990s. & Dickson 2002). infed.L (1990).A University of Surrey Project (http:/ / www. 8. 4. org/ biblio/ nlp_and_education. htm. Vol. the "eye movement" model (Bandler & Grinder 1979). 5 pgs [30] For more extensive discussion of NLP's theory in relation to learning see Tosey and Mathison ( 2003. (1997) An invited response: Selected alternative training techniques in HRD Human Resource Development Quarterly.

strategies and beliefs of another in order to 'build a model of what they do.and unrealistic ..[3] NLP is an eclectic field. learn and communicate.. started by analysing in detail and then searching for what made successful psychotherapists different from their peers. NLP teaches that language and behaviors (whether functional or dysfunctional) are highly structured.maps can restrict choices and result in problems. and the methods used to teach those techniques to people. Our view of the world is filtered by our experience.[1] Using NLP a person can 'model' the more successful parts of their own behavior in order to reproduce it in areas where they are less successful or 'model' another person to effect belief and behavior changes to improve functioning.[1] [2] [4] Modeling "Modeling" in NLP is the process of adopting the behaviors. The founders. NLP teaches that our mind-body (neuro) and what we say (language) all interact together to form our perceptions of the world.[2] NLP embodies several techniques. and Fritz Perls (gestalt therapy). then modifying or replacing these patterns with more useful or helpful ones. There is also an emphasis on ways to change internal representations or maps of the world in order to increase behavioral flexibility. As an approach to personal development or therapy it involves understanding that people create their own internal 'map' or world. We act and feel based on our perception of the world rather than the real world. and that this structure can be 'modeled' or copied into a reproducible form. values.Methods of neuro-linguistic programming 22 Methods of neuro-linguistic programming NLP TOPICS • • • • History NLP and science Methods Positive/Negative view · talk The methods of neuro-linguistic programming are the techniques used to perform neuro-linguistic programming on a mind or person. which proponents claim can affect changes in the way people think.we know that our modeling has been successful when we can systematically get the same behavioural outcome as the person we have modeled'. Internal 'maps' of the world NLP calls each individual's perception of the world their 'map'. The patterns discovered were adapted for general communication and effecting change. If someone excels in some activity. NLP modeling methods are designed to unconsciously assimilate . or maps (programming). Therefore. Virginia Satir (family therapy). impoverished . beliefs. Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) is based on the idea that with our senses we are only able to perceive a small part of the world.[1] The original models were: Milton Erickson (hypnotherapy). often described as a 'toolbox' which has borrowed heavily from other fields in collating its presuppositions and techniques. Bandler and Grinder. language. including hypnotic techniques. assumptions. it can be learned how specifically they do it by observing certain important details of their behavior. and biological sensory systems. The 'model' is then reduced to a pattern that can be taught to others. recognizing unhelpful or destructive patterns of thinking based on impoverished maps of the world. Each person's map of the world determines feelings and behavior.

The word 'we' does not specify who is doing the action. O'Connor & Seymour in "Introducing NLP" describe rapport as a 'harmonious dance'. posture. to allow for interpretation in the words offered to the client. In business or therapy."[6] Modeling is not confined to therapy. Once pacing is established. Overloading conscious attention The second aspect of the milton model is that it uses ambiguity in language and non-verbal communication. building rapport. NLP teaches 'mirroring' or matching body language. but warn against mimicry. and beliefs of the person being modeled. which arises when the boundaries of meaning are indistinct. For example. The use of ambiguity and vagueness distracts the conscious mind as it tries to work out what is meant which gives the . Secondly. being based on the verbal patterning of Fritz Perls and Virginia Satir. applied to a broad range of human learning. The NLP meta-model.[8] The Milton model has three primary aspects: Firstly. and is. the word 'decision' is a process which had been turned into an abstract noun. language. (or ‘indicators’). strategies. Another aspect of modeling is understanding the patterns of one's own behaviors in order to 'model' the more successful parts of oneself. As an approach to learning it can involve modeling exceptional people. a response could be to ask who will actually be doing the deciding and how exactly the process of deciding (from decision) would take place. is done to achieve better communication and responsiveness. Also.[8] Singer gives examples of the pantomime effect of mere mimicry by some practitioners which does not create rapport. breathing. generalize. is intended to facilitate detecting the indicators of limiting beliefs and restrictive thinking.[10] 2."[1] Einspruch & Forman 1985 state that "when modeling another person the modeler suspends his or her own beliefs and adopts the structure of the physiology. In that statement there was also an implied necessity (from need) which could also be challenged to find out if it really is a necessity. the practitioner can 'lead' by changing their behavior or perception so the other follows. A therapist who ’listens’ on the basis of their existing belief systems may miss important aspects. The questions in the meta-model are designed to bring clarity to the clients language and so to their underlying restrictive thinking and beliefs. 23 Meta model In NLP the Meta-model is a set of specifying questions or language patterns designed to challenge and expand the limits to a person's model or 'map' of the world. will distort. the meta-model might be used to help a client elaborate the details of problems. Rapport The first aspect.[9] 1. Rapport is an aspect of 'pacing' or tuning into the client or learners world. Thirdly.Methods of neuro-linguistic programming the tacit knowledge to learn what the master is doing of which the master is not aware. and delete portions of their experience. but can be.[2] Milton model The Milton model is a form of hypnotherapy based on the language patterns for hypnotic communication of Milton Erickson. and behavioral outcomes) of the one being modeled. to overload and distract the conscious mind so that unconscious communication can be cultivated. communication. a noted hypnotherapist.[5] As Bandler and Grinder state "the function of NLP modeling is to arrive at descriptions which are useful. an extension of natural skills. a person states that "we need to make a decision". a process occurs in which the modeler modifies and readopts his or her own belief system while also integrating the beliefs of the one who was modeled. predicates and voice tonality. This might also be combined with vagueness. to assist in building and maintaining rapport with the client.[7] It has been described as "a way of using language to induce and maintain trance in order to contact the hidden resources of our personality". By listening to and responding to these language patterns the practitioner seeks to help the client to recover the information that is under the surface of the words. or empathy. When a person speaks about a problem or situation their choice of words. After the modeler is capable of behaviorally reproducing the patterns (of behavior. proposals and objectives by asking about the important information that has been left out.

breathing. for example. If a person repeatedly used predicates such as "I can see a bright future for myself". This example follows the indirect method leaving both the specific time and level of self-confidence unspecified. reading a book. describing a problem in therapy. Responding directly to sensory experience requires an immediacy which respects the importance of context. When involved in any task. "when you come to a decision to speak in public. In contrast "I can feel that we will be comfortable" would be considered primarily kinesthetic because of the predicates "feel" and "comfortable". posture. It is used to soften the meta model and make indirect suggestions. such as making conversation." The choice of speaking in front of the audience. voice tone and the use of sensory-based predicates.[1] This teaches that people perceive the world through the senses and store the information from the senses in the mind. The theory was that the practitioner by matching and working within the preferred representational system could achieve better communication with the client and hence swifter and more effective results. for example. the words "see" and "bright" would be considered visual predicates.Methods of neuro-linguistic programming unconscious mind the opportunity to prosper. "When you are in front of the audience. Some representations are within conscious awareness but information is largely processed at the unconscious level. In particular. 3.[16] [17] [18] Submodalities Submodalities are the fine details of representational systems. you might find yourself feeling ever more confident". kicking a ball or riding a horse. the exact time and the likely responses to the whole process are framed but the imprecise language gives the client the opportunity to fill in the finer details. skin color or breathing shifts. These verbal cues could also be coupled with posture changes. Many NLP techniques rely on interrupting maladaptive patterns and replacing them with more positive and creative thought patterns which will in turn impact on behavior.[15] the existence of a preferred representational system ascertainable from external cues (an important part of original NLP theory) was discounted by research in the 1980s. Grinder has stated that a representational system diagnosis lasts about 30 seconds. Many trainings and standard works still teach PRS[8] whilst other proponents have de-emphasized the existence and relevance of PRS and instead emphasize working within all representational systems. When people are processing information they see images and hear sounds and voices and process this with internally created feelings. The practitioner could ascertain this from external cues such as the direction of eye movements. New Code emphasizes individual calibration and sensory acuity. feelings (and possibly smell and taste) are being activated at the same time. their representational systems.[14] Preferred representational systems Originally NLP taught that most people had an internal preferred representational system (PRS) and preferred to process information primarily in one sensory modality. It might be made even more indirect by saying. In contrast an indirect suggestion is less authoritative and leaves an opportunity for interpretation. you may find it appealing how your feelings have changed. "when you are in front of the audience you will not feel nervous". was incorporated into NLP from psychology and gestalt therapy shortly after its creation. the way representational systems are organised and the links between them impact on behavioral performance.[11] A direct suggestion merely states what is wanted. Although there is some research that supports the notion that eye movements can indicate visual and auditory (but not kinesthetic) components of thought in that moment. consisting of images. Memories are closely linked to sensory experience. In the late 1970s the developers of NLP started playing around with the submodalities of representational systems involving the enhancement of visualisation . Indirect communication The third aspect of the Milton model is that it is purposely vague and metaphoric for the purpose of accessing the unconscious mind.[12] 24 Representational systems The notion that experience is processed by the sensory systems or representational systems. precluding such a rigidly specified model as the one described above.[13] Moreover. sounds.

" In their encyclopedia. Related concepts in other disciplines are known as cognitive styles or thinking styles. Examples of NLP meta-programs include the preference for overview or detail. Rodger's work was further extended and developed by Shelle Rose Charvet and published in her book 'Words that Change Minds'. Robert Dilts & Judith Delozier explicitly refer to the mind as computer metaphor: "A strategy is like a program in a computer. the term programs is used as a synonym for strategy. In the entry for the term strategy in their Encyclopedia. Other training exercises develop a person's ability to move around internal images. A typical change process may involve manipulating the submodalities of internal representations. In NLP. group or culture. it appears that the proponents of NLP may have been the first to systematically use manipulation of submodalities for therapeutic or personal development purposes. compulsions and addictions. Some of them are: • • • • • • • • • • The meaning of a communication is the response that you get (not the one intended). location. as 'light and clear'. which are specific sequences of mental steps. texture.Methods of neuro-linguistic programming techniques (common in sports psychology and meditation). and feel it. by including other sensory systems. change the quality of sounds and find out how these effect the intensity of internal feelings or other submodalities.[19] Submodalities and hypnosis became the focus of Richard Bandler's later work. mostly indicated by their representational activity (using VAKOG). commonly known as the 'LAB Profile'. Dilts and Delozier then define metaprograms as: "[programs] which guide and direct other thought processes. pervasive and usually habitual patterns used by an individual across a wide range of situations." One set of meta-programs consisting of 13 distinct patterns effecting work-place motivation and performance was elicited by Rodger Bailey and Ross Steward from their work as HR consultants and developed as the Language and Behaviour Profile. leading to a behavioral outcome. the volume and direction of internal voices and sounds. brightness of internal images. and the location. Submodalities involve the relative size. It tells you what to do with the information you are getting. and like a computer program. you can use the same strategy to process a lot of different kinds of information. Although NLP did not discover submodalities. but would seek through NLP to perceive. someone may see their future as 'dark and cloudy' with associated emotions. and so on. Specifically they define common or typical patterns in the strategies or thinking styles of a particular individual. and movement of internally created sensations. For example. particularly phobias.[20] 25 Meta-programs Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) uses the term 'meta-programs' specifically to indicate general. habitual linguistic patterns and body language. The map is not the territory Life and 'Mind' are Systemic Processes Mind and body are parts of the same system and have infuence over each other Law of Requisite Variety All behaviour is geared towards adaptation Behind every behavior is a positive intention People are doing the best they can with the choices they have available Choice is better than no choice (and flexibility is the way one gets choice) Multiple descriptions are better than one • Behaviour is to be evaluated and appreciated or changed as appropriate in the context presented • People already have all the resources they need to succeed . the preference for where to place one's attention during conversation. Aphorisms/presuppositions Depending on the branch of NLP (different trainers or companies) the number and some of the content of the presuppositions may vary.

Reframing with language allows you to see the world in a different way and this changes the meaning. but that the behaviors themselves may be unwanted or counterproductive in other ways. retain the positive products of the unwanted behaviours and produce an outcome that is appropriate for all circumstances. auditory sound effects are often imagined to enhance the experience. sound or touch) then a connection is made between the emotion and the unique stimulus. such as a smokers hand moving towards the face with a cigarette in it. A positive outcome must be defined by the client. If the unique stimulus occurs again. energetic and fit. to remind herself of the things that she could do. he sees that he too is a swan. only feedback 26 Techniques Anchoring NLP teaches that we constantly make anchors (associations) between what we see. be within the clients power to achieve. NLP teaches that anchors (such as a particular touch associated with a memory or state) can be deliberately created and triggered to help people access 'resourceful' or other target states. While in an emotional state if a person is exposed to a unique stimulus (sight. In addition to visualization. change the behaviour (Also: Make distinction between behaviour and self). Well-formed outcome In NLP this is one of a number of 'frames' wherein the desired state is considered as to its achievability and effect if achieved. • People are not their behaviour: accept people. Reframing Another technique. Parts integration ."[24] There are examples in children's literature. It is based on the notion that there is a positive intention behind all behaviors. gazing at his reflection. and not worry about the things she couldn't. legends. and reprogramming the mind to 'switch' to a visualization of the desired outcome. Alice Mills also says that this occurs in Hans Christian Andersen's story where to the surprise of the ugly duckling. such as a healthy looking person. fairy tales and most creative ways of thinking.[20] Ecology This is a frame within which the desired outcome is checked against the consequences in the clients life and relationships from all angles. the beautiful creatures welcome and accept him. responses and behaviours will also change. Reframing is the basis of jokes.[21] Anchoring appears to have been imported into NLP from family therapy as part of the 'model' of Virginia Satir. myths. the emotional state will then be triggered. This involves visualizing a 'cue' which leads into the unwanted behavior.[26] Six step reframe An example of reframing is found in the six-step reframe which involves distinguishing between an underlying intention and the consequent behaviors for the purpose of achieving the intention by different and more successful behaviors.Methods of neuro-linguistic programming • The highest quality information you can have of someone is their (present) behaviour.[23] Swish is one of the techniques that involves the manipulation of submodalities. NLP uses this staged process to identify the intention and create alternative choices to satisfy that intention. When the meaning changes. • Every outcome manifested is Feedback: there is no failure. Pollyanna would play The Glad Game whenever she felt down about life.[25] Reframing is common to a number of therapies and was not original to NLP. hear and feel and our emotional states. reframing functions through "changing the way you perceive an event and so changing the meaning.[22] Swish The swish pattern is a process that is designed to disrupt a pattern of thought from one that used to lead to an unwanted behavior to one that leads to a desired behavior.

Vol. pp. Philadelphia: Jan-Mar 2002.B. R. Bloomingdale: Jan 2004. S.. J.1037/0022-0167. pg. com/ institute/ history.589.14 No. (2002) Utilizing Ericksonian hypnosis in psychiatric-mental health nursing practice Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. spatial sorting processes from Fritz Perls. W. It tends to be used in conjunction with the skills of the Milton model to create a story which operates on many levels with the intention of communicating with the unconscious and to find and challenge basic assumptions.4. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. Parts integration appears to be modeled on 'parts' from family therapy and has similarities to ego-state therapy in psychoanalysis. 8 pgs [13] Druckman and Swets (eds) (1988) Enhancing Human Performance: Issues. and Techniques (http:/ / darwin. ISBN 0911226192. 3. gov/ ERICWebPortal/ Home. Vol. F. 1. edu/ books/ 0309037921/ html/ 133. ISBN 0-916990-01-X. [3] Dilts. Neuro-linguistic programming. 284(pp. London: Croom Helm. [11] Bandler. Thompson.. Predicate matching in NLP: A review of research on the preferred representational system. pp.171. (1979). Richard & John Grinder (1983). 622-625. 'Parts integration' is the process of integrating the disparate aspects of the self by identifying and then negotiating with the separate parts to achieve resolution of internal conflict. portal?_nfpb=true& _pageLabel=RecordDetails& ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ327573& ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_accno& objectId=0900000b800561ca). cgi?ISBN=1855383446& f=p).. [12] Rothlyn P Zahourek. & Miller.46. In M..M. [2] Bandler. (1985). R. 31(2). ed. pp. Volume 1. Journal of Counseling Psychology. J. Richard & John Grinder (1976).A. M.3–4. .32. Moab. Palo Alto.24.D.The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience. Meara. 30. It combines elements of Eriksonian techniques.. Erickson. and Reese (1987) Journal of Counselling Psychology . reiters. (1980). Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Volume I . Grinder. [17] Heap. 45.283-287 [16] Sharpley. Meta Publications. CA :Meta Publications. Eric L. VA Adapted version available online (http:/ / sidjacobson. pp. Iss. This is a technique designed to eliminate bad feelings associated with past events by re-running (like a film. pg. National Academy Press.52). American Society For Training and Development Alexandria. M.371-388 See also (available online): Neuro-linguistic programming: its potential for learning and teaching in formal education (http:/ / www. reframing and 'changing history' techniques. Bandler. ISBN 0831400447.38.[8] [20] 27 References [1] Bandler. ISBN 0916990079. 2 pgs [8] Joseph O'Connor. 6. [14] Cooper and Seal (2006) "Theory and Approaches .p.625 [19] Tosey. 261. Experimental and Forensic Practices (http:/ / www. ISBN 0787902780. Jane Mathison (2003) Neuro-linguistic Programming and learning theory: a response The Curriculum Journal Vol. pdf). Julie Annette Sikes (2002) The application of the neuro-linguistic programming model to vocal performance training D. [5] Jacobson. VK/D VK/D stands for 'Visual/Kinesthetic Dissociation'. The Structure of Magic I: A Book About Language and Therapy. [18] Elich. Reframing: Neurolinguistic programming and the transformation of meaning..) Hypnosis: Current Clinical. Iss. The University of Texas at Austin. John Seymour (2002 (first published 1990)). 34(3). Journal of Counseling Psychology. Theories.. [9] Pruett. C. Bruce D. nap.17). 32(4). Introducing NLP (http:/ / www. Jossey Bass. [4] Bandler. 14. 589–596. 15. Forman.. doi:10. [7] Norma Barretta (2004) Review of Hypnotic Language: Its Structure and Use. Vol. M. (1985). UT: Real People Press. L. AAT 3108499 [10] Singer. DeLozier.. J. "Observations Concerning Research Literature on Neuro-Linguistic Programming". 238-248. P.15.Methods of neuro-linguistic programming Parts Integration is based on the idea that different aspects of ourselves are in conflict due to different perceptions and beliefs. London: HarperCollins. Crazy Therapies: What Are They? Do They Work?. R. Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. note: "psychological fad"p. .A. Journal of Counseling Psychology 32 (4): pp.. mheap. UT: Real People Press. com/ index. Richard & John Grinder (1975). R. (1994) Info-line: practical guidelines for training and development professionals. appendix II. com/ nlp1. Heap (Ed. sometimes in reverse) an associated memory in a dissociated state. CA: Science & Behavior Books. Frogs into Princes: Neuro Linguistic Programming. ISBN 1855383446. Cupertino. Grinder. Moab.3 p.Eclectic-integrative approaches: Neuro-linguistic programming" In Feldtham and Horton (Eds) The SAGE Handbook of Counselling and Psychotherapy 2e [15] Buckner. Margaret & Janja Lalich (1997). html). Mental imagery as revealed by eye movements and spoken predicates: A test of neurolinguistic programming (http:/ / eric. (1988) (PDF). 'metaphor' in NLP ranges from simple figures of speech to allegories and stories. html) [6] Einspruch.[20] Metaphor Largely derived from the ideas of Bateson and the techniques of Erikson. 149(pp. 151 pages. . Reese. (1984).

1023/A:1014317420921 [23] Masters. Vol 24(1). (1987). Weidner. [22] Haber. 18 pgs [26] Sharpley C. gov/ ERICWebPortal/ Home. Robert B. Russell. B Rawlins. (1985): "Neuro-linguistic programming treatment for anxiety: Magic or myth?. htm) [20] Dilts.F. uk/ educol/ documents/ 00003319. (1991) "The NLP swish pattern: An innovative visualizing technique.p32 pp. 28 . No. "Research Findings on Neuro-linguistic Programming: Non supportive Data or an Untestable Theory" (http:/ / eric. Storrs: 1999. 1987 Vol. 526-530. et al. 1: 103–107. humanistic approach Contemporary Family Therapy. M. 23-34 ISSN 1573-3335 DOI:10. Children's Literature. Rawlins.Methods of neuro-linguistic programming leeds. com/ ). Journal of Mental Health Counseling. Judith A (2000). Vol. Communication and Cognition Journal of Counseling Psychology. 53(4) pp. Vol 13(1) Jan 1991. . portal?nfpb=true& _pageLabel=RecordDetails& ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ352101& ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_accno& objectId=0900000b8005c1ac). . 105. nlpuniversitypress. Encyclopedia of Systemic Neuro-Linguistic Programming and NLP New Coding (http:/ / www. 34. (2002): Virginia Satir: An integrated..27 pg. [21] Krugman. ISBN 0970154003. ac. NLP University Press." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Aug. Martin. Mar 2002. " [24] Joseph O'Connor NLP: A Practical Guide to Achieving the Results You Want: Workbook Harper Collins 2001 [25] Alice Mills (1999) Pollyanna and the not so glad game. L. 79-90. DeLozier. J. ed. 87. Vol.

though negative in an everyday sense). and negative intent and stated in the negative. • I'm hoping to retire in 5 years. In a similar vein. However. She believed that digging deeply into a client's dysfunctional or damaging behaviour should find that the client is trying to achieve a positive intent through undesirable behaviour. Laing has argued that the symptoms of what is normally called mental illness are comprehensible reactions to impossible demands that society and family life place on sensitive individuals. In other words. and negative is generally used to mean "undesirable" or "bad". The following statements are all negative intent or stated in the negative. Application In this sense. the term is used to mean linguistically stated in the affirmatory. Examples The following statements are all positive intent or stated in the positive. Views Virginia Satir originated a slightly different meaning of the phrase positive intention. . and it is said to be negatively stated by reference to a state or thing one wishes to avoid. regardless of whether they are beneficial or damaging wishes: Stated in the positive • I want a car with a 6 litre engine. D. unconsciously ineptly and harmfully. regardless of whether they are beneficial or damaging wishes: Stated in the negative: • I don't like this office. and that the dysfunction could often be helped by finding other ways to honor that positive intention. in neuro-linguistic programming they have a specific meanings in the phrases positive intent and stated in the positive. a goal or intent is said to be positively stated if it is stated by reference to a state or thing one desires.Positive and negative (NLP) 29 Positive and negative (NLP) NLP TOPICS • • • • History NLP and science Methods Positive/Negative view · talk The term positive is generally used to mean "desirable" or "beneficial". • I'd like to steal/harm/take something or someone (stated in the positive in the technical linguistic and NLP senses. psychiatrist R. and would constitute a "positive intention". • I hate it.

imagine the object to be avoided more than the relational word "not. It also subjectively suggests a single dead-end rather than a general direction to go. "Don't think of a white bear!" may cause one to have difficulty not thinking of a white bear. For example. will be quite surprising and revealing. Otherwise. C. (ed) (1985) Using Your Brain-for a Change ISBN 0911226273 . To turn it into a positive. though it is a positive wish in an everyday sense. J. R. it does not constitute a positive intention. whilst a wish to avoid can motivate. References • Bandler. For example: • I don't want to take that job Possible positive intention: I want to be able to relax Possible effect: the client may come to see that the job need not in fact be in conflict with relaxation. the common quote. therefore. ISBN 0911226192 • Bandler. In cognitive terms. Grinder. Grinder." and tends to keep the negative idea at the forefront of the mind. and suggest new directions of thought. Andreas. This is why. especially to people who habitually think in terms of negative intention. Real People Press. 149 pages. if the job be detrimental. (ed) and Andreas. ISBN 0831400447 • Bandler." For example. at some level. the end or goal at which he or she aims or intends to accomplish. in NLP it is generally seen as more beneficial to focus on the opportunities a person has. Often. one might ask questions such as.. 198 pages. that the mind does not always process neuro-linguistically negatives well. "not wanting to steal" is not the same as "being honest. (1975) The Structure of Magic I: A Book About Language and Therapy Science and Behavior Books. the client should consider a different career or other forms of relaxation outside work. (1981) Reframing: Neuro-Linguistic Programming and the Transformation of Meaning Real People Press..Positive and negative (NLP) • I want them to stop picking on me. S. other than those he or she wants to be gone. it is generally not seen by NLP as being as useful as a positive intention. The aphorism in NLP is that all human action fulfils a positive intent at some level. • When I retire I won't have to work. R. J. J. • If I had money I wouldn't have to steal (stated in the negative in the linguistic and NLP senses. the mind may... when one focuses on what he or she does not want. if explored. the intent. "What would you like to be doing if you were not stealing?") 30 Functional significance The significance of this comes from the psychological phenomenon claimed by some. or may explore ways to remain calm at work. For these reasons. Whether an action is successful or unsuccessful depends at least on whether the intended result was brought about. Grinder. R. Positive intent A person's intention in performing an action is his or her specific purpose in doing so. R. ISBN 0911226257 • Bandler. (1979) Frogs into Princes: Neuro Linguistic Programming.

" What specific aspect(s) of the event have toxic meanings to the individual? In addition. if they believe that because they have intrusive memories of the experience. The meta model was originally presented in The Structure of Magic I: A Book About Language and Therapy in 1975[1] by Richard Bandler and linguist John Grinder. They also collect these experiences into groups or categories that are labeled with words. make indirect suggestion and to allow the client to generate their own meaning for what was said."[5] Uses of meta model in psychotherapy: "The question the PTSD victim often asks is."[6] . and ideas about human modeling from the work of Alfred Korzybski as being influential in their thinking.[3] The meta model consists of categories of questions or heuristics which seek to challenge linguistic distortion. The authors cited Noam Chomsky's transformational syntax. The authors were particularly interested in the patterns of language and behavior that effective psychotherapists used with their clients to effect change. Of particular interest was Korzybski's critique of cause-effect rationale and his notion that "the map is not the territory" which also featured in Gregory Bateson's writing. The meta-model is a method for helping someone go from the information-poor word maps back to the specific sensory-based experiences they are based on. the clinician needs to assess the specific attributions that patients give to their responses. 1975) of the term "this. maintain rapport. the co-founders of neuro-linguistic programming. this will lead to increased suffering.[4] Discussion Definition of the meta-model: People respond to events based on their internal pictures. sounds and feelings. who collaborated between 1973 and 1975. why did this happen to me? The astute clinician needs to probe for the deep meaning (Bandler & Grinder. questions may be in the form of "What X.Meta-model (NLP) 31 Meta-model (NLP) NLP TOPICS • • • • History NLP and science Methods Positive/Negative view · talk The meta-model (initially named meta-model of therapy[1] and also known as meta-model of language[2] ) is a pragmatic communications model used to specify information in a speaker's language. they are crazy. Typically. A follow-up to the meta model was the authors' Milton H. "How specifically?". which was John Grinder's linguistics specialization. "According to whom?" and "How do you know that?". For instance. It is often contrasted with the intentionally ambiguous Milton Erickson inspired-Milton model. clarify generalization and recover deleted information which occurs in a speaker's language. specifically?".[1] They observed and imitated gestalt therapist Fritz Perls and family systems therapist Virginia Satir in person and via recordings. It is here in the information-rich specific experiences that useful changes can be made that will result in changes in behavior. Erickson-inspired model called the Milton model which is used to soften the meta model.

Meta-model (NLP)


The meta model
Deep structure/surface structure
At a deep level of thought, a speaker has a more complete representation of the intended communication. Bandler and Grinder equated this level of thought to what Noam Chomsky described as the deep structure. In 1957, Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, in which he developed the idea that each sentence in a language has two levels of representation — a deep structure and a surface structure.[7] The deep structure represented the core semantic relations of a sentence, and was mapped on to the surface structure (which followed the phonological form of the sentence very closely) via transformations. Bandler and Grinder believed that for efficiency in communication, information is transformed, that is, thought is subject to a unconscious process of deletion, generalization and distortion which is influenced by pre-existing beliefs, strategies, memories, and decisions. What is represented (at the surface structure) as spoken word or written down is a mere subset of the original thought revealing distorted assumptions, mystical thinking, over-simplification, impoverished experience and, thus, limited maps of the world. These limitations are challenged in the meta model to clarify, and elaborate a client's communication and maps of the world which Bandler and Grinder believed had therapeutic benefit.[1]

The map is not the territory
Bandler and Grinder also acknowledged the influence of Korzybski's dictum, "The map is not the territory". They try to signify that individual people in fact do not in general have access to absolute knowledge of reality, but in fact only have access to a set of beliefs they have built up over time, about reality. So it is considered important to be aware that people's beliefs about reality and their awareness of things (the "map") are not reality itself or everything they could be aware of ("the territory"). Bandler and Grinder, like Korzybski, held that many people do confuse maps with territories which may limit an individual's understanding and cognitive abilities unless the two are distinguished.

The third aspect of the meta model involve the use of intuition. Bandler and Grinder held that the exceptional communicators that they modeled used the meta model intuitively. They believed that a therapist who has more experiences with dealing with clients will tend to have a better instinct or intuition about what they should do in certain situations.[3] The reliability of one’s intuition depends greatly on past knowledge and occurrences in a specific area. This is not to say that one with a great amount of experience is always going to have an accurate intuition (because some can be biased); however, the chances of it being more reliable are definitely amplified.[8]

Bandler and Grinder's (1975) model focuses on semantic ill-formedness and distortions, which they argued was a linguistic cue to a speaker's impoverished or limited experience of the world.

In this model, a "presupposition" is a statement in which one or more unstated assumption(s) must be taken for granted (presupposed) for the statement to make sense. Example 1: • "John began learning the meta model yesterday, too." • Presuppositions: (1) the word "too" implies that there was another person who began learning the meta model yesterday. • Response: "Who else learned the meta model yesterday?"

Meta-model (NLP) Example 2: • "Do you want to learn the meta model again today?" • Presupposition: I have done it already, at least once. • Challenge: "Have I done it before?" Example 3: • "My husband is as lazy as my son." • Presuppositions: You have a husband; you have a son; your son is lazy. • Challenge: "Am I to assume that your son is lazy?"


Cause-effect, this shows how to identify the inappropriate use of causal thinking (x means y, x makes me y, or x makes y happen), which is considered semantically ill-formed and unacceptable (irrational).[9] Causality always implies at least some relationship of dependency between the cause and the effect. For example, deeming something a cause may imply that, all other things being equal, if the cause occurs the effect does as well, or at least that the probability of the effect occurring increases. Example 1: • "My wife makes me angry." • Challenge: How specifically can your wife make you angry? • There is a presupposition here that someone can physically cause an emotional response in another person. NLP emphasizes the importance of state management and that individuals have choice about which state they occupy independent of others. People can choose how they respond to stimulus. Along these lines, it is impossible for someone to make or cause someone else to feel, be, do something with words alone. Example 2: • I'm nervous because something happened to me last time in this situation. • Challenge: How specifically can a past effect cause your current state to change? • There is a presupposition in NLP that memory of the past is no more unchangeable than a goal in the future. If a past memory is impacting on current performance then you can make changes to the past memory.

Mind-reading violation
Mind-reading violation occurs when someone claims to think they know what another is thinking without verification. Assuming the intentions of others or how someone will act without evidence or confirmation. Example 1: • "If he doesn't start paying his share of the bills, she is going to leave him." • Challenge: "How do you know this? Has she told you that she intends to leave him if he doesn't?" Example 2: • • • • Client: "She is annoyed with me." Change agent: "I'm curious to know, how do you know that she was annoyed?" Client: "Her arms were crossed." Change agent: "Did you ask her? Perhaps she crossed her arms because she is cold or she finds it more comfortable in that position."

• In NLP there is an emphasis on calibration and sensory acuity. Intuitions about what people are thinking based on gestures, body language or other cues without adequate calibration distorts the intended communication and considered to be a mind reading violation. Example 3:

Meta-model (NLP) • "You did not think about me when you did that" • "How do you know what thoughts I had?"


A nominalization is a verb (process word) which has been transformed into an abstract noun. It is like taking a snapshot of a moving object, subjectively the representation has less "movement", and seems like a "static" representation. That is, a dynamic process (or verb) is transformed into a static thing (or noun). Examples of nominalization Example 1: • "The communication [from 'communicate'] in this company is poor." • Challenge: "How could we communicate more effectively?" Example 2: • Client: "My decision will be made by tomorrow." • Challenge: "How specifically will you decide?" • When a verb is transformed into a abstract noun (decision is the nominalized form of decide) it is considered by the author of the model to become stagnant. The intention of responding with the verb form is to facilitate movement and have the respondent become aware of the process form of deciding. Additional examples applicability (from applicable) • The applicability of the meta model was noticeable. • How specifically was it applicable? carelessness (from careless) • Her carelessness was apparent in the way she looked away. • How specifically was she careless? difficulty (from difficult) • The difficulty of the test was a hurdle. • How specifically was it difficult? failure (from fail) • It was a big failure. • How specifically did it fail? intensity (from intense) • The intensity was overwhelming. • How intense was it? investigation (from investigate) • The investigation was carried out thoroughly. • How specifically was it investigated? reaction (from react) • My reaction was immediate. • How specifically did you react?

Meta-model (NLP) The wheelbarrow test Note there are 2 simple tests that can be used to determine if a word or expression is a nominalization: • the wheelbarrow test: if you can put it into a wheelbarrow, it is NOT a nominalization. E.g. A drink is a noun, but it is not a nominalization... as it is tangible, it can be put into a wheelbarrow and carried around. Quality control fails the wheelbarrow test and is a nominalization. • If the word continuous can be put in front of the noun and still make sense. E.g. improvement becomes continuous improvement, hence improvement is a nominalization. (The fact that continuous can be added indicates that there is a dynamic aspect to this static element). These examples are used to show how to identify limiting use of language. When a verb is used instead, the mind of the user becomes more flexible in terms of seeing different points of view and looking for solutions to problems.[10] Complex equivalence Complex equivalence (X↔Y, or X is equivalent to Y) draws an unsubstantiated link between an event and its consequence. The logic just does not follow. Example 1 • Client: "And now my secretary quit. I'll be bankrupt by the end of the year!" • Challenge: "Are you telling me your fortune depended on your secretary's employment?" Example 2 • Client: "She is always late, she must not love me." • Challenge: "How, specifically, does her lateness mean she does not love you?"


• See also: hasty generalization, Glittering generality

Universal quantification
A universal quantifier is a word which binds a quality to everything, or every relevant thing it refers to (a lot, all, every, everyone, most, no, none, never, nobody, no-one, some, somebody). It occurs when someone attempts to characterize something as true for everything, everyone or all those in a set. The words in italics are called quantifiers. Example 1: • "My co-workers are all lazy." • Challenge: "All of them?" or "Which co-workers, specifically?" Example 2: • "Everyone hates me." • Challenge: "Every one of them? Which people, specifically?" Example 3: • "This makes no sense whatsoever." • Challenge: "What specifically, does not make sense?" Example 4: • Client: "Nobody likes me." • Challenge: "Nobody?", "Who specifically does not like you?" • Client: "My co-workers..."

Meta-model (NLP) • Challenge: "Which co-workers specifically?"


Modal operators
Modal operator verbs give more information about the function of the main verb that follows it. Although having a great variety of communicative functions, these functions can all be related to a scale ranging from possibility (can) to necessity (must). Modal operators are intuitively characterised by expressing a modal attitude, such as necessity (modal verbs: have to, must, should) or possibility (can, might, may) towards the proposition which it is applied to. They can also appear in the contracted negated form (e.g. shouldn't, can't, mustn't). Modal operator of necessity The modal operator of necessity (e.g. must, should, ought to, have to, its necessary to, ...) expresses an absolute (often moral) obligation, order or requirement. • Example 1: "I must redeem myself." • Response: What would happen if you didn't redeem yourself? The modal operators of necessity, shall/should, in 1st person objective though not moral obligation, no choice, as in: • Example 2: "I should make an effort." • Response: "What would happen if you didn't make an effort?" • Example 3 (negated): "I shouldn't do that." • Response: "What would happen if you did?" Modal operator of possibility The modal operators of possibility (e.g. can, could, might, may, its possible to, ...) expresses intention, permission, option or choice. • Example 1: "I can/could/might/may/will do it later." • Response: What would happen if you didn't do it later? • Example 2: "I can't/couldn't/won't put myself together." • Response: "What would happen if you did?", "What would happen if you didn't?"

Simple Deletions
In a simple deletion an important element in a statement is missing. For example: Example 1: • Client: "Go and do it." • Response: "Do what, specifically?" Example 2: • Client: "That is really important to me." • Response: "What specifically is important?" or "Important, to whom?" Example 3: • Client: "I feel bad." • "How specifically do you experience that feeling?", "What specifically do you feel bad about?" In these examples, the key words to look out for are it and that. The appropriate response would be to ask what, where or when exactly? e.g. "Go and do what exactly?" This example is used for teaching how to identify this common linguistic distortion. In responding, this question is

least most many more Example 1: • Client: "I put my best effort forward. Example 2: • Client: "My students are failing me. Example 1: • Client: "I created a great impression on them. compared to what?" Example 3: • • • • • Client: "I felt worse than ever. Example comparisons in English: good better well bad far far little better worse farther further best best worst farthest furthest littler. what specifically?" Client: "I feel worse than I was before the accident. less(er) littlest.. how?" Unspecified Comparatives Unspecified Comparatives or null comparative is a comparative in which the starting point for comparison is not stated." Challenge: "Worse." • Challenge: "Best.Meta-model (NLP) considered to help gather information about the limiting pattern of the client. Example 2: • Client: "I'm playing much better now" • Challenge: "Better. compared to what?" • Essentially the response is attempting to recover information about the comparison criteria the client is using." Challenge: "Before." • Respondent: "Failing." • Response: "How exactly did you create a great impression (and note the unspecified referential index “them”) on who exactly?" • Note: The appropriate response is to ask how exactly does taking "x" action lead to "y" result. 37 Unspecified Verbs In an unspecified verb it is not clear how the action creates or created the result.. compared to what?" Client: "Than before." .

do you mean that you are part of the Packers?"[1] • Example 4: "He shook her hand. who exactly is." • Challenge: "Wait. he. but I don't know if I have the confidence. women. Lojban)." • Challenge: "Acclaimed." • Challenge: "By 'we'. them. For example uncontextualised use of they.. I have tried alcohol before. . We always lose and it makes me depressed. Influenced by Korzybski's critique of cause effect (x makes me feel y). or can not easily be understood based on the preceding sentences. 'them'? Also. can I assume that by "he" you were referring to the hunter? Lost Performative Lost Performative makes reference to a performative speech act. it makes me say stupid things?" • Example 3: "I hate watching the Packers in the playoffs.Meta-model (NLP) 38 Unspecified referential index Unspecified referential index. is unspecified.[9] . 'they'. you. but he set his dogs after them.. she. .[3] It can also be traced to the nominalistic tradition of William of Ockham.. by whom?" or "How do you know that?" Example 2: • Client: "Disobeying the government is wrong.. An effort unrelated by origin but going in the same direction of improving clarity of communication is the constructed language Loglan (and its close cousin. you. and sometimes the speech act itself. according to whom?" Example 3: • Client: "An apology was given" • Challenge: "Who gave the apology and to whom was it given?" Influences John Grinder did his doctoral thesis on Noam Chomsky's Transformational Grammar. but the person who is the source of it. them. It makes you say stupid things. Example 1: • Client: "Her book was highly acclaimed.) when the context is unknown. who were you referring to? Also." • Challenge: Who shook who's hand exactly? • Example 5: Why do they always rely on Mary to do their homework for them? • Challenge: Who specifically is 'they'? • Example 6: They tried to run away from the hunter. • Challenge: When you said." • Challenge: "Who is it that says you should go into business?" • Example 2: "Yeah. men." • Challenge: "Wrong. refers to the use of personal pronoun (they. Examples: • Example 1: "They say I should go into business. This often takes the form of a value judgment without acknowledgment of the fact that a person is the source of that value judgment.

R. com/ Articles/ whispering. [9] Chong. L. p.. Psychotherapy: Theory. -.364-373. MIT Press. [2] Stanojevic.D. -. CA: Meta Publications. Palo Alto. 1990. Judith Delozier (1977). ch.. CA: Science & Behavior Books. Richard. (2001) "Cause and Effect" Rapport magazine of ANLP. M.1-43. CA: J & C Enterprises. John (1975a).Meta-model (NLP) 39 References [1] Bandler. Inside Intuition. Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. 171.3. Richard. 28(2) pp. com/ CauseandEffect. 'Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Meta Model of Language. GD. Training.). Volume II. steveandreas. Proute. Erickson. pages. John Grinder. John & Carmen Bostic St Clair (2001. 2008. -.. 222. and Chong. available online (http:/ / www. Grinder. Belgrade School. [."Neuro-Linguistic Programming" Crown House Publishing 1899836322 . [5] (Steve Andreas. Cupertino. (2001) The User's Manual for the Brain .. Practice.' Linguistic and Speech Recognition. ch. [3] Grinder. pp.3. html)) [6] Schwarz. Michael Hall. Bodenhamer. M. Appendix. DK. 127. htm) [10] Bob G. Whispering in the Wind. JKS. neuro-semanticprogramming. Noam (1965). [4] Bandler. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax.The Structure of Magic I: A Book About Language and Therapy]. [8] Eugene Sadler-Smith. [7] Chomsky. Research.. Integrative approaches in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. 2003 Book review: Whispering in the Wind (http:/ / www.

The skilled hypnotherapist constructs these gaps of meaning in a way most suited to the individual subject . It is general. Whereas an indirect suggestion is less authoritative and leaves an opportunity for interpretation. The Milton model is purposely vague and metaphoric and is used to soften the meta model and make indirect suggestions. The Milton model and meta model of NLP were the first two models of NLP. deletions and generalization in a speaker's language. Erickson Volume II.[1] The Milton Model lists the key parts of speech and key patterns that are useful in directing another person's line of thinking by being "artfully vague". to resolve clinical issues more effectively. It is described by the authors as the reverse set of the meta model.[2] A direct suggestion merely states the goal. The patterns of the Milton Model can be used to • pace another person's reality to gain rapport. leaving space for the subject to fill in the gaps with their own unconscious understandings . and in principle the model states that larger chunks (more general use of language) can lead to more rapport. Erickson. Whereas the meta model sought to specify distortion. The subconscious mind responds to openings. Erickson Volume I (1975).even if they do not consciously grasp what is happening. Effective hypnotic suggestion. Milton H. opportunities.Milton model 40 Milton model NLP TOPICS • • • • History NLP and science Methods Positive/Negative view · talk The Milton Model is a model for indirect interpersonal communications inspired by psychiatrist and pioneer of medical hypnosis. For example. while smaller chunks. Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. (more specific language) is more limiting and has a greater chance of excluding concepts from a person's a way which is most likely to produce the desired change. ambiguous and metaphoric. The model was created by linguist John Grinder and Richard Bandler. then. the Milton model intentionally utilizes those patterns. which together form the basis of the model. should be 'artfully vague'. In 1975-1976 they published a first volume set of patterns. The preceding example follows the indirect method as both the specific time and level of self-confidence . • access unconscious resources of another person to gather information or to lead them into an altered state. Indirect methods Erickson maintained that it was not possible to consciously instruct the subconscious mind. a means to use deliberately imprecise language to enable a person to work at an unconscious or somatic level rather than a cognitive level. and that authoritarian suggestions were likely to be met with resistance. "When you are in front of the audience. the co-founders of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP). metaphors and contradictions. you might find yourself feeling ever more confident". • distract the conscious mind. For example. and modeled his approach and his work over many months. Bandler and Grinder met with Erickson on a regular basis. followed in 1977 by Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. "When you are in front of the audience you will not feel nervous".

Pacing and leading Bandler and Grinder described pacing and leading the client in their book titled Structure of Magic. you may find it appealing how your feelings have changed. 4. the practitioner just feeds back the client's current experience.[3] 41 Rapport and entering the client's world There are a number of techniques that are supposed to be beneficial in building rapport which the authors of the Milton model reported from their observations of Milton Erickson: matching of non-verbal behaviour (ie. Bandler and Grinder stated that rapport (verbal and non-verbal) was essential for gaining interest and attention and necessary for effective communication. While pacing.[5] It consists of categories of questions or heuristics which seek to challenge linguistic distortion. generalized and deleted." The choice of speaking in front of the audience. "How specifically?". breathing.. 2. It might be made even more indirect by saying. Many of the Milton model patterns are intentionally distorted. Stephen Gilligan describes Bandler and Grinder's approach as process oriented in which the practitioner paces the ongoing experience of the client in order to build rapport and reducing resistance to the leading statements. gesture. the Milton model was described by the authors as intentionally vague. he was able to make extremely effective interventions (to help his patients overcome life problems). clarify generalization and recover deleted information which occurs in a speaker's language. In Uncommon Therapy. . posture. stated that Erickson developed the ability to enter the world view of his patients and. but imprecise language gives the client the opportunity to fill in the finer details.. "According to whom?" and "How do you know that?". and the likely responses to the whole process are framed. Jay Haley. Whereas the meta model is very specific. specifically?". You are sitting in that chair (pacing) You are looking over here (pacing) You are breathing in an even rhythm (pacing) Hearing the sound of my voice (pacing) And as you move slightly in your chair (pacing) You may also begin to find comfort entering into a state of relaxation (leading) The meta model The meta model was the first model presented by Bandler and Grinder in 1975 based on Fritz Perls and Virginia Satir together with some language categories from transformation syntax. 5. from that vantage point (having established rapport).). 3. "When you come to a decision to speak in public. Gilligan offers an example similar to the following (p. 4 2003)[4] : 1. .Milton model is left unspecified. the exact time. Typically. 6. questions may be in the form of "What X.

. How specifically can these people generate resources? (clarify unspecified verb) 3. first person (I) shifts to third person ("you").Milton model 42 The Milton model: inverse of the meta-model Unspecified nouns.. pronouns and verbs Process verbs: to understand..." Linguistic presuppositions • "Before you go into trance. comprehend. Pronouns: We. consider. better. "resources") and verbs ("generate"). Referential index shift A shift in referential index occurs when the subject of the sentence shifts from one perspective to another. • Example: "From my perspective. everyone.. ." • When you go into trance. our. • Example: "You can always improve your language skills with every conversation you have. What specific resources do these people generate? (clarify unspecified noun) In order for the respondent to comprehend the sentence.." Universal quantifiers • Use of quantifiers such as: all. specifically? (unspecified pronoun) 2. "some people".. "this gentlemen". In the above examples the temporal predicates "before" and "when" presuppose that the person "will go into trance" is unstated yet assumed nevertheless." In this sentence there are a number of aspects which are not specified according to the meta model of NLP: 1. I think this model has been in improving my communications. Which people. think. Null comparatives Use of comparison words (more. In the following example. I'd like you to sit comfortably in that chair as we talk about your outcomes for today. best. your colleagues will notice that you have become more effective in your communications. you may discover new resources that you did not realize you had yet. the better you will become at communication. . every. greatest) where one or both of the objects compared is unspecified: • "The more you practice the use of this model. Example 1: "People can generate resources using the Milton Model. . generate. he or she would have to make their own meaning for these unspecified nouns ("people". process.

or • "I'm just wondering what you are thinking.g. held tilt). resulting in his students thinking of exactly this. "Don't". verbally with a subtle shift in voice tone (e. In the above example. For example. Negative commands A classic example is Fyodor Dostoevsky's quote from Winter notes on summer impressions: “Try to pose for yourself this task: not to think of a polar bear. Bandler and Grinder (1976)." In the above example the question what are you thinking about? is embedded in the statement sentence structure. In order to understand the sense it is necessary to process the meaning of it. "a gravelly voice"). deeper voice tone) or voice quality (e. 1. often with variations on animal and colour. Just sit down on that chair and get comfortable first. one might state: • "I'm curious to know what you are thinking. believed that unconscious mind would process this command nonetheless. Similar ideas to Negative commands appear throughout popular culture and sayings. • Example: Can you just take a moment to take a deep breath and relax? Embedded questions Rather than directly asking: "What are you thinking about?". such as "It's as hard as trying not to think of a pink rhinoceros". body position." In the above example two commands: (1) feel a sense of comfort and (2) develop these skills are embedded in the sentence structure. for example. and you will see that the cursed thing will come to mind every minute. the voice may be directed spatially or with non-verbal cues or anchors (gesture. • "You may begin to feel a sense of comfort as you begin to develop these skills in your daily life. Don't go into a deep state of relaxation just yet.[6] In this case "think of an elephant" is an embedded command which is syntactically processed before the negation. the indirect suggestion in italics is negated. .” In this case "think of a polar bear" is an embedded command. like Erickson. Embedded commands An embedded command is typically distinguished or marked out using a subtle shift in voice tonality or non-verbal cue.g.Milton model 43 Indirect suggestion Conversational postulates These are yes/no questions but are rarely answered with a yes or no.". George Lakoff tells his cognitive science students. "Don't think of an elephant". The command would be marked out by the speaker.

due and forward. 2. he turned into a farm yard and the farmer said. The horse was perspiring heavily. I hopped on the horse's back. and Mary in many western American accents. but are homophones in many non-rhotic accents such as British Received Pronunciation. You're coming. All I did was keep his attention on the road. Examples of "oronyms" (which may only be true homophones in certain dialects of English) include • • • • • "ice cream" vs. Now and then he would forget he was on the highway and start into a field. "About four miles from here. 4. I took hold of the tick rein and said. your pin and pen in many southern American accents. 3. merry. "youth in Asia" "depend" vs. foreword are homophonous in most American accents but not in most British accents. aren't you? Metaphors Milton Erickson's use of metaphor was explored extensively in Sydney Rosen's My Voice Will Go With You. shall we? You're developing a deep state of relaxation. "the light" . The pairs do. marry. "Giddy-up. and court. torque. Where did you find him?" I said. Since it had a bridle on. caught are distinguished in rhotic accents such as Scottish English and most dialects of American English. So I would pull on him a bit and call his attention to the fact the highway was where he was supposed to be." Headed for the highway. will you? Let's have a beer. And finally. "So that's how that critter came back. same sound with different meaning) from English are • • • • you're. but an example is given in the first chapter of David Gordon's book Phoenix: I was returning from high school one day and a runaway horse with a bridle on sped past a group of us into a farmer's yard looking for a drink of water. And the farmer didn't recognize it so we cornered it. aren't you? Do listen." Quotes It is believed that embedding a suggestion inside of a story or quote distances the speaker from the command in order to reduce resistance. For example: • "Milton turned to the client and said. Go into a deep state of relaxation" Ambiguity Homophones Some examples of homophones (phonological ambiguity. "this guy" "delight" vs. I knew the horse would turn in the right direction. about four miles from where I had boarded him. And the horse trotted and galloped along. "deep end" "the sky" vs. "I didn't know. I didn't know what the right direction was.Milton model 44 Tag questions 1." "How did you know you should come here?" I said. "I scream" "euthanasia" vs. The horse knew. • The pairs talk.

Retrieved 2009-03-26. 8 pgs [4] Stephen Gilligan (2003) The Legacy of Milton H. [6] Sutton. Jill (9 March 2009). C&J Enterprises.) • I'm going to sleep. is referred to as a new person. John. . "A fascination with fire is elementary" (http:/ / www. is ambiguous who.. verbs or noun) the words fit into. (It is unclear whether they refers to advisers undergoing training or people who give advice about training. and Judith Delozier (1977).38. Iss. the pens or both. Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. . com. John. Palo Alto. [The Structure of Magic I: A Book About Language and Therapy]. and Richard Bandler (1976). [3] Rothlyn P Zahourek. It is unclear to what syntactic slot (adjective. the viewer or the person being viewed. ("Going" can be a verb with destination "sleep" or an auxiliary indicating near future. Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. Volume I.. • They are training advisers. Erickson. CA: Meta Publications. ISBN 0-916990-01-X. Vol. Erickson: Selected Papers of Stephen Gilligan [5] Bandler. So it can mean "I am (now) falling asleep" or "I am (in the future) intending to sleep". Cupertino. Erickson. CA: Meta Publications. 15. Cupertino. Philadelphia: Jan-Mar 2002. Volume II. 45 Syntactic ambiguity Syntactic ambiguity is where there is more than one possible meaning. Grinder. Cupertino. Grinder. ISBN 1555520537. Richard Bandler. M.) Bibliography 1. ISBN 1555520529. CA :Meta Publications. References [1] John Grinder & Carmen Bostic St. watoday. 1. 2. CA: Science & Behavior Books. html).Here it is ambiguous what is new. Richard & John Grinder (1976). Erickson. the paper. "The new paper and pens" .D.Milton model Semantic ambiguity • unlockable: (1) capable for being unlocked. (2) incapable of being locked Scope ambiguity 1. M. (2001) Whispering in the Wind. 2. Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. (2002) Utilizing Ericksonian hypnosis in psychiatric-mental health nursing practice Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. au/ opinion/ a-fascination-with-fire-is-elementary-20090309-8t91.D. Clair. "Viewing you again as a new person" . M. Volume 1.D. Richard & John Grinder (1975a). [2] Bandler.

There are two broad types of anchors: • Negative or unpleasant anchors. and the response may be either positive or negative. but will usually trigger an emotional response in the person perceiving the tonality to have the traits of anger. They are capable of being formed and reinforced by repeated stimuli.Anchoring (NLP) 46 Anchoring (NLP) NLP TOPICS • • • • History NLP and science Methods Positive/Negative view · talk Anchoring is a neuro-linguistic programming term for the process by which memory recall. in the sense that perceiving it tends to trigger reflexively some thought or feeling or response. . whilst using some notable stimulus (touch. The stimulus may be quite neutral or even out of conscious awareness. such as words one says to oneself. Then. For example. word. the elicitation of a strong congruent experience of a desired state. or be maladaptive. repetition of the stimulus will reassociate and restore the experience of the state. and look at the flag. the intense state automatically results. create certain feelings in our body. the stimulus and the state become neurologically linked. or stimulus) can come in an infinitude of possible forms: verbal phrases. state change or other responses become associated with (anchored to) some stimulus." [1] Basic anchoring involves in essence. and thus are analogous to classical conditioning. or memories and emotional states. sight) at the time this is most fully realized. An expansive view is that almost everything one perceives acts as an anchor. anytime the stimulus is provided. and to avoid accidentally neutralizing them in the process of setting them up. or between an external stimulus and an internal response in one trial. A voice tonality that resembles the characteristics of one's perception of an "angry voice" may not actually be as a result of anger. Steinbach (1984) describes anchoring as one trial learning which forms one of the basic presuppositions of NLP stating that "A therapist can teach a patient the association between one response and another. physical touches or sensations. There are refinements offered by setting anchors this way. Types of anchor Anchors (the "trigger". or internally. on might sing the national anthem. Eventually merely looking at the flag can automatically triggers those feelings. Whenever a person is in an intense state where the mind and body are strongly involved together and a specific stimulus is consistently and simultaneously provided at the peak of the state. certain sights and sounds. in such a way that perception of the stimulus (the anchor) leads by reflex to the anchored response occurring. and may have positive impact. and subtleties involved in order to both set them with precision.For example. In many cases. Anchoring is a natural process that usually occurs without our awareness.

specific and prompt reaction . I certainly wasn't feeling attracted to her. An old love song re-awakens a romantic mood. I snapped myself and asked myself.if it were constant then desensitization would eventually occur • Anchored to a unique. While I was in this angry. 47 . the pleasure was associated with the activity itself. But about ten minutes later I looked at Becky. If. I realized that being upset was not going to change anything. late one evening. so we asked the man at the front desk to have the valet park the car and ask the bellman to bring up our bags. Revisiting an old school or a place with powerful memories There are certain speculations as to what criteria must be met before an Anchor can be properly formed. There was no beliman or valet out front. and only one way is desired. It is also important that reinforcement of an anchor (in other words. To make a long story short. A child's comforter in an unfamiliar situation. whenever they see the person's face. when young. They do this consistently until the state of laughter is linked with their expression. Eventually they can just make the same facial expression. and as I did.Anchoring (NLP) Sometimes people have such an intense unpleasant experience . Flicking through an old family photo album stirs pleasant memories and some of the feelings associated with them. Good comedians know how to use a specific tonality. What's going on here? I realized I had linked all my negative feelings about losing our things to Becky. Looking at her made me feel lousy. The smell of freshly baked apple pies brings back memories of a happy carefree childhood. so when you think of the activity or are reminded of it you tend to re-experience some pleasurable feeling.that from then on. I was feeling fine again. and since I believe everything happens for a reason. phrase. and she was also mad.otherwise the anchor will fail to elicit and reinforce any one single response due to many different reactions being associated to the trigger. or maybe a specific tone of voice. passports. it turned out she was experiencing similar feelings about me. even though she didn't have a thing to do with it.332-333) Phobias in this sense can be studied as one example of very powerful anchor .otherwise the subject will not begin to sensitize to it • Intermittent . I kept looking at Beck. which I had already countersigned. p. • Positive or pleasant anchorsComedians are masters of anchoring. everything we owned had been stolen. Becky and i had an experience like this when we checked into a hotel. I started feeling angry about things she hadn't done that day.our credit cards. like a certain smile or facial expression. You can imagine what kind of state I went into. or physiology to get laughs instantly. and you can't help laughing. In such instances precision and structure may determine the difference between success and failure. After an hour went by and our bags had still not arrived. and a large cashier's cheque. "Unlimited Power". and while you're in that specific intense state they provide a specific and unique stimulus. upset state. we called fighting with their spouse or boss. you participated in family activities that gave you great pleasure. After about fifteen minutes. When I told her what I was experiencing. so we went up to our room and began to relax. He said that was no problem. feel terrified and nauseous. They do something to get you to laugh. repeated formation with the aim of reinforcement) should have a "break" between each repeat. Most agree that the trigger must be • Specific . Then.see spider. they immediately feel anger inside. since the neurological 'lesson' is quite capable of working either way. (Anthony Robbins. We had packed for a two-week trip.

touching it and even eventually sitting in it. To help the client work through traumatic events. We met with them in a big conference room.320) . whether we are aware of it or not. amongst other approaches. I stood next to the general's chair and told them in my most decisive. deliberately linked by practice to a known useful state in order to provide reflexive access to that state at will. as well as on IQ tests. p. watched 1959 movies. It was where the decisions were made. "Unlimited Power". We did this until we had transferred to ourselves some of the responsiveness the officers had for the general and this symbol of him. both groups were isolated at a retreat. Before and after the 5 days. The anchor concept is rooted in neurolinguistic programming (Bandler & Grinder. and lived with only 1959 artefacts. While the first group stayed constant or actually deteriorated on these criteria. which makes it a much more powerful force in our lives. or apprehensive in films. All of the officers treated it with ultimate respect. an observable/concrete resource should be used as an anchor. and muscle breadth. the second group dramatically improved on physical health measures such as joint flexibility. describing that time as "now". by the sights and sounds of 1959. The negotiations were settled as if I had ordered them. or "mood music" such as romantic. The general in charge arranged for us to meet with the appropriate officers to work out times. and the other group engaged in a series of tasks which anchored them back into a specific past time . or to recollect how one will feel if a good resolution is kept. climactic. When it was time for me to present the price I wanted. For trauma victims. John Grinder and I were negotiating with the United States Army to create a series of new training models to improve effectiveness in a variety of areas. At the head of the table was a chair reserved for the general. or was the thumping music enough to start your slide to the edge of your seat? Likewise the finale of classical symphonies. In Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention Karin Jordan (2006) states that "after the preliminary assessment has been completed. (Anthony Robbins. An unusual use of anchoring was studied by Ellen Langer in her study of two groups of 75-80 year old men at Harvard University. Most of the time we are not consciously aware of why we feel as we do . Leitmotivs — recurring themes — in music and literature also serve to restimulate a previously established response. the therapist should help the client develop an anchor. both groups were studied on a number of criteria associated with desensitize the stimulus and perhaps instead also sensitize it to some more neutral or positive feeling. vision. For 5 days. In this sense an anchor is set up to be triggered by a consciously chosen stimulus. commanding voice and physiology what we wanted to be paid. and so on. had 1959 music playing on the "radios". This may be used for exam nerves. sudden noises or movement can serve as terrifying anchors capable of recollecting the traumatic experience. In this context. Addison Wesley 1989) Anchoring is used in NLP to facilitate state management.’ What anchor was established in you by the crescendo of the sound of the music meeting the shark? Did your heartbeat increase? Did your palms begin to sweat? Did you have to see the shark.they wrote an autobiography up to 1959. where unquestioned commands were given. NLP might be used in a slightly different way . locations. feelings such as happiness or determination.indeed we may not realize we have responded in some cases. Earlier we had dickered over the price but this time no one even questioned it.Anchoring (NLP) 48 Usage NLP-style anchoring is a process that goes on around and within us all the time. we were able to negotiate a fair price without spending time bantering back and forth. "Mindfulness". pounding heartbeat rhythm in the moments leading up to each of the appearances of the huge killer shark in the movie ‘Jaws. 1979) and can serve as a tool used by clients to get a break from the traumatic event. prices. They were anchored back physically to being 50 years old. Both John and I made sure to walk over behind the general's chair. to discuss the past etc). arranged in a horseshoe. Think of your own psychological changes that occurred when you heard the soundtrack’s amplified. It was clear that even without him there."[2] Anchoring is also used by skilful film makers to evoke suspense in the audience. (Langer. with one group engaged in a series of tasks encouraging them to think about the past in general (to write an autobiography. Because we had made use of the anchor of the general's chair. his chair was the most powerful anchor in the room. overcoming fear.

the Jewish community took this experience in history and created a powerful positive anchor that helped them build a nation and protect it under what would seem like impossible odds.[3] I asked. he'd look at her with that look of passion. many therapists believe that the underlying problem is the suppressed emotion and anger that the couple have for each other. Virginia Satir has her patients look at each other as they did when they first fell in love. In fact. At its best. "When you first decided you wanted to spend your life with your wife. (Bandler. When a couple comes in for therapy.Anchoring (NLP) 49 Relationship therapy Virginia Satir. all the things they are angry about and so on. the husband kept saying "I know you're anchoring me and it's not working. He also linked them to states of fear in his opponents. anchoring can provide frightening displays of collective ugliness.. Hitler linked positive. From this raising his open hand in the gesture of heil . . The Willie Horton ads. he's trying to link himself to all the positive emotions that have been linked to the flag. people would "feel" Willie Horton when they "saw" Dukakis. for example. When a politician is "wrapping himself in a flag". I like that manoeuver. and that it will help them to tell each other exactly how they feel about each other. uses anchoring in her work all the time. Did the swastika have the same meaning for a member of the Jewish community as it did for a stormtrooper? Obviously not. And she continues throughout the session to stack positive anchors so that seeing each other's faces now causes them to feel great about each call up all the emotion he had linked to them.134) Political campaign usage Throughout history. In modeling her.133 . to Willie Horton by the use of color versus black-and-white footage. and background sound." And she kept saying "It is working! It is working!" It's fun. p. "Is this why you got married? So you could argue? Is that what you were thinking about at the time?" Then I looked at him. Hitler had a genius for anchoring. Then. At its worst. I said. every time she started to bring up a subject. they create even stronger negative anchors tied just to the sight of each other's faces. If the therapist encourages them to deliver the message of anger with force and vigour. they can resolve their problems through clear communication. they treat each other with so much caring and sensitivity that it sets up a new pattern. "Time for a change". She asks them to speak to each other as they spoke when they first fell in love." linking Democratic presidential nominee Michael Dukakis. He linked specific states of mind and emotion to the swastika. strong. that process can create a healthy common bond of patriotism and rapport. As I did this.. he consistently provided specific and unique stimuli. at an unconscious level in the viewer’s mind. Her results are outstanding.] It wasn't about lost control. what was on your mind then?" Talk about something worth anchoring! Chheeeesssshhhh! Because I wanted that glow in his face. Yet. Republican partisans began employing an unusually skillful use of language and advertising technique. the world famous marriage and family counselor. successful leaders have known how to make use of the cultural anchors around them. During the 1988 presidential campaign. He was such a control freak he couldn't have some kinds of experiences he wanted. [. He constantly used these tools to manipulate the emotions and thus the states and behaviors of a nation. Bandler and Grinder noted the difference between her style and that of the traditional family therapist. After a few exposures to these psy-ops ads. Instead of having them yell at each other. I fired off [re-triggered] the anchor. The auditory anchor of "never again" that many Jewish people use puts them in a state of total commitment to do whatever it takes to protect their sovereign rights. proud emotions to Nazi symbols for party members. goosestepping troops and mass rallies. I anchored it. without harming the other person's feelings. That will re-anchor the crap out of a relationship. He put people in intense states and while he had them there. a new way to resolve problems in the future. used an old NeuroLinguistic Programming (NLP) technique of "Anchoring via Submodalities.

Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention. Canadian Family Physician. [3] Robbins. com/ hartmann/ 04/ 11/ har04007. ISBN 9780743409391. Neurolinguistic programming: a systematic approach to change. A. 147-50. pp.6. Unlimited Power. Toward the end of that campaign. I was presenting at an NLP conference in New York. buzzflash. Great Britain: Pocket Books. 30.Anchoring (NLP) It was no accident. html . Anthony (2001). [4] 50 References [1] Steinbach.1 Oxford University Press. Vol. [4] http:/ / www. PMC 2153995 [2] Karin Jordan (2006) The Scripto-Trauma Genogram: Technique for Working with Trauma Survivors’ Intrusive Memories. and a colleague mentioned to me how the GOP had hired one of our mutual acquaintances to advise them on the tools of persuasion. 314-339. (1984).

no matter what the gardener does to get rid of them) and therapy interfering behavior (is like a mountain climber refusing to wear winter gear when climbing in the snow) and suicidal behavior (is like the mountain climber jumping off the mountain. anecdotes." Her metaphors for radical acceptance (is like being a gardener learning to love the dandelions that come into the garden year after year. sometimes with the rope still tied to the guide) are particularly illustrative of the uses she has for metaphor. might respond by describing two roses in a garden. and Milton Erickson. one of America's foremost linguists. a metaphor is defined as a way of speaking in which one thing is expressed in terms of another. or to suggest new outlooks on it. related by a psychotherapist to a patient. viewed much of human communication as metaphor. Views In his book. Sheldon Kopp states: "Generally. told about the death of a loved one. and metaphors that he used are often studied by hypnotherapists and others insofar as they communicate on so many levels simultaneously. Guru: Metaphors from a psychotherapist. The use of therapeutic metaphor is discussed within neuro-linguistic programming circles. Metaphor is often used by therapists who fear the reaction of their clients. Thus a therapist. The clients will be out of the office before they catch on to the metaphor's insulting meaning. . 17) Two influential figures in modern use of metaphor are: George Lakoff." (p. The purpose of this is to highlight to a person.Therapeutic metaphor 51 Therapeutic metaphor NLP TOPICS • • • • History NLP and science Methods Positive/Negative view · talk Therapeutic metaphor is a type of conceptual metaphor presented as a story or other parallel to an entire aspect of a situation.[1] Both have emphasized strongly the crucial place that metaphor holds in human communication and experience. one of which is dug up. whereby this bringing together throws new light on the character of what is being described. is extremely important in dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT). in particular. Uses Marsha Linehan highlights the utility of metaphor in her work with patients with borderline personality disorder: "the use of metaphor. in the form of simple analogies. Erickson. They encourage both patient and therapist to look for and create alternate meanings and points of reference for events under scrutiny. myths or stories. Metaphors are alternative means of teaching dialectical thinking and opening up possibilities of new behaviors. parables. some aspects and lessons that otherwise they might not be able to perceive as clearly in their current situation. in an effective way. the so-called "father of modern hypnotherapy".

open. Metaphors in mind: transformation through symbolic modelling. M00_MetaphorTherapy. Meta Publications (1978) ISBN 0-916990-04-4 • John Grinder and Richard Bandler.389-94 Marsha Linehan. 4 p.. White. J. Harry Daniels. David. Developing Company Press • Any of the many books by. Therapeutic Metaphors: Helping Others Through the Looking Glass. Milton Erickson. P. page 209).uk/t185/html/resources/r2history. and Steven A. or about.Therapeutic metaphor 52 References [1] Scott Allen Wickman. & Lawley. Lyle J.html) .hypknowsis. (2000).htm) • Examples of therapeutic metaphors and transcripts of metaphor therapy (http://www. Further reading • who was a dedicated user and creator of therapeutic metaphor. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder (1993: the Guilford Press. 77 no. M. Fesmire (1999) A "primer" in conceptual metaphor for counselors Journal of Counseling and Development vol. (See that article for bibliography) External links • A short history of metaphor (http://tscp. 1981 • Thompkins.

If we let this limiting belief go. Psychotherapists trained in the reframing by communication attempt to let scenes appear in another point of view (frame) so that someone feels relieved or is able to deal with the situation better. An example of this is the reframing of the role as a passive victim (“the craze overcomes me”) into an active role. his friends recall how unfortunate his leg fracture was that summer.”) in a positive (“your mother would like to thus protect you”). A frame can refer to a belief. he recalls the lesson and is far . Erickson has been associated with reframing and it also forms an important part of Neuro-linguistic programming. say a university or college student breaks his leg during summer vacation. or (2) he had previously invited his friend over and left the back door to his house unlocked. what limits our view of the world. "A signal has meaning only in the frame or context in which we perceive it. Years later. something he had always wanted to do but had been too busy to attempt. new conceptions and interpretation possibilities can develop. Another meaning or another sense is assigned by reframing a situation or context. In addition. Milton H. because he can no longer play tennis and golf with his family and friends. After graduation he embarks on a successful music career. We can change our representation or perception about anything and in a moment change our states and behaviors. A few days later. provocative therapy uses reframing with an emphasis on humor. that's the message we deliver to our brain." [1] For example. if a person is resting in bed and hears his bedroom door open. or a sensitization going by that “a well meant” behavior releases negative effects with the target object. in which you decide your course of action?”).Reframing 53 Reframing NLP TOPICS • • • • History NLP and science Methods Positive/Negative view · talk The term reframing designates a communication technique which has origins in family systems therapy and the work of Virginia Satir. he changes his major to music. thus sees a situation in another frame. alone time to learn how to play the guitar. One year later. from which different decisions than so far can be made (“can you now see the situations out. He is crestfallen. Other examples are the reinterpretation of the negatively noticed behavior (“my mother constantly interferes into my life. whenever he is disabled by injury or illness. and he says. He then discovers he has a great aptitude for music and becomes a decent guitar player by summer's end. According to Anthony Robbins: [I]f we perceive something as a liability. we can change the way we respond in life. Then the brain produces states that make it a reality.[2] Example of reframing For example. This is what reframing is all about. he realizes that he now has the quiet. Anthony Robbins wrote. "Breaking my leg was the best thing that ever happened to me!" From then on. exactly the same noise will have two totally different meanings to him and evoke drastically different reactions depending on whether (1) he is alone in a locked house. If we change our frame of reference by looking at the same situation from a different point of view.

Do you want yesterday's product. Roger PhD CMC. "Sure the other guys have been king. Charles. When it started talking about the Pepsi Generation and issued its "Pepsi Challenge.. Richard." it turned its weakness into strength. but let's look at today. p." B: "That's a great skill to have. paperback . 1996. Pepsi said. whereas Pepsi was new and exciting. Lucky you. NLP: The New Technology of Achievement by NLP Comprehensive Feb 19. Steve & Faulkner. not the future. Pepsi-Cola created value by reframing the discussion of Coca Cola as "old" and traditional. Live Your Dreams.. With a context reframe a person takes the disliked behaviour and asks. as he takes the opportunity to do something novel. especially when you apply it to overeating .Reframing less despondent over his temporary disability than he otherwise would have been. or do you want today's?" The ads reframed Coke's traditional dominance into a weakness. I just can't get things done. Every behaviour is appropriate in some context. 2006. 54 Context reframing The meaning of any behaviour or event exists only in relationship to the context in which it occurs. For example. Managers and You Jul 6. For example: A: "I procrastinate all the time. 1987) 291.just put off having that second helping. Let Reality Catch Up: NLP and Common Sense for Coaches. References • Bandler. "Where could this behaviour be useful?" or "In what other context would this particular behaviour be of value?" A context reframe leaves the meaning of a behaviour the same and shows how it could be a useful response in a different context. [2] Robbins 291. paperback • Ellerton. Unlimited Power (New York: Ballantine. --Unlimited Power. Reframing: NLP And The Transformation Of Meaning 1983. as indication that it was a product of the past." Value reframing In brand management and marketing terms value reframing means giving a new value to a product/service by finding a new market/context.299 Footnotes [1] Anthony Robbins. Paperback • Andreas.

and Techniques(pp. olfactory. Within NLP. a rifle shot. or sensory modalities. how memories and perceptions are processed within each sensory representation in the mind. and influenced by. and many people as part of decision-making talk to themselves in their heads. may hear it being sounded out. information is (or can be treated as if) processed through the senses. can often be precise literal unconscious descriptions from within those sensory systems. Representational systems within NLP "At the core of NLP is the belief that. a spelling task. that is. Representational systems and submodalities are seen in NLP as offering a valuable therapeutic insight (or metaphor) and potential working methods. one makes pictures in one's head when thinking or dreaming (the visual sense). they are using some internal representation of the materials they are involved with.138-139)[1] According to NLP. A submodality is a structural element of a sensory impression. Enhancing Human Performance: Issues. auditory. for many practical purposes mental processing of events and memories can be treated as if performed by the five senses. auditory. distance. meaning its 4 way sensory-based description. For example. It states that for practical purposes." Daniel Druckman (Ed. kinesthetic. It considers that expressions such as "It's all misty" or "I can't get a grip on it". such as a conversation. are known as representation systems. communicating unconsciously where the mind perceives a problem in handling some mental event. sometimes as a 4-tuple. or other quality. For example. or may construct the spelling from the application of a series of logical rules. when people are engaged in activities. a person asked to spell a word may visualize that word printed on a piece of paper. such as its perceived location. they are also making use of a representational system. into how the human mind internally organizes and subjectively attaches meaning to events. In addition. a person may be creating a representation or recalling one. the various senses in their role as information processors. size.) (1988). These representations can be visual. and one considers feelings in the body and emotions (known as the kinesthetic sense). The model itself is known as the VAKOG model (from the initial letters of the sensory-specific modalities: visual. Einstein credited his discovery of special relativity to a mental visualization strategy of "sitting on the end of a ray of light". Since taste and smell are so closely connected. Thus people say one talks to oneself (the auditory sense) even if no words are emitted.Representational systems (NLP) 55 Representational systems (NLP) NLP TOPICS • • • • History NLP and science Methods Positive/Negative view · talk Representational systems (also known as sensory modalities and abbreviated to VAKOG or known as the 4-tuple) is a neuro-linguistic programming model that examines how the human mind processes information. . kinesthetic. Theories. gustatory). NLP holds it as crucial in human cognitive processing to recognize that the subjective character of experience is strongly tied into. or involve the other senses.

this is a very simplified example of some steps which might actually be involved in replying to a simple question such as "Do you like that dress?". dialog. 56 Notation and strategies In documenting mental strategies and processing by the senses. a functional outline of the strategy used by the mind in answering that question. imagine everything that could be happening and feel scared" might be notated as having a subjective structure: Ve → Aid → Vic → Ki. The same term is also known as First Access (John Grinder)[2] . the process leading to a panic attack of the form "I see the clock. A sequence of this kind is known in NLP as a strategy . and are often considered jointly as one. three of the five sensory based modes seem to dominate in mental processing: • visual thoughts . one often sees the term VAK in NLP reference texts. white noise • kinesthetic (or proprioceptive) sense . signifying that an external sight leads to . ask myself where the kids are. or talking in one's head. and often. is stated by NLP to play a critical part in the way mental processing takes place. spatial awareness • auditory (or linguistic) thoughts . the classification of people into fixed visual. kinesthetic/K. Putting these together. and occasionally. mental imagery. This idea was later discredited and dropped within NLP by the early 1980s. and that whilst one system may seem to dominate. this is often contextualized .somatic feelings in the body. gustatory (taste) and olfactory (smell). In a similar way. The other two senses. NLP practitioners often use a simple shorthand for different modalities.globally there is a balance that dynamically varies according to circumstance and this case. The table below is useful for teaching how to identify and access each representational system in context: Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Activity auditory external visual internal visual external Notation Ae Vi Ve What it's being used for Hear the question picture to oneself the meaning of the question look at the dress create a mental image of the dress worn by the person get an internal feeling from looking at it ask oneself 'Do I like that impression?' reply visual internal constructed Vic kinesthetic internal auditory internal dialog auditory external Ki Aid Ae Logically. O/G). these or similar steps must take place somewhere in consciousness in order to cognitively make sense of the question and answer it. and the effectiveness of the mental strategy employed. a superscript to indicate how that system is being used. as well as the term 4-tuple (or VAKOG) if the author wishes to include all senses including taste/smell.sound. NLP asserts that for most circumstances and most people. in favor of the understanding that most people use all of their senses (whether consciously or unconsciously). For this reason. speech.sight. This observation led to the concept of a preferred representational system. with a letter indicating the representation system concerned. and whether the event is a recollection of an actual past event (r) or construction of an imaginary event (c) . Three key aspects are commonly notated: The representation system being used (visual/V. to signify these three primary representational systems.Representational systems (NLP) The manner in which this is done. auditory or kinesthetic stereotypes. auditory/A. has its own shorthand: Aid. or primary experience (Freud). temperature. auditory internal dialogue. Due to its importance in human cognitive processing. whether the direction of attention is internal (i) or external (e). which are closely associated. pressure. and also emotion. often seem to be less significant in general mental processing.

and then also use words that describe it in a visual sense ("The sea looked lovely".[4] [5] . and steps which explore various possible strategies to be used to obtain an answer and select one to be followed. think about the holiday you went on last year. It's worth noting that usually. and (2) may form significant clues as to how a person is processing or representing a problem to themselves unconsciously.talking to oneself inside The most common arrangement for eye accessing cues in a right-handed person.[3] A common (but not universal) style of processing in the West is shown in the attached chart. but rather that one should check whether reliable correlations seem to exist for an individual. Subjective awareness When we think about the world. Taken together."I can imagine the big picture" • Level (left/right) -. Likewise asked about a problem. For example. and out of conscious awareness. Note: . such processing is associated with sensory word use. Thus remembering an actual image (Vr) is associated more with up-left. The mental occurrence of these steps is often identified by deduction following skilled observation.Auditory (A) -. where eye flickers in specific directions often seem to tie into specific kinds of internal (mental) processing. some of these steps (often the most important ones) occur extremely fast. 57 Sensory predicates and eye accessing cues Grinder and Bandler believed they identified pattern of relationship between the sensory-based language people use in general conversation. their eye movement (known as eye accessing cues). there must be steps in which the mind interprets and contextualizes the question itself. tell yourself a story about what you did. body posture. we represent those things inside our heads. eye movement and language patterns such as sensory predicates. typically downwards) and then look puzzled and say "I just can't seem to get a grip on things". or by careful inquiry."Let's tone down the discussion" • Down-right -. or about our past experiences. and so on). whilst imagining one's dream home (Vc) tends (again not universally) to be more associated with up-right. few people would ordinarily be aware that between question and even considering an answer.Visual (V) -. often upwards).NLP does not say it is 'always' this way. someone may look in a different direction for a while (kinesthetic access. and for example. so for example a person asked what they liked about the beach. feel the sun on your back and the wind in your hair? Can you bring to mind the smell of your favourite flower or the taste of a favourite meal?? The use of the various modalities can be identified based by learning to respond to subtle shifts in breathing.Kinesthetic (K) -. Common (but not universal) Western layout of eye accessing cues: • Upwards (left/right) -. Did you see a picture of where you went. For example. NLP also suggests that that sometimes (again not universally)." • Down-left Auditory internal dialogue (Aid) -. followed by internal and constructed images. leading to a feeling. and if so what they are Eye movement to the left or right for many people seems to indicate if a memory was recalled or constructed. although their presence is usually self-apparent to the person concerned once noticed.Representational systems (NLP) internal dialog (a question). gestures. NLP suggests such eye accessing cues (1) are idiosyncratic and habitual for each person. may flick their eyes briefly in some characteristic direction (visual memory access."to grasp a concept" or "to gather you've understood. accessing cues.

[8] The preferred representational system (PRS) Originally NLP taught that people preferred one representational system over another. . may be how the brain presents to consciousness. precluding such a rigidly specified model as the one described above. California. previously poor spellers can indeed be taught to improve. He said that NLP had been revised. kinesthetic. Some took this idea further and categorised people as a auditory.Representational systems (NLP) 58 Uses NLP's interest in the senses is not so much in their role as bridges to the outside world. whether this is a heart-warming pleasant memory.[14] Responding directly to sensory experience requires an immediacy which respects the importance of context.[14] In a review of research findings. and the concept of a preferred representation system (PRS). John Grinder has stated that a representational system diagnosis lasts about 30 seconds." (p. whether in the choice of words or direction of eye movement. new code emphasizes individual calibration and sensory acuity. In particular. NLP proponents also found that pacing and leading the various cues tended to build rapport. or a fearsome phobic one. 1986. People could be stuck by thinking about a problem in their "preferred representational system" (PRS). Representational systems are also relevant since some tasks are more optimally performed within one representational system than by another. to discover that some auditory sounds presented almost out of consciousness along with the memory.[9] the existence of a preferred representational system ascertainable from external cues (an important part of original NLP theory) was discounted by research in the 1980s. Skinner and Stephens (2003) explored the use the model of representational systems in television marketing and communications. spelling is better learned by children who have unconsciously used a strategy of visualization. and allowed people to communicate more effectively. By contrast. was informed that PRS was no longer considered an important component. and connected it to specific sides in the brain. The National Research Committee found little support for the influence of PRS as presented in early descriptions of NLP. (1980) [4] proposed that eye movement (and sometimes bodily gesture) correspond to accessing cues for representations systems. the [National Research Committee] influence subcommittee.. However. NLP views it as potentially of great importance for the same person. within education. but in their role as internal channels for cognitive processing and interpretation. than an unconscious strategy of phonetically "sounding out". Frogs into Princes (1979) and Structure of Magic (1975). "at a meeting with Richard Bandler in Santa Cruz. In an NLP perspective. Robert Dilts et al. For example. 140)[1] The NLP developers.[10] [11] [12] Some still believe the PRS model to be important for enhancing rapport and influence. on July 9. it is not very important per se whether a person sees or hears some memory. Sharpley (1987)[15] found little support for individuals to have a "preferred" representational system (PRS).. Although there is some research that supports the notion that eye movement can indicate visual and auditory (but not kinesthetic) components of thought in that moment.[13] Others have de-emphasized its relevance and instead emphasize that people constantly use all representational systems.[7] Some exercises in NLP training involve learning how to observe and respond to the various cues in real time. Similarly. and how consciousness knows. and visual thinkers (see also: learning styles) It was claimed that swifter and more effective results could be achieved by matching this preferred system. When taught to visualize. Certain studies suggest that using similar representational systems to another person can help build rapport[6] whilst other studies have found that merely mimicking or doing so in isolation is perceived negatively.

gov/ ERICWebPortal/ Home.).6. Bandler.3.) Hypnosis: Current Clinical. (1980). tandf. Appendix. 729.105. John.Representational systems (NLP) 59 Notes and references • Bandler's Using Your Brain for a Change (Real People Press. J. 151–152. H. 238-248. Meara. Reese.. ed. 3–4. 1003. . . Molly.283-287 [10] Sharpley. Eastwick. pp. 34(3). Eli (2011). doi:10. Communication and Cognition Journal of Counseling Psychology. and Reese (1987) Journal of Counselling Psychology . . (1996) [Transcript of Interview http:/ / www. 938–943. Thompson. asp?genre=article& eissn=1466-4445& volume=9& issue=3& spage=177). 171. "Speaking the Same Language: Exploring the relevance of Neuro-Linguistic Programming to Marketing Communications" (http:/ / journalsonline. pp.. P. London: HarperCollins.. Scissors. [7] Skinner. Psychological Science 22 (January): 39–44. Neuro-linguistic Programming For Dummies (http:/ / books. pp. "Language Style Matching Predicts Relationship Initiation and Stability" (http:/ / pss.1080/1352726032000129926. 622-625. L. Enhancing Human Performance: Issues. au/ grinterv. Mental imagery as revealed by eye movement and spoken predicates: A test of neurolinguistic programming (http:/ / eric. ISBN 978-0-470-66543-5.Frogs into Princes: Neuro Linguistic Programming]. [5] Dilts. ISBN 1855383446.625 [13] Joseph O'Connor. com. ch. [12] Elich. uk/ openurl. com/ content/ 22/ 1. pp. M. W. 1: 103–107. Heap (Ed. . inspiritive. M. Journal of Counseling Psychology.. and Stephens. "Research Findings on Neuro-linguistic Programming: Non supportive Data or an Untestable Theory" (http:/ / eric. ISBN 0911226184. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 75.24. -. . portal?nfpb=true& _pageLabel=RecordDetails& ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ352101& ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_accno& objectId=0900000b8005c1ac). Whispering in the Wind. htm] [15] Sharpley C. [3] Bandler. 1980. (1988). google. 15. 222.45. Meta Publications. [6] Pennebaker. [. [4] Dilts.. Vol. 32(4). [14] Grinder. J. 34. (2003). Journal of Marketing Communications 9 (3 / September): 177–192.52. gov/ ERICWebPortal/ Home. 1987 Vol. nlpuniversitypress. and Ireland. 127. com/ nlp1. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Volume I . F. Encyclopedia of Systemic Neuro-Linguistic Programming and NLP New Coding (http:/ / www. and Techniques [2] Grinder. 1303. doi:10. Predicate matching in NLP: A review of research on the preferred representational system. pp. .17. & Miller. . cgi?ISBN=1855383446& f=p). [8] Kate Burton. [9] Buckner. DeLozier. ed.1177/0956797610392928. No.. 1300. pdf). Romilla Ready (2010). NLP University Press. John Seymour (2002 (first published 1990)).30. Finkel. com/ ).The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience]. mheap.14. Richard. . sagepub. note: "psychological fad"p. [. Lauren. Neuro-linguistic programming. Richard & DeLozier. 1985) [1] Druckman (1988). C. UT: Real People Press. . 31(2). Robert B. John & Carmen Bostic St Clair (2001. ISBN 0-9701540-0-3. Judith A. com/ books?id=0EVY_ViImZEC& lpg=PR4& pg=PR4#v=onepage& q& f=false). . Paul. co. CA: J & C Enterprises.F. toc).. [11] Heap. Robert B. Journal of Counseling Psychology. Introducing NLP (http:/ / www. Experimental and Forensic Practices (http:/ / www. R. pp. (1985). reiters. . Theories. 383. -. Judith A (2000). (1984). com/ index. In M. Slatcher. Grinder. London: Croom Helm. -. (1987). portal?_nfpb=true& _pageLabel=RecordDetails& ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ327573& ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_accno& objectId=0900000b800561ca). Richard & John Grinder (1979). Moab.

that is.Submodalities 60 Submodalities NLP TOPICS • • • • History NLP and science Methods Positive/Negative view · talk Submodalities in neuro-linguistic programming are distinctions of form or structure (rather than content) within a sensory representational system. NLP asserts that far from being arbitrary or unimportant. emotions attached to a mental experience are affected by certain submodalities with which it is associated. a motivational speaker and NLP proponent. both remembered and actual sounds will be mono or stereo when experienced internally. and so on. Submodalities are therefore seen in NLP as offering a valuable therapeutic insight (or metaphor) and potential working methods. . NLP states that a change within these critical submodalities will often correlate with a near-immediate subjective change in the emotion or other felt-sense with which a mental impression presents itself. and specific submodalities can also be affected if the emotional significance changes. These parameters are submodalities within the visual sense."[1] More The concept of submodalities arose in the field of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP). the mental representation of something unimportant is "farther away" than something important. research within NLP states that the brain often uses these structural elements as a way to 'know' how it feels about them. states that "our ability to change the way we feel depends upon our ability to change our submodalities. and that they differ between people. these submodalities often perform a functional role. and can be identified by observation and inquiry. The metaphor of "distancing oneself" is taken quite literally. along with thoughts or memories. and stationary or moving. felt-sense perceptions such as "importance". that human beings 'code' internal experiences using aspects of their different senses. into how the human mind internally organizes and subjectively 'views' events. there will often be a handful of so-called "critical" submodalities which can functionally effect large-scale change. Similarly. The link is stated to be bilateral . related memories. For example. as a means by which emotions. both external and mental images of any kind will be either colored or monochrome. Anthony Robbins. so mono/stereo is a submodality of sound. regardless of the content. NLP asserts that amongst the many possible submodalities. and what they signify internally. are presented to consciousness by the unconscious mind. Specifically for most people.

a submodality that turns out to be critical in how a given memory or thought is subjectively experienced. distance. common distinctions include: brightness. sharpness. paving the way for a number of change techniques based on deliberately changing internal representations. subtle changes in the musculature of the body reveal subjective variations in that modality too.Submodalities 61 Definition of a submodality Submodalities refers to the subjective structural subdivisions within a given representational system.where is it? Does it have a size? A temperature? Which direction does it move? Does it have a texture? Is it hard or soft? What colour is it?" A more extensive list of common submodalities is given below. in auditory: loudness. and so on. Examples found include people whose unconscious minds place black borders around bad memories. and so on. and so on. is known as a critical submodality. there will be a handful of such distinctions which are 'critical' to emotional perception. In effect. The discovery that the emotion associated with a thought is often functionally linked to the submodalities with which that thought is presented to consciousness. led to a variety of brief therapy NLP interventions based upon change of these key submodalities. For example. tonal range. Eric Robbie (an NLP trainer) demonstrated in 1984 that submodalities can be reliably distinguished from external behaviour . size. or which distinguish compelling and important thoughts from less compelling ones. Ordinarily. distance. NLP co-originator Richard Bandler in particular has made extensive use of submodality manipulations in the evolution of his work. people for whom visual images seen dimly are less compelling than those seen brightly. subtle changes in the eye and facial muscles surrounding the eye are good indicators of specific visual submodalities. voluntary change of submodalities on the part of the subject was often found to alter long-term the concomitant 'feeling' response. To match these subjective distinctions. clarity. or out of focus?" • "This sound .is it loud or soft? Is it high pitched or low pitched? Does it have a range? Is it near or far? Is it one point source or spread out? Where is it coming from? Is it clear or muffled?" • "That feeling in your body .[2] List of submodalities Examples of distinctions that are embedded within sensory impressions include: . timbre. NLP views of submodalities According to core NLP research. or dim? Coloured or black and white? How much colour? Is it big or small? Is it near or far? In it bright. in the case of auditory. in visual terms. these might be submodalities that distinguish optimistic thoughts from depressive ones. degree of colour (saturation). subtle changes in the muscles surrounding the ears perform the same function for auditory submodalities. and in the case of kinesthetic. focus. people for whom a subjectively "good" memory is accompanied by one kind of sound whilst a "bad" memory is accompanied by another. For most people. For any given individual. For the case of visual submodalities. each person's brain seems to code emotional significance differently through variations in mental "image" or representation. pitch. one can establish these by asking questions: • "This image . and thus to their mental processing.

concave. location in the body. For example. even if the event was internal. . slideshow. Careful body language observation of the small muscles around the sensory organs can often allow a skilled observer familiar with a subject to identify submodalities being experienced internally by that subject. moving location. voice) Kinesthetic (propreceptive. specific shape Movement: still.165] [2] Technical explanation: The human body continuously responds to mental events. video. duration. "real life" Mono / stereo Qualities: Volume. Fragrance. people often slightly cock their heads if listening. harmony Variations: looping. ISBN 0671791540 see p. movement direction Tactition: pressure. pitch. Bitter. images. poster. intensity Thermoception: temperature Breathing rate Taste Smell Sweet. one or many Number of Sounds Other background sounds? Proprioception: Somatic sensation. top. spatial) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Examples of submodalities Location: to the left. even the event is "internal" (as all subjective experience is). fading in and out. movie. bottom Size Distance Brightness Number of Images Focused or Unfocused Associated or Dissociated Color or monochrome Framed (nature of frame?) or panoramic 2D or 3D Clear or fuzzy Shape: convex. direction Voice: whose voice.Submodalities 62 Representation system Visual (sight. rhythm. looping Style: picture. somatic) Olfactory/Gustatory References [1] Anthony Robbins (1992) "Awaken The Giant Within". drawing. Sour. pace. tempo. Essence Auditory (sound. photo. Salt. right. Aroma. When an image is seen or a sound heard in the head. the body still reacts to it in a minor degree. intensity. painting. even if only talking to themselves inside their heads.

. For example.[1] The idea of multiple perceptual positions in NLP was originally inspired by Gregory Bateson's double description who purported that double (or triple) descriptions are better than one. a customer and a supplier. A problem is almost always harder to solve if a person only appreciates their own viewpoint. and the Critic. depending how one looks at it and one's point of view. By deliberately training oneself in moving between perceptual positions one can develop a new choice of responses. a worker. This procedure enables a user to clean up their ability to see. hear and feel things from each of the three perceptual positions by eliminating overlap from other positions.literally . one can see a problem in new ways or with greater detachment. the Realist (the one who brings it into reality). other and a detached third person in that situation. In this work. Because of the systemic nature of human's lives. For example. another person involved (2nd position) or from a neutral. and different information will be available. The founders of NLP modeled this from Virginia Satir. often a person in a situation cannot see answers that a person standing outside can. he teaches people to examine a goal from the perception of the Dreamer.[1] One basic example in NLP training involves considering an experience (typically a relationship) from the perspective of self. "a fly on the wall").in everyone's shoes. based on his modeling of Walt Disney. a strike looks very different from the viewpoint of a CEO. considering a situation or relationship from the perspective of self (1st position). So by moving between different perceptual positions. and not those of others involved. It could be something that has occurred already or something that will occur in the future. and thus gather more information and develop new choices of response. until they understood better others' position and feelings in the matter. who at times went so far as to hold what became affectionately known as "parts parties" where she would guide a client to stand . This type of exercise is useful in gathering information and often a new choice in the world become available without a deliberate intervention. Connirae Andreas and Tamara Andreas teach a procedure entitled "aligning perceptual positions".Perceptual positions 63 Perceptual positions NLP TOPICS • • • • History NLP and science Methods Positive/Negative view · talk Perceptual positions is a neuro-linguistic programming and psychology term denoting that a complex system may look very different. objective. Another type of multiple perceptual positions involves looking at a situation from the viewpoint of the multiple people involved. detached point of view (3rd position. Robert Dilts uses multiple perceptual positions in his Disney Creativity Strategy. the renowned family therapist.

The metaphor got inverted. the mind is constantly and continuously running a complex set of programs which are controlling all aspects of our existence.247) Meta-programs NLP TOPICS • • • • History NLP and science Methods Positive/Negative view · talk Meta-programs in general are programs that create. and strategic choices of fall-back or alternative programs. Lilly. The metaphor had been inspired by the Universal Turing Machine. he defined a meta-program as "a set of instructions. 2002 p. control or make decisions about programs. and means of control of a set of programs. According to this mind-as-computer metaphor. the preference for where to place one's attention during conversation. who indicated that it is possible to program a machine to imitate the behavior of any other machine — and even that of a human with a pencil and paper following a set of rules. the storage of both.Perceptual positions 64 Notes and references [1] (Whispering in the Wind. named after Alan Turing. descriptions. which considers the human brain as a biocomputer to which one can apply all principles known in computing. preferred and unpreferred programs. a brain. the logical processes being used. the formation of information. and the storage addresses all occurring within a biocomputer. such as breathing." . and so on. etc. the selection processes. walking. Bostic St Clair & Grinder. habitual linguistic patterns and body language. the preparation of messages. and a basic premise became that cognitive activity can be explained in terms of computation. such as when and how to run them. formally defined a program as "a set of internally consistent instructions for the computation of signals. John C." . Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) uses the term specifically to indicate the more general pervasive habitual patterns commonly used by an individual across a wide range of situations. Related concepts in other disciplines are known as cognitive styles or thinking styles. the first to define the term meta-programs. Examples of NLP meta-programs include the preference for overview or detail. Definition The use of the term program when talking about the human mind originates from the cybernetics metaphor of Norbert Wiener. talking.

Indeed. can be seen in the emphasis NLP places on outcomes and on the criterion of usefulness rather than objective truth and the perception of all models and distinctions as simply working hypothesis.Meta-programs 65 NLP use of the term In NLP. home VS work) and at different times (e.. under influence of training). group or culture. many psychologists researching personality sometimes pay only little attention to the effect of culture and context. as can be read in the article Putting NLP Metaprograms Research in context [1]. location. as opposed to reflective of reality. tolerance) • Convincer patterns & learning preferences (learn by reading. information etc. things. Several NLP authors have later extended the list. complacency. are metaphorical. In the entry for the term strategy in their Encyclopedia. which are specific sequences of mental steps..g. Dilts & Delozier state: "NLP shares many philosophical underpinnings with pragmatism. Specifically they define common or typical patterns in the strategies or thinking styles of a particular individual." In their encyclopedia. It tells you what to do with the information you are getting. persons can apply the same meta-program regardless of the content and context of a situation. in contrast to social psychologists who put emphasis on the power of the situation. you can use the same strategy to process a lot of different kinds of information. as Dilts & Delozier (2000) write. by observing others. all [NLP] models can be perceived as symbolic or metaphoric.g. indifference. NLP acts as if the metaphor were true. mostly indicated by their representational activity (using VAKOG). Robert Dilts & Judith Delozier explicitly refer to the mind as computer metaphor: "A strategy is like a program in a computer. by doing. most of the distinctions used pre-date NLP. much in line with some Anglo-American philosophical traditions. the average changes in an individual's personality in terms of meta-programs over time and between contexts are comparable to findings measured in other personality theories. [This] . often including e." While most NLP authors acknowledge that most of the domain's ideas." and state that "In fact. research shows that meta-programs can change over time and may be different in different contexts (e. leading to a behavioral outcome. from own experience) .g. including the notions of representational systems and programs. and like a computer program. present. activities. • Rule structure: Preferred social styles (assertiveness. specificity) • Reference System: Internal or external focus • Modal properties: • proactive or reactive • Outcome preferences (towards/away) • Processing • Comparison: Making distinctions (more aware of sameness or differentness) • Match/mismatch • Time orientation (near/far past. While one might say that the research failed when one considers the personality explanation of the initial goal. In their encyclopedia. in others' communication Independent of how meta-programs came into NLP. near/far future) • Sorting categories • Self-other • Filters: Preferential awareness of people. Cameron 1980-1982) • The preference for overview or detail (or generalization v. Dilts and Delozier then define metaprograms as: "[programs] which guide and direct other thought processes. Examples of meta-programs mentioned in NLP Original NLP texts mention the following metaprograms (Dilts. the term programs is used as a synonym for strategy." While.

and the body of work that resulted from the meta-programs research-effort has proven its usefulness over the last 20 years. I don’t see many changes and I’m glad I’ll get that stability. inter-group relations. social behavior. popularity. According to another plausible explanation. there are several stories of how meta-programs came into existence in NLP and who should be acknowledged for which piece of work. motivation. Using meta-programs we can understand the characteristic ways in which people behave. All other elements being the same. it is necessary to take into account very broad influences. Building on the meta-programs as they were taught in 1982. They came up with a series of different thinking styles which they called meta-programs. community. a similar sequence of steps may lead to a different outcome. attributions. The big difference between researchers working on Artificial Intelligence and those working on NLP is that the first use a computer as their laboratory. a NLP expert. viewed as a metaphor. Their work was further extended and developed by Shelle Rose Charvet and published in her book 'Words that Change Minds' (1997). These meta-programs indicate how people make sense of the world and predict how the person may react in a given context. commonly known as the 'Language and Behavior Profile'. which is one of the central properties of Lakoff and Johnson’s argument. Rodger Bailey and Ross Steward designed a commercial application." In a same situation. and attitude change. One explanation is that when one analyses the effects of a program.” Both sentences use a future reference frame consisting of Visual constructed image which is then evaluated Kinesthetically internally (NLP notation: Vc -> Ki). another person might say: “When I imagine how this place will be like two years from now. goal setting.Meta-programs • Mc Clelland's motivational preferences (power. to predict individual behavior. Triandis. social exchanges. norms and behaviors of individuals. However. The socio-cultural approach to psychology argues that. and family). These findings would not necessarily imply that NLP would argue against the mind as being embodied. while the second person gets a good feeling. One person may say: "When I imagine how this place will be like two years from now. the only difference between these 2 persons is that they apply a different sorting category: the first one prefers change and the second one prefers stability. but how NLP meta-program questionnaire] such as the iWAM [2] gets scored and interpreted is culturally-distinct. the concept remains of value. In his framework. the first person gets a bad feeling. developed a theory of subjective culture and its influence on the attitudes. I don't see enough changes and I’m afraid I’ll be bored. metaphors are the very means by which we can understand abstract domains and extend our knowledge into new areas. social organization. personality. History of the concept in NLP Given NLP's oral tradition. Their approach consisted of defining interview guidelines to detect 13 distinct categories of meta-program patterns which are known to be important for work-place motivation and performance. meta-programs arose when Leslie Cameron et al. individual patterns of responding and interacting with the environment are seen as part of personality.[3] Criticisms of the concept Lakoff & Johnson (2000) argue that these metaphors for the mind conflict with what cognitive science has discovered. His research has also examined the relationship between culture and work behavior. prejudice. did research in order to answer to the question whether patterns could be found which typified a person across different contexts and thus would point to the "stable core" of a person. Suppose that a person is taking a decision whether to stay in their current job. However. or performance) 66 Other uses of the NLP concept The meta-program concepts are universal. while the latter . and thus the model is as useful (if not more) than many theories of personality. They have been executing the same program on the same context. Indeed as Lakoff & Johnson argue themselves. including cultural values and the individual's context (the environment.

com/iwam.php) .php) • Article: discussing 16 NLP metaprogram categories in detail (http://www. the following books can be recommended • • • • Shelle Rose Charvet: Words that Change Minds (1995) Bob G. merlevede. nlpuniversitypress. com/ iwam. biz [5] http:/ / www. htm iWAM (http:/ / pre-employment_testing. 67 Source Unpublished text extracted from the draft PhD dissertation of Patrick Merlevede [4] Books To learn more about NLP meta-programs. net/ http:/ / is a method to elicit metaprograms • Application: Using metaprograms in pre-employment testing (http://www. com/ articles/ NLP_Research. php) http:/ / labprofile.Design Engineering with Meta-Programs (1997) Robert Dilts and Judith Delozier: Encyclopedia of Systemic NLP and NLP New Coding [5] (2000) Tad James & Wyatt Woodsmall: Time Line Therapy and The Basics of Personality (1988) References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www.Meta-programs works with human subjects to test their theories. jobeq.nlpuniversitypress. Michael Hall: Figuring Out People .com/html2/MdMe26. html) • The LAB Profile (http://www.htm) • iWAM: an NLP metaprogram questionnaire (http://www. Bodenhamer and jobeq. com/ External links • Meta-programs article in the Encyclopedia of NLP (http://www.labprofile.jobeq.

It is a form of psychotherapy which draws on the principles and techniques of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP). problems rather than those that others may feel they have. the diagnostic aspect is intrinsic to and intertwined with the treatment. equally appropriate to work with. Scaling is also used as a tool to measure progress. focuses on the present and future.. patterns" and "intervene by talking directly to the somatic system responsible for the problem". insofar as it is usually the client who had the perception of a problem initially and had judged the need to approach a therapist because of this. rather it views any condition whereby a person subjectively considers their life could be improved. To support this. Used this way.[2] Overview NLP does not have the same model of "problem" and "solution" as clinical psychiatry. as separable techniques and principles. NLP psychotherapists are usually also skilled in other techniques. every interaction in the treatment might modify the approach and diagnosis. The approach does not focus on the past. or subjective. primarily because NLP does not necessarily see presenting symptoms in terms of "illness" and "cure". questions are asked about the client’s story.[3] .Therapeutic use of Neuro-linguistic programming 68 Therapeutic use of Neuro-linguistic programming NLP TOPICS • • • • History NLP and science Methods Positive/Negative view · talk The therapeutic use of Neuro-Linguistic Programming is called NLP Therapy or Neurolinguistic Psychotherapy (NLPt). The NLP diagnosis determines the NLP intervention. strengths and resources. terms like "cure" are not part of NLP. rather than a clinical judgement. Also because of this. and about exceptions to the problem. by considering the practitioner's input. and to modify and specify those goals further as a result of the extended interaction. that NLP's approach is to "recognize maladaptive . NLP interventions are not usually guided by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) list of illness criteria. So in a sense the efficacy of any intervention is in many ways considered to be a client judgement. and the client identifies. but individual methods are often not as effective or dependable used alone. per se. The therapist/counselor uses respectful curiosity to invite the client to envision their preferred future and then therapist and client start attending to any moves towards it whether these are small increments or large changes. such as Cognitive Therapy and will draw from them as required. David Aldridge states in his review of complementary therapies. It seeks to do this while respecting their own capabilities and wisdom to choose additional goals for the intervention as they learn more about their problems. Neurolinguistic Psychotherapy (NLPt)[1] is recognized by the UKCP. instead its model is based upon helping clients to overcome their own self-perceived.. whether there is useful material to them to consider. but instead. NLP can be used on a small scale. This differs from common clinical practice based upon certain conditions defined as "illness". By design it is also an entire model of diagnosis and therapeutic intervention.

He advises caution in selection.[7] But they operate with different definitions of unconscious processes. currently the most prevalent form of psychotherapy for the treatment of mental health disorders.Therapeutic use of Neuro-linguistic programming Dr Richard Bolstad states in his 2003 paper connecting NLP back to neurological research results. but also shared similar basic assumptions about in individuals in health and disease. Neuro-linguistic psychotherapy. but those skills are kept in neural networks which are not able to connect with the networks from which their problems are run. more beneficial beliefs. Both Cognitive therapy and NLP seek to identify and change "distorted" or "unrealistic" ways of thinking.[8] In contrast to the little empirical support for NLP in the literature. This means that the person [may well have] all the skills they need to solve their own problem.g. . Both involve "reframing" and advise that behaviour change greatly facilitates the integration of new. accreditation procedures. esoteric or hyped-up power courses at one extreme to 9 months of professional training under licensed psychotherapists or the equivalent. hypnotherapy) number approaches to psychotherapy. As such. training standards. According to Schutz in his guide to NLP training. Indeed. it became clear to me that there had also been a major cross-fertilsation of ideas and techniques between the two therapies. the NLPtCA has agreed policies concerning professional ethics. has some conceptual and historical similarities to NLP. and therefore to influence emotion and behavior (compare cognitive distortions of CBT with meta model of NLP).[5] [6] Comparison with cognitive behavior therapies Cognitive behavioral therapy."[4] 69 Approaches NLP and variants were influenced by (Gestalt therapy. In the UK. Most of these are due to strategies which are run by state-dependent neural networks that are quite dramatically separated from the rest of the person's brain. cognitive behavioral therapy and its forerunner cognitive therapy has been empirically validated and is widely used for the treatment of mental health and behavioral disorders. training varies from very short. that: "People come to psychotherapists and counsellors to solve a variety of problems. and dealing with complaints. the relevant professional body is the Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy and Counselling Association (NLPtCA). and CBT assigns them "a less central role in influencing behaviour". brief therapy. This group is currently a member of the Experiential Constructivist Section of the United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). including major depressive disorders and anxiety disorders. The task of NLP change agents is often to [experientially help to] transfer skills from functional networks (networks that do things the person is pleased with) to less functional networks (networks that do things they are not happy about). author of Changing with NLP stated that "NLP and CBT had not only paralleled each other's rise over the years."[7] Both are based on the idea that people act and feel based on their perception or maps of the world rather than the actual world (the map is not the territory) and involve an information processing perspective of mind. family systems therapy) and have influenced (e. NLP has remained an eclectic field with no inherent controls over training or a professional code of ethics. Lewis Walker. and individuals who meet the rigorous standards for accreditation become UKCP-Accredited Neurolinguistic Psychotherapists.[9] [10] Neurolinguistic Psychotherapy (NLPt) Neurolinguistic Psychotherapy or NLPt is the agreed name of psychotherapy which is practiced by individuals trained in both psychotherapy and Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP).

edu/ discuss/ resources/ ) • Counselling and therapy (http:/ / www.53 [13] Clinical Professions Group Training & development Programme (http:/ / www. (pp.959. de/ modules/ archive/ stuff/ papers/ rescomp. Guilsborough Vol. usu. sueknight. html) [3] " Research in complementary therapies papers revisited and continued (http:/ / www. pdf). Dominic (Ed). at/ institutsvgl-english. for training in rapport and communication in the workplace and with patients[13] [14] and for personal development in management training. Gray (2006) Executive Coaching: Towards a Dynamic Alliance of Psychotherapy and Transformative Learning Processes.Bateson. uk/ experiential_constuctivist.European wide accrediting organisation for NLPt Theoretical and historical backgrounds of NLP • Walker. Advocates of Child Abuse Survivors [12] Peter Bluckert (2004) The state of play in corporate coaching: current and future trends. pg. com/ books?lr=& pg=PR5& dq=& id=8K1aSWHFNSwC& ots=dLtS1iiAnR& output=html) [8] David E. htm)." p. au/ survivors/ survivors_counselling. [11] NLP is used or suggested as an approach by some mental health bodies: • Mental Health Promotions: How to Assert Yourself (http:/ / www. edu/ health/ eatingdisorders. Buckingham. and has been used or suggested as an approach by some mental health bodies. NLP has influenced some corporate executive coaches who provide one-on-one training and collaborative relationships to executives interested in development skills in career or business and may help resolve related personal issues. uk/ uploads/ westyorks/ academy DISW jan-july 06. [2] UKCP Recognised Experimental Constructivist forms of therapies (http:/ / www.1177/1350507606070221 [9] Aaron T. uk/ services/ counselling/ How_to_Assert_Yourself. (2000) "Neuro-linguistic psychotherapy. Retrieved on 2006-07-02. networks. 475 doi:10. Richard (2003) " Putting The 'Neuro' Back Into NLP (http:/ / www. nscsha. google. unm. NLP techniques are included in the The Guidance Counsellor's Handbook issued by the National Centre for Guidance in Education (NCGE). . Davies. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta. nhs. org. htm).Member Organisation of the UKCP • European Association for Neuro-Linguistic Psychotherapy (EANLPt) [20] . pdf). American Psychiatric Association (2000). net.Therapeutic use of Neuro-linguistic programming 70 Professional associations NLP has been coordinated within some industry associations.[15] [16] The Society of Medical NLP runs courses for health professionals for techniques to be used in clinical practice in consultations. [6] Platt. Perls. 187 pp. Beck: "The Current State of Cognitive Therapy: A 40 Year Retrospective". psychotherapy. Management Learning 2006.. "NLP .No Longer Plausible?" (http:/ / www.. org. Satir.11 [4] Bolstad." In Therapeutic perspectives on working with lesbian. NSCSHA pg.formerly Post Graduate Education Allowance). Archives of General Psychiatry. M. musictherapyworld. These techniques were originally based on modeling Doctors who communicate successfully with patients. Garry.27 [14] (http:/ / www. uk/ Archives/ Publications/ Articles/ NLP_Plausible. 37. Peter. Erickson und die Anfänge des Neurolinguistischen Programmierens.36(2) p.[18] Accredited Associations • Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy & Counselling Association (NLPtCA) [19] . "A consumer guide through the multiplicity of NLP certification training" (http:/ / www. ac. Sep 2005 [10] Treatment Recommendations for Patients with Major Depressive Disorder (Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.[11] NLP is used as an adjunct by therapists in other disciplines and also as a therapy in its own right as NLPt. htm) • Center for Development & Disability at the University of New Mexico Center for autism (http:/ / cdd.27 . Weaver. Wolfgang: Abenteuer Kommunikation . psychotherapy associations. England: Open University Press (2000) xviii. nlpzentrum.[17] In Ireland. nhs. asca. pdf). Their courses are accredited for Personal Development Plans (PDP) and Continuing Professional Development (CPD . Neal. 73-90). Industrial and Commercial Training. uk/ resources/ pdf/ clin_profs/ clin_profs_train_dev_05062005. Second Edition).[12] A number of UK NHS regional authorities use NLP for staff training at various levels. html). nz/ trancescript/ neurology. Charles (Ed). co. gay and bisexual clients. ISBN 3-608-91976-7 References [1] Bridoux. 1996. 62: 953 . D. Retrieved December 2006. html)" [5] Schütz. . [7] Lewis Walker (2004) Changing With Nlp: A Casebook of Neuro-linguistic Programming in Medical Practice (http:/ / books. pdf) • USU The Student Health and Wellness Center: What are Eating Disorders? (http:/ / www. herts. transformations.

Therapeutic use of Neuro-linguistic programming [15] "Belfast Health and Social Care Trust" (http:/ / www. . com/ html/ about_us. uk/ pubinfo/ Training_and_Development_Programme. greenpark. . org/ casestudies. com/ [20] http:/ / www.5 (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-08-14. Society of Medical NLP. Retrieved 2008-08-14. ie/ handbook_docs/ Section1/ NLP_Guide_Sch. org/ 71 . asp?ID=13). ncge. [17] "About Us" (http:/ / medicalnlp. doc) (DOC) [19] http:/ / www. pdf) (PDF). eanlpt. ie/ resources_handbooks_guidance. [18] The Guidance Counsellor's Handbook (http:/ / www. nlptca.Improving Patient Care in the NHS Using NLP" (http:/ / www. htm). anlp. Retrieved 2008-08-14. html). nhs.4. ncge. section 1. n-i. ANLP. [16] "NLP Case Studies . .

See Talk • • • • Verbal techniques • • • • Meta model (NLP) Milton-model Reframing Sleight of mouth Goals • Trance • Neurological levels . unconscious • Rapport • non-verbal communication • eye contact • matching breathing rhythm Anchor Modalities. VAK Meta programs Modelling (NLP) ? . objective • Conscious. Basics • Subjective. NLP TOPICS • • • • History NLP and science Methods Positive/Negative view · talk This is a list of topics related to Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP).List of Neuro-linguistic programming topics 72 List of Neuro-linguistic programming topics This list is incomplete.

List of Neuro-linguistic programming topics 73 Scientific description of the senses • • • • • Visual Auditory Kinesthetic Olfactory Gustatory Also. • Sense • Synesthesia .

That is.but scientists do not consider it "proof" in its own right. to take account of this. These tend to be of three types: studies. 4. and (where appropriate) as elements within experimental design. but NLP's approach overall is believed to have a better chance of producing notably more valuable information. in a more systematic manner. and is often of a less controlled nature or less carefully analysed in a rigorous manner. since the early 1980s. NLP is intended to be used to a goal. . A fourth kind of evidence. Anecdotal evidence may be considered suggestive. since no single strategy or approach is expected to be 100% consistent (since people vary so much). It is important when studying "NLP" to study excellence in the field. and research in related fields (notably cognitive science and neuroscience). metastudies. and contains redundancy. Key issues expected or highlighted include: 1. Not all NLP training is equal.. poor scientific understanding of the subject being researched. not least of which are unrealistic claims by some practitioners. and often. many of which are metaphorical.List of studies on Neuro-linguistic programming 74 List of studies on Neuro-linguistic programming This list is incomplete. Equally (as researchers have pointed out). This article is intended to be read in conjunction with NLP and science. attempts have also been greatly obfuscated by many other factors. Overview of key aspects of research into NLP Actual clinical studies have been more productive. and a direction to further research. refers to end-user reports. than previous alternatives. NLP relies on micro-observation and virtuosity (i.e. It is important that skilled NLP practitioners are involved in planning. 3. The measure of "success" is very often subjective to the client. lack of high quality experimental design. It is important to measure its in situ effectiveness rather than its assumptions. and better potential change. rather than niche or exaggerating practitioners. or may change during working. NLP allows for this. and in a wider range of circumstances. called anecdotal evidence. smoothness of a wide range of skill use). control and understand all key variables. but many are merely suggestive or lack formal academic rigor. which summarizes and discusses the findings overall and considers how and where NLP stands in science. and this is an expected aspect of working with people. People can misunderstand themselves. NLP TOPICS • • • • History NLP and science Methods Positive/Negative view · talk List of studies on Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) summarizes the many studies that have been performed relevant to NLP. failure to fully consider. and therefore their goals are moving goals. 2.

[5] English instruction[6] Non-verbal mimicry and rapport • In another peer-reviewed study." In addition.[1] • Henry Asbell (1983) found that predicate matching was perceived as the "most helpful" of 4 strategies and resulted in higher ratings for counsellor empathy. they found that people who were rated high on empathy mirrored their conversational partners more frequently. Townsley Stemberger (2000) found that "matching another person's representational language enhances perceived empathy.[13] . and EMG (electromyograph) and self-assessment were used to measure effects of predicate matching. rating the former more friendly. They also paid better attention to the parroting presenter. 2007) programmed an AI to mimic student movements while explaining a possible new university policy. honest and persuasive." The researchers placed a screen between the conversational partners in order to eliminate visual cues to empathy. The author used mental training as a control.[10] • Horst Reckert (1994) studied one-session anchoring as a way to treat test anxiety with positive results.[4] • See also: NLP rapport skills for librarians."[12] Milton model • Cheek (1981) demonstrated that NLP Milton Model language use is capable of reaching and influencing the unconscious mind by inducing 3000 patients to respond with formal yes/no hand signals to questions while fully anesthetized. Most significantly.." [8] • Sandhu et al. the subjects reported that the experimenters were "more likable" and that they had had "smoother interactions" with them. and concluded that "challenging metamodel patterns is an important way to enhance the ability to achieve satisfaction socially. professors Tanya Chartrand and John Bargh (1999) report that when experimenters mirrored subjects.[11] Meta model • Thomas Macroy (1978) found that more dissatisfied families substantially correlated with meta-model violations. Bulent Turan and Ruth M. An article in Wired explains that 7 out of the 69 students detected the mimicry.[7] • Researchers at Stanford (Poulsen et al. but the remaining students who did not detect it "liked the mimicking agent more than the recorded agent.[9] Anchoring • Alan Brandis (1987) found that self-anchoring was "strongly related" to changes parental anger responses. They call this the "chameleon effect. they were more likely to come around to the mimicking agent's way of thinking on the issue of mandatory ID.List of studies on Neuro-linguistic programming 75 Individual studies Generally supportive Rapport through matching sensory language • In a peer-reviewed study. looking away less often. interesting. both measures showed that deeper trance was induced when the preferred sensory system was used[3] • Skinner & Stephens (2003) explored participant reactions to advertisements and found that advertisements expressed predominantly matched their preferred sensory representational systems language were judged as more persuasive.[2] • Yappo (1981) found that when subjects were put in trance using a variety of inductions in different sensory systems. (1993) found that NLP mirroring of nonverbal behavior had a significant effect on various measurements of rapport in a cross-cultural counseling scenario.

positive changes in 3 areas occurred in both NLP and control groups.73.[14] Chronic conditions • Hanne and Jorgen Lund (1995) tested NLP on asthmatics. many of whom were on psychiatric drugs. comprising 12 hours over 3 weeks. reduced their use of drugs. The control group of 60 had milder symptoms. Positive changes in 25 of 33 symptom areas (76%) occurred as a result of NLP. compulsive behaviours. 2 fully recovered when other NLP techniques (including timeline therapy and V/K dissociation) were used.[20] 76 . finding that the lung capacity of members of the control group declined on average approximately 50ml. Although the training only comprised one period of 3 weeks (12 training hours). none felt worse (control group: 48% no different.[15] • Ulbrich (1998) found that when NLP was used to treat serious chronic conditions in clinical trials. Thus the participators in the training judge the success of their rehabilitation measures throughout more positively than the members of the control's group. They concluded "There was a trend that indicated positive effects on the home environment". used more successful coping methods.[19] Parenting • Paula et al. 2% felt no different. He stated that "apparently the NLP techniques used in training prove to be quite successful procedures for the promotion of health. unstable lung function measurements fell to under 10%. with effect sizes between 0." The authors concluded that NLP was similar in effectiveness to other well-established practices and techniques such as Cognitive-behaviour therapy. After treatment of the NLP group. and reduced symptoms such as anxiety. 98% felt better or much better. measuring children’s psychomotor development. the clients who received NLP scored higher in their perception of themselves as in control of their lives (with a difference at 10% significance level). significant results show up. 27 control).List of studies on Neuro-linguistic programming Allergies • Judith Swack (1992) in an uncontrolled. used the NLP allergy cure on a group of ten people. the members of the experimental group improved approximately 200ml.51 and 0. (1991) examined in clinical trials whether NLP could help children and parents in shanty towns. In the experimental group. as compared to the wait-list control group. They used an NLP intervention program over 15 sessions (approx 10 helped with NLP. they "prove to be quite successful procedures" and "significant results show up". The researchers concluded "It could be established that. social insecurity. 36% better. Of these 3.[18] Divorce counseling • Bertoli (2002) describes that use of NLP applied to couple counseling during divorce and separation." [16] Psychotherapy • Genser-Medlitsch & Schütz (1997) tested the effects of NLP master practitioners working on 55 clients with severe DSM conditions. paranoid thinking. and depression. 15% worse). home environment and maternal mental health before and after. and the use of inhalers and acute medication both fell to zero. in principle. aggression. The initial results were 70% success with 30% of these 7 relapsing over time. non-peer reviewed study. noting that "the participators in the training judge the success of their rehabilitation measures throughout more positively than the members of the control's group"."[17] • Stipancica (2010) conducted a quasi-experimental study which examined the effectiveness of Neuro-linguistic psychotherapy. After therapy. NLP is effective in accordance with the therapeutic objective. It found an "increase in perceived quality of life after therapy.

NLP Kinesthetic)=15% worse. and V/KD are effective treatments for posttraumatic sequelae.[23] • Almost identical results were obtained by Malloy (1989) . Most stated it had greatly helped. and interpersonal and occupational functioning improved for many of the participants in the studies reviewed"[32] • In A Review of Alternative Approaches to the Treatment of Post Traumatic Sequelae Dietrich et al. "Results confirm the effectiveness of neurolinguistic programming in lowering trait anxiety and increasing the sense of internal control"[28] • Bigley et al. in long term followup 100% of those reached confirmed freedom from recurrence. and sound theoretical principles resulted in gathering valuable process information" when counselling prelingually deaf adults[21] Social work • Frank (1997.[29] • Koziey and McLeod (1987) found that the NLP V/K technique produced a "positive reduction in anxiety in teenage rape [trauma]"[30] • Post-traumatic stress: Muss (1991) examined the impact of NLP V/K (or rewind) technique on 19 insurer-referred police officers who met DSM-III post-traumatic stress disorder criteria. finding "significant variations of the nailbiting" and that results were stable up until followup[25] Specific phobia • Einspruch (1988) found "marked improvement" over an 8 week period in a test of 31 patients who undertook NLP phobia treatment[26] • Karunaratne.List of studies on Neuro-linguistic programming Information gathering in counseling • Gerald Davis found that NLP's "structure. (2010) conducted an evaluative study and found that Neuro-linguistic programming significantly alleviated anxiety and then allowed MRI examinations to be performed in 38/50 (76%) of claustrophobic patients without the need for general anaesthesia. (2010) reviews experimental research evidence and concludes that NLP is an effective and efficient treatment for phobias. using good experimental designs and standardized 77 . avoidance behaviors. Scientist-practitioners are encouraged to take an active role in this line of enquiry and to conduct research with combined components. psychological placebo or other treatment.. the TRI Method. University of Moncton.the NLP spelling strategy produced a 25% improvement in spelling ability (and 100% retention) compared to no change in a control group but that spellers told to visualize in what NLP claims is a Kinesthetic manner (down/left) were scored around 10% worse. terminology. Germany) investigated NLP in social work. summarizing that it had "fallen out very positively"[22] Spelling • Loiselle (1985. Germany) tested the "swish" pattern for nail-biting.[27] Post-traumatic stress and anxiety disorders • Konefal (1992) found that. feel technically more competent and make a more intensive self reflection". finding "enormous changes" and that "very many of the people indicated that they could increase their adaptability.[31] • Dietrich (2000) reviewed NLP V/K (rewind technique) dissociation trials.] "Rigorous studies need to be conducted and replicated using comparison groups to demonstrate that the identified treatment is equivalent to another “well-established" treatment or superior to medication. and concluded that NLP was "promising" and that "intrusive symptoms.e." [. following up at 3–24 months.[24] Nailbiting • Wilhelm (1991. "visualize up/right" (i. New Brunswick) tested various spelling strategies and found: control=no change.. "visualize"=10% better. said that "the available evidence suggests TIR. "visualize down/left" (i.e. M. NLP Visual) = 20-25% better.

aged 14–16 with suffering from traumatic experiences).List of studies on Neuro-linguistic programming approaches. He concludes that "Although empirical research is at an early stage. Kirsch.[41] Organizational culture and change • Case study of how NLP techniques were used at Metronet Rail BCV Ltd. but. and Mosher (1985) examined responses to taped traditional hypnosis versus Bandler and Grinder (1975) inspired-double induction. Recommended further research on live inductions. The study supported the hypothesis that eye-movement responses would differ between neurologically normal and aphasic individuals.[35] Consciousness studies • Mathison & Tosey (2008) combined NLP-inspired methods with research into phenomenology to gain a first person account of horse riding lessons and to develop an account of the experiences of transformative learning. concluded "presented on audiotape. and rapport skills in particular for change management. The author concluded that NLP was effective at improving cricket skills. a rail maintenance company. They compared responses of 34 undergraduate psychology students to taped traditional hypnosis versus double induction as described by Bandler and Grinder. significantly reduced the trauma symptoms in patients (12 children. a technique originating from NLP. Highlights the importance of specific communication.[34] Sport Science • Cricket: The experimental group showed overall skill improvement compared control group."[39] Eye movements and thought process • Dooley and Farmer (1988) investigated eye movements using videotapes of 10 nonfluent aphasic versus matched normal control subjects. and some exaggerated claims are probably being made by NLPers.[38] Addictions • Howie‌ (1996) outlines NLP and proposes it as a promising intervention for addictions. the double hypnotic 78 . The study recommended EMI to aid in the recovery of childhood trauma. Found no significant difference between responses to traditional hypnosis and the double induction delivered via audiotape.[40] Teaching • Exam anxiety: Kudliskis and Burden (2010) ran a case study of sixth form students in the South West of England using NLP related techniques to deal with exam anxiety and related problems.[36] • Mathison & Tosey (2009) conducted explication interview of 4 people using NLP language and questions to develop the first person accounts through guided introspection in particular what they term "moments of knowing".[42] Generally dismissive Traditional hypnosis • Double induction: Matthews.[37] • Tamara Andreas & Connirae Andreas (2009) provide an example "aligning perceptual positions" as an distinction they developed within NLP and which they propose can be applied to exploring first person experience. under major organizational change."[33] • The study found that a single session of eye movement integration (EMI). They stated that the methods used allowed the rider to specific language and questions to develop a increasingly fine-grained distinction about the learning experience and understanding. a substantial body of clinical evidence is accumulating to support the value of NLP in the facilitation of a person's freedom from the tyranny of addictive behaviours.

List of studies on Neuro-linguistic programming induction described by Bandler and Grinder (1975) is not more effective than a traditional induction.65. instead it found idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities specific to the individual. A review of this literature by Sharpley (1984) failed to consider a number of methodological errors. kinesthetic) were correlated with distinct eye-movements. existing research evidence is limited and inconclusive. a limited theoretical underpinning framework supported by ‘soft’ research evidence. (e) inadequate interviewer training and definitions of rapport."[46] • NLP-trained observers and eye movement existence and detection Buckner (1987) found that "coefficients of agreement (Cohen's K) between participants' self-reports and trained observers' records indicate support for the visual (K=." Some of these criticisms were later challenged or rebutted by Sharpley. 79 . (2003) investigated whether specific modality tasks (visual. p<. at best. The study did not support the preferred representational system hypothesis.." However.. (d) failure to consider the role of stimulus-response associations. These categories include (a) lack of understanding of the concepts of pattern recognition and inadequate control of context. .001) and auditory (K=. He concluded that: "NLP techniques using language patterns and questioning techniques appear to be of use.."[43] Eye movements and thought process • Burke et al. and concluded that as a result it was "not possible at this time to determine the validity of either NLP concepts or whether NLP-based therapeutic procedures are effective":[50] "There is a growing body of empirical literature on Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP). Suggestions are offered for improving the quality of research on NLP. Unclear if there was a control group. and that "interrater agreement (K=.' He concluded strongly that there was "little supportive evidence and a large amount of data opposing the validity of the concept.. NLP is enthusiastically supported by those who practise it. and that is both its strength and potential weakness.[49] Meta-studies and similar commentaries on research • Sharpley (1984) performed a metastudy of 15 studies seeking to test for a 'preferred representation system. in general. Further research is recommended direct at NLP and parallel research efforts. and. responding to Sharpley..82) supports the NLP claim that specific eye movement patterns exist and that trained observers can reliably identify them"[47] • Predicate matching and eye movements Baddeley (1991) found positive correlation between predicates and certain predicted eye movements[48] • Teacher-pupil communication: "At the moment it would appear that NLP has. but the majority of them are. (c) lack of familiarity with the NLP "Meta-Model" of linguistic communication. gustatory.[44] Mixed or indeterminate findings • Weight loss Bott (1995) found that NLP gave "partially positive effects" for treating psychogenic weight loss. (f) logical mistakes. criticized all 39 studies to that date (including all 15 of Sharpleys') for serious errors. p<. accepted.[45] • Management learning Dowlen (1996) performed own research and also reviewed the existing research." • Einspruch & Forman (1985). In the present article the authors identify six categories of design and methodological errors contained in [empirical studies] through April 1984. NLP may assist to challenge and correct negative beliefs and thoughts related to school and may help improve teacher-student communication about learning. (b) unfamiliarity with NLP as an approach to therapy.001) portions of the model"..81. to examine whether NLP was "help or hype" in management training.

He concludes that as a result of the study flaws. and despite the anecdotal support:[54] 80 . and perhaps NLP procedures are not amenable to research evaluation. In reality. (c) Attempting to replicate findings of NLP using subjects. with principles not easily demonstrated in laboratory settings but. and thus. and they may well have been correct.List of studies on Neuro-linguistic programming • Sharpley published a follow-up review (1987):[51] "There are conclusive data from the research on NLP." [52] • Sharpley 1987 quote: “There are conclusive data from the research on NLP. This does not necessarily reduce NLP to worthlessness for counseling practice. neither Heap nor Sharpley actually has any idea whether the studies they reviewed tested genuine NLP claims. which they cited as a rebuttal of the claim that predicate matching could help to build empathy/rapport. it puts NLP in the same category as psychoanalysis. in Frogs into Princes (1979). or experimental designers who lack NLP training. that is. nevertheless. Rather. Perhaps this is so. nevertheless. 1987). observers. Hammer had misunderstood the claims made about predicate matching. Einspruch and Forman (1985) implied that NLP is far more complex than presumed by researchers. whether the experiments themselves were fit for purpose. Perhaps NLP principles are not amenable to research evaluation. and his results actually supported what Bandler and Grinder had said about predicate matching. A further consideration is the fact that so many of the reviewed studies related to the notion of people having a PRS (preferred or primary representational system). • Druckman (1988) reports that anecdotal evidence on NLP is broadly credible and positive. (b) studying NLP as a theory. but failure to produce data that support a particular theory from controlled studies does relegate that theory to questionable status in terms of professional accountability” Right at the end of the article the sentences read: “Elich et al. and therefore." [53] It is important to notice that the "evidence" quoted above is not direct. This does not necessarily reduce NLP to worthlessness for counseling practice. For example. strongly supported by clinicians in the field. or whether the experimenters' conclusions were valid. however. This is fairly crucial given that many of the experimenters also seemed to be very confused about what claims had actually been made about variois NLP-related concepts and techniques (see below). rather than as an influencing technique pitted against existing influencing techniques. many experimenters (and reviewers) continued to treat the concept as though it were a key element in NLP. but that most attempted studies are heavily flawed. and (d) lack of studies on NLP as a trainer modeling system.” • Heap says of his own research into matching predicates (1988) that: "Einsprech and Forman are probably correct in insisting that the effectiveness of NLP therapy undertaken in authentic clinical contexts of trained practitioners has not yet been properly investigated. they also overlooked the fact that Bandler and Grinder themselves had downgraded the importance they assigned to PRSs as early as the late 1970s. whilst they may accurately report on the studies they reviewed. the data are not true evaluations of NLP. thereby vastly overestimating the significance of the corresponding experimental results. and the conclusion is that the principles and procedures suggested by NLP have failed to be supported by those data. that is. Certainly research data do not support the rather extreme claims that proponents of NLP have made as to the validity of its principles or the novelty of its procedures. and the conclusion is that the principles and procedures of NLP have failed to be supported by those data” Then he (Sharpley) says “On the other hand. both reviewers referred to an experiment by Allan Hammer (1983). Not every therapy has to undergo the rigorous testing that is characteristic of the more behavioural approaches to counseling to be of use to the therapeutic community. referred to NLP as a psychological fad. with principles not easily demonstrated in laboratory settings but. such as (a) equating subjective empathy with clinical effectiveness. Not only did many of the experimenters misunderstand what claims had originally been made about PRSs. Instead. Unfortunately neither of the authors of these reviews was (or is) particularly well-informed about NLP. for example. but is drawn from the three reviews of other people's work by Heap (1987) and Sharpley (1984. Rather it puts it in the same category as psychoanalysis. strongly supported by clinicians in the field.

[51] It is noteworthy that this literature is based in the positivist psychological tradition and many of the examples are in therapeutic areas. and therefore. Many of the studies are arguably methodologically flawed.[55] The review of literature does not provide a firm base for a belief that NLP has a lasting effect.. Dissertation Abstracts International reveals five studies. both reviewers referred to an experiment by Allan Hammer (1983).g. phobia cure[26] and counselling. thereby vastly overestimating the relevance/value of their results. and four indicate no measurable effect. however. representation systems and eye movements tended to give positive results only around 15-35% of the time. Unfortunately neither of the authors of these studies shows a particularly accurate understanding of NLP. Druckman was reporting on other people's research. Einspruch and Forman (1985) give six categories of error in the research on NLP. This is fairly crucial given that many of the experimenters also seemed to be very confused about what claims had actually been made about variois NLP-related concepts and techniques (see below). and his results actually supported what Bandler and Grinder had said about predicate matching. four of which have a conventional research base. Two. which they cited as a rebuttal of the claim that predicate matching could help to build empathy/rapport. A further consideration is the fact that so many of the reviewed studies related to the notion of people having a PRS (preferred or primary representational system). and post-traumatic stress) revealed no significant effects. the fact remains that the experimental evidence fails to provide support for NLP. whilst they may accurately report on the studies they reviewed. Overall. (2002) question the current research and subsequently propose further longitudinal studies. Two of the studies (teaching.List of studies on Neuro-linguistic programming "Ignoring where the burden of proof lies. Young’s (1995) thesis shows that the leaders made lasting progress on achieving desired outcomes and reported growth. Despite the fact that Bandler and Grinder themselves downgraded the importance they assigned to PRSs as early as the late 1970s. Sharpley (1987) details seven studies (not included in the above total) that demonstrate that the research data does not support the basic tenets of NLP.[50] In a discussion of these findings. mainly as filtered through Sharpley's (1984) review. and the students attributed change to the various NLP course components. For example. and First Search) gives 54 citations of which only eight are research studies. Hammer had misunderstood the claims made about predicate matching. the major of which is inadequate control of context. " [56] It is important to notice that most of the evidence quoted above is not direct. Eurobusiness ASAP.[55] Young’s (1995) The study included interviews one year after the NLP intervention. This view is supported by the positivist stance of Baddeley (1989) that a final verdict (on NLP) is withheld until further clinical studies and experimental investigations are reported. or whether the experiments themselves were appropriate. Four indicate positive benefits.. There were no examples of longitudinal studies..[50] Their “flaws” raise considerable methodological and method issues. in Frogs into Princes (1979). when he examined studies of the effects of NLP applied in its complete context. there is little or no empirical evidence to date to support either NLP assumptions or NLP effectiveness.. In reality. for example. A review of four online databases (PsycInfo. 81 . "The research question is how to measure the impact of NLP training on individual and organisational performance. on eye movements and leadership revealed positive effects. 1987). The existing literature provided little evidence of the efficacy of NLP and provided no templates for analysis. neither Heap nor Sharpley actually has any idea whether the studies they reviewed tested genuine NLP claims." Again. Proquest." • Thompson et al. in this case phobia cures. "56% found positive evidence to support NLP's effectiveness. but is drawn from the three metastudies by Heap (1987) and Sharpley (1984. many experimenters (and reviewers) continued to treat the concept as though it were a key element in NLP.[25] Interest in this area appears to fade in the early 1990s and there are few reported studies after this date. • Platt (2001) observed that whilst studies evaluating specific NLP points such as predicates. e. and his committee's findings adding one whit to the existing body of evidence.

D.D.[59] References [1] Turan. 1981)[58] • Shifting the "size" visual submodality has been demonstrated to have the effect that would be predicted by the "Submodality Model". "After each induction. (1983) "Effects of Reflection. 110-113. and Reference The Reference Librarian. Accessed 24 June 2007. [10] Brandis. H. html).doi:10. Effects of NLP interventions with chronical diseases [chronic illness of the back. 926 B. com/ research/ Anchoring/ anchoring_parents." "Theoretical and Clinical Aspects of Hypnosis". com/ random/ research-summary. . "We're All Copycats. 45 – 52. Accessed 24 June 2007. 1978. pp. JM (2002) The use of neuro-linguistic programming and emotionally-focused therapy with divorcing couples in crisis (http:/ / books. com/ culture/ lifestyle/ news/ 2005/ 05/ 67659 . Renata Dond (2010) "Effects of Neuro-Linguistic Psychotherapy on psychological difficulties and perceived quality of life" Counselling and Psychotherapy Research. [15] Lund. 287-300. May 1987. [9] Sandhu. A-1090. com/ articles/ pto-19991101-000004. Austria [18] Melita Stipancica. Asthma Management: A Qualitative Research Study. 1992.) Brief treatments for the traumatized: Contributions to psychology. approx German translation [17] Genser-Medlitsch & Schütz. David Jay (2009)Improving English Instruction Through Neuro-Linguistic Programming. Feb. Journal of Marketing Communication. 133 pp. 207-225. H. Peter Schätz. "Does Neuro-Linguistic psychotherapy have effect?" Martina Genser-Medlitsch." Dissertation Abstracts International 44(11). The Health Attractor. http:/ / psychologytoday. 177-192. 1. [11] Reckert. Alan D. Nov/Dec 1999. T. Anchor Point. NLP Aktuell. Vol 33(3-4). Tori.49 [19] Bertoli. Vol 47(11-B)." (Brandis. 1. for example room color has an effect on temperature perception (Berry. (1987): "A neurolinguistic treatment for reducing parental anger responses and creating more resourceful behavioral options. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 23 . 1997." [4] Skinner & Stephens (2003) Speaking the same language: the relevance of neuro-linguistic programming to effective marketing communications. Judith. 3. Wien. 10. Education. Symposium Specialists. effects of matching predicates on hypnotic relaxation. 51. au/ books?id=KUeAaHzHvNkC& pg=PA207)." Psychology Today Magazine. See also "A Summary of NLP Research" (http:/ / www. 1998.List of studies on Neuro-linguistic programming 82 Findings within neuroscience and cognitive science • NLP and neurotransmitter/neurological activity Baxter (1994) found that NLP reframing used to treat obsessive compulsive disorder in place of Prozac resulted in the same raised serotonin levels and reduced caudate nucleus activity as control subjects who took medication (as measured by Positron Emission Tomography scans of the brain)[57] Submodalities and sensory perception • Visual submodalities have been shown to affect kinesthetic states. and Predicate Matching on Perceived Counselor Characteristics. com. Townsley Stemberger. Kevin. [12] Macroy. [5] Matt Stock (2010) The Three R's: Rapport. See NLP Comprehensive (http:/ / www. 9. [3] Yappo. "Awareness of Meaningful Sounds Under General Anaesthesia. Probe. html . [8] Poulsen. 2000. 1. 1995. [7] Barco. Wiederhofergasse 4. 3. Bulent and Ruth M. 4642. On both measures. "Test anxiety removed by anchoring in just one session?" in Multimind. 1981." Wired online 31 May 2005. US) Dissertation Abstract Dissertation Abstracts International. html) for abstract. [13] Cheek. 1541-1117. nlpco. "AI Seduces Stanford Students. in Figley (Ed. 1981. 39. March. 130.Yappo put 30 subjects in trance using a variety of inductions in different sensory systems. IASH. subjects achieved greater relaxation when their preferred sensory system was used. cancer. Alan D.W. No 6. google.: California School of Professional Psychology. [16] Unterberger Ulbrich. "The Effectiveness of Matching Language to Enhance Perceived Empathy. nlpschedule.39 . their depth of trance was measured by electromyograph and by asking them how relaxed they felt. 106-118. Vol. [14] Swack. http:/ / www. Los Angeles. ·TZ-NLP. Peter Schuumltzc.. Daya et al. Relationship. wired. 3515-B University of Missouri at Kansas City. Utah State University. [2] Asbell. Study of Initial Response and Reversion Rates of Subjects Treated With The Allergy technique. Walter Rennerb. "Linguistic surface structures in family interaction" in Dissertation Abstracts International 40(2).1080/02763870903361995 [6] Helm." Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development Vol 21(2) Apr 1993. Journal of Applied Psychology 45/4) and packaging color changes the effectiveness of the placebo effect (Buckalew and Ross. "Cross-cultural Counseling and Neurolinguistic Mirroring with Native American Adolescents. November/December 1994. Henry." Communication & Cognition. allergies and asthma] in clinical tests. No.

[21] Davis. phobia cure evaluation ."Thomas Malloy (1989) at the University of Utah Department of Psychology completed a study with three groups of spellers.. The control group showed no improvement. Devich-Navarro. 1988. All [fifteen] confirmed freedom from recurring intrusive images and a return to normal behavior. 113-117 PubMed (http:/ / www. "Impact of the application of neurolinguistic programming to mothers of children enrolled in a day care center of a shantytown. University of Moncton. Duncan R. verbal and nonverbales Pacing and leading. se/ Cognitive-strategies_Spelling-1987. approx translation from German . The group taught the auditory strategies improved 15% but this score dropped 5% in the following week. using NLP in social work. which NLP claims helps visual memory (scored 20-25% better)."The question about impact of the individual NLP interventions (the Meta model. Vol 46(5-A)..] The study by Hossack and Bentall meets many of the controls for internal validity in case studies as set forth by Kazdin (1998). Results indicate marked improvement by those who were treated. University of Utha. A further group. Of 70 officers seen. Cognitive strategies and a classroom procedure for teaching spelling . The swish-technology showed clear advantages vis-à-vis the switch-technology. Department of Social Work. Findings suggest that NLP holds promise for becoming an important set of therapeutic techniques for treating phobias.. AB." Wilhelm. M. 19 met DSM-III criteria for PTSD . C A J Romanowski. Four groups of pretested average spellers were given the same spelling test (using made up nonsense words they had not seen before). AM.. 1989.Malloy 1989. (2010) Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice doi:10." [33] Dietrich. Group B was told to "visualize the words as a method of learning them" (scored 10% better). Intrusive symptoms. and one were given no new information. People in this group scored 15% worse than pretest. very many of the people indicated that they could increase their adaptability. 83.. at a one-week follow-up interview. Research and Practice" . use of V/K Dissociation for trauma . CR. Philipps-University Marburg. Elsabet (2010) An exploratory study on the usefulness of eye movement integration therapy in overcoming childhood trauma (http:/ / hdl. others did not remark on any immediate change". 1247-1248.. one group were taught a strategy of sounding out by phonetics and auditory rules.117(2):63-71. Dissertation. 'Traumatology' aug 2000.02. Baranowsky. (1985): "Neuro-linguistic programming as an interviewing technique with prelingually deaf adults. N Hoggard (2010) Neurolinguistic programming used to reduce the need for anaesthesia in claustrophobic patients undergoing MRI The British journal of radiology. L Miles. In this study the tests involved actual words. avoidance behaviors.2) [34] Struwig.1016/j. which NLP claims helps feeling kinesthetically. may be a promising treatment for at least some forms of Posttraumatic Disorder." Sao Paulo Medical Journal.7. 1992. 70:819-832. M: "Effect of Neurolinguistic Programming Training on Trait Anxiety and Internal Locus of Control. Enormous changes were registered also in the formulation of goals and the attention to their ecological compatibility. New Brunswick). Master thesis. Harris."V-KD has been cited [by Koziey] as showing a positive reduction in anxiety in teenage rape victims" [31] Muss. kattmodell. ncbi. the obtained results were further stable. nlm. were told to "look down to the right". Cognitive strategies and a classroom procedure for teaching spelling (http:/ / www. nih. various NLP submodality techniques tested on nailbiting ."Thirty-one phobic patients seen in group/class treatment programs completed Mark's Phobia Questionnaire and Fear Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory before and after 8 weeks of treatment. and had near 100% retention one week later. handle. [26] Einspruch. One group were taught the NLP spelling strategy of looking up and to the left.. use of V/K dissociation in rape trauma.. Muss reported that most of the participants (exact number was not specified) stated that they "felt as if a great weight had suddenly been lifted."The related technologies brought both significant variations of the nailbiting and the growth. According to these positive experiences the answer to the question whether NLP is meaningful as further training for social paedagogues. nlm.1259/bjr/14421796 [30] Review of Koziey and McLeod. 1999 Mar 4." (Davis. "Professional Psychology. Reese. [22] Frank.: Oklahoma State U) Dissertation Abstract Dissertation Abstracts International. and interpersonal and occupational functioning improved for many of the participants in the studies reviewed [. Seventeen patients seen in individual therapy completed part of the phobia questionnaire before and after treatment. The social educators consider the feedback of the client and the secondary profit of the problem behavior now substantially more intensively. Gentry.. Gerald L.. the visual recall spellers improved 25%. Figley..1987. fsu. M. (scored same as pretest). 83 . [Long term follow-up comprised] 10 were contacted by phone and five were reviewed at the clinic.. Nov 1985. pdf). htm) Traumatology Volume VI (4.003 [28] Konefal J. the attention of the body language as well as the Reframing models) [was responded] particularly positively . gov/ pubmed/ 19505969) doi:10. Department of Psychology. All 19 officers reported "feeling well" at the one-week follow-up. To the follow-up moment. 1991. MA Thesis. has fallen out very optimistically. Empirical test of an imaginative method ('Swish'). gov/ pubmed/ 9923190) [29] J Bigley. [25] Wilhelm. feel technically more competent and make a more intensive self reflection . ncbi. doi: PubMed (http:/ / www. Again. the other four could not be contacted. and at long-term follow-up interviews occurring in an interval anywhere from three months to two years after V/KD treatment. Frank Anton (1991) Submodality change and nail chewing. but may hinder visualizing. Department of Psychology. p. H Lidiard. (2000) A Review of Alternative Approaches to the Treatment of Post Traumatic Sequelae (http:/ / www. Gerald L. CJH. The University of Johannesburg.List of studies on Neuro-linguistic programming [20] de Miranda et al. review of V/K dissociation in trauma treatment ." [27] Karunaratne. although currently at an experimental level of efficacy and in need of further well-designed empirical study. Moreover.2010. pp. P D Griffiths. net/ 10210/ 3277). These were almost identical results to Malloy (1989) [24] Malloy."An uncontrolled study with a sample of 19 British police officers referred for stress management by a medical insurance company. Group D. JE." [32] Dietrich."The studies reviewed for this paper suggest that V/KD. Each group had different instructions and each obtained different results in their spelling test: Group A was simply told to "learn the words". nih. A Prydderch. Group C was told to "look up to the left". 1991. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated by the participant's verbal self-reports immediately following the procedure." [23] "Spelling was tested again by Loiselle (1985. 1989. edu/ ~trauma/ v6i4/ v6i4a2..ctcp." Psychological Reports." . again pretested to find average spellers. 1997.

J. 20-21.92 [44] Burke DT. gov/ pubmed/ 12929791) [45] Bott. [56] John E. (http:/ / hdl. p<. 1987. ncbi.. Mosher. 27 .. ingentaconnect.. 0080." [53] http:/ / www. (2008) "Riding into transformative learning" Journal of Consciousness Studies 15.09. then it is relegated. 1985.292-298 doi:10. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Thompson. nlm. nih. [.. D. 16. T. ncbi. gov/ pubmed/ 3211676) [41] Kudliskis. None of the studies testing aspects of NLP has used NLP-certified Trainers as counselors. 1987. William J. Concludes that NLP techniques using language patterns and questioning techniques appear to be of use. p<. the results would have been more positive. US) Dissertation Abstract Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. The dependent measure used in most studies is client-counselor empathy. handle. 105. eye movement v.tsc..34 . if properly trained people had been used. J. NLP is enthusiastically supported by those who practise it. Irving. Visually remembered and auditory constructed questions tended to be positively associated with predicted eye-movements both within and across eye-movement instances.. [36] Mathison. Donald (1985) Double hypnotic induction: An initial empirical test.2009. Jennifer Ann: The Ohio State U. 189-216 [38] Andreas. Dorvlo AS. No. 2. or kinesthetic components in thought." (Young. Vol. Andreas." [48] Baddeley.81." [. Respected and responsible people who have been trained in the system report positively.1016/j. predicted movement . 67-88.002 [50] Einspruch. therapists.15. P... Feb 1996 p. P. Snyder J."The support program is based on methods of the NLP and showed partially positive effects. PubMed (http:/ / www. thus studies that fail to support NLP are subject to the criticism that. (2009) Aligning perceptual positions: A new distinction in NLP (2009) Journal of Consciousness Studies. and despite the anecdotal or hype?". co. Schneider JC. abstract (http:/ / www.94. or eye movement monitors. and fails. Dickson (Aug 2002) "The effect of neurolinguistic programming on organisational and individual performance: a case study" Journal of European Industrial Training Vol. p. One can find a counselor very empathetic but nonetheless ineffective in modifying behaviors or feelings. 2. 217-230. a profiling questionnaire and an analysis of a sample of management development articles. Various purveyors of this system offer training seminars in many cities on a regular basis. eye movements .3109/14659899609084974 [40] PubMed (http:/ / www.82) supports the NLP claim that specific eye movement patterns exist and that trained observers can reliably identify them."Identifies aspects of neurolinguistic programming (NLP) that may be of use in management learning. 3."One type of program that has achieved a measure of success is called neurolinguistic programming. that "If it has been tested. Howie‌ Application of Neuro-Linguistic Programming to Addictive Behaviours: Part II Journal of Substance Use 1996. Journal of Consciousness Studies. Eye-movements and ongoing task processing. Interrater agreement (K=. 92-95. there is little or no empirical evidence to date to support either NLP assumptions or NLP effectiveness. and that is both its strength and potential weakness. nlm. There are no studies in the scientific literature on NLP as a way of modeling experts for training purposes.001) portions of the model. ingentaconnect. 4.6 pp.List of studies on Neuro-linguistic programming [35] Saunders. 170-177 doi:doi:10.1108/09670731011051496 [43] Matthews. Then reviews research evidence on NLP. R.. edu/ books/ 0309037921/ html/ 133. doi:10. D. Lisa Courtney. the fact remains that the experimental evidence fails to provide support for NLP.09." doi:10. evaluation of a NLP based treatment for psychogenic weight loss .1108/03090590210431265 84 .1037/0021-843X. Uses three approaches to explore NLP. an introductory programme. and Tosey. Hammer. Meleger A."Two NLP-trained observers independently viewed silent videotapes of participants concentrating and recorded the presence or absence of eye movements posited by NLP theorists to indicate visual. C. net/ 10019/ 2112) Doctoral dissertation.143 .tsc. 1991. p<. (2003).] Studies of the effectiveness of NLP are limited in a number of ways." [46] Ashley Dowlen. 1. auditory. 16. Sharpley was also a source used by Heap (1988) [52] Sharpley (1988) concludes by cautioning however.85) portion was not supported.2009.] "Overall. 1330-1338.. Tosey. htm [54] Druckman (1988) p. Thinking Skills and Creativity 4. Vol 56(1-A). Ignoring where the burden of proof lies.65. Observations on NLP research) [51] Sharpley. doi:10. nap. V. uk/ art_nlp. Kirsch. nih. (http:/ / www.1108/13620439610111408 [47] Buckner. Burden. "NLP .(2009) Exploring Moments of Knowing: NLP and Enquiry Into Inner Landscapes. Germany 1995." [49] Voldis Kudliskisa and Robert Burden (2009) Applying ‘what works’ in psychology to enhancing examination success in schools: The potential contribution of NLP (2009) Thinking Skills and Creativity 4. Coefficients of agreement (Cohen's K) between participants' self-reports and trained observers' records indicate support for the visual (K=. This is not a satisfactory index of the therapeutic effectiveness of the counselor. Druckman concludes that as a result of the studies. html) [55] Young. Jennifer Ann (1995): "Developing leadership from within: A descriptive study of the use of neurolinguistic programming practices in a course on leadership. There are no studies comparing the effectiveness of NLP as an influence technique with other interpersonal influence techniques.1.001) and auditory (K=. 94.26. pp.g. The kinesthetic (K=. Perceptual and Motor Skills 96. Pages 74-79 doi:10. 170-177 doi:10. existing research evidence is limited and inconclusive. amd Al-Adawi S. hypno1." (http:/ / darwin. com/ content/ imp/ jcs/ 2009/ 00000016/ F0030010/ art00009) [39] D. (2010) Applying 'what works' in psychology to enhancing examination success in schools: The potential contribution of NLP."Results failed to support the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis although post-hoc tests located some distinctive eye-movement trends [but t]here was a tendency for the auditory remembered questions to be associated with a greater number of predicted eye movements than expected by chance.002 [42] David Pollitt (2010) "NLP helps Metronet Rail maintenance employees to stay on track: Techniques prove their worth in a period of organizational upheaval" Human Resource Management International Digest 18. com/ content/ imp/ jcs/ 2008/ 00000015/ 00000002/ art00003) [37] Mathison. Dawn Elizabeth (2009) A psycho-educational programme for cricket players using neuro-linguistic programming.1016/j. Jul 1995. as measured on a paper-and-pencil scale (e.. 1983). published Career Development International.

2] or by improved guidance of movement [3] via visually enhanced body position sense [4--6]. for example room color has an effect on temperature perception (Berry. the Positron Emission Tomography scan showed the same raising of serotonin levels and the same lowering of activity in the caudate nucleus. The spatial resolution of touch was better when the arm was visible than when it was not. "Research on sensory perception now often considers more than one sense at a time. these previous findings might be mediated by spatial attention [1. visual and tactile attentional systems are spatially linked [2]. 1994. Journal of Applied Psychology 45/4) and packaging color changes the effectiveness of the placebo effect. performance was not improved by viewing a neutral object at the arm's location."Clients with obsessive compulsive disorder had raised activity in neural networks inside the caudate nucleus of the brain (demonstrated on PET scans of the brain). nlm. gov/ pubmed/ 11516950) 85 . Journal of Clinical Psychiatry . ruling out improved spatial orienting as a possible account. We measured tactile two-point discrimination thresholds [7] on the forearm while manipulating the visibility of the arm but holding gaze direction constant. Controls confirmed that no information about the tactile stimulation was provided by visibility of the arm. In contrast. This visual enhancement of touch may point to online reorganization of tactile receptive fields. Haggard P. [59] Noninformative vision improves the spatial resolution of touch in humans. and the texture of surfaces that are actively touched with the fingertips is perceived using both vision and touch [3]. Drugs such as Prozac raise serotonin levels and the caudate nucleus activity is thus reduced. Baxter found that when clients repeated a simple reframe to themselves." PMID: 11516950 (http:/ / www. "Relationship of Perceptual Characteristics to Efficacy of Placebos". 1981. Here." [58] Buckalew and Ross. This approach reflects real-world situations. such as when a visible object touches us.List of studies on Neuro-linguistic programming [57] Baxter. ncbi. Tactile performance was further improved when the view of the arm was magnified. Indeed.11(15):1188-91. reported in Psychological Reports . Taylor-Clarke M. Curr Biol. Kennett S. vision and touch show great interdependence: the sight of a body part can reduce tactile target detection times [1]. we investigate the direct effects of viewing the body on passive touch. 2001 Aug 7. "Effect of Coloured Illumination Upon Perceived Temperature". However.Visual submodalities have been shown to affect kinesthetic states. nih.

Davelane. Saradew. Hhielscher. Antandrus. Chris1979. Gadfium. Argumzio. Moanzhu. LegitimateAndEvenCompelling. ChrisG. ChrisG. Mark. AJRG. Piechjo. Peter Damian. BrokenSegue. 8 anonymous edits NLP and science  Source: http://en. Jo3sampl. Rightleftright. Will Beback. GregA. Jason Rife. Dtcraig. FT2. JamesMLane. Jim62sch. Hordaland. Tregoweth. RalphLender. Kbdank71. LilHelpa. Dysprosia. Tombomp. NawlinWiki. NicholasTurnbull. Ruud Koot. Thumperward. Gloverman.php?oldid=418332829  Contributors: AJRG. Fragglet. Light current. Zsh. Borgx. Joie de Vivre. Kedadi. Coffeefx. Axlrosen. Arknascar44. Nlpenthusiast. RobinHood70. Mboverload.wikipedia. Peter Damian (old).org/w/index. Kbdank71. Kintetsubuffalo. Chuckfrey. Apfox. David Fell. Jjansen1968. Gailgang. Whas. Connolley. Pearle. Mythrandir. Kevinkor2. Frankk74. Conversion script. Lsi john. Action potential. 43 anonymous edits Representational systems (NLP)  Source: http://en. Zetawoof. JominyDave. Sunray. McGeddon. Flavius vanillus. 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