Land Surveying Resources Handbook

A Resource Pool for Members of Land Surveyors United
Land Surveying Resources Handbook.................................................. 1 A Resource Pool for Members of Land Surveyors United ........................... 1 SURVEYING EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS ......................................... 2 HOME---> SURVEYING RESOURCES ................................................ 2 LAND SURVEYING LINKS AND RESOURCES FROM AROUND THE WEB ..... 2 ONLINE SURVEYING MAGAZINES ....................................................... 4 SURVEYING SOFTWARE MANUFACTURERS .......................................... 2 GPS BOOKS .................................................................................... 5 GOVERNMENT GIS INFORMATION (CANADA)....................................... 5 STATE LAND SURVEYING BOARDS AND ORGANIZATIONS ..................... 3 GIS INFORMATION (GENERAL) .......................................................... 6 SURVEYING ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONAL...................................... 6 INTERNATIONAL SURVEYING COMPANIES DIRECTORY ......................... 6 PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS ........................................................ 4 GOVERNMENT GPS LINKS ................................................................. 5 GOVERNMENT ASSOCIATIONS .......................................................... 5 SURVEYING RELATED PATENTS ......................................................... 6 CADASTRAL SURVEYING................................................................... 7 SURVEYING METHODS ..................................................................... 7 DYNAMIC OR KINEMATIC GPS ........................................................ 7 STATIC GPS ................................................................................. 7 DIFFERENTIAL POSITIONING.......................................................... 8 INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS ......................................................10 ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES ..................................................10 GLOSSARY OF SURVEYING AND MAPPING TERMS ................................ 8 SURVEYING SCHOOLS, COLLEGES AND TRAINING ..............................10 SURVEYING EDUCATION SCHOOLS ...................................................11 EDUCATION IN LAND SURVEYING .....................................................13 ONLINE SCHOOLS FOR CERTIFICATION .............................................13 AUBURN UNIVERSITY ................................................................... 13 COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES ......................................................... 14 LAND SURVEYING HISTORY ............................................................. 15 LEGAL RESEARCH ........................................................................... 15 EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS............................................................... 16 UNITS OF MEASURE ........................................................................ 18 LAND SURVEYORS UNITED ELSEWHERE ON THE WEB .........................15 SURVEYING BLOGS......................................................................... 15 AUTODESK BLOGS .......................................................................... 15 CAD RELATED BLOGS...................................................................... 16 SURVEYING IMAGES AND MAPS ONLINE ............................................17 SURVEYORS' SLANG........................................................................ 21 USENET NEWSGROUPS OF INTEREST TO SURVEYORS .........................17 SATELLITE TRACKING ..................................................................... 18 MISCELLANEOUS LAND SURVEYING LINKS ........................................18 SURVEYORS' ABBREVIATIONS .......................................................... 23

SURVEYING EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS • AutoCAD HOME---> SURVEYING RESOURCES • Bentley Systems • Blue Marble Geographics • Calcomp • Carlson Software • CST/berger • ESRI • Hewlett Packard • HP Programmable Calculators Software Archives • Ideal Scanners & Systems • Intergraph • Leica • Motorola 2-way Portable Radios • NovAtel GPS • Thales Navagation GPS • Topcon Web Site • Trimble Surveying & Mapping Systems • Schonstedt LAND SURVEYING LINKS AND RESOURCES • Sokkia • Berntsen Survey Markers FROM AROUND THE WEB • Carhartt Work Clothes This page is starting to become the • Chicago Steel and Tape most comprehensive list of land surveyor • David White Levels links available on the web. Don't forget to • Dunham & Morrow bookmark this page! [Ctrl+D] • Dutch Hill Performance Tripods • Jobcom Radios Submit a link to us here • Laser Technology Please report broken links here • Leica Geosystems • Mark-It • Motorola Portable Radios Surveyor Support Groups By Location • Nikon • Pacific Crest ▪ North ▪ Antarctica • Topcon Survey America ▪ US States • Schonstedt Magnetic Locators ▪ South ▪ India • Seco America ▪ Carribean • Silva Compasses ▪ Africa ▪ Canada • Silver Shield ▪ Asia ▪ Puerto • Surv-Kap ▪ Australia Rico • Suunto Compasses ▪ Europe ▪ Jamaica • Trimble ▪ Russia • West Coast Shoe Co. Heavy-Duty Boots • White's Boots Surveyor Support Based on Equipment Manufacturer ▪ Sokkia Support ▪ Trimble Support ▪ Microsurvey Support SURVEYING SOFTWARE MANUFACTURERS • ◦ Abykus Surveying Spreadsheets ◦ ACA Ltd. ALERT Deformation Monitoring System ◦ Autodesk ◦ Bentley Systems (Microstation) ◦ Boston Harbor Software

http://www.plsc.us/pels/ • California .http://www.▪ Topcon Support ▪ Navcom Support ▪ Altus Positioning ▪ Ashtech Magellan ▪ Nikon Support ▪ ▪ Juniper Systems Support ▪ Handheld Support ▪ Traverse PC Support ▪ Magellan Support ▪ Spectra Precision Support ▪ TDS Support ▪ Carlson Support ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ BW Muncy Deed Plotting Software Carlson Software CAD Warehouse Corvallis Microtechnology CvlSoft Inc.gci-net.gov/pels • http://www.net/~aspls/ • Arizona .state.state.http://www.ar-business.delsurvey.org .http://www.dca.us/engineers_surveyors/ • http://www.ca.fsms.ctsurveyor.dora.ptialaska.http://www. Inc.http://www.http://www. Simplicity Systems.htm • Arkansas .ar. Project Tracker Pro PC Survey PCI Geomatics Ptbase Quick Cogo RAMSS Inc.co.celsoc.org/ • http://www.com/ • Delaware .org/ • Georgia .asps.org • Alaska . Inc.aspls.samsog.http://www.net/ • Connecticut .ca-surveyors. Direct Line Software DeedMapper Eagle Point Software ESRI GIS Mapping Software FREE SURVEYING SOFTWARE! GeoMagix GeoSurface Technologies HP 48 Software Archive Infycons Surveyor Support Groups Based on Theme ▪ ▪ Machine Control for Land Surveyors ▪ Surveying How To ▪ LSI or FSI Study Materials ▪ Party Chiefs ▪ Raw Data ▪ Seismic Surveyors ▪ Surveyors Connect ▪ Construction Surveying ▪ 3D Scanner Support ▪ One Man Show ▪ Public Works Group ▪ PHD Resources Group ▪ Cadastral ▪ Job Search Group ▪ Unemployed Surveyors ▪ Resume Review ▪ Surveyors Online Toolbox ▪ Student Surveyors ▪ Archeaology ▪ City Surveyors ▪ Government Surveyors ▪ GIS and Surveying ▪ Mobile Phones Support ▪ Endangered Art of Chaining ▪ LSU Field Support Group ▪ Robotics For Land Surveyors ▪ KML for Surveyors ▪ aw Enforcement ▪ Aerial Photogrammetry Innerspace Technology Intergraph Microsearch GeoLab MicroSurvey Software.org/ • Colorado . Softree Terrain Tools SRH Least Squares The Complete CAD Catalog/AutoCAD Shareware ◦ TerraModel ◦ Traverse PC ◦ Tripod Data Systems ◦ UGL Software ◦ XYZ Works STATE LAND SURVEYING BOARDS AND ORGANIZATIONS • Alabama .http://www.com/ • http://www.http://www.com/ • Florida .com/~users/S/sowens/ default.

edu/NHLSA/ New Jersey .org/ Oregon .http://www.org/iplsa/ http://www.marylandsurveyor.wsls.nh.Florida Survey and Mapping Society takes a fresh look at GIS software.http://www.plso.lapels.ms.us/jtboard/home.http://www.com/NYSAPLS/Home.state.http://www.org/ http://www.misocprofsurveyors.org/ South Carolina .com/ Maine .ncbels. digital aerial photography.state.http://web.earthlink.id.txls.rispls.htm http://www.htm Wisconsin .psls.ucls.nysed.org/ Indiana .us Missouri .peps.http://www.org/ Massachusetts .net/~ncss http://www.oh.http://www.kaps1.marls.org/ New Mexico .org/ Minnesota . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Hawaii .us/ipels/index.http://www.html http://www.http://www.us/dpor Washington .org/ Virginia .http://www.http://www.http://www.engineers.http://www.org/ New York .htm North Carolina .unh.http://www.com/ Texas .http://www.net/~wvals provides up-to-date coverage of developments with satellite imagery.iav.http://members.wa.http://www.http://www.org/ Kansas .http://www.op.http://www.mountain.prairienet.htm Illinois .http://www.http://www.us Oklahoma .com/ Tennessee .gov/lsurv.com/ Nevada . PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS digital topographic datasets and • National Surveyor's Hall of Fame — by South dakota more! Society of Professiona Land Surveyors GIS Monitor (weekly) — GIS Monitor • FSMS .org/ http://www.http://www.http://www.http://www.state.va.http://www.rollanet.state.ksls.org/ New Hampshire .tsps.http://home.http://www.org Pennsylvania .com/ Kentucky .html Michigan .nv-landsurveyors.vasurveyors.net/ http://www.taps-inc.org/ http://www.com/ Mississippi .gov/dol/bpd/engfront.mnsps.osbeels.scspls.▪ Law for Surveyors ▪ Creative Construction ▪ Geodetic/GPS ▪ Out of Plumb Fans ▪ Product Reviews ▪ HP48 Calculators ▪ Computer Help for Surveyors ▪ Formulas that Work ▪ Female Land Surveyors ▪ History of Surveying ▪ Cartography and Mapping ▪ Odd or Funny Surveying Stories ONLINE SURVEYING MAGAZINES • Point of Beginning • • • • • • • — The Oldest of the Surveying Magazines American Surveyor Magazine — A paid subscription print magazine .http://www.lsaw.atc.http://www.org Ohio .http://www.org .tx.state.http://www.aol.com/~hals Idaho .pepls.org http://www.org/~eksi/marls/ Montana .org Rhode Island .org/malsce/index.njspls.com Louisiana .org/ Maryland .http://www.osls.us Utah .lsps.Just became free…subscribe now GPS World — The latest GPS news for surveyors and other professions GeoPlace — GPS in the News Cadalyst — Cad Information .http://www.msls.state.ispls.iplsa.Hugh AutoLisp library Professional Surveyor — addresses the processes and tools of position and measurement as well as the role of the surveyor Earth Observation Magazine — EOM • West Virginia .nmps.

Geological Pub.NSPS — National Society of Professional Surveyors .Indiana Society of Professional Land Surveyors • • — • • Introduction for Beginners • GPS Made Easy by Lawrence Letham — A good book for those considering buying a GPS McNamara— • Geocaching for Dummies by Joel Find a high-tech hobby in the great outdoors! Dig into this fast-growing detective sport • The Essential Guide To Geocaching by • — Professional society for Indiana Land Surveyors IPLSA . Inc.BC E-Government . wireless and other industries and technologies that touch the location technology arena GPS BOOKS • GPS for Dummies by Joel McNamara • ISPLS . GPS.North Carolina Society of Surveyors. elevation.AAGS — professional society of scientists and other professionals overseeing the development and use of Earth-referencing system The CURTA Calculator Page — Everything you want to know about the CURTA Calculator including simulators — Caches or stashes of provisions. for land surveyors • GPS Mapping by Rich Owings — Learning to use a GPS is fairly straightforward. — Society for North Carolina Land Surveyors National Society of Professional Surveyors . hidden along a route were a common occurrence in Lewis and Clark�s day when Mike Dyer • GPS for Land Surveyors by Jan Van Sickle GOVERNMENT GPS LINKS (official GPS site) • US Coast Guard GPS Signal Specifications • US Coast Guard • US Geologic Survey • Tycho • Satellite Predictor • SatNav Predictor • Berkley Satellite Tracker • TLE Archive • NGS / NOAA GPS Site • USGS Geographic Names Information System — Written by a land surveyor. location-based services.data.WestMap Services • District of West Vancouver . along with guidance GOVERNMENT GIS INFORMATION (CANADA) • BC Land Title & Survey • • • • .NSPS American Association for Geodetic Surveying . GPS Mapping � Make Your Own Maps • GPS Satellite Surveying by Alfred Leick (ok.official government mapping agency of NZ Switzerland: Federal Office of Topography UK: The Ordnance Survey of Great Britain -.OnLine Canada: Geological Survey of Canada Online Purchasing Page (and in French) -. and more • USGS GNIS Database (FTP format) • Metric to Imperial conversion • — updated to cover emerging precise-point position technology • Introduction to GPS by Ahmed ElRabbany— includes an in-depth discussion on the errors and biases that affect GPS measurements. Digital Products etc New Zealand: Land Information New Zealand -.Illinois Professional Land Surveyors Association — Professional society for Illinois Land Surveyors NCSS . choosing which software to use is not.on-line ordering system for their Topo Maps. population.the official mapping agency of the United Kingdom USA: US Census US Census GIS FAQ Cadastre • BC OnLine GOVERNMENT ASSOCIATIONS .coordinates. it's not a gov site) -.

— Corps of Engineers Coordinate • Download NGS PC Software • Corpscon Version 6. three-dimensional.htm — Extensive library of information on GPS for the professional and the consumer • NGS PC Software SURVEYING RELATED PATENTS • Laser Land Surveying Apparatus With Digital Display —A land-surveying apparatus for use with a laser beam source to obtain grade and range distances has a grade pole with a laser beam detection unit slidably mounted thereon obtaining Digital.org • http://maptools. for example. a tilt sensor and a direction sensor . a battery mounted at the bottom end to better balance the pole.POCO Map City of Vancouver . NGS Survey Mark Recovery Form — This form can be used to submit recovery information for survey marks to the National Geodetic Survey.GIS INQUIRY City of Surrey . US Copyright Office — Copyright is a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States National Geodetic Survey — NOAA's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) defines and manages a national coordinate system.navcen.gov/gps/default.Webmap • Federal Base Network Surveys • • • • • GIS INFORMATION (GENERAL) • http://FREEGIS. ShapeFiles. equipped with a GPS receiver and antenna mounted at the top end.DeltaMap City of Langley . Synman Professional Land Surveyors Johnston Associates McCann & O'Neill Papenhagen & Associates Westervelt & Knoetze Professional Land Surveyors ARGENTINA — The Federal Base Network provides spatial reference control that has some of the most precise accuracies available today.Q the Map City of Port Coquitlam .Civil Engineering & General Surveying Services J.VanMap The Corporation of Delta .COSMOS District of North Vancouver . US National Weather Service (High Speed Internet) — Interactive US Weather Service Maps and Charts The Library of Congress — The name says it all.GIS Website City of Coquitlam . Recovery Sheets… The Source • http://www. LaPlace corrections.org • http://remotesensing.J. Tidal Benchmarks.org SURVEYING ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONAL • International Federation of Surveyors • Alberta Land Surveyors Association • Association of Canada Lands Surveyors • Association of Ontario Land Surveyors • Canadian Institute of Geomatics • Corporation of LS of the Province of British Columbia • Saskatchewan Land Surveyors Association INTERNATIONAL SURVEYING COMPANIES DIRECTORY [thanks LSRP] AFRICA 4Y Geo Informatics Pty Ltd Riding & Watt Professional Land Surveyors Geoland Survey's CESS .• City of Burnaby • • • • • • • • • • . topographic data. consisting of co-ordinates of points in the terrain and the corresponding topographic point • Pole Tilt Sensor for Surveyor Range Pole — A surveyor range pole.BURNABY MAP City of Richmond .GeoWeb City of North Vancouver .0 Conversion — Geiod03. Coordinate conversions…it's all here • NGS Datasheet Page — Datasheets.uscg.Property Information System City of Abbotsford . 3D Topographic Information • • • • • • • • • • Method and Apparatus of Computer Aided Surveying for — Method of surveying for the compilation of digital files of detailed.org • http://opensourcegis.Geo .

D.A. OLS • Jaques Caron. Himma & Delorme. Geomatics • J. It is then possible to compute the vector Inc. points of interest.L. Ltd. • Dhaliwal Oliver Wong Professional not under trees or water). • McNeice Harvey D'Amico Surveyors. Canada Inc. Jemmett Limited • Canadian Council of Land Surveyors • Richard A. LTD • Hol & Associates • Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited The highest level of accuracy obtainable with GPS requires use GUAM & PHILIPPINES of two units. • Position Sensing System for Surveying and Grading — A • Miguel Angel Tous . Stephenson Surveying. Preiss Surveying Ltd. • Association of British Columbia Land Surveyors • N. • Taylor & MacKeen Surveys Limited • Canada Centre for Cadastral Management . LTDA Promap Topografia Ltda area is produced. perform spheroidal calculations and Land Surveying. one as a base station and the other visiting the • Prudencio R. • Fairhall. Arpenteur-Geometre • Browne Johnson and Associates Dymanic or Kinematic GPS is becoming the default method of • Burnham Land Surveys navigation for small craft as the complex computations • Robert Allen and Company previously necessary are all performed on-board the receiver. and an inertial acceleration or tilt sensor • Rudy Mak Surveying. and grading implement sensing AUSTRALIA and control is disclosed • K F Murphy & Associates • Computer Assisted Video Surveying and Method Thereof — Consulting Surveyors One embodiment of the invention is a method of using • Data Survey Pty. BRAZIL a video recording of a control location and a survey • Poligono Topografia. a computer to assist a land based video survey.Natural Resources • Robert T. 24 hours per day ( but • Eastern Land Surveys. Initially. Barnes Limited • Association of Ontario Land Surveyors • Butler Sundvick & Associates • Everest Geodetics • Klau Geomatics • Lower Mainland British Columbia Land Surveyors Group • Cadastral Geomatics International.C. SURVEYING METHODS Inc.• Mertind Argentina S. Ltd. LTD CADASTRAL SURVEYING • Terra Pacific Land Surveying Ltd. Balagtas & Associates. Inc. Hiley. • Association of Canada Lands Surveyors • Derek G. Ltd. LTD STATIC GPS • Beninger Surveying. BULGARIA • High Speed Well Surveying and Land Navigation — A land • GEOCAD 93 vehicle navigation apparatus incorporates an inertial • SPOT angular rate sensor on the vehicle and having a CANADA sensitive axis. • Montieth & Sutherland Limited • Payette. Moffatt & Woodland DYNAMIC OR KINEMATIC GPS Limited. . Graham Limited • Isaac & Denchuk • Coote. marking. • Holstead & Redmond Limited They work independently of the weather. automatically convert between coordinate datums.Agrimensor position sensing apparatus and method useful for • Lanari. Calza & Associates surveying.

available in real-time. Inc.R. • Secon Surveys • Arya Surveying Company DIFFERENTIAL POSITIONING • Goodland Surveys • Wasisht Engineers and Consultants The typical configuration for differential positioning is shown • Hitech Surveys • A K R Surveying Company Pvt.. the height can be read directly from POLAND . JAMAICA This technique can be also applied if one of the receivers is on a • J. in many cases Surveyors PVT. better than a centimetre. PAKISTAN but is not rectified to account for differences in scale throughout • Geomatics and Engineering the photograph. below. In general the units store the observations to the SPAIN satellites and are downloaded to PC type computers at the end • OJEDA'S. This produces new procedures known as rapidNEW GUINEA static positioning. or is moved between points of interest while MALAYSIA the base station remains fixed and continues to observe to the • Ground Data Systems Sdn. Bhd. LTD. ITALY Practically all the systematic errors that can occur in GPS • Milano Antonio & Associates positioning can be eliminated if we measure to a set of satellites INDIA simultaneously from two receivers. Aneroid barometer An instrument used to PHILIPPINES • GENSON Surveying & Engineering obtain heights above sea level by measuring atmospheric pressure. NIGERIA GLOSSARY OF SURVEYING AND MAPPING TERMS • Aero-Geodetic Services (Nig) Ltd • Oak Surveys Aerial photography Photography of part of the earth's surface. LTD • Tomer Civil Engineering Services & the other point. Mais & Associates Ltd. Ltd. two units receiving signals from the same constellation • Theovel Surveys of satellites at the same time. kinematic positioning and pseudo-kinematic • Niugini Surveys positioning. Altitude The vertical angle between the plane Services Private Limited of the horizon and the line to the object which is observed. This is indeed the case. a process known as • Geo Spatial Dimensions differential positioning.• GeoAnalytika Technical and between these two units to a much higher degree of accuracy Consultancy Services than we can compute absolute latitude and longitude. of the project. • SaNaS Technologies Pvt.MIR Associates photogrammetry. Surveying • RGM Geodesy and Surveying. Since atmospheric pressure varies with the height Consultants above or below sea level. In • A. providing all the computations are performed in the one coordinate system.01m are Ltd. moving platform.W. same satellites. Ltd. LTD. The differential solution is then computed using THE NETHERLANDS the complete set of data from all the receivers. If one of these units was located over a • Pallavi Surveys point for which we had ground control coordinates it is then ISRAEL theoretically possible to obtain highly accurate coordinates for • Mashav Surveys. The relative position of the two • Premier Consulting Engineers & units can be determined to a very high accuracy. altitude applies to elevation above a datum of • Chaudhery Brothers points in space. The latest • GeoComp Nederland hardware systems can transmit the corrections between the base NEW ZEALAND station and the rover allowing the solution to be determined on• Knight & Associates CKL Surveys the-fly so that positioning accuracies of around 0.

Chart Special purpose navigation maps chiefly used for nautical. CISP The Computer Inventory of Survey Plans is a database that provides current and historical survey plan information. Bench mark A permanent object. signifying close proximity of a survey line Cadastral A Latin term from 'cadastre' referring to a registry of lands. Hydrogragher RUSSIA • The Laboratory of Inertial Geodetic Systems (LIGS) SAUDIA ARABIA • RGF Surveys SLOVAKIA • GAMO Ltd. aeronautical and mapping of the cosmos. The baseline accumulates distances throughout a triangulation network. Cartography The art and science of the production of maps. REPUBLIC of IRELAND • Patrick J. PSC • Lalr Surveyors • JJC Land Surveyor's • RLDA Surveying & Mapping • VS Surveying Services. Clinometer An instrument used to determine the angle of elevation or depression. drafting and reproduction. Bourdan. providing further integrated control. the height scale on the barometer. Archaeological record The archaeological record exists as a repository. It is established with the utmost precision available at the time.STI. natural or artificial. State tenure land and Reserve land in Queensland. The system also automates elements of the document receiving. PC • Brian Mosely and Associates. TURKEY • SAGBAS Muhendislik LTD. Inside lie the decaying material remains of ancient beings and civilisations. compilation. Poland PUERTO RICO • Professional land Surveyors. SINGAPORE • LEE BOON HAW REGISTERED SURVEYORSurveytech Pte Ltd THAILAND • CPS Surveying Co. It includes images of all survey plans registered in Queensland. Surveys refer to the baseline for coordination and correlation.VIRGIN ISLANDS • Gary M. Baseline A surveyed line usually several kilometres long.• GEODOR Land Surveying Services Bono Sp. LTD. lodgement. UKRAINE • Donetsk Geodetic Center VIETNAM • Geomatics Consulting International (Vietnam) UNITED STATES . • AAM (Thailand) Co. displaying a marked point whose elevation above or below an adopted datum is known. McCormack. design. Blaze A mark carved in a tree trunk at about breast height. Ltd. Inc. Australian Height Datum The datum used to determine elevations in Australia. Beam compass A drafting instrument used for drawing circles with a long radius. • Digital Surveys. Inc. UNITED KINGDOM • Geomatic Engineering Ltd • SV Land Modelling Ltd • Airlie Geomatics • Plowman Craven & Associates • Merrett Survey Partnership • Warner Land Surveys Limited • Land Data Surveys • SLC Associates • Geospatial Engineering Services Ltd.. mounted to slide and clamp on a long beam. being true north). LS. they encounter raw data from the archaeological record that serves as the source of their evidence to interpret. The point and scribe are separate units. A De Lisle's Pendent Clinometer was used by surveyors and engineers to set out slopes and gradients in the . • ONSOY Engineering Co.. As archaeologists approach their work. tracking and registration processes. This includes the construction of projections. The AHD is based on mean sea level being zero elevation. ATS The Automated Title System is the computerised legal register of freehold land. Bearing An angle measured clockwise from a north line of 0� to a given surveyed line. CYW. extending to other baselines. Azimuth The horizontal angle measured from the meridian planes (a plane which contains the polar axis. Cadastral surveying is the process of determining and defining land ownership and boundaries. Cadastral map A map depicting land parcels and associated nomenclature. Ltd.

France Both latitudes/longitudes and eastings/northings were shifted by • Royal Institution of Chartered approximately 200 metres in a north-easterly direction. LLC construction of paths. Elevation The height above mean and Mapping Science Program sea level.edu/ was later renamed Landsat. Contours Lines joining points of equal height as • Consiglio Nazionale Geometri (CNG). This is along with its legal • Spatial Sciences Institute. or with undergrowth. scrubs. thick. map base for systems dealing with land related information. Geocentric datum A datum which has its origin . A new datum known as the Geocentric Datum of • Institution of Civil Engineering Australia (GDA) was introduced in 2000 to bring Australia in line Surveyors (ICES).• BGM Engineers & Surveyors. or rugged.Surveying using light or sound waves. broken. This instrument measures distances http://www. • Institution of Surveyors. � � change in datums had a major consequence to all coordinates. this was restricted because it was defined to Surveyors Commission 7 (FIG7) • New Zealand Institute of Surveyors best fit the shape of the earth in the Australian region only. Crown land Land belonging to the reigning sovereign.K. as the rate of Cincinnati State Technical & additional payment that may be allowed on such account is Community College Engineering Technologies based on the information supplied".New South Wales. tracks and roads. Description of country As described in the 1916 'Rules and Directions for the Guidance of Surveyors': "Country. whether SURVEYING SCHOOLS. The.K. U. • UKGEOforum.mtu. U.oh. COLLEGES AND undulating.Surveying latitude and longitude generated using GDA as the datum as at 1 Program January 1994. The Digital Cadastral Database is the spatial representation of • Society of Chartered Surveyors (SCS). The previous datum internationale des g�om�tres � � used in Australia was known as the Australian Geodetic Datum • International Federation of (AGD). GDA is also • International Federation of totally compatible with satellite based navigation systems.cc. should be specially noted in field-books. Australia on a map. Ltd. Italy (National Council of Surveyors) (in shown on a topographic map. determined.K. Australia with the rest of the world's coordinate systems.tech. A compass magnetic bearing must be converted to INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS a grid bearing for plotting on a map. U. • Earl Cenac & Associates The compass circumference is divided into degrees from which • Advanced Land Surveying a bearing of a chosen direction from magnetic north can be • CANE Associates Co. • Council of European Geodetic Surveyors (CLGE) / Comit� de � Datum A mathematical representation that best fits the shape of Liaison des G�om�tres � � the earth.cinstate. Accurate mapping and coordinate systems must be Europ�ens � based on a datum. TRAINING heavy. Compass The magnetic WEST INDIES compass has a pivoting magnetised needle that always points to • Anthony G.us situation. It provides the • The Survey Association (TSA). However. A. The • Ordre des G�om�tres-Experts. their character and http://www. EDME Electronic Distance Measuring Equipment. for Surveyors / F�d�ration � � example Global Positioning Systems (GPS). U. timber. Ireland every parcel of land in Queensland. ERTS Earth Resources Technology Satellite. Australia Lot on Plan description and relevant attributes. Contour interval The ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONALES difference in elevation between adjacent contours as delineated • Association of Consulting Surveyors.edu/scitech/gggs East Tennessee State University .K. This http://www. GDA94 The geodetic coordinate of Michigan Technology University . DCDB Surveyors (RICS).etsu. whether open. Contour lines that are relatively close together depict an area of steep terrain on the earth's Italian) surface. Allison & Associates magnetic north (geological features may influence readings).

acsm. It was invented in • Auburn University Distance about 1620 by English astronomer. • Evergreen Valley College .46 volts is generated. Grid north The http://www.psu.html direction of the vertical grid lines shown on a topographic map. http://surveying.Civil and Architectural meridians of longitude as defined by the projection.html at the Earth's centre of mass. http://www.edu/gsa of parallel lines to form a map coverage of squares. lakes. Hypsometric tinting The use of University different colours to signify changing elevations on a • California State University topographic map. streams.edu/eit/sur and longitude readings. To set the cell into action. of Civil and Environmental Engineering & Geodetic Science Geographical coordinates A point on a map given as latitude http://www. either north or • Central Piedmont Community College south.Dept.ohio-state.edu navigation system originally developed by the United State's Suny .html crossing lines on a map representing parallels of latitude and University of Wyoming . The Ohio State University .edu mathematical calculations of the shape and size of the Earth. The values are given in metres.edu/odos/srbank/sreng. Graticule A network of http://ses. swamps • Bellingham Technical College • California State Polytechnic and other water related features. Grid University of Folorida .Geomatica Student coordinates A point on a map given as an easting and northing Association ACSM Accredited Schools and Programs reading. This datum can therefore be used New Jersey Institute of Technology . Latitude The angular distance along a Fresno meridian measured from the Equator. the glass County vessel is nearly filled with a saturated solution of sal-ammoniac. HunterLearning gatherer A member of a society who gains their subsistence in • Austin Community College the wild on food obtained by hunting and foraging.sci. software.njit.Surveying minutes and seconds.ESF Ranger School Department of Defence. The earthenware pot holds a carbon plate.esf. A mixture of • Columbus State Community equal parts of carbon and needle binoxide of manganese is College • Community College of Baltimore packed around this plate. Grid A Engineering group of parallel lines that run perpendicular to another group http://www. These orbit the Earth at all times.edu/gis Texas A&M University . • Bates Technical College Hydrography Features including rivers.oit. of by measuring distances to four or more satellites of a possible Computers & Mathematics 24.eng.edu/surveying/surveying.College of Engineering and Surveying Program information.net/abetlisting. Edmund Gunter.tamucc.ufl.School of Civil Engineering the system.Surveying anywhere on the planet and be compatible with the same datum Engineering and Technology Program anywhere else on the planet.wb. A GPS receiver calculates a position http://www.sur. A GIS also includes the procedures.Corpus Christi .Dept. The values are given as degrees.http://www-ec. SURVEYING EDUCATION SCHOOLS The difference between grid north and true north is referred to • Alfred State College as grid convergence.LeClanche Cell The cell consists of a glass vessel into • Cincinnati State Technical College which a zinc rod and a cylindrical pot of porous earthenware is • College of the Canyons placed.edu analysing and displaying of the geographically referenced Penn State Wilkes-Barre . Global Positioning System GPS is a satellite based http://rangerschool. The length of the chain is 66 feet.purdue. Geographic Information Systems GIS is Program the spatial capture of themed data layers and the storing. operating personnel and spatial data associated with Purdue University .edu/occc/degree. Geodesy The science and http://www-ceg.uwyo. Oregon Institute of Technology .htm hardware. Gunter's chain A distance measuring • ASCE Distance Learning device composed of 100 metal links fastened together with • Asheville-Buncombe Technical College rings. • East Tennessee State University A reaction takes place and a voltage of 1.

and distant about one foot. Greenwich. Denver Paper is then pressed onto the surface. College Lithography This is based on the principle that water and • Glenville State College • Louisiana State University grease don't mix. by the use of • Ohio State University • Oklahoma State University addition and subtraction rather than multiplication and division. Metes and . Measuring scales Measuring scales allow the user to represent a subject or drawing to a recognisable reduction or constant ratio of the actual or proposed size. to Technical College • New Jersey Institute of be dug in the direction of the surveyed line.• Ferris State University Lifeways A term often used within the discipline of • FIG Surveying Education Database archaeology and denotes a customary way of living. This could include the buildings. Distance Learning subject parcel. ivory. On very stony Technology lands.Wilkesrelated nomenclature are portrayed to a specific format. It is • Renton Technical College usually associated with terms such as reference mark. or a way of • Flathead Valley Community life among people. the stone is dampened and ink is applied with a • Metropolitan State College of roller. Lockspit Trenches dug • MSCD Distance Learning • Michigan Technological University beside a peg or post along the survey lines from the corner of a • Michigan Tech. Map Barre • Pennsylvania College of projection A means of systematically representing the meridians Technology and parallels of the earth onto a plane surface. rows of stones placed in the direction of the surveyed line • New Mexico State University may be substituted for dug-out lockspits. Meridian A straight line connecting the North and South Poles and traversing points of equal longitude. bone or boxwood. either east or west. three feet in length and six inches in depth. are . tools and other artefacts created by the members of a society. Rhumb lines on this projection are represented as straight lines. for example an • Red Vector imprinted metal disc. The greasy image repels the water and retains the ink. • New Hampshire Community lockspits. Map A • Peninsula College representation of the earth's surface where constituancies and • Penn State University . azimuth • Sacramento City College • • • • • • • • • • • San Antonio College Sandhills Community College San Jacinto College Santa Rosa Junior College Santiago Canyon College Southern Illinois University Southern Polytechnic State University Southwest Missouri State University Stark State College Texas A&M . The difference between magnetic north and true • Paul Smith's College north is referred to as magnetic declination. Material culture A term that refers to the physical objects created by a culture.Corpus Christi Texas State Technical College (Waco) mark or bench mark.. Mercator projection A conformal cylindrical projection tangential to the Equator. Mark An object. After an image is drawn on limestone with a • Macomb Community College greasy medium. Log tables A set of • Nicolet Area Technical College tables used to abridge arithmetical calculations. Magnetic north The • Oregon Institute of Technology direction from a point on the earth's surface to the north • Oregon State University • Palomar College magnetic pole. used to designate a survey point. An example clause taken from the 1916 'Rules • Montgomery College and Regulations for the Guidance of Surveyors' states: • Murray State University On each side of the split pegs. Many early scales were made of silver. Map scale The • Phoenix College relationship between a distance on a map and the corresponding • Purdue University distance on the earth's surface.. Oklahoma City Longitude The angular distance measured from a reference • Old Dominion University meridian.

Sahul This is the name given to the continent when . for example the bank of a stream. RIME The Resource Information Management Environment provides for the storage. Rhumb line A straight line connecting two points on the earth's surface which cuts all meridians at the same angle. Peg Used to mark survey corners on smaller portions or acreage. Lines may also be described as following some apparent line. These referred to various land acts of the time from the 1860s onwards. Overlay Information recorded on a transparent medium. PLI The Property Location Index is a database which provides a link between the parcel identifier (lot on plan) and its location address. multi-scale environment covering Queensland. Run A large area of land in which squatters could depasture their stock without a lot of fencing necessary. It is a seamless. Orthophoto Aerial photograph images transformed using an 'orthophoto verification' process to remove distortions and capable of registering perfectly with cadastral data. Rectification The mathematical and calculated correction made to an aerial photograph to show its true ground position at a consistent scale. MGA94 The Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates of eastings. The method of describing the boundary of a parcel of land in which the bearing and length of each successive line is given. which transfers the pattern of an image held on a photomask. It follows similar principles to conventional lithography. onto a flat substrate surface. it is important to have core mathematical skills such as algebra.• • • • • • Thomas Edison State College Towson University Troy State University Tyler Junior College University of Alaska .Anchorage University of Arkansas . This article appeared in the November 2004 issue of Professional Surveyor. trigonometry. The line maintains a constant bearing.Riverside University of Florida University of Houston University of Maine University of Texas at Tyler University of Wisconsin. management and dissemination of extensible digital topographic data held within the Department of Natural Resources and Water. and calculus.Madison University of Wyoming Outreach Vincennes University Wake Technical Community College • Westwood College of Technology EDUCATION IN LAND SURVEYING Education in Surveying: Why Go to College? In the formal surveying area. geometry. The size of the peg was determined by the 'Rules and Directions for the Guidance of Surveyors' editions. and zones generated from GDA94 are called Map Grid of Australia 1994 coordinates. northings. It is considered the point of truth for location addresses. superimposed and registered to one or more other records. Employed shepherds looked after various areas of the runs. Photogrammetry The science of obtaining reliable measurements by photography. Runs became consolidated pastoral holdings. Photolithography The process used in a semiconductor operation.Monticello University of California . Mosaic A number of continuous aerial photographs overlapped and joined together by way of 'best fit' to form a single non-rectified image.Little Rock • University of Arkansas Fayetteville • University of Arkansas . Many of the runs were about 25 sq miles in area and later became parishes. Land Surveying Scholarships Available Colleges and Universities Offering Land Surveying Programs ABET Accredited Surveying/Geomatics Programs ONLINE SCHOOLS FOR CERTIFICATION • • • • • • • • • AUBURN UNIVERSITY • 2007 National Readjustment of the North American Datum 1983 • ALTA/ACSM Land Title Survey (V06E hrs changed 04-01-07) • Colonial Land System and the Building of America • Construction Surveying • Geodesy for Engineers and Surveyors • History of Surveying Instruments: Impact and Accuracy bounds The oldest known form of describing the perimeter of a parcel of land.

street address and lot number on plan.eng. buried in the ground and exposed New Jersey Institute of Technology . These include ATS.Surveying approximately 3'6" out of the ground.edu/ in real time.oh. • Role of Engineers and Surveyors in Surveyors place and connect to these survey control points.njit.Engineering Technologies Developed within the Dept of Natural Resources and Water.edu/surveying/surveying. Survey post Posts used on corners of large rural Michigan Technology University . sea levels were • Improving Surveying Field Procedures approximately 150 metres lower than present levels. possibly leading to blindness.etsu. It is using the Total Station believed early European settlers brought the trachoma to • Land Surveying Ethics . Sandy Blight in Australia had all but disappeared by • Rectangular Land System: Subdivision of the 1930s.edu Tindale. http://www-ceg.html sharpened to a point. As living conditions • Professional Ethics for the Land Surveyor improved. integrates and delivers • Understanding Boundary Law . networked computers and mobile and Mapping Science Program phone communications to output centimetre-accurate positions http://www.us on the earth's surface. heat and flies. Theodolite Instrument Engineering and Technology Program used by a surveyor for measuring horizontal and vertical angles. along with the dirt. • Standards of Practice for Surveying in Selection Runs were subdivided into selections for farming. CISP. SMIS SmartMap Information Services is an changed 05-01-07) electronic application that accesses.Surveying work with the Australian Aborigines where he undertook the Program task of mapping Aboriginal Australia into language and http://surveying. Place Names and Aerial Photography Databases.College of territory groups along with the recording of numerous Engineering and Surveying Program Aboriginal genealogies.wb. caused Surveyor the disease to become widespread. PLI. Alabama agriculture and grazing homesteads.Case Law (through the SmartMap interface) data available from many and Principles of Surveying Law land-related datasets. Topographic map A detailed • History of the Government Land Office . the selector could often obtain freehold • Surveying with GPS (V05D hrs ownership. http://www.Surveying Program size blocks of land or town section corners. Norman A well known Australian anthropologist born The Ohio State University . After a period of yearly • State Plane Coordinates rental payments. This includes latitude and longitude coCincinnati State Technical & Community College ordinates. He is remembered for his Oregon Institute of Technology .cinstate.Australia and New Guinea were a single landmass during the Pleistocene era.ohio-state.edu/eit/sur Australian Museum for over 30 years. They were http://www-ec. SCDB The Survey Control Database is a Public Lands computerised record of the State's geodetic survey control data.edu Penn State Wilkes-Barre .psu. He was the curator of anthropology at the South http://www. The Geographic Information Systems geodetic network provides a spatial reference framework for all • Soils for Pavements surveys.mtu.edu/scitech/gggs SunPOZ uses Virtual Reference Station technology by bringing East Tennessee State University .cc.Dept. Their poor hygiene evident in the low standard • Professional Ethics for the Kentucky Land housing conditions.oit. • Vertical Datums and Leveling SCDB. SunPOZ . DCDB.Mississippi Australia.Surveying together GPS architecture.tech. During this period. of Civil and Environmental Engineering & Geodetic Science in 1900. using the Total Station Sandy Blight A layman's term for chronic infection of the eyes • Improving Surveying Field Procedures with the trachoma organism. Spatial COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES information Data that has a geographical reference to a location http://www.

These are depicted on a map on a designated http://rangerschool.School of Civil Engineering features.state.us/www_root/000000/html/ supct.tamucc. Scientific Instruments World Boundaries Walter J. Robillard The Gemmary Whipple Museum Ohio History Central Thomas Hutchins LAND SURVEYORS UNITED ELSEWHERE ON THE WEB Vimeo Vox Lingr (chat) Myspace Openzine Youtube Surveying Jobs Scribd Flickr AmericanArtifacts.Antique approximately four distinct ice ages during the earth's history.com Facebook SURVEYING BLOGS AUTODESK BLOGS Autodesk University Blog (BLAUG) Autodesk University Blog (BLAUG) Between the Lines Beyond the Paper Heidi Hewett's Blog It’s Alive in the Lab Knowledge Base Knowledge Base Knowledge Base LT Unlimited Lynn Allen's Blog The Dirt Cadastral.esf. The angles of the triangles Engineering are measured instrumentally and the sides are derived by http://www.Geomatica Student Association LAND SURVEYING HISTORY Virtual Museum of Surveying The Compleat Surveyor The direction to the Earth's geographic North Pole.us/statutes/statutes2. Trigonometrical survey A concise method of surveying http://ses.edu/supct/ index.edu/gis Texas A&M University .org Rittenhouse Journal Mount Diablo Surveyors Historical Society AnimatedAtlas.htm representation of cultural. VRS Virtual Reference Station.cornell. See SunPOZ Weichsel glaciation The last glaciation of the ice age.law.cornell.purdue.com LEGAL RESEARCH Vermont Statutes http://www.uwyo.edu/occc/degree.html(1990 to Present) Cornell Law Library http://www. There have been Tesseract .law.ufl.Civil and Architectural of a chain or network of triangles.state. hydrographic relief and vegetation Purdue University .supct.html VT Supreme Court Opinions http://www.dol. of the cylinder tangent at a particular meridian rather than at the Computers & Mathematics equator.sci.edu projection and at a designated scale. True north University of Folorida . An ice age is known as a period of low Virtual Archive of Wild temperatures in the earth's climate causing an expansion of the Heerbrugg earth's polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers. Transverse Mercator Suny .vt.edu/gsa computation from selected sides termed as baselines.edu/odos/srbank/sreng.Corpus Christi .Dept.ESF Ranger School Projection A projection similar to the Mercator projection.leg.html(VT Reports 161-169) US Supreme Court Opinions http://www.html in which the stations are points on the ground located at vertices University of Wyoming .edu .sur. but has http://www.com Smithsonian Institute USHistory.http://www.

mandatory January 01. territories. • Occupational Outlook Surveyors. surveyors' slang and abbreviations • CIA World Factbook — provides national-level information on countries. Resource • Global Positioning System (GPS) Resources — GPS Resources • Make your own Graph Paper • FEMA Elevation Certificate and Instructions (pdf format)— Download the revised FEMA Elevation Certificate . — Surveyors.lectlaw.CORNER CAD Insider CAD Monkeys CAD Shack CAD-e-Corner CADDHELP CADDManager Blog CADDManager.mandatory January 01.Self Help Law http://www.February 2008 OpenDCL Outside The Box Rockmaster's CAD Resources The CAD Geek Blog The CAD Industry The Lazy Drafter The LT Side of Things The Mad Cadder TLConsulting Using Raster Design with AutoCAD Self Help Law http://www.com AutoCAD Tips Newsletter AutoCADder AutoCAD� GUI Test Beside the Cursor. Recovery Sheets… The Source .nolo.org VT Law School http://www.DRAFTING . Tidal Benchmarks. Cartographers. but not subnational administrative units within a country. 2007 • NGS Datasheet Page — Datasheets. 2007 • FEMA Elevation Certificate (doc format) — Download the revised FEMA Elevation Certificate .vermontlaw.com Blog CADing && Coding Caveat emptor.edu EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS Padding are passed to p.. and dependencies.com VT Bar Association http://www. CG Users Blog Circle Around (Ralph S) Deelip Menezes Gizmos Grabowski HyperPics: Beyond the UI JTB World Blog Kenneth Wong Blog Knowing What You Don't Know About CAD LT is still AutoCAD Map 3D and Murphs Law Mistress of the Dorkness NOVEDGE Newsletter . Beth's CAD Blog blog nauseam CAD .. h1 and h3. and Surveying Technicians Technicians • World's Most Popular GPS Information — Mostly for consumer grade gps users • Surveying Units and Terms — list of units of measure.vtbar. ShapeFiles. surveying terms.com Through the Interface CAD RELATED BLOGS AECnews. Photogrammetrists.

Hermansen Will render for food.surveying . Math and USENET NEWSGROUPS OF INTEREST TO SURVEYORS • sci.com surveying history.gis .GIS Newsgroup best online forum for Professional • sci..AutoCAD Newsgroup .autocad . WorldCAD Access — Aticles by Knud hermansen covering a variety of subjects.• Partial Index to Articles Authored or CoAuthored by Knud E. all of SURVEYING IMAGES AND MAPS ONLINE • Aerolist Photographers Online Photos value to the practicing Land • BLM Oregon and Washington GLO Plats Surveyor • Set Up a Wireless Network in a Small • Digital Globe • EarthaMaps • Earth From Space • Globe Explorer • Imagery Intelligence Gallery • Land Survey Information System • Map of Principal Meridians • MapQuest • Maps.satellite-nav .Surveying Newsgroup Science Classes by MIT • sci.geo. • USGS GISDATA Map Studio Land Surveyor Rules & Regulations — • USGS Mapping Compiled by Land Surveyors • Visible Earth Reference Page . see • NASA Photo Gallery disclaimer • NIMA Geospatial Engine Virtual Museum of Surveying — • National Atlas of the United States consists of exhibits which cover a • Terra: The EOS Flagship variety of topics related to • TerraServer.GPS Newsgroup POB .cad..civil .Civil Engineering Newsgroup Land Surveyors • comp.com — The first and the • comp.State Plane Coordinate — The Official NGS Document in pdf format • BLM 1973 Surveying Manual — If you don't have a hard copy of this manual.rpls.engr. • TopoZone Museum of Surveying — The Museum • University of Texas Map Library of Surveying is the only museum in • University of Wisconsin Satellite Images North America dedicated solely to • US Census TIGER Maps the surveying and mapping • USGS EROS Center profession. Engineering.com • MapTech Map Server • Nebraska State Survey Maps — Microsoft's excellent tutorial on Wireless Network Setup Office • NGS Manual.infosystems.very good • Yahoo Maps reference • Washington Shoreline Aerial Photos MIT Free Online Courses — Free Surveying. read or download a pdf copy here System 1983 • Restoration of Lost or Obliterated Corners and Subdivision of Sections • • • • • • NOAA EVP —A • TerraFly retyped copy of the original • Microsoft TerraServer document in pdf format.engr..

The (English) acre is a unit of area equal to 43.6 English acres..27 English acres.edu Ferris State University Surveying/Engineering Program www.S.Gateway to local history and genealogy • Cyndi's List of Land Record Sites . or 160 square poles.Unit of length and area used in France. Approximately an Irish acre of good land.Legal resources. GenWeb . and Canada. approximately 191.ferris.net National Society of Professional Surveyors www. Colpa . or 36. The name comes from the heavy metal chain of 100 links that was used by surveyors to measure property bounds.560 square feet. Ph. Craymer.802 square feet. Compass . The Scottish acre is 1.D. but possibly variant by locale.Old Irish measure of land equal to that which can support a horse or cow for a year.A 100 foot chaincontaining 100 links of one foot apiece. Chain .. It derives from a plowing area that is 4 poles wide and a furlong (40 poles) long. Engineer's Chain .S.acsm.One toise. As a unit of length.• Surveying and Mediation: New Opportunities in an Old Role— SATELLITE TRACKING Jerry D.D.tech.Land Surveying Engineering • Autocad Shareware • U. Arpent . including Property Law • Search US CENSUS Bureau American Congress on Surveying and Mapping www. Louisiana.mtu.8 feet (180 old French 'pied'. • A collection of geodesy and related • NASA Satellite Tracking • Satellite FAQ -. Geographic Name lookup -Locate creeks and • • • • • Acre .for IBM PC — Michael R. • Sam Wormley's (Iowa State)GPS/Glosnass Satellite Tracking Page Taylor.Unit of length usually understood to beGunter's chain.org Michigan Technological University Surveying Program www. The Irish acre is 1. Geodetic Survey Division. or foot). approximately . P.S.edu/cot/surveying .845 acres.nspsmo. or 10 square chains. J. other features named in deeds • U. A square mile is 640 acres. Geomatics Canada resources UNITS OF MEASURE • • Photos of the GPS Satellites (Block IIa) MISCELLANEOUS LAND SURVEYING LINKS • Civil Engineering Resources • Purdue University .An excellent list of related sites • FindLaw . See also Rathbone's chain. The (square) arpent is a unit of area.

Maryland. a hide was of variable size depending on locale and the quality of the land. or 4 poles. or 2. Hundred . See Gunter's chain.471 acres.. An area one chain wide by ten chains long was exactly an acre. meters.• • • • • • Furlong . Gunter's chain was 22 yards long. the standard measuring chain revolutionized surveying. Ground . After the Norman conquest in 1066 it became standardized at around 120 acres. or 107.An adminstrative area larger than a village and smaller than a county.639 square feet. and the term was used for early settlements in Virginia. used in India. In 1595 Queen Elizabeth I had the mile redefined from the old Roman value of 5000 feet to 5280 feet in order for it to be an even number of furlongs. or 220 sq. ft.Metric unit of area equal to 10. and ranged from 60 to 180 acres. Developed by English polymath Edmund Gunter early in the 1600's.Unit of length equal to 66 feet. one tenth of a furlong. Hectare . In England it was 100 hides in size.000 square meters.A very old English unit of area.Unit of length equal to 40 poles (220 yards). Its name derives from "furrow long". A mile is 80 chains. a common unit of length in the old days. It was the amount of land to support a family. . the length of a furrow that oxen can plow before they are rested and turned. Hide . Gunter's Chain .A unit of area equal to 2400 sq. and Delaware.

Pole . for example. "NE by North. one quarter point North". West). Also known as a perch or rod. East. the chain carriers would put a stake at the end of a chain. As a unit . and 28 others yielding 32 points of 11. or 4428 acres (Texas).92 inches). Holland and South Africa.S. Morgen . move the chain and put a stake at the end. It was used in Germany. League (legua) . the points would be further subdivided into halves or quarters as necessary. a unit of length-.An 'out' was ten chains.A point of the compass.14 acres (or 1 million square varas). Point .Unit of length equal to 1/100 chain (7. When counting out long lines.. In Texas it equals 177. or 4439 acres (California). and so on until they ran "out" of ten stakes.approximately three miles. A survey line's direction could be described as a compass point. Link . Out . "and by" meant one half point.Unit of length and area.See pole . There are four cardinal points (North. Also. as in "NE and by North".Unit of area used in the southwest U.The labor is a unit of area used in Mexico and Texas.• • • • • • • • Labor . South. It represented the amount of land that could be plowed in a morning. as in "NNE" (north northeast). To improve precision. and was derived from the German word Morgen ("morning"). In some areas.25 degrees each.6309 acres. Perch .Unit of area equal to about . equal to 25 labors.

southwest.A Spanish grant of less than 1000 acres. As a unit of area.00) • Beep . or 33 feet.4 English feet. It was common to see an area referred to as "87 acres. A mile is 320 poles. equal to 16. The legal value in Texas was set to 33 1/3 inches early in the 1900's. Virgate . Pueblo .A measuring chain two poles. Rod .5 feet.Verb. meaning 87 and 112/160 acres.An old English unit of area.To raise the levels rod some number of inches so as to be visible to the instrument man.Unit of area usually equal to 1/4 acre.• • • • • • • • of length.S.Slang for numeric . SURVEYORS' SLANG Balls . or 6. The amount of land needed to support a person. etc. equal to a square with sides one pole long. e.A Spanish grant of more than 1000 acres. depending on locale.00. Toise . An acre is 160 square poles. "Boot 6!" means "raise it 6 inches. as in 4-balls (4.Unit of length (the "Spanish yard") used in the U. in length.g. Rancho .See pole Rood . The vara is used throughout the Spanish speaking world and has values around 33 inches." • . • Boot . 112 poles". Vara . equal to one quarter of a hide. Rathbone's Chain . To use a magnetic detector to look for iron pipe.Traditional French unit of length equal to 6 old French 'pieds' or feet.

Slang for .Zero degrees of inclination. theodolite.To clear vegetation for a line of sight between two survey control points.55. It determines distance by measuring the time it takes for laser light to reflect off a prism on top of a rod at the target location.A wooden dowel 6-9 inches in length with a sharpened end. as in 6-double nickel (6.EDM. Bug . Burn . the instrument used by modern surveyors that replaces the use of measurement chains. Set in the ground to mark survey points.To use a magnetic locator to search for an iron pipe. .The EDM prism. Gun .g.Electromagnetic Distance Measurement device. but potentially any measurement instrument in use.Measure from the one foot mark on the tape rather than from the end of the tape in order to increase the accuracy of the measurement. as in "hold dummy at the face of the curb.See shoot Burn one .The base or zero end of a tape or chain.• • • • • • • • • • • • Blue topping .In road or grading work the surveyor sets stakes and paints their tops blue to represent the required elevation. Double nickel .Originally. e.55) Dummy or dummy-end . Graders then work to just cover the blue tops of the stakes. Ginney . Cut line . Bullseye . or Total Station. a transit." EDM . Glass .

Measure distance with an EDM Spike .Usually a 60 penny nail used to mark survey points in hard ground.In the southeast U.Prism pole Punk . Stob .Building restriction line. SURVEYORS' ABBREVIATIONS B.To locate something with the transit or other measuring device. Trip .L. but in modern surveying. FD . A perfect zero. as in trip5 means 555. and 43trip7 means 43. .11) Rodman .. Jigger .S.Degrees Hub and Tack . a wooden stake or post. Zero .Iron rod found . See railroad.The person holding the rod with theEDM prism.R.Found IPF .Slang for eleven.Slang for triple digits. a piece of rebar used to mark a property boundary.See railroad.777 Turn .Tripod Pogo .The rodman is told to stay in place while the gun or level is moved to a new location.Zero degrees.A 2" by 2" stake that is set in the ground and that contains a nail ("tack") that precisely marks the point being set.Slang for eleven. minutes. This person is the modern version of a chain carrier or chain man. Shoot . as in 42-railroad (42. and seconds.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Hours . Tie . Railroad . Top .Iron pipe found IRF .Transit (Australia and New Zealand) Legs .

PK nail PK nail .Steel rebar SRS .Nail in power pole NTCFP . SR .O.Limit of Disturbance.Point of intersection PK . The area to be cleared. MAG . See also hub and tack.Steel rod set (rebar or other steel) WC . that marks a survey point.D.A concrete nail made by Parker Kaelon. graded.Witness corner g .L.Nail on top of fence post PI .Nail on top of corner fence post NTFP .New concrete nails are magnetic nails and are stamped with MAG on the head and are easier to find with metal detectors. stamped PK. NPP . etc. .Point Known.

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