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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER-------------------------------------------------------------- 8
1.1. What is a Computer?------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8
1.2. Distinguishing Features of Computers ----------------------------------------------------------------- 8
1.3. Computer Hardware ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 9
1.3.1. Organization of the Computer Hardware------------------------------------------------------------------------------9
1.4. Software ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15
1.4.1. Types of Software --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15
1.5. Operating Systems -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16
CHAPTER 2: MICROSOFT WINDOWS----------------------------------------------------------------------- 17
2.1. User Interface ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17
2.2. Logging into Your Computer -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17
2.3. The Windows Desktop --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18
2.4. Using Windows Explorer ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 19
2.5. Internet Option ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 34
CHAPTER 3: INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT WORD --------------------------------------------------- 35
3.1. Anatomy of Word Screen ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 36
3.2. Different Views of the Document --------------------------------------------------------------------- 37
3.3. Formatting----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 39
3.3.1. Character Formatting----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 40
3.3.2. Paragraph Formatting ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 42
3.3.3. Page Formatting----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 48
3.4. Table of Contents --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 51
3.5. Headers and Footers ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 52
3.6. Spelling and Grammar Checking ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 54
3.7. Tables and Columns ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 57
3.7.1. Tables ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 57
3.7.2. Columns ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 64
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3.7.3. Drop Cap ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 65
3.7.4. Graphics and Text Boxes ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 66
3.8. Working with Multiple Documents------------------------------------------------------------------- 66
3.9. Inserting AutoText ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 67
3.10. Insert Files ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 67
3.11. Use AutoRecover --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 68
3.12. Finding and Replacing Formatting-------------------------------------------------------------------- 68
3.13. Adding a Watermark ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 69
3.14. Creating Footnotes or Endnotes ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 70
3.15. Creating a Bookmark----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 71
3.16. Creating a Table of Figures----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 72
3.17. Numbering Heading Styles----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 73
3.18. Apply Numbering to Custom Heading Styles -------------------------------------------------------- 74
12.1. Numbering Lines ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 75
12.2. Creating an Equation ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 75
12.3. Creating Mail Merge Documents---------------------------------------------------------------------- 76
12.4. Creating Documents Using Automatic Formatting -------------------------------------------------- 77
12.5. Inserting Comments ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 77
12.6. Creating a Form----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 78
12.7. Printing -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 78
12.7.1. Editing Text in Print Preview-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 79
12.7.2. To Print a Document:----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 79



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CHAPTER 4: INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL ---------------------------------------------------- 81
Switching between sheets ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 81
4.2.1. Data Entry ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 81
Moving the Cell pointer --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 82
4.2.2. Working with a Worksheet --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 83
Select the worksheet ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 84
4.2.3. Exiting Excel --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 84
4.3.1. Types of series ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 85
4.3.2. Creating a Series----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 86
4.3.3. Moving and Copying Data and Formats ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 87
4.4.1. Inserting Cells, Columns and Rows------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 90
4.4.2. Clearing and Deleting ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 90
4.4.3. Find and Replace---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 91
4.5.1. Formatting the Appearance of Data-------------------------------------------------------------------- 92
4.5.2. Aligning Worksheet Data ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 93
4.5.3. Formatting Borders and Shading----------------------------------------------------------------------- 93
4.6.1. Entering Database Information----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 95
4.6.2. Sorting a Database -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 95
4.6.3. Filtering a List-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 96
4.6.4. Data Forms ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 99
4.7.1. Cell References -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------101
4.7.2. Worksheet Functions----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------103
4.8.1. Creating a Chart ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------107
4.8.2. Parts of a Chart -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------108
4.8.3. Working with Chart and Chart Items --------------------------------------------------------------------------109
CHAPTER 5: MICROSOFT ACCESS--------------------------------------------------------------------------112
5.1. What is a Database? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------112
5.1.1. Starting Microsoft Access 2003 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------112
5.1.2. The Microsoft Access 2003 Screen-------------------------------------------------------------------------------113
5.1.3. Using Help ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------115
5.2. Designing and Creating Databases -------------------------------------------------------------------116
5.2.1. Designing a Database----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------116
5.2.2. Creating a Database------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------116
5.2.3. Creating Tables -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------117
5.3. Organizing your Data ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------125
5.3.1. Filtering Records---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------125
5.3.2. Entering Criteria ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------126
5.3.3. The AND and OR Relations --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------127
5.3.4. Inserting Column or Row ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------127
5.3.5. Deleting Column or Row-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------127
5.3.6. Removing a Filter --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------128
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5.3.7. Saving a Filter as a Query -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------128
5.3.8. Copying and Moving Microsoft Access Objects or Text----------------------------------------------------128
5.3.9. Printing a Datasheet -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------129
5.3.10. Renaming a Database Object-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------130
5.4. Queries--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------131
5.4.1. Types of Queries----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------131
5.4.2. Creating a Query with a Wizard---------------------------------------------------------------------------------132
5.4.3. Creating a Custom Designed Query ----------------------------------------------------------------------------132
5.4.4. Expressions in Queries and Filters ------------------------------------------------------------------------------134
5.4.5. Creating Select Query ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------135
5.4.6. Creating Make table Query --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------135
5.4.7. Creating an Update Query ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------136
5.4.8. Creating an Append Query---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------137
5.4.9. Using a Calculated Field in a Query ----------------------------------------------------------------------------137
5.4.10. Editing a Query-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------138
5.5. Forms----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------139
5.5.1. Types of Form Views-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------139
5.5.2. Creating A Quick form--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------139
5.5.3. Creating A Form Using A Wizard -------------------------------------------------------------------------------139
5.5.4. Creating A Custom Designed Form-----------------------------------------------------------------------------140
5.5.5. Making a Form Read-Only ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------141
5.5.6. Creating a Form with multiple Screens or pages -------------------------------------------------------------142
5.5.7. Adding a Label and Editing Label Text-------------------------------------------------------------------------142
5.5.8. Changing the Appearance of Text ------------------------------------------------------------------------------143
5.6. Reports -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------144
5.6.1. Generating a Quick Report---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------144
5.6.2. Generating a Report using a Wizard ---------------------------------------------------------------------------144
5.6.3. Generating a Custom Designed Report ------------------------------------------------------------------------145
5.6.4. Changing a Form or Report's Underlying Table or Query -------------------------------------------------145
5.6.5. Creating a Sub report----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------146
5.6.6. Changing the Layout of a Subform or Subreport-------------------------------------------------------------147
5.6.7. Sorting and Grouping Data in Reports-------------------------------------------------------------------------148
5.6.8. Changing Sorting and Grouping Order ------------------------------------------------------------------------149
5.6.9. Hiding Duplicate Data on a Report-----------------------------------------------------------------------------150
5.6.10. Adding or Removing Headers and Footers on a Report ----------------------------------------------------151
5.6.11. Sizing Sections in a Form or Report ----------------------------------------------------------------------------152
5.6.12. Adding page Numbers to a Form or Report-------------------------------------------------------------------152
5.6.13. Adding the Current Date and Time to a Form or Report ---------------------------------------------------153
5.6.14. Drawing Lines and Rectangles on Forms and Reports ------------------------------------------------------154
5.6.15. Previewing a Report-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------154
6.1. Introduction To Power Point -------------------------------------------------------------------------156
6.2. Starting PowerPoint -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------156
6.3. Creating a Desktop Shortcut for PowerPoint -------------------------------------------------------157
6.1 Exiting PowerPoint ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------158
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6.4. Understanding PowerPoint Views -------------------------------------------------------------------159
6.4.1. Changing to a Different View------------------------------------------------------------------------------------160
6.4.2. Working with Toolbars -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------162
6.4.3. Moving a Toolbar --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------162
6.4.4. Turning off the Personalized Menus Feature -----------------------------------------------------------------163
6.5. Using the AutoContent Wizard-----------------------------------------------------------------------164
6.6. Starting a New Presentation using a Template ------------------------------------------------------165
6.7. Starting a Blank Presentation-------------------------------------------------------------------------166
6.8. Printing the Presentation -----------------------------------------------------------------------------167
6.9. Working with Presentation Files ---------------------------------------------------------------------167
6.10. Displaying Outline View ------------------------------------------------------------------------------169
6.1.1 Outlining a Presentation ------------------------------------------------------------------------------170
6.11. Inserting Slides from another Presentation ---------------------------------------------------------174
6.12. Editing Text --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------175
6.1.2 Selecting Text ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------175
6.1.3 Revising Text-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------176
6.13. Using the Replace Feature ----------------------------------------------------------------------------177
6.14. Spell Checking the Presentation----------------------------------------------------------------------178
6.15. Using the Research Tools -----------------------------------------------------------------------------178
6.16. Using the Thesaurus -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------179
6.17. Using Other Research Tools --------------------------------------------------------------------------179
6.18. Working with Slides in Slide Sorter View -----------------------------------------------------------180
6.18.1. Selecting Slides -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------180
6.18.2. Inserting a Slide ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------180
6.18.3. Duplicating a Slide-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------181
6.18.4. Moving a Slide------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------181
6.18.5. Deleting Slides------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------181
6.19. Changing the Design Template -----------------------------------------------------------------------182
6.20. Changing the Color Scheme---------------------------------------------------------------------------182
6.21. Working with Masters---------------------------------------------------------------------------------184
6.22. Changing Text Formatting ----------------------------------------------------------------------------184
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6.23. Working with Footers and Special Placeholders----------------------------------------------------185
6.24. Applying a Slide Background-------------------------------------------------------------------------186
6.25. Using Slide Transitions --------------------------------------------------------------------------------187
6.26. Applying an Animation Scheme ----------------------------------------------------------------------188
6.27. Creating Custom Animation --------------------------------------------------------------------------189
6.28. Publishing the Presentation in Web Format ---------------------------------------------------------192
7.1. Internet Explorer --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------193
7.2. Mozilla Firefox -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------193
7.3. Safari------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------194
7.4. Opera-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------195
7.5. Netscape Navigator/Netscape -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------195
8.1. Getting Started-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------196
8.2. Using Internet Explorer 7 Overview-----------------------------------------------------------------198
8.3. Tabbed browsing overview---------------------------------------------------------------------------199
8.4. To change your home page ---------------------------------------------------------------------------199
8.5. To add a new search provider (search engine)------------------------------------------------------200
8.6. To remove a search provider (search engine) -------------------------------------------------------201
8.7. To restore default settings in order to prevent IE7 crashes ----------------------------------------201
8.8. To fix error "SSL certificate REV failed [12057]"----------------------------------------------------202
8.9. To empty the Temporary Internet Files folder (cache)---------------------------------------------202
8.10. To clear the browsing history-------------------------------------------------------------------------203
8.11. To save a picture from a webpage --------------------------------------------------------------------203
8.12. To save a webpage onto your computer -------------------------------------------------------------203
8.13. To open the webpage that you have saved ----------------------------------------------------------204
8.14. To make WebPages load without images or sounds ------------------------------------------------205

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer
1.1. What is a Computer?
A computer is an electronic data processing machine that is designed to accept and
store data, process the data to produce useful information under the direction of
step-by-step instructions, called programs. The physical part of the computer is
called Hardware and the instructions are Software.
1.2. Distinguishing Features of Computers
1. Memory (Storage): Computers can store data so that it can be retrieved
whenever needed.
2. Programmability: The Computer can do virtually everything provided
that it is given the correct set of instruction. This feature of computers is
Programmability.
3. Speed: modern computers can process billions of instructions per second.
4. Accuracy: Computers are extremely accurate. Erroneous results may
occur due to human rather than technological weakness.
5. Versatility (General Purpose): If given the correct instructions.
Computers can do virtually everything.
6. Diligence (Tirelessness): If there are billions of instructions to be
processed. Computers process the first and the last instruction with the
same speed and accuracy.


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1.3. Computer Hardware
The physical component of a computer system that can be seen, touched and felt;
placed inside the system or outside make up the hardware.
1.3.1. Organization of the Computer Hardware







Input device
Data and instructions must enter the computer before any computation can be
performed on the supplied data. The unit that links the external environment with
the computer system performs this task. In short, the input unit performs the
following functions.
+ It accepts (reads) the list of instructions and data from the outside
world.
+ It converts these instructions and data in a computer acceptable form.
+ It supplies the converted instructions and data to the computer system
for processing.
There are different categories of input devices. The widely used Input devices include
keyboard, mouse, scanner and etc.




Control Arithmetic
Unit Logic unit

Register
Memory
Input
Device
Output
Device
Secondary
Storage
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Keyboard
A computer keyboard is an electromechanical component designed to create
special standardized electronic codes when a key is pressed. Keyboards come in
a variety of sizes and shapes but most keyboards have common layouts:
1. Standardized typewriter keys: A-Z, 0-9, ?, “, etc.
2. Function keys / programmable keys: F1through F12
3. Special - purpose keys: Alt, Ctrl, pause, etc
4. Cursor movement keys (arrow keys): Page up, Page down, Home, End,
÷,¬,^,+
5. Numeric keys: located at the right side of the keyboard
Keyboard layout and Data Entry

Enter Or Return - Moves The Cursor Down One Line And Enters
Commands.
Del Or Delete - Deletes The Character At Cursor And/Or Characters To
The Right Of The Cursor.
BkSp Or Backspace - Deletes The Character To The Left Of Cursor.
Space Bar - Moves The Cursor One Space At A Time To The Right.
Shift Key - Use The Shift Keys To Type Capital Letters And To Type The
Upper Character On Keys With Two Characters On Them.
Caps Lock - Locks The Keyboard So It Types Capital Letters (A Light Goes
On When Caps Lock Is On)
Tab - Moves The Cursor Five Spaces To The Right.
Esc Or Escape - Cancels A Menu Or Message Box.
Arrow Keys - Moves The Cursor Around Document With Out Changing
Text.
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Function Keys or F keys - access commands by themselves or in
combination with the three command keys, CTRL, SHIFT, and
ALT. They have different uses with different software.
Command keys - normally do nothing on their own but work in
combination with other keys. Each piece of software uses the command keys
differently.
- The Control key or Ctrl is often used to Access commands.
- The Alternative key or Alt is often used to access menus.
- The Shift key used to type CAPITAL LETTERS. As well the
command keys are all used to move through documents and edit
text faster and easier.
Mouse
Is a hand held device connected to the computer by small cable. The mouse has
two buttons the left one is used to select objects and text and the right one is
used to access menus.
Scanners
Scanning devices are called optical Character Recognition input device. Scanner
reads a hardcopy data from source document (including image graphs, type and
handwritten documents) in to computer usable form.
Output Device
Output devices provide the right information to the right person in the right
format at the right time. Output hardware is categorized according to whether it
produces hardcopy or softcopy.



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Hardcopy: - Refers to information that has been recorded on a tangible
medium such as paper or microfilms.
Softcopy: - Refers to the temporary data output such as displayed on a
computer screen.
The principal hardcopy output devices are Printers and Plotters.
Printer
The printer takes the information from the computer and transfers it to paper.
There are many different types of printers with various levels of quality. The
three basic types or printer are; dot matrix, inkjet, and laser.
Dot matrix printers: work like a typewriter transferring ink from a
ribbon to paper with a series or 'matrix' of tiny pins.
Inkjet printers: work like dot matrix printers but fires a stream of ink
from a cartridge directly on to the paper.
Laser Printers: use the same technology as a photocopier using heat to
transfer toner (black powder) onto paper.

Monitor
Is a device that shows the progress and operation of the computer. Monitors
come in many type and size from the simple monochrome (one color) screen
to full color screen. Most desktop computers use a monitor with CRT
(Cathode Ray Tube) and notebook computers use LCD (Liquid Crystal
Display.)
CPU (Central Processing Unit)
The ability to process (organizes and manipulate) data is a critical aspect of a
computer system. In a computer system, processing is accomplished by and
interplays between one or more of the central processing units and primary storage.
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Each central processing unit (CPU) consists of three associated elements: the
arithmetic logic unit the control unit, and the register areas. The arithmetic logic unit
(ALU) performs mathematical calculations and makes logical comparisons. The
control unit sequentially access program instructions, decodes them and coordinated
the flow of data in and out of the ALU, the registers, primary storage and even
secondary storage and various output devices.
Registers are high-speed storage areas used to temporarily hold small units of
program instructions and data immediately before, during and after execution by the
CPU. The CPU of a computer is also called brain of the computer.
Main Memory

Located physically close to the CPU (to decrease access time), memory provides the
CPU with a working storage area for program instructions and data. The chief
feature of memory is that it rapidly provides the data and instructions to the CPU.
Types of Memory
There are two types of memory:
+ RAM (Random Access Memory)
+ ROM (Read Only Memory)
RAM - is temporary and volatile - it exists only as long as the electric
current is maintained. RAM chips will lose their contents if the current
is turned off or disrupted. Instructions or data can be temporarily stored
in RAM.
ROM - is usually nonvolatile. In ROM, the combination of circuit states
is fixed and therefore the data represented by this combination will bot
be lost if the power is removed. ROM provides permanent storage for
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data and instructions that do not change like programs and data from the
computer manufacturer.
- There are other types of nonvolatile memory as well like
PROM (programmable read-only memory) EPROM (Erasable
Programmable read-only memory)
Secondary Storage Devices (Auxiliary Memory)
Main memory serves as the primary storage for the computer. Aside from its
high cost, RAM is volatile and ROM is read only. Thus, there should be other
types of storage devices capable of permanent storage. The most common way
of storing information permanently is on magnetic storage medium. Examples
of magnetic storage medium are magnetic tapes, magnetic disks etc.
Magnetic Disk
Magnetic disks are made of metal or plastic coated with magnetic material.
Information is recorded on a disk in concentric circles called Tracks on both surfaces
of the disk. The tracks are further divided into sections called Sectors. The amount
of information on the inner track is the same as that of on the outer track though
much compressed. Magnetic disks are generally manufactured without tracks and
sectors. Tracks and sectors are created by the operating system of the computer by a
process called formatting.
A device called a disk drive is used to read from or write information to the disk.
Inside the drive the disk spins at a very high speed and the read/write head reads
information from the surface and feeds it to the computer or receives information
from the computer and stores it on the disk.
Based on the backing material (plastic or metal), magnetic disks can be divided into
two: Floppy Disks & Hard Disks
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Floppy Disk (Diskettes)
Diskettes are often referred to as “floppy” because they are made of flexible material.
To store and retrieve data from a floppy disk, you must place it into a disk drive,
which contains special mechanical components for storing and retrieving data.
Hard Disks
+ Standard secondary storage device of all computers. All computers have at
least one hard disk
+ Has a massive storage capacity that can be measured in GB.
+ Can store and retrieve data much faster than floppy diskettes.
+ Non-removable as it is fixed inside the computer.
1.4. Software
Software is part of a computer that gives instructions to the physical part (hardware)
to carry out its tasks. Different software is used for different purposes.
The finite set of instructions that tell the computer hardware what to do is called
P PR RO OG GR RA AM M. .
1.4.1. Types of Software
There are 2 types of software:
System Software:
o Operating System Software
· E.g., MS DOS, MS WINDOWS, UNIX
o Language/Developing Software
· E.g., FORTRAN, Pascal, C++, Visual Basic


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Application Software:
o Developed to meet particular user interest
E.g., Games, word processing software, Database Management
software
o Accounting System software, Spreadsheet software, Virus
Protection and detection Software, etc
1.5. Operating Systems
In a computer system there are at least three components: the computer hardware,
the software and the user. To use the computer effectively there should be efficient
communication between these three components. The operating system is a program
that acts as a link between the user, the computer software, and computer resources.
It is the master program that allows the user to run application programs (Games,
word processor software, etc)
NB: Without the operating system the application software would be unable to run
Functions of the Operating System:
Controlling Activity
Input/output Management
Command Processing/Interpretation

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Chapter 2: Microsoft Windows
2.1. User Interface
Users communicate with their computers through the operating system. In all
operating systems there are two operating environments – Command Line
Interface (CLI) and Graphical User Interface (GUI). In CLI, the operating
system takes keyboard inputs from the user and translates it into operations that the
computer performs. MSDOS is example of an operating system with CLI as its
operating environment.
The user interface (operating environment) of most modern operating systems
incorporates graphical elements. This operating environment is known as Graphical
User Interface (GUI). Different objects of the operating system are represented by
small pictures called icons; messages are displayed in message boxes; and dialog
boxes are displayed to the user to provide input. The primary input device of
operating systems using GUIs is the mouse. Mouse is a pointing device with two
buttons which controls the movement of a pointer on the screen.
2.2. Logging into Your Computer

When you press the power button of your computer to turn it on, the first program
to be loaded into the computer’s memory is the Operating System, in this case,
Microsoft Windows XP. During the loading process you will see the Windows logo
and other messages. Once this process is completed, depending on the settings of the
computer, you will be requested to provide user name password to start using your
computer.
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Figure 1 - Login (Welcome) Window
To login to your computer:
1. Select the user name by clicking the picture representing your user account. A
text box appears below the user name (Fig. 1)
2. Type in the password and press Enter key or click the right pointing arrow
on the screen. The windows desktop appears. The desktop images and
other attributes may vary between users
2.3. The Windows Desktop
The Windows Desktop is the background area where different windows are opened.











Figure 2 - A Typical Windows XP Desktop
Icons
Start
Button
Taskbar
Quick Launch Toolbar
System Tray
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Some of the components of the desktop are Icons, opened windows, start button,
taskbar and the system trey (Fig 2).
1. Icons – small pictures representing a file or a folder on the desktop. All
folders created by users are represented by small yellow pictures whereas
files are represented by different pictures depending on the type of data or
program stored in the file, the format of the data file or the type of the
program used to create the file.
2. Start Button – an access point to various programs and components
3. Taskbar – status information area showing open applications and
multiple windows as buttons. Whenever a window is opened, a button
will be shown on the taskbar to indicate that it is open.
4. Quick Launch Toolbar – a shortcut area on the taskbar that is used to
launch frequently used programs. You can add or remove program icons
into this toolbar by dragging icons to or from the area
5. System Tray (SysTray) – Status area for utility and background
programs such as antivirus software, the current time and other
background programs. Note that moving the mouse to a given icon on the
SysTray displays a screen tip describing the program represented by the
icon.
2.4. Using Windows Explorer
Windows Explorer displays the hierarchical structure of files, folders, and drives on
your computer. It also shows any network drives that have been mapped to drive
letters on your computer. Using Windows Explorer, you can copy, move, rename,
and search for files and folders. For example, you can open a folder that contains a
file you want to copy or move, and then drag the file to another folder or another
drive.
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There are other places in Windows where you can view and work with files and
folders. You can view My Network Places, which lists other computers that are
connected to your local area network (LAN). My Documents is a convenient place to
store documents, graphics, or other files you want to access quickly.
To Open Windows Explorer:
· Click Start, Point to All Programs (or just Programs if you are
using the Classic start menu) and then click Windows Explorer or
· Right click a folder icon and click Explore or
· Open a folder window and click Folders button on the Standard
Buttons bar













Figure 3 - Windows Explorer Window
Folder (Tree)
Panel
Contents Panel
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The Windows Explorer window is divided in to two parts – Folders (Tree) Panel
and Contents Panel.
The Folder Panel displays the hierarchical structure of folders. The Desktop
is at the top level of the hierarchy. All folders on the desktop including My
Computer, My Documents, My Network Places and the Recycle Bin are found at
the second level. All secondary storage devices (hard disk, floppy disk, CD, Flash
Disk and so on) reside at the third level. All other folders created on the disks are
at the fourth and lower levels.
The existence of sub folders in a given folder is indicated by a + or – sign to the
left of the folder icons on the tree Panel. + indicates that the sub folders are listed
beneath the parent folder.
The Contents Panel displays contents of a selected folder. When a folder is
selected from the tree Panel, its contents are displayed in the Contents Panel.
Windows Explorer provides a suitable alternative to copy and/or move files and
folders to different locations using the Drag and Drop Method.
Searching For Files and Folders
The Search tool of Windows XP offers the most direct way to locate a file. Use
Search if you are looking for common file types, if you remember all or part of
the name of the file or folder you want to find, or if you know when you last
changed a file. If you know only part of the name, you can use wildcard
characters
1
to locate all files or folders that include that part in the name. For
example, *letter.* will find Holiday letter.doc, Special letter.doc, and Special
letter.txt.

1
Wildcard Characters represents any character in filename specifications. Windows recognizes two
wildcards – Asterisk (*) representing any number of characters and Question mark (?) representing a
single character
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Use Windows Explorer or My Computer if you know the exact location of the files
or folders. However, if you don’t remember the location of the files or if they are
stored in different locations use the Search Tool
To use the Search Tool:
1. Click Start and then click Search to display the Search window.
(If you are using the Classic Start Menu, click Start, point to Search
and then click For Files and Folders)
Tip: Pressing F3 on the key board also opens the Search
window
2. Specify the search criteria in the left Panel
I. To search for Pictures, Music or Videos click Pictures,
Music or Videos button and select one of the three
categories (i.e., Picture, Music or Video)
II. To search for Documents (such as Ms Word files), click
Documents
III. To provide specific criteria, select All Files and Folders
Specify additional criteria
IV. All or part of the file name
V. Date or period of last modification
VI. Location to look in etc
Click Search. Found items will be listed on the right Panel of the
search window.
3. You can use the Back button to go back one step, Stop button to stop
the search process.
Note: You can open, delete, copy, move or rename the files and
folders found.
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Using Help
Microsoft Help and Support Center is a comprehensive resource for practical advice,
tutorials, and demonstrations to help you learn to use Microsoft Windows XP. Use
the Search feature, Index, or table of contents to view all Windows Help resources,
including those that are on the Internet.
To display the Help and Support Window:
· Click Start and then click Help and Support. The Help and
Support Window appear. (Fig. 4)











Figure 4 - Help and Support Window
There are several ways that can be followed to access the help resources
· First Column - Pick a Help Topic - lists help topics that would be
found in table of contents
· Second Column – displays online (Internet or Local Network)
alternatives from where the user may get help
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· Keyword Search – you may type the keywords that identify the
topics you are looking for. To search for help topics; click the Search
box; type in the keyword or press ENTER key
· Index Search – clicking Index on the menu bar displays the lists of
items in the left hand Panel of the window
Whenever a help topic is selected the contents of the selected topic are
displayed in the right hand Panel (Fig. 5).


Figure 5 - A Help and Support Window displaying a help topic

For some searched topic, there is Overviews, Articles and Tutorials
section which contains overview texts or practical demonstrations. The
Windows Interactive Training, which is automatically opened when
items labeled Practice: are clicked, shows practical demonstrations of help
topics.
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Control Panel Elements
Control Panel is full of specialized tools that are used to change the way
Windows looks and behaves. Some of these tools help you adjust settings that make
your computer more fun to use. For example, use Mouse to replace standard
mouse pointers with animated icons that move on your screen, or use Sounds and
Audio Devices to replace standard system sounds with sounds you choose. Other
tools help you set up Windows so that your computer is easier to use. For
example, if you are left-handed, you can use Mouse to switch the mouse buttons so
that the button on the right performs the primary functions of selecting and
dragging.
To open Control Panel:
· Click Start and then click Control Panel. If your Start Menu is set
up in Classic view, click Start, point to Settings, and then click
Control Panel.
To find out more information about an item in Control Panel while in
Category view:
· Hold your mouse pointer over the icon or category name and
read the text that appears.
If you open Control Panel and do not see the item you want, click
Switch to Classic View. To open an item, double-click its icon. To
find out more about an item in Control Panel while in Classic Control
Panel view, hold your mouse pointer over the icon and read the text
that appears.
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Some of the tasks that can be done in the control panel are discussed here.
Folder Options
With Folder Options, you can specify how your folders function and how content
is displayed. For example, you can indicate that you want your folders to display
hyperlinks to common tasks, other storage locations, and detailed file
information. You can also choose to open items with either a single or a double
click.
You can change the program that opens a file type. You can also change the items
that appear on your desktop.
To change folder options settings:
· Open Folder Options in Control Panel.
· Or to open Folder Options from a folder window, click Tools, and
then click Folder Options.
To display hidden files and folders:
1. Open Folder Options in Control Panel.
o Click Start, and then click Control Panel.
o Double-click Folder Options.
2. On the View tab, under Hidden files and folders, click Show
hidden files and folders.


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Date and Time
To change Date and Time:
1) Open the Control Panel and click Date, Time, Language and
Regional Options in Category View
2) Select one of the Tasks ...
· Change the Date and Time – Click this tab to display the
dialog box that can be used to change the current time, date,
and time zone

Figure 6 - Date and Time Properties Dialog Box
Tip: Double clicking the System Clock on the
System Tray also displays the same dialog box
· Change the formats of Numbers, Dates and Times –
Click this button to change number formats, date and time
formats
· Add Other Languages – To include multilingual support



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Appearance/Display/Screen Saver/Resolution
The appearance of the Windows XP can also be changed from the control
panel.
To change the appearance of your windows:
1. Open the control panel and switch to classic view by clicking the
Switch to Classic View button and then double click the Display
icon to show the Display Properties window




Figure 7 - Display Properties Window
2. Select different options by clicking each tab:
· Themes Tab – This tab is used to change the desktop theme. A
desktop theme is a predefined set of icons, fonts, colors, sounds,
and other window elements that give your desktop a unified and
distinctive look.
· Desktop Tab – this tab is used to change the desktop background
image
· Screen Saver Tab – Screen Saver is an animated text or graphics
that is displayed when the user stops interacting with the system for
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a specific period of time. The type of screen saver, the idle time
interval for the screen saver to appear, can be set from this tab
· Appearance Tab – This tab is used the color and style of
windows and buttons
· Settings Tab – This tab is used to change the screen resolution
and the color depth of (number of colors displayed on) your
screen. There are also other advanced activities performed using
this tab.
User Accounts
User accounts personalize Windows for each person who is sharing a computer.
You can choose your own account name, picture, and password, and choose other
settings that will apply only to you. A user account gives you a personalized view of
your own files, a list of favorite Web sites, and a list of recently visited Web pages.
With a user account, documents you create or save are stored in your own My
Documents folder, separate from the documents of others who also use the
computer.
To help keep your files more secure and to help make sure they remain private, use
a password for your user account. You can still mark certain items as shared if you
want other people to be able to access them. If you do not use a password for your
user account, other people will have access to your account and be able to see all of
your folders and files.
If you have a user account and you change computer settings, such as the type, size,
or the screen saver, those settings will apply only to your account.
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As a user with a computer administrator account, you can create, delete, and
change all user accounts on the computer. You can create as many accounts on the
computer as you want, and have full access to all accounts on the computer.
Types of User Account
There are two types of user accounts available on your computer: computer
administrator and limited. The guest account is available by default for users
with no assigned account on the computer.
Computer Administrator Account
The computer administrator account is intended for someone who can make
system wide changes to the computer, install software, and access all non -
private files on the computer. Only a user with a computer administrator
account has full access to other user accounts on the computer. A user with a
computer administrator account:
• Can create and delete user accounts on the computer.
• Can change other users' account names, pictures, passwords, and
account types.
• Cannot change his or her own account type to limited unless there is at
least one other user with a computer administrator account. This
ensures that there is always at least one user with a computer
administrator account on the computer.



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Limited account
The limited account is intended for someone who should be prohibited from
changing most computer settings and deleting important files. A user with a
limited account:
• Generally cannot install software or hardware, but can access programs
that have already been installed on the computer.
• Can change his or her account picture and can also create, change, or
delete his or her password.
• Cannot change his or her account name or account type. A user with a
computer administrator account must make these kinds of changes.
Guest Account
The guest account is intended for use by someone who has no user account on
the computer. There is no password for the guest account, so the user can log
on quickly to check e-mail or browse the Internet. A user logged on to the
guest account:
• Cannot install software or hardware, but can access applications that
have already been installed on the computer.
• Cannot change the guest account type.
• Can change the guest account picture.



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To add a new user to the computer:
You must have a computer administrator account to add a new user to the
computer.
1. Open User Accounts in Control Panel.
2. Under Pick a task, click Create a new account.
3. Type a name for the new user account, and click Next.
4. Click either Computer administrator or Limited, depending on
the type of account you want to assign to the new user, and then click
Create Account.
To change an existing account:
You must have a computer administrator account to change a user's account
type.
1. Open User Accounts in Control Panel.
2. Click the name of the account you want to change.
3. Select different options:
· Change the Name – to change the account name. This does
not work for Guest Account
· Change Password – to change the password of the user. If
password is not set, Create Password is shown instead.
· Change the Picture – to change the picture displayed as the
logo for the user
· Change the account type – to change the account type from
Limited to Administrator or back
· Delete Account – to delete a user account
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4. Close the window when you are done
Scheduled Tasks
Scheduled tasks allow users to have Windows automatically run a specified program
or open a certain file at a set time. Scheduled tasks can be used to open programs
and/or files that you always use.
- To make a scheduled
1. Go to start and click control Panel
2. Double-click Scheduled Task
3. Click on Next
4. Choose the application you want to Run and click next
5. Type the name of the Task and choose the time you want
6. Select the time and day you want this task to start
7. Enter the name and password of a user
8. And click finish
Device Manager
Device Manager is an OS feature that lets you view and change the properties of all
devices attached to your computer.
- To get device Manager in windows
1. Right-click on the My Computer Icon from the desktop and click
on property
2. Click on the Hardware Tab and click on the Device Manager
3. Choose the driver you want to enable or disable



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2.5. Internet Option
- To configure internet options for internet connection sharing
1. Go to control panel and click on Internet Options
2. In the General Tab type the default web page you want
3. Click on the connection Tab
4. Click on never dial a connection and click LAN Setting
5. In Automatic configuration, clear the Automatically
detect settings and Use automatic configuration
script check boxes.
6. In Proxy Server, clear the Use a proxy server check box.














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Chapter 3: Introduction to Microsoft Word
Microsoft word is a powerful word processor that combines text with imported
graphics, spreadsheet and charts. Microsoft word lets you prepare a variety of
documents. When necessary you can easily correct errors by adding or deleting
words, sentences, paragraphs or pages. After you have created and corrected your
text, you can print it and store it on hard disk or floppy disk for reuse or future
references.
Status bar
Tables and
borders toolbar
Title bar
Menu bar
Standard
Tool bar
Formatting
Toolbar
Ruler
I-Beam
I
System
Icon
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3.1. Anatomy of Word Screen
Title Bar Displays the title of the window, in this case: Microsoft Word and the
name of the active document
System
Menu Icon
Displays the menu with command for sizing, moving and closing the
word window
Sizing
buttons
Enables you to minimize to restore the window size
Menu bar Displays a list of menu options. When you click on the menus on the
menu bar, it displays word commands that enables you to instruct word
to perform an action
Toolbar Displays different toolbars that are used for quick access for commonly
used commands. If the toolbar is not visible, choose Toolbar command
from view menu and click on the toolbar you want to display
Ruler Enables you to set Margins, Tab stops and indents
Work Area Where the text and graphics displayed
Insertion
Point (-)
The blinking bar that shows where the text you type will appear
Scroll Bar Enables you to see the hidden part of the document
View
Buttons
Used to switch to different views of the document
Status bar Displays information about the active or highlighted command
Browse
buttons
Used to move through the document by page, section, comment, etc.

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3.2. Different Views of the Document
Normal: This view shows text, character formatting, graphics and paragraph
formatting. It doesn’t show columns or frames, headers or footers. It is the fastest
view option because it doesn’t display as many different screen elements. It is the
default view that means it’s what you get when you start word the first time.
Page layout: in this view, everything in your document is displayed and positioned,
as it will appear on the printed page. You see headers and footers, footnotes, page
numbers, columns, graphics and frames and just about every other formatting
feature.
Online layout: this view is designed specifically to make documents easier to read
on screen. This view includes a new feature called a Document Map that gives you an
outline
View of your document’s structure and allows you to easily navigate to different
portions of the document.
Outline: this view shows the document in outline form if you are using the built-in
numbered heading styles. This let’s you see the document in hierarchical form,
where you can collapse or expand various parts of the document. But graphics and
full paragraph formatting are not shown in this view. You can use it to manipulate
texts that aren’t possible in the other view.
Print Preview: this view shows you exactly how the document will look when
printed, In this view you can view several pages at onetime and also see where the
pages look even, how big the headings appear, where the pages breaks fall and others.



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Changing the View: to change from one view to other:
- Click on the View menu then click on one of the view options you
want to apply Or
- Click on the View button in the lower left corner of the word screen.
Point on the respective view buttons to obtain the view button names.

Dialog Boxes
Choosing a menu command will usually followed by dialogue box. Aside from some
very basic commands, almost everything you do in word happens through a dialog
box. Let’s take a look at font dialog box (click on format menu hen click on font
command).





Check
box
Drop down
list
Tabs
Text
Box
List
Box
Preview
Box
Command
button
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3.3. Formatting
Word divides its formatting options as follows: character, paragraph and page.
Character formatting can be applied to any amount of text and it includes changing
the font style, size, color of text, and making text bold, italic or underline. Paragraph
formatting applies to a paragraph or multiple paragraphs and it includes line spacing,
tabs and indents, and text alignment. Page formatting applies to entire pages and
sections and it includes margins, page numbering, and headers and footers.
Tabs Divides the dialog box into different sections. Clicking on
Character Spacing or Animation will take you to the respective
section containing different option related to the tab
Text Box Indicates you which option is selected from the list box.
List Box Displays different options related to Textbox name. To see more
of the options you can use scrolls if available.
Drop-
Down list
Button
Used to display different options or drop down list of the respective
property, i.e. click on color drop down list button to display
different color and click on one of it to select it.
Check box
Indicates whether an option is selected or not. - Tells you that it is
checked (selected); otherwise it is not selected.
Preview
box
Whenever you select an option you will see how it look in the
preview box. So it is the view before you apply it into your
document
Command
Button
When pressed, make something to happen. E.g. Press OK to
execute the commands you have chosen and close the dialog box
and CANCEL to close the dialogue box without executing the
command
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3.3.1. Character Formatting
There are many ways you can change the appearance of text. You can make it bold or
italicize it; you can change the type of style or size; you can highlight the text or add
color to it.
To make text bold, italic, or underline:
1. Select the text you want to format or place the insertion point where you
want to begin applying the formatting.
2. Click on the appropriate button: Bold, Italic or underline from the
Toolbar. Or
Use Keyboard shortcuts i.e.
• Press Ctrl + B to make the text bold.
• Press Ctrl + I to make the text Italic
• Press Ctrl + U to make the text underline
To change the font, size, color, shading, and text bordering:
1. Select the text you want to change or position the insertion point where you want
the change to start. If your insertion point is positioned in the middle of a word
without anything selected, the change applies to the whole word.
2. Click on the appropriate formatting drop-down list button from the toolbar and
select any option you want.

Using the Font Dialogue Box
The font dialogue box lets you change as many characteristics as you want at once. In
addition, it gives you access to even more appearance options.



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To make changes with the font dialogue box:
1. Select the text you want to change or place the insertion point where you want
the font change take effect.
2. Choose Font from the Format menu to open the font dialogue box
3. Select the various formatting options under the respective tab
4. Format selections are immediately reflected in the preview window of the
dialogue box. So you can experiment with the available options and preview the
results
Changing Text to Uppercase and Lowercase
To change the case of a text:
• Select the text you want to change
• Choose change case from the Format Menu to open the change case dialogue
box shown below

• Select the option you want and click on OK button

Note: Select the text and then press Shift + F3 to cycle among the change case
options. Stop when the text is the way you want it.
Inserting Special Symbols
There are many symbols, such as the copyright symbol, ©, used regularly in
documents that aren’t on the standard keyboard.
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To insert symbols:
1. Choose Symbols from Insert menu
2. Choose a symbol from Symbol Font Sets shown in the character map on the
symbol page or from the list on the special characters page
3. Click insert button.
4. Click Close
3.3.2. Paragraph Formatting
In word paragraph is one of the basic units of a document. Every time you press the
ENTER key while typing, you create a new paragraph. To start a new line with out
starting a new paragraph, press Shift + Enter
Paragraph Indention and Alignment
Word has features that allow you to indent just the first line of each paragraph,
without typing the tab at the beginning of every paragraph using first line indent or
you can also indent the entire paragraph using the standard indent. And you can also
indent the rest of the line except the first line called hanging indent.
Setting indents using the ruler and the Toolbar




Increase Indent
Decrease Indent
Left
Indent
Ruler
First Line
Indent
Hanging
Indent
Right
Indent
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To use any indent:
• Put the insertion point in the paragraph you want to indent or select multiple
paragraphs.
To indent the entire paragraph from left:
• Click the increase indent button on the Formatting toolbar, which indents
with a standard measurement. Or
• Drag the left indent marker on the ruler (all the three indent marks will move
together)
To indent back to normal:
• Click the decrease indent button on the formatting toolbar. Or
• Drag the left indent marker to its original place
To indent the first line (First line indent):
• Drag the first line indent marker to a new position on the ruler. And drag it to
the left to remove the first line indent.
To indent the rest of the line except the first line (hanging indent)
• Drag the hanging indent marker to the new position on the ruler. And drag it to
the left to remove the hanging indent.
To indent the entire paragraph from the right:
• Drag the right indent marker that is found at the right side of the ruler

Changing alignment
By default, Word aligns or positions text left. However you have the option of
centering text, aligning it along the right margin or justified, i.e. expanding the
spaces in each line to align text at both the left and right margins.


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To align text:
1. Click anywhere in the paragraph you want to format. Or select multiple
paragraphs
2. Click one of the paragraph alignment buttons on the formatting toolbar.

Note: when you choose one of the alignment buttons it appears pressed in, to
remove click it again.

Using the Paragraph dialog box:
• Click the Paragraph you want to format or select multiple paragraphs
• Choose Paragraph from the format menu. The following dialog box will be
displayed.
• To indent only the first line choose First Line from the Special drop-down list
and enter a measurement in the By box.
• To indent the entire paragraph, enter measurement in the left and/or right boxes
to specify how far to indent the paragraph from the left or right margin.

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• To align text, choose one of the alignment options by clicking the alignment
drop-down list.
• Specify the spacing before and after the paragraph in the spacing section by
clicking the decrement and increment buttons inside the respective boxes.
• To change the measurement of the space in between the lines of the paragraph,
click the line spacing drop down list button and select any.

Note: as you select different options the preview box shows what the formatting will
look like on the page
Keeping text together
As you are typing, word moves the text to the next page as soon as you get to the
bottom margin. It doesn’t care whether it’s breading a two-line paragraph or ripping
a heading from its accompanying text. But you can control this situation by four
different features. The first, Hard Page Breaks are inserted with a keystroke or by
choosing Page Bread from the Break dialog box. You can obtain the rest through the
following procedure:

1. Click the Paragraph you want to format or select multiple paragraphs
2. Choose Paragraph from the Format menu and select the Line and Page
Break tab.
3. Check or uncheck the appropriate option and click OK.





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Using Tabs
Tab stops are markers set by default at half-inch intervals across the width of the
document. Pressing the tab key moves the cursor from one tab stop to the next. One
of the most common uses of a tab is to indent the first line of a paragraph. There are
four basic types of tab stops:
Left: the default type. Text appears to the right of the tab stop
Center: Text automatically appear to the left and the right of the tab stop
until centered under the tab stop
Right: text appears to the left of the tab stop
Decimal: used for numeric entries. Text lines up with the decimal point
Tabs are also used to create parallel columns, vertically aligning text within, a
document. The tab-stop settings can be changed by using the ruler or the tabs dialog
box.
Setting Tabs Using the Ruler
1. Click the Tab button at the left end of the ruler to toggle through the four tab
choices.
2. Click on the ruler to set the tab-stops
3. Drag the Tab-stop marker on the ruler to change the tab position
4. Drag the tab-stop marker off the ruler to remove the tab stop
Setting Tabs and Leaders Using the Tabs Dialog Box
1. Open the Tabs dialog box by choosing Format¬Tabs
2. Type a decimal value in the Tabs Stop Position text box.
3. Select an alignment style and, optionally, a leader style.
4. Click Set
5. Repeat step 2 - 4 to set several tab stops
6. Click OK
7. Enter text, pressing Tab between each column
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Bullets and Numbering
To create a bulleted or numbered list:
1. Select the list
2. Click the Numbering or Bullets button to create a numbered or bulleted list
from the Standard Toolbar
To remove Bullets and Numbers:
1. Select the Bulleted or Numbered list.
2. Click the Numbering or Bullets button in the standard to remove the numbered
list or bulleted list.
To create a custom Bullets and Numbers:
1. Select the list
2. Choose Bullets and Numbering from the Format menu to display bullets and
numbering dialogue box
3. Select the bulleted tab to apply bullets or the numbered tab to apply numbering
4. Select one of the bullets or numbers out of the preview boxes. If you can not find
bullets or numbers of your choice, select one of the preview boxes and click
Customize. Select the different options from the dialog box that appears and click
OK
5. Click OK button of Bullets and Numbering dialog box

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3.3.3. Page Formatting
Page Breaks
With word, you usually don’t have to worry about where to end a page. As soon as
you type more text than will fit on a page, word inserts automatic page break and
starts anew page for the text that follows. But there are times when you may want to
force a page to break at a certain place.
To insert page break:
1. Position the insertion point where you want the page break
2. Choose the Break command from the insert menu. The break dialog box
will appear
3. Check the page break option, if not checked.
4. Choose OK button.
Or use Keyboard shortcut as:
• Press Ctrl + Enter key after placing the insertion point in the appropriate
position
Creating and Modifying Page Numbers
To create page numbers:
1. Choose Page Number from the Insert menu to open page number dialog box
2. Choose alignment & Position of the page numbers. Indicate whether you would
like the first page of the document to display a number
3. Click Format to change the type of numbers (1,2,3 or a, b, c), to continue the
numbering from the previous section, or to start at a number other than one.
Click OK. Click OK again to set the page numbering
4. View page numbers in page layout view or print preview
To Remove page numbers:
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1. Choose Header and Footer from the View menu. Or double-click on the
page number.
2. Select page number. And press Backspace or delete key.
3. Choose close
Adding Boarders and Shading
You can grab the reader’s attention by making boarders and shadings to the text of
paragraphs. You can make boarders and shading by using the Table and Boarder Bar
or Border and shading Dialog Box.
Using Table and Boarder Bar
1. Place the insertion point in the paragraph you want to add a boarder to or select
Multiple paragraphs
2. Click the Table and Boarders button on the standard toolbar to open the Table
and Borders Toolbar
3. Click the down arrow next to the Line Style button and select a style
4. Click the down arrow to the Line weight button and select a line thickness
5. Click the down arrow next to the Boarders button to open the boarder’s palette
6. Click to select a border option. As you move your mouse pointer over the
different options, notice the ToolTip that tells you what the option does.
To apply Boarders:
1. Place your insertion point in the paragraph you want to format. (Select
multiple paragraph)
2. Choose Boarder and shading from the format menu to open the Borders and
shading dialog box as shown
3. Make any selections you want from the style, color, and width lists


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4. Click on one of the settings button
× Selecting None gives you no boarder at all. Use this option to get rid of
existing boarder on selected text
× Selecting Box gives you a standard box that uses any Style, color and
Width setting you select
× Selecting Shadow applies a shadow effect. (Works only for box with
four boarders)
× Selecting Three-D gives you a 3-D effect
× Selecting Customs creates a box using the options you click in the
preview
× diagram. You can click the different buttons to mix and match various
boarder options





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To Apply Shading behind a paragraph:
• Position your insertion point in the paragraph you want shade (or select
multiple paragraphs)
• Display Border and Shading dialog box and click on shading tab
• Choose a fill amount or color from the Fill palette.
• Choose a pattern from the style drop-down list.
• Choose a color from the color list
• Choose OK when you’ve made all your selections
Note: To apply border and shading to a text, select the text you want to apply the
formatting and follow the above procedure
3.4. Table of Contents
A table of contents lists headings in the order they appear in a document and the
page numbers where the headings appear. A table of contents usually appears at the
beginning of a document and can include several levels of headings.
To compile a table of contents by using built in heading styles:
• Position the insertion point where you want to create the table of
contents.
• From the Insert menu, Choose Index and tables tab.
• Select the Table of Contents tab from the Index and Tables dialog box
• When you finish Choose OK



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3.5. Headers and Footers
A header or footer is piece of text that word repeats at the top of every page (header)
or at the bottom of every page (footer) in an entire document. A non-printing dashed
line indicates the header and footer in the document. You can format header and
footer just as you format any other text in your document.
To create header or Footer:
1. From the View menu, choose the Header and Footer command. Word
changes the document view to page layout view and displays the header
and footer toolbar.
2. The insertion point is placed in the header area. Enter the text you want to
print on top of every page. Click on the Switch between Header and
Footer button to switch to the footer area.
3. To return to the document work area, choose the close button.
To remove header or footer:
1. Double-click on the header or footer or from the view menu choose the
Header and Footer command
2. Delete the contents of the header and footer area.
3. Click on Close button
To create different Header and Footers for odd and even pages:
1. From the View menu, choose Header and Footer
2. Click the Page Setup button and select the Layout tab
3. Under Header and Footer section select the Different odd and Even check
box
4. Choose OK


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Setting Page Margins:
Word gives you wonderful margins of 1-inch at the top and bottom and 1.24inch on
the left and right. If these defaults work for you, you don’t have to do any thing. But
if you want to change the margins, word lets you do it directly from the ruler or with
precise measurements in a dialog box.
To set margins using the dialog box:
1. Choose the Page Setup from the File menu and select the margins tab.
You will see the page setup dialog box. Three of the tabs in this dialog box
provide options for various page elements: Margins, paper size and layout.
2. Enter setting in the Top, Bottom, Left and Right text boxes. Check the
preview box to make sure that the margins are the way you want them. If
you plan to bind your document after printing, you can add an extra
margin along one side of the page to allow for binding. To add this extra
margin enter a measurement in the Gutter box
3. From the Apply To list, select whole document or This point
forward
4. Click Ok
Setting the Paper size and Orientation:
The paper size tab of the page Setup dialog box lets you set the size of paper on which
the document will be printed and select the page orientation. The default paper size
is A4. From the box, select the paper size you will be using for printing from the
Paper Size drop down list.
The Portrait option means that the document will print down the page, with
shorter side at the top and bottom. The Landscape option means that the document
will print across the page, with the shorter side at left and right.


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The Layout tab
The Layout tab of the page setup dialog box controls how headers and footers are
setup, and how the text is vertically aligned
If the text in your document does not completely fill a page, you can set its vertical
position on the page in the vertical alignment box:
• The Top Setting starts the text at the top of the page
• The center setting moves the text down so that it is centered as a
block between the top and bottom margins
• The Justified setting increases the space between the paragraphs so
that the first line of text prints at the top margin and the last line
prints at the bottom margin.
3.6. Spelling and Grammar Checking
Word checks your document for spelling errors by using its main dictionary, which
contains most common words.
To check spelling and grammar:
On the Tools menu, click Spelling & Grammar or click spelling button on the
standard toolbar which display the spelling and grammar dialog box
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If word finds a word that is not contained in any of the active dictionaries or any
grammatical error, it displays the spelling and grammar dialog box (Spelling errors
are typed in red while grammatical errors are typed in green in the dialog box)
A list of suggested spellings or grammatical corrections automatically appears in the
spelling and grammar dialog box. For every word that is displayed in dictionary box,
do one of the following:
• Choose the Change button to accept the current selection in the
suggestion box.
• Choose the Change All button on replace all instances of this misspelled
word in the document
• Choose Ignore to leave the word unchanged. (The wavy underline will
disappear.)
• Choose Ignore All to leave all occurrence of a wavy underlined word
without changing it.
• Choose the Auto correct button to add the misspelled word and its
correction to the Auto Correct list so that word will correct it
automatically as you type.
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• Choose the Next Sentence to click in your document and manually edit
the current sentence, then click Next Sentence to accept your manual
changes and continue the spelling and grammar check
• Choose the Add button to add the highlighted word in the Not in
Dictionary to the custom dictionary. The next time word encounter this
word, it will not take it as an error.
• Choose the options button to open the Spelling and Grammar option
dialog box, where you can open a different custom dictionary or change
the rules that word uses to check spelling and Grammar. Word continues
searching for spelling mistakes for the rest of the document, and displays a
massage box on completion
• Choose the OK button to return to the document.
Checking Spelling in a selection
To check the spelling of a single word or range of text of text instead of the entire
document:
• Select the word or range of text
• Click on the spelling and grammar button on the standard toolbar. To
choose the spelling and grammar command from the Tools menu.
• If the word or selection contains any spelling mistakes, Word opens the
spelling and grammar dialog box and allows you to make corrections.
• On completion of the spell check, or if the word or selection contains no
spelling or grammar mistake, word displays a dialog box which ask you
whether you want to continue checking the remaining document or not
• Choose the Yes button to continue the spell check for the rest of the
document
• Choose the No button to return to the document
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Using the Thesaurus Command
You can use the Thesaurus to improve the precession and variety of your writing.
You can quickly find synonyms (word with the same meaning) for a selected word or
phrase. For some words, you may also find antonyms (word with opposite meaning)
related words.
To look up words in Thesaurus:
1. Click on the word you want to look up and choose Tools →Language→
Thesaurus to open the thesaurus dialog box
2. Double-click on terms to look up those words
3. Click on words in the meaning column the best represent your context to
see synonyms for them. Double-click to get a list of words that have the
same or similar meaning.
4. Enter a new word to look up in the Replace with synonym text box.
5. To review previously looked up words, select from the drop-down list
under Looked Up.
3.7. Tables and Columns
3.7.1. Tables
With tables you can arrange columns of numbers and text in a document without
using tabs. A table is made up of rows and columns. The intersection between rows
and columns is called Cell. You can fill cells with text or even graphics. Within each
cell, text wraps just as it does between the margins of documents. The cell expands
vertically to fit the amount of text you type.
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Creating Tables
To create a table using the Insert Table command:
1. Position the insertion point where you want to create a table
2. Click the Insert Table command from the Table menu. The insert table
dialog box will appear.
3. Specify the number of columns and rows in the respective boxes. And specify
the exact measurements for the width of columns in Column Width box.
And click OK
To create a table using the standard toolbar:
× Click the Insert Table button on the standard toolbar and drag over the grid
until you have selected the number of rows and columns you wanted to create
and release the mouse button.
Moving and Selecting a Cell, Row and Column
Within a cell you can move the insertion point and select text just as you do in the
rest of your document.
To move around in a table:
× Click in the cell you want to move to. Or use the cursor control keys (Arrow
keys and Tab)
To select a text inside a cell:
× Drag over the text

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To select a row:
× Click the row selection bar (to the left of the row, the I-Beam will be changed
to a right pointing arrow)
To select a column:
• Click the column’s top gridline or border. Notice that the pointer becomes a
thick a thick down-arrow.
To select multiple cells, rows or columns:
• Drag across the cell, row or column; or select a single cell, row or column
and hold down Shift key.
NOTE: you can select rows, columns or the entire by positioning the insertion
point in the table and choosing Select Row, Select Column, Or Select Table
command from the Table menu
Inserting and Deleting Cells, Rows or Columns
To add a cell to a table:
1. Select a cell or cells above which you want to insert the new cells
2. Choose the Insert Cells command from the Table menu. The insert cells
dialog box appears.
3. Select one of the options, and then click the OK button




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To add a row(s) to a table:
1. Select the row(s) above which you want to insert the new row(s)
2. Choose the Insert Rows command from the Table menu or the Tables and
Borders toolbar
Note: to add a single row to a table, position the insertion point outside the table at
the end of a row, and then press Enter. Or to add a row at the end of the
table, position the inserting point in the last cell of the last row and press Tab
key.
To add column(s) to a table:
1. Select the column(s) to the left of which you want to add the new column(s)
2. Choose Insert Columns command from Tables menu, or from Tables
and Borders toolbar
Deleting Cells, Rows and Columns
You can delete just the text in cells, rows or columns, or you can remove the cell,
row or column. To delete a text in a cell, row or column, just select and delete it, as
you would do else where in a document.
To delete cells:
1. Select the cell(s) you want to delete.
2. Choose the Delete Cells command from Table menu. The delete cells
dialog box appears
3. Choose one of the options, and click OK
To delete rows or columns:
1. Select the row(s) or column(s) you want to delete
2. From the table menu, choose Delete Rows or Delete Columns. Or click
the Cut button from the standard toolbar


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You can move or copy cells, rows or columns in a table. To do so:
1. Select the cells, rows or columns you want to copy or move
2. Position the mouse pointer over the selection
3. To move the selection drag it to the new location when the arrow pointer
slants to the left
4. To copy the selection hold down Ctrl key while you drag the selection.
Merging and Splitting Cells and Columns
To merge (join a number of cells in to one) cells in the table:
1. Select the cells you want to merge
2. From the Table menu choose Merge Cells. Or click Merge
Cells button from the Tables and Border toolbar
To split (divide) cells:
1. Select the cell(s) you want to split
2. From the Table menu, choose Split Cells. Or click Split Cells from
the Tables and Border toolbar
3. Enter the number of row and column you want to split the selected cell(s) and
choose OK
Changing Column Width and Row Height
You can change the width of selected cells and entire column/row you want by
dragging the table column markers on the ruler or by dragging the column/row
boundaries. When you position the mouse pointer to column/row boundary, the
pointer will be changed to a bi-directional arrow. You can also specify exact column
width or row height by using the Cell Height and Width dialog box.



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To change the Column Width
1. Select the column, or columns whose width you want to change
2. Choose the Cell Height and Width command from the Table menu. The
cell Height and width dialog box appears

3. Select the Column tab, if not selected
4. Specify a value in the Width of Column box
5. Specify a value in the Space Between Columns Box
6. Click OK
To change the row height:
1. Select the row(s) whose Height you want to change
2. Choose the Cell Height and Width command from the Table menu. The
cell Height and width dialog box appears
3. Select the Rows tab, if not selected
4. Choose the various options in the dialog box
5. Click OK
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Formatting Tables
You can improve the readability of a table by formatting the text in the table, aligning
the text, creating column headings and adding borders and shading. You format text
within cells as in the rest of the document. The best way to format a table is to allow
Word automatically format the table. To do so:
Select the entire table or just place the insertion point in the table
1. Choose the Table Autoformat command from the Table menu. The Table
Autoformat dialog box appears
2. Select the available format from the format list. The preview window displays
a sample table of the selected format
3. Click the OK button
Sorting a Table
You can arrange entries of a table in alphabetical or numeric border, or you can sort
by date. Word changes the order of rows based on the first column unless you specify
a different column as the basis of sorting.
To sort a table:
Select the rows you want to sort
1. From the Table menu, choose Sort command. The sort dialog box appears
2. If you have a heading that you do not want to sort, select the Header Row
option. Under My List has section
3. Under sort by select column number, field number, paragraph or name
4. Under Type, select Number or Text, or Date and then select the
Ascending or Descending option
5. To use additional columns as a basis for sorting, repeat step 4 and 5
6. Choose OK
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To Calculating a Value in a Table
1. Click the cell in which you want the result to appear
2. Go to Table Menu and Click on Formula
3. Click the Paste Function list arrow and then select a function
3.7.2. Columns
You can change the way a document looks by creating newspaper style columns.
Columns can be of equal or unequal width. You can also vary the number of columns
in a document or on a page. To see multiple columns on screen, switch to page
layout view or print preview.
To create Columns:
1. Switch your view to page layout view by clicking its button on the horizontal
scroll bar and do one of the following: If you want to format the entire
document, click any where in the document; if you want to format part of the
document in to columns, select part of the document
2. Form Format menu choose Columns.
Controlling Column Breaks
A column break is the point in the text where one column ends and the nest begins.
Word automatically distributes columns on pages, but you can insert column breaks
where you want one column to end and the next column to start.
To insert a column break:
1. Click the page layout view button
2. Position the insertion point where you want to start the new column
3. From insert menu choose Break. To display the Break dialog box
4. Under insert section select Column Break and choose OK

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3.7.3. Drop Cap
You can format a paragraph to have a large initial or dropped capital letter or a large
first word
To put a Drop Cap:
1. Select the paragraph that you want to begin with an initial or dropped capital
letter
2. Choose Drop Cap from Format menu, the Drop Cap dialog box appears:

3. Click Dropped or In Margin
4. Select any other options you want
5. Click OK


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3.7.4. Graphics and Text Boxes
Word makes it easy to bring electronic images called Clip into your document by
using the clip gallery. To insert an image from the clip gallery:
Position the insertion point where you want the picture
Choose Picture from the Insert menu and Clip Art from picture menu. This opens
Microsoft Clip Art Gallery. Select Clip Art tab.
· Click on category name in the left column to display the pictures for that
category.
· Click to select the graphic you want.
· Click on the Insert button. Word places the image you selected in your
document. Notice the little boxes around the picture, they are called
handles and they appear whenever an image is selected.
· Click anywhere outside the picture. The handles disappear, and the
picture is part of your document.

3.8. Working with Multiple Documents
Multiple open documents are handy if you want to refer to an old report or copy
parts of one letter into another. You can view each document in its own window or
all open documents in horizontally tiled windows. If you need to compare two
documents, you can view them side by side and scroll through them at the same
time. To view different parts of a document (convenient for summarizing a long
report), you can split it into two windows that you view simultaneously but edit and
scroll through independently.


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Switch between Documents
• Click the Word Document button on the taskbar you want to display.
• Click the Window menu, and then click the document on which you want to
work.
Arrange Multiple Document Windows
• Arrange All to fit all open windows on the screen.
• Compare Side By Side With ..., click a document, and then click OK to tile
two windows and scroll through both documents at the same time.
3.9. Inserting AutoText
1. Position the insertion point where you want the AutoText to be inserted.
2. Click the Insert menu
'
and then point to AutoText.
3. Point to a category, and then click an entry.
4. To see additional choices or add your own entries, click the Insert menu
'
point to
AutoText
'
and then click AutoText.
5. To add an entry to the menu, type an entry in the Enter AutoText Entries Here
box, and then click Add.
6. Scroll down the list to find the AutoText entry you want to make, and then click
Insert.
3.10. Insert Files
1. Click the place in your document where you want to insert the file.
2. Click the Insert menu
'
and then click File.
3. Click the Look In list arrow to find the file to insert.
4. Select the file, and then click Insert.




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3.11. Use AutoRecover
1. Click the Tools menu, and then click Options.
2. Click the Save tab.
3. Select the Save AutoRecover Info Every check box.
4. Enter the number of minutes, or click the up and down arrows to adjust the
minutes.
5. Click OK.
3.12. Finding and Replacing Formatting
Suddenly you realize all the bold text in your report would be easier to read in italics.
Do you spend time making these changes one by one? No. The Find and Replace
feature locates the formatting and instantly substitutes new formatting. If your search
for a formatting change is an easy one, click Less in the Find And Replace dialog box
to decrease the size of the dialog box. If your search is a more complex one, click
More to display additional options. With the Match Case option, you can specify
exact capitalization. The Go To tab quickly moves you to a place or item in your
document.
Find Text or Formatting
1. Click the Edit menu, and then click Find.
2. If you want to locate formated text, type the word or words.
3. Click More, click Format, and then click the formatting you want to find.
When you're done, click OK.
4. Click Find Next to select the next instance of the formatted text.
5. Click OK to confirm Word finished the search.
6. Click Cancel.
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Find an Item or Location
1. Click the Edit menu, and then click Go To.
2. Click an item in the Go To What box.
3. Enter the item number or name.
4. Click Next, Previous, or Go To to locate the item.
5. When you're done, click Close.
Replace Text or Formatting
1. Click the Edit menu, and then click Replace.
2. If you want to locate formatted text, type the word or words.
3. Click the More button, click Format, and then click the formatting you want
to find. When you're done, click OK.
4. Press Tab, and then type any text you want to substitute.
5. Click Format, and then click the formatting you want to substitute. When
you're done, click OK.
3.13. Adding a Watermark
You can use a washed out version of your company logo, or you can add text such as
SAMPLE, DRAFT, PROPOSAL, or CONFIDENTIAL. Watermarks are useful for
making your documents look more professional. If you decide to change your
watermark, it's as easy as typing in some new text.







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Create a Watermark from a Picture
1. Click the Format menu, point to Background, and then click Printed
Watermark.
2. Click the Picture Watermark option.
3. Click the Select Picture button.
4. Navigate to the picture you want to select and insert, and then click Insert.
5. Select any Scale or Washout options, and then click Apply.
6. Click Close.
Create a Watermark from Text
1. Click the Format menu, point to Background, and then click Printed
Watermark.
2. Click the Text Watermark option.
3. Select the Text options you wish to apply.
4. Click Apply and click close
3.14. Creating Footnotes or Endnotes
Footnotes are used to provide additional information that is inappropriate for the
body of the text, and to document your references for information or quotes
presented in the body of the document. Footnotes are appropriate for academic,
scientific, and, occasionally, business purposes. Footnotes appear at the bottom of
the page on which the information is cited, and Word automatically inserts a
reference mark at the insertion point to associate the information presented with the
note at the bottom of the page.

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Creating and manipulating endnotes is identical to performing the same functions for
footnotes. Endnotes differ from footnotes in that they appear at the end of the
document or section (in the case of longer documents), not the bottom of the page
on which the reference mark appears.
Create a Footnote or Endnote
1. Position the insertion point where you want to insert a footnote.
2. Click the Insert menu
'
point to Reference
'
and then click Footnote.
3. Click the Footnotes option or the Endnotes option.
4. Click the list arrow next to the Footnotes or Endnotes option, and then select
the location where you want to place the footnote or endnote.
5. Verify that the Number Format option of 1,2,3… is selected.
6. Click Insert to insert a reference mark in the text. Word moves the insertion
point to the bottom of the page corresponding to the number of the reference
mark.
7. Type the text of your footnote or endnote.
n

8. Click inside the body of the document to reposition the insertion point at the
desired location to continue with your work.
9. Click Close.
3.15. Creating a Bookmark
Instead of scrolling through a long document to find a specific word, phrase or
section you can use bookmarks. Bookmarks are used to mark text so that you, or
your reader, can return to it quickly. Using bookmarks as a destination lets you
navigate through a long document quickly. You can also navigate documents with
bookmarks by selecting a bookmark as a destination in the Go To dialog box.
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Create a Bookmark
1. Click in your document where you want to insert a Bookmark.
2. Click the Insert menu, and then click Bookmark.
3. Type a one word descriptive name for your Bookmark.
4. Click Add.
Go to a Bookmark Location
1. Click the Edit menu, and then click Go To.
2. On the Go To tab, click Bookmark.
3. Click the Enter Bookmark Name list arrow, and then select the bookmark you
want to move to.
4. Click Go To.
5. If you want, choose another bookmark.
6. Click Close.
3.16. Creating a Table of Figures
If you are creating a document in which there are many illustrations (art,
photographs, charts, diagrams etc.), it is often helpful to the reader of your
document to provide a Table of Figures. A Table of Figures is like a Table of
Contents except that it deals only with the graphic content of a document, not the
written content. To create the Table of Figures, Word looks for text with the Style
code that you specify (Figure, Table, etc.). You can also add a tab leader to make the
table easier to read.


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Create a Table of Figures
1. Put your cursor where you want the Table of Figures to appear.
2. Click the Insert menu
'
point to Reference
'
and then click Index And
Tables.
3. Click the Table Of Figures tab.
4. Click the Tab Leader list arrow, and then select the tab leader you
want to use.
5. Click the Formats list arrow, and then select the format you want to
use for the Table of Figures.
6. If you want to create a Table of Figures from something other
than the default Figure style, or the Table style, click Options.
7. Click the Style list arrow, select the text formatting that you
want Word to search for when building the Table of Figures,
and then click Close. All figure callouts of the selected style are
tagged for inclusion in the Table of Figures.
8. Click OK.
3.17. Numbering Heading Styles
If you use the pre-defined heading styles provided by Word, such as those that appear
in the Normal .dot template (Heading 1, Heading 2, Heading 3), you can also
optionally number headings with a format of your choosing. Some examples of the
proper times to use numbered headings include legal documents, scientific or other
academic papers, and so forth. Consult the Formatting and Styles guide of the
institution you are preparing the document for to determine whether this formatting
is preferred.
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Create a Numbered Heading Using Styles
1. In your document, position the cursor where you want to place the numbered
heading.
2. Click the Format menu
'
and then click Bullets And Numbering.
3. Click the Outline Numbered tab.
4. Click a numbering format that contains the text "Heading 1", "Heading 2",
and so on, and then click OK.
5. Click the Styles and Formatting button on the Formatting toolbar, and then
select the heading style that you want.
6. Type the text of the heading, and then press Enter.
3.18. Apply Numbering to Custom Heading Styles
4. Select the text in which you want to apply a style.
5. Click the Format menu
'
and then click Bullets And Numbering.
6. Click the Outline Numbered tab.
7. Click a numbering format that contains the text "Heading 1", "Heading 2", and
so on, and then click Customize.
8. Click More to expand the Customize Outline Numbered List dialog box.
9. Click the heading level you want to number.
10. Click the Font button, format the selected heading level number, and then click
OK.
11. Click the Link Level To Style list arrow, and then select the name of the custom
style of text that you want to use for the level of numbering that you selected in
Step 6.
12. Repeat Steps 6-8 for each custom heading style that you want to number, and
then click OK.
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12.1. Numbering Lines
Many legal documents use the formatting convention of numbering every line of text
to make it easier for multiple parties to refer to very specific text in a longer
document in the context of their discussions. Other types of documents that
sometimes use this convention are movie and television scripts. You can have Word
automatically number each line of text within a document.
Number Each Line in a Document
1. Click the View menu
'
and then click Print Layout.
2. Click the Edit menu
'
and then click Select All.
3. Click the File menu
'
and then click Page Setup.
4. If you're adding line numbers to part of a document, click the Apply To list
arrow, and then click Selections.
5. Click Line Numbers.
6. Click the Add Line Numbering check box to select it, and then select the
options you want.
7. Click OK.
8. Click OK.
12.2. Creating an Equation
If you are creating a scientific or academic paper that involves complex equations,
you may need to display them in the text without actually using them in conjunction
with a table. The standard keyboard does not have all of the mathematical symbols
you might need to create the equation, so you must use the Equation Editor.

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Create an Equation
1. Click the Insert menu
'
and then click Object.
2. In the Object type box, click Microsoft Equation 3.0, and then click OK.
3. Build the equation by selecting symbols from the Equation toolbar, and then
by typing variables and numbers.
4. Press Enter to show the equation and return to your document.
12.3. Creating Mail Merge Documents
Mail merge is used to send the same letter to several people and spend a lot of time
changing personal information, such as names and addresses?
Start the Mail Merge Wizard
1. Click the Tools menu
'
point to Letters And Mailings
'
and then click
Mail Merge.
2. The Mail Merge task pane opens, displaying Step 1 of 6 in the Mail
Merge Wizard.
3. Select the type of document you are working on (in this case the
Letters option).
4. Click Next: Starting Document on the task pane to display Step 2 of 6.
5. Click a starting document option (such as Use The Current
Document).
6. Click Next: Select Recipients on the task pane to display Step 3 of 6.
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12.4. Creating Documents Using Automatic
Formatting
Word can automatically perform some formatting functions for you as you type a
document.
Set Up Automatic Formatting
1. Click the Tools menu
'
and then click AutoCorrect Options
2. Click the AutoFormat As You Type tab.
3. Click the AutoFormat As You Type tab
4. Select or clear the AutoFormat check boxes you want to use
5. Click OK.
12.5. Inserting Comments
Comments are useful when someone who is editing the document has queries
pertaining to the document.
1. Position the insertion pointer where you want to insert a comment.
2. Click the View menu
'
point to Toolbars
'
and then click Reviewing.
3. Click the Insert menu
'
and then click Comment or click the Insert Comment
button on the Reviewing toolbar.
4. Type your comment in the balloon, and then click outside the balloon to save
it

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12.6. Creating a Form
Forms are an easy way for you to interact with users of your documents, either
online or in print, and gain information and feedback from them in the process.
1. Click the View menu
'
point to Toolbars
'
and then click Forms.
2. Position the insertion point where you want to insert a form field.
3. Use the Forms toolbar to insert form fields.
12.7. Printing
Before printing a document, it is good to make sure that it will be printed the way
you want it. Use Print Preview to display a document, as it will look when printed.
To preview a document before printing:
On the standard toolbar, click the Print Preview button. Or from the file menu,
choose the Print Preview command.
Word changes from current view to print preview, and then displays one or more
pages, including the page that contains the insertion point.
· Click the One Page button on the print preview toolbar to display one page at
a time.
· Click the Multiple Page button, and then drag, over the grid to select the
number and configuration of pages to display two or more pages at a time.
Move the mouse pointer to the location you want to view, and click the mouse
button to view a magnified area of the document.
Click the Down Arrow next to the Zoom Control box, and select a magnification
type or percentage to enlarge or reduce the page(s) displayed.
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Click the Full Screen button to hide all screen elements except the displayed page.
To return the hidden elements to the screen, click the Full Screen button again or
press Esc.

12.7.1. Editing Text in Print Preview
1. In print preview display the page you want to edit
2. Move the mouse pointer to the location you want to edit and then click the left
mouse button
3. Click the magnifier button to restore the insertion point and then edit the
document.
Do one of the following:
· To return to the original magnification, click the magnifier button, and
then click the document
· To exit print preview, and return to the previous view of the document,
click the Close button
12.7.2. To Print a Document:
Click the print button in any view, then word prints one copy of the document
Setting Printing Options
1. You can specify printing options such as number of pages or number of copies
you want to print in the print dialog box. To set printing options:
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2. From the file menu, choose the print command to display the print dialog box as
shown bellow.
3. If the name in the Name box is the printer you actually have and want to print to,
you can move right ahead to printing. If there is no printer listed or you want to
choose a different printer, you have to make a selection. Click on the drop-down
list button next to the name field and select the desired printer.
4. To choose page range:
· Check All option to print the entire document
· Check Current Page option to print the current page (the page the
insertion point is found)
· Check Selection option to print only selected part of the document.
· Check Pages option to print any range of pages. For example, 5,9 means
print pages 5 and 9
5. To print a number of copies:
· Type or adjust the number of copies you want to print, in the Number of
Copies box










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Chapter 4: Introduction to Microsoft Excel
Excel is spreadsheet, charting and database application. However, Excel’s prime
function is as a spreadsheet, a powerful application for handling data, mostly
numerical data. A spreadsheet is rather like an electronic ledger, which provides a
method by which data can be analyzed and used in complex calculations.
4.1. Getting Start Excel
To start MS-Excel
Click on the start button then click on Microsoft Excel from the program submenu.
A workbook named book1 is displayed and is ready for input
4.2. Components of the workspace
Workbook
A workbook is the file Excel uses to store your data. The workbook consists of
worksheets- for calculating, and charting sheets- for creating charts.
Worksheets
A workbook may contain a single sheet or as many sheets as necessary. By default
Excel opens with a workbook of three sheers. The sheet currently in use is known as
the Active Sheer, is indicated by the tab in bold at the bottom of the worksheet.
Switching between sheets
If you wish to make a different sheet active simply click on its tab.
4.2.1. Data Entry

The worksheet is divided horizontally into rows and vertically into columns, as in the
figure opposite. The intersection of each row and column makes a box called Cell
and it is into the cells that you type your data. Each cell is referenced individually by
a column letter and row number, which together create a cell address or references.
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To enter data in a cell move the pointer to the preferred cell and then click on the
mouse button. You can type any kind of data in a cell e.g. , text, numbers. When
you begin to type the data you are entering will appear in two places:
+ In the cell it self, called the Active Cell
+ On top of the window in an area called the Formula Bar

Editing Data
Once data has been entered into a cell, you can make changes by clicking on the cell
and editing in the Formula Bar. You will find it easier to edit using the formula bar
tether than editing in the cell it self.
Using the Backspace or Delete (÷) key will remove the entire contents of a
selected cell, or, if the pointer is in the formula bar, the Backspace or Delete enables
you to make changes in the content of the cell. When you have finished typing either
click on (-). Clicking on (X) in the formula bar makes the active cell blank. Data can
be entered into a cell on the worksheet. It is also necessary to start with the first cell.
You can also make cells blank if you wish.
Moving the Cell pointer

To move the pointer one cell to the left, right, up, or down, use the keyboard arrow
days. The table below shows other frequently used keyboard commands.
Keystrokes to move the cell pointer

Keys To Move

PgDn Down one Screen
PgUP Up one screen
Home To column A in the current row
Ctr1+ Home To cell A1
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To activate a cell with a mouse, simply click the cell. If you want to see other areas of
the worksheet, use the scroll bars. To scroll up or down on row, click the up or
down arrow at the ends of the vertical scroll bar. Use the arrows at the either end of
horizontal scroll bar to scroll one column to the left or right.
Selecting Data
You can select data in excel cells in various ways:
+ To select an entire column or Row:
Click on the column or row letter
+ To copy adjacent columns or rows:
• Hold down the mouse button and drag the pointer across the column
the columns and rows
+ To select Non contiguous rows or Columns:
• Hold down the ctrl key and click on each column or row or cells in the
columns and rows
Block of cells can be selected by clicking on the top left cell and dragging diagonally
to the bottom right hand cell. To select all in the worksheet click on the select All
box. To de-select just click anywhere in the window.
4.2.2. Working with a Worksheet

To rename a worksheet:
1. Select the worksheet
2. Choose the Rename command from the Formant menu the sheet command.
+ Type the new name then click anywhere on the worksheet. Or
+ Right –Click being on the worksheet name, then select the Rename
command from the shortcut menu displayed and type the new
mane
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You can also make the worksheet non-visible by using the Hide command
To hide the worksheet:
1. Select the worksheet
2. Choose the hide command from the format menu then sheet command.
After you apply this command the worksheet will not be visible.
To display the hidden worksheet (unhide the worksheet):
1. Choose the unhide command from the format menu then sheet command
2. Select the worksheet you want to unhide from the unhide dialog box
3. Click on OK button

To change the background of the worksheet:
Select the worksheet
1. Choose the background command from the format menu then sheet command
2. Select the background file by opening the appropriate folder or drive from the
sheet background dialog box
3. Click on OK

To delete a worksheet:
1. Activate the worksheet
2. From the edit menu select the delete sheet command
4.2.3. Exiting Excel
+ Choose exit from the file menu or
+ Click on windows close button


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4.3. Series
Microsoft Excel can create a variety of series such as sequential numbers, sates and
mixed text. For example, you can extend a series such as 1, 2,3, to include 4,5,6…
and so on.
The methods used to create a series are the FILL HANDLE on a cell or range
selection, and the fill series command on the edit menu.
4.3.1. Types of series
You can create several types of series in Microsoft excel.
• Time: A time series can include increments of days, weeks, or months.
Example: 9:00 ⇒, 11:00, 12:00…
Mon. ⇒ Tue, Wed, Th,
Jan ⇒ Feb, Mar, Apr…
• Linear: When you create a linear series, Microsoft excel increases or
decreases values by constant value.
Example: 1, 2, ⇒3, 4, 5….
1, 3, ⇒ 5, 7, 9…
100, 95, ⇒ 90, 85, 80
• Growth: when you create growth series, Microsoft Excel multiplies values
by a constant factor.
Example: 2 (step value2) 4,8,16
2 (step value 3) 6,18,54
• Auto File: This extends several types of data. The Auto Fill feature logically
repeats same series.
Example: product 1, product2, product3,
1st period, 2nd period, 3rd period,
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4.3.2. Creating a Series
The fill handle can create most types of series that the series command on the edit
menu can create. The primary difference between the two is that the Fill Handle is
more direct and more interactive that, while the series command is better suited for
creating very large series or for specifying a stop value.
To create a series by dragging:
• Select a range of two cells and enter the first tow values for the series. Leave
the range selected
• To extend the selection into the adjacent cells to the right, drag the Fill
Handle to the right
• To extend the selection into the adjacent cells below, drag the Fill handle
down.
• You can see the current value in the series in the reference area of the
formula bar. This changes as you drag the Fill Handle.
To create the series with the series command:
• In the first cell where your want to start the series, enter a starting value.
• Select the cells in the row or column in which you want to extend the series,
starting at the cell in which you entered the starting value of the series.
• From the edit menu, choose Fill Series, the Fill Series dialog box appears:
• If you want the series to be in a row, select the row option under Series In. If
you want the series to be in a column, select the column option under Series
In.
• Under Type, select a series type.

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• In the Step value box type the increment, decrement, or growth factor you
want to use.
• If you want Microsoft Excel to stop extending the series when it reaches a
certain value, type that value in the stop value box. Otherwise, Microsoft
Excel extends the series until it fills the entire selection
• Choose the OK button
4.3.3. Moving and Copying Data and Formats
With Microsoft excel, you can copy cells containing notes and formats. You can
move or copy cells to different part of the same worksheet, to another worksheet, or
to any other application that can read data from the clipboard. If you move cells,
Microsoft Excel automatically adjust relative cell references to the moved cells so
your formulas still work. If you copy cells, the original cells are not affected.
As in Microsoft word you have two methods to copy or move any screen element i.e.
Drag & Drop and Cut/Copy-paste method.
Moving Cells
Moving cells is like physically cutting out the cells and transferring them to a new
location either on the same worksheet or on different worksheet. When move cells,
Microsoft Excel moves the cells content the cell format and any notes attached to the
cell.
To move and replace cells by dragging:
• Select the cell or cells you want to move
• Position the mouse pointer over the border, the mouse pointer changes to an
arrow

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• Hold down Shift and drag the border to the row or column grid line where
you want to
Insert data.
• Release the mouse button.
The Selection moves to cells around by the border, deleting the cells in the paste are.
To move and insert cells between existing cells by dragging:
• Select the cell or cells you want to move
• Position the mouse pointer over the border, the mouse pointer
changes to an arrow
• Hold down shift and drag the border to the row or column grid line
where you want to insert data.
• Release the mouse button.
The selection is inserted between the cells bordering of the row or column grid line.
To move and replace cells with Cut and paste command:
• Select the cell or cells you want to move
• From the Edit menu Choose Cut.
• Select the upper left cell of the paste area you want to move the data to
or select the entire paste area.
• From the Edit menu or standard toolbar, choose paste.
Copying Cells
Copying cells duplicate the cells and paste them into another location. When you
copy cells, Microsoft Excel copies, the cells content, the cell formats and any notes
attached to the cell.



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To copy and replace cell by dragging:
• Select the cell or cells you want to copy.
• Position the mouse pointer over the border, the pointer changes to an arrow.
• Hold down Ctrl and drag the selection to where you want to copy the
selection.
• Position the border so that is surrounding the paste area you want t. Release
the mouse button
Note: To copy and inset cells between existing cells follow the above procedure but instead of
pressing only ctrl Key press Ctrl + Shift key.
To insert copied cells between existing cells with insert command:
Select the cell or cells you want to copy
• Click the copy tool, or choose copy from the Edit menu or the shortcut
menu.
• Select the upper left cell in the range where you want to insert the copied
cells.
• From the Insert menu or shortcut menu choose copied cells. Microsoft Excel
displays a dialog boxes so that you can chose which way you want to shift the
original cells.
• To shift the cells in the past area right, select the shift Right option button
• Choose OK button.








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4.4. Editing a Worksheet
4.4.1. Inserting Cells, Columns and Rows
You can insert blank cells, or blank rows and columns
To insert a row, column, or range by dragging:
1. Select the entire row or column by clicking the row or column heading
2. position the mouse pointer over the Fill Handle
3. press Shift and drag the Fill Handle and select the number of rows or columns
you want to insert
4. Release the mouse button.
To insert an entire row or column by using the insert command:
1. Select the same size of rows or columns equal to the number of rows or
columns you want to insert
2. From the insert menu or short cut menu choose row or column
To insert cells:
1. Select the same size of cells as the range of blank cells you want to insert
2. From the insert menu or from the shortcut menu choose Cells
3. Select the shift cells right or down option to shift the other cells in the
worksheet to accommodate the inserted cells
4. Choose the OK button
4.4.2. Clearing and Deleting
Clearing a cell clears the contents, comments, or formats from that cell but leaves
the cleared cell in the structure of the worksheet. But deleting a cell completely
removes the cell and its contents from the worksheet and moves adjacent cells to
close-up the space that was occupied by the deleted cells
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To clear cell contents, formats or comments:
1. Select the cell(s) you want to clear
2. From the Edit (or shortcut) menu choose clear
3. To clear formats, formats, contents, or comments, select the appropriate
options from the sub-menu or choose clear contents from the shortcut menu.
To erase a range of cells by dragging:
1. Drag across the range of cells you want to erase
2. Drag the Fill Handle across the rows or columns you want to erase
3. Release the mouse button
To delete a row, column or rang by dragging:
1. Select the cells you want to delete.
2. Position the mouse pointer over the Fill Handle
3. Press Shift and Drag the Fill Handle across the rows or columns you want to
delete
4. Release the mouse button
4.4.3. Find and Replace
To find cells containing specific data:
1. To search the entire worksheet, select a single cell. To limit the search, select
the cell range you want to search
2. From the Edit menu select Find command
3. Select the options you want
4. To search forward from the active cell choose the Find Next button. To
search backward hold down shift key and choose the Find Next command
5. Repeat step 5 until all occurrences of what you specified are found
6. End your work with the close button

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To Find and Replace data:
1. To search the entire worksheet, select a single cell. To limit the search, select
the cell range you want to search
2. From the Edit menu select Replace command
3. In the Find What box type the content you want to find and replace
4. In the Replace What box type the data that will replace what you specified
Find What box
5. Select the options you want
6. To replace data in the active cell and fond the next occurrence, choose the
replace button. To replace all occurrences of the data, Choose Replace all
7. Click Close button

4.5. Formatting a Worksheet
4.5.1. Formatting the Appearance of Data
To add emphasis to your data, or to make your worksheet easier to read, you can use
the formatting features of Excel. You can format worksheet cells before or after you
enter the data. You can format the appearance of data with tools on the format
toolbar, or with the Cells command on the Format menu or shortcut menu.
To change the appearance of data using Cells command:
1. Select the cells you want to format
2. From the Format menu or shortcut menu, choose Cells. The format cells
dialog box will appear.
3. Select the Font tab under Format Cells
4. Select the font styles, size and so on from the list
5. Click OK
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Formatting Data with Numbers
Microsoft Excel includes variety of number, dates, and time formats. You can use
one of the built-in formats, or you can use one of the built in formats, or you can
create your own.
To assign a number, date or time format:
1. Select the cell or range you want to format
2. From the format menu, choose Cells
3. From the format cells dialog box, select the Number tab
4. In the category box, select the type of entry you want to format
5. Select the desired number format
6. Click OK
4.5.2. Aligning Worksheet Data
You can format cell entries and text box so that the data is aligned or rotated the way
you want.
To align text and numbers with the alignment tools:
1. Select the cell(s) you want to format
2. Click the Alignment tab from cell Format dialog box
3. Select the desired option
4. Click OK
4.5.3. Formatting Borders and Shading
You can shade cells or put a border around them. You can draw any combination of
horizontal and vertical lines on the left, right, top, or bottom of a cell. You can also
create double underlines and column lines.
To add borders or shading:
1. Select the cell(s) you want to format
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2. Form the format (or shortcut) menu choose Cells
3. Form the cells dialog box select the Border tab
4. Choose options you want
5. Click OK
To shade cells with a pattern:
1. Select the cell(s) you want to format
2. Form the format (or shortcut) menu choose Cells and select the patterns tab
3. Choose options you want
4. Click OK
Changing Column Width and Row Heights
To quickly adjust the column width to accommodate the longest cell entry in the
column, double click the line to the right of the column heading. If more than one
column changes the column width of all selected columns
To select the standard column width:
1. Select the entire column, then from the format menu choose Column width
2. In the standard width box, type the column width you want
3. Click OK


To adjust row height to the best fit:
Double click the line below the row heading. If more than one row is selected
double clicking the row heading line for one row changes the tow height of all
selected columns
You can also use the row and column command under the Format menu to
customize the column width and row height as well as to fit them to the
longest or widest entry

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4.6. Using A List to Organize Data
One way to store data on a worksheet is in a list. A list is a labeled series of rows that
contain similar data. For example, a list can be a listing of items with their
corresponding price. A list can be used as a database: you can think of a list as a
simple database, where rows are records and columns are fields. When performing
most database tasks such as finding, sorting or subtotaling data, Microsoft Excel
automatically recognizes your list as a database.
Once you create a list you can you can add, find, edit or delete records by using a
data form. A Data form is a dialog box that displays one complete record at time. To
use a data form your list should have column labels. Using criteria in data form, you
can search for data. When you click the criteria button in the data form, Excel
changes the data form so that you can you can type in the fields is interpreted as
search conditions.
4.6.1. Entering Database Information
After you decide the on the design of the database, you can create the database by
first entering the records according to the following guideline:
Database Size: a database can be as large as an entire worksheet
Field Name Location: the first row of your database must contain the field names;
a mane that identifies the data stored in a field. Each column in a database is a field.
4.6.2. Sorting a Database
You can reorganize the data in the database alphabetically or numerically with the
sort command on the data menu. You can sort rows or columns in any selection and
you can choose whether to sort the rows (or columns) in ascending (or descending)
order. You can specify up to three keys to sort a database.

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To sort a list of data:
1. Select a single cell in the list
2. Select the Sort command from the Data menu. The sort dialog box appears.
3. In the sort by list box, select your first key column (if required, it is also
possible to select the second and the third key columns from the two then By
list boxes)
4. For each key column determine the order of sorting by selecting Ascending or
Descending.
5. Click options and select one of the Option buttons to sort Rows or Columns
and Click ok
6. Click OK or press Enter key
Note: - you can use the sort Ascending and sort Descending buttons on the standard toolbar to
Quickly sort the list by first selecting a cell from the list.
4.6.3. Filtering a List
Microsoft Excel allows you to view selected data from your lists. This can be done by
applying filters. In Excel there are two types of filters: Auto filter and Advanced
Filter
Auto Filter
To apply an auto filter:
1. Select a cell from the list
2. On the Data menu point to Filter. From filter sub menu select Auto Filter.
(Excel places drop down arrows directly on the field manes (column labels of
your list))
3. Click on one of these arrows to display a list of all unique items in the column
4. Select an item to display only those records, which conform to this criterion
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Using Custom Criteria with Auto Filter
Usually you need to filter more complex criteria than those which are listed directly
under the drop down arrows.
To enter Custom Criteria
1. Choose custom from the drop down list. The following dialog box will be
displayed.
2. Enter the required criteria by clicking the operator drop down arrow
3. Colic OK
Advanced Filter
Advanced filter criteria can include multiple conditions applied in a single column,
multiple criteria applied to multiple columns, and conditions created as the result of
a formula.
Three or more conditions in a single column
If you have three or more conditions for a single column, type the criteria directly
below each other in separate rows. For example, the following criteria range displays
the rows that contain either “Davolio,” “Buchanan,” or “Suyama” in the Salesperson
Column.

Sales person
Davolio
Buchanan
Suyama




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Criteria from two or mote columns
To find data that meets one condition in two or more columns, enter all the criteria
in the same row of the criteria range. For example, the following criteria range
displays all rows that contain “produce” in the Type column, “Davolio” in the
Salesperson column, and sales values greater than $1,000.
Type Salesperson Sales
produce Devolio >1000

Note: You can also specify multiple conditions for different columns and display
only the rows that meet all the conditions by using the Auto Filter command on the
Data menu.
To find data that meets either a condition in one column or a condition in another
column, enter the criteria in different rows of the criteria range. For example, the
following criteria range displays all rows that contain either “produce “ in the Type
column, “Davolio” in the Salesperson column, or sales values greater than $1,000.

Type Sales person Sales
Produce
Devolio
>1000

To find rows that meet one of two conditions in one column and one of two
conditions in another column, type the criteria in separate rows. For example, the
following criteria range displays the rows that contain Davolio in the Salesperson
column and sales values greater than $3,000, or the rows for salesperson Buchanan
with sales values greater than $1, 5000.
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Sales person Sales
Devolio >3000
Buchanan >1500

To practice Advanced Filter method:
1. Define the criteria in a blank cell of the worksheet, either by typing the fields
or by coping from the list and setting arguments accordingly
2. Choose Advanced Filter from the Filter submenu under the Data menu.
The advanced filter dialog box will be displayed
3. In the List Range box specify the range of cells from the list for which the
criteria will be applied
4. In the Criteria Range box, click the Collapse Dialog button and select the
criteria range
5. Click the Copy to Another Location button if you want the filtered list to
be displayed in a different cell address. To do so click the Collapse Dialog
button in the Copy to box and select blank cells.
4.6.4. Data Forms
A data form is a dialog box that provides a simple way to view, change, add, and
delete records in your database, or to find specific records based on a given criterion.
Add a record to a list by using a data form:
1. Click a cell in the list you want to add the record to.
2. On the Data menu click Form, Excel displays the Data form. The data
form displays all fields of a record
3. Click New (to add a new record)


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4. Type the information for the new record. To move to the next field, press
TAB. To move to the previous field, press SHIFT+TAB.
5. When you finish typing data, press ENTER or add the record.
6. When you finish adding records, click Close to add the new record and
close the data form.
Notes
• Fields that contain formulas display the results of the formula as a label. The label cannot
be changed in the data form.
• If you add a record that contains a formula, the formula is not calculated until you press
ENTER or click Close to add the record.
• While you are adding a record, you can undo changes if you click Restore before you press
ENTER or click Close to add the record.
• Microsoft Excel adds the record when you move to another record or close the data form.
Note: to find a record having a given data, click the Criteria button. Type the data you want to
Look for in the corresponding field; and click Find Next to search forward or click
Find prev to search backward.


4.7. Formulas
Entering formula is the basic technique you use to analyze data on a worksheet. With
a formula you can perform operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication,
division, and comparison on worksheet values.
A formula can include any of the following elements: operators, Cell references,
values, or functions. A formula always begins with an equal sign (=)


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Using Operators
Microsoft Excel uses three types of operators.
1. Arithmetic Operators: performs basic mathematical operations to produce
numeric results
Example: + (addition),-(Subtraction or Unary Minus),* (Multiplication),/
(division), % (percentage), and ∧ (exponentiation)
2. Test Operators: To combine two or more text values into a single text
value.
Example:& - connects or concatenates two or more text values together
3. Comparison Operators: compares two values and produces the logical
value True or False
Examples: =,>,<,>=(greater than or equal to ), <=(less than or equal to
),<>(not equal to )
Normally when you enter a formula in a cell, the result will be displayed in the cell and the
formula will be displayed in the formula bar.
4.7.1. Cell References
There are four types of cell references – A1, $A$1, $A1, A$1
A1 – this type of cell reference is called Relative Reference because it changes
relative to the position pointer.
$A$1 – this type of cell reference is called Absolute Reference. This reference does
not change with the position of the cell pointer. The “$” sign indicates tat both
the row number and the column letter are fixed.
$A1/A$1 – in $A1 the column letter is fixed and in A$1 the row number is fixed



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To change a cell reference type:
1. Select the cell that contains a reference type you want to change
2. Select the cell reference by clicking it on the formula bar
3. Press F4 to toggle between the four reference types
4. When you are finished press Enter

Cell Reference Operators
There are three types of cell reference operators:
Range (colon) – produces a reference to all cells between the two references
inclusive.
E.g., A1:D5 means cells from A1 up to D5 including A1 and D5.
Union (Comma) – produces one reference, which includes the two separate
references
E.g., A1,D5 means the two separate cells: A1 and D5.
Intersection (Space) – produces one reference, which is common to the two separate
references. E.g., B7: D7 C6:C8 means only C7
Note: when using reference there is another way available: naming cells and range.
To mane cells or range of cells, select the cell (s); select Define from the Name
submenu on Insert menu and then type its name. You can also type the name
directly in the formula bar.
To enter a formula:-
1. Select the cell into which you want to enter the Formula
2. Type equal sign to activate the formula bar
3. type the formula. The formula appears both in the formula bar and in
the cell
4. Click the enter box (-). The formula bar displays the formula and the
cell displays the result.
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4.7.2. Worksheet Functions
A function is a special prewritten formula that takes a value or values ( which are
called Arguments), performs an operation and returns a value or values. The
arguments must be enclosed in parenthesis. For example instead of typing
=A1+A2+A3+A4, you can use the Sum function. To build the formula = Sum
(A1:A4)
To use functions:
1. Select the cell into which you want to `paste the function
2. Select Functions from Insert menu (or click the paste function button on
the Standard tool bar.) The function dialog box will be displayed
3. Select a function from the list to display the function dialog box
4. Type the arguments or type the collapse Dialog button to select the the
argument in the appropriate argument boxes
5. When you finish editing the formula click OK or press Enter
Note: you can also type the complete formula in the formula bar
Mathematical Functions
Microsoft Excel provides several mathematical functions for carrying out specialized
calculations quickly and easily
The sum Function
The sum function adds a series of numbers. It tales the form:
= Sum (Number1, Number2…..)
The argument is a series of numbers, formulas, ranges or cell references
that result in numbers. Sum ignores references to text values, logical
values or blank cells


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The Auto sum button
If you select a cell and click the Auto sum button Excel creates the =Sum (
) formula and guesses which numbers you want to add. If the proposed
argument is correct you can click the Auto sum button for the second time to
enter the formula or else you can select the correct set of values to be added.
The SQRT Function
The SQRT function returns the positive square root of a number. It takes
the form:
= SQRT (Number)
If the number is negative, the SQRT function returns the #Num! Error
value
The product Function
Multiplies all the numbers referenced by its arguments. It takes the form:
= PRODUCT (Number1, Number2….)
Statistical Functions
The Average Functions
The Average Function computes the Average of the numbers in a range by
summing a series of values and then dividing by the number of values. It
takes the form:
=Average (number1, Number2…..)
It ignores blank, logical and text cells.

The Max Function
The Min function returns the smallest value in a range. It takes the form:
=Max (Number1, Number2…..)

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The Min Function
The Min function returns the smallest value in a range. It takes the form:
=Min (Number1, Number2…..)
Logical Functions
Most logical functions use conditional test to determine whether a specified
condition is true or false. A conditional test is an equation that compares the
numbers, functions, formulas, labels or logical values. Every conditional test
must include at least one logical operator. Logical operators define the test
relationship between elements of the conditional test. For example, in the
conditional test A1>A2, the greater than(>) logical operator compares the values
in cells A1 and A2.
The If Function
= if (Conditional test, value if condition is true, value if condition is false)
You can use text arguments in If functions to return text strings instead of numeric
values
Example: = If (B2>=50, “Pass”, “Fail” )
If the value in cell B2 is greater than 50, the function returns “pass”, otherwise it
returns “Fail”, Note that the text arguments are enclosed in double quotes You can
use formulas as arguments in If functions.
E.g. = If (B2>500, B2 * 0.2, B2 * 0.1)
In the above example, the commission is calculated as 20% of the amount if the value
in cell B2 is greater than 500; otherwise it will be 10%of the amount.
The Nested If Function
At times you can not resolve a logical problem using only logical
operators. In these cases, You can use if function inside another if function
to create a hierarchy of tests.
E.g. = If (B2<50, “Failure”, if (b2<70, “Fair”, Good”)
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If the value of in cell B2 is less than 50, the function returns,” Failure”. If it
is not less than 50 it compares it with 70 and if it is true (i.e., if B2 is
greater than 50 and less than 70) “Fair” will be returned; otherwise “Good”
will be returned.
The And, Or, and Not functions
These three additional functions help us develop compound conditional tests. The
functions work in conjunction with the simplest operators: =, <, >, >=, and <=
The AND and OR functions can have as many as 30 logical arguments. They have the
form:
=AND (logical Value1, logical value2…)
=OR (logical value1, logical value2….)
The not function has only one argument and it takes the form:
=NOT (Logical Value)
These functions are usually used with If function.
E.g.1, = IF (And (B2>50,C2>50), “pass”, “Failure”)
If the value in both B2 and C2 is greater than 50, “Pass” will be displayed;
Otherwise “Failure” will be displayed.
E.g.2, = IF (OR (B2>50, C2>50), “Pass”, “Failure”)
If the value in either B2 or C2 is greater than 50, “Pass” will be displayed;
otherwise “Failure” will be displayed.







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4.8. Charts
A chart is a graphic representation of worksheet data. Values from worksheet cells,
or data points displayed as bars lines, columns, pie slices or other shapes in the chart.
Data points are grouped into data series which are distinguished by different colors or
patterns.
4.8.1. Creating a Chart

After selecting worksheet data that you want to plot, you can create a chart directly
on a worksheet or as a separate document on its own window. A chart created on a
worksheet is a graphic object called embedded chart and is saved as part of the
worksheet on which it was created.
To create an embedded chart on a worksheet with the chart wizard:
1. Select the range of worksheet cells that contain the data you want to plot
including any worksheet column or row labels that you want to use in the
chart. Do not select empty cells.
2. Click the chart wizard tool from the standard tool bar or select chart
command from insert menu. The char dialog box appears.
3. Select the type of chart you want and click next button to move to the next
step.
4. Enter the data range and click next
5. Select any appropriate tab and set the options in the third step of the wizard.
6. In the final step (Step4 of 4) of the chart wizard specify the chart location
i.e., select As Object In Option
7. Click finish, Microsoft Excel inserts the chart according to your choices
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4.8.2. Parts of a Chart
Chart: The entire area in the chart window, including all elements of the chart
such as labels,
Axes, data markers.
Chart Menu Bar: The menu bar that displays the name of the chart menus when
a chart document is active.
Chart Toolbar: The tool bar that displays charting tools, chart formatting tools
and the chart wizard tool.
Plot Area: The area in which Excel plots data
Data Marker: A bar, area, Dot, picture or other symbol that marks a single data
point or value
Data labels: Are values of the worksheet displayed on top of the chart type
which it represents
Chart Data Series: A group of related values such as all the data values In a
single row or column of the worksheet selection. A chart can have one or more
data series.
Series Formula: A formula describing a chart data series.
Axis: A line that serves as a major reference for plotting data in a chart
Category Name: Category name corresponds to the labels for the worksheet
data that are usually plotted along the X-axis. The chart data series manes are
used in legend
Tick Mark: A small line that intersects an Axis and marks off a category, Scale
or Chart data series.
Grid Lines: Optical lines that extend from the tick marks on an Axis across the
plot area to make it easier for you to view data values
Chart text: Text that describes data or object in a chart
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Legend: A key that identifies the patterns, colors, or symbols associated with
number of a chart data series and shows the chart data series name that
corresponds to each data marker
4.8.3. Working with Chart and Chart Items
To select a chart or a chart item:
• Just click on the chart or chart item you want to select.
To move the chart on the worksheet:
• Select the chart or any chart item you want to select.
To change the size of the chart:
• Select it and point to one of its corners when the pointer changes to a
double headed arrow, drag the chart to resize it
To delete an embedded chart:
1. Select it
2. Choose the chart type command from the chart menu
3. Select the chart type you want. Or click the arrow next to the chart type
button on the chart toolbar and select the chart type you want from the list
To delete an embedded chart:
1. Open the worksheet containing the embedded chart
2. Select the embedded char
3. From the edit or shortcut menu choose clear. Microsoft Excel removes the
chart from the worksheet
To delete a non embedded chart use the delete sheet command from the edit
menu
Formatting a Chart
Adding and Deleting Chart Text and Axis Titles
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You can enhance the appearance of your chart by adding the required information.
For example,
To add a chart title or axis title:
1. Click the chart to which you want to add a title
2. On the chart menu, click in the chart options, and then type the text you want.
3. To add a charter title, click the Chart Title box, and then type the text you
want.
4. To add one or more axis titles, click in appropriate box for each title and then
type the text you want
Note: to insert a line break in a chart title or axis title, click the text on the chart
menu and click where you want to insert the line break, and then press ENTER.
To add unattached text:
1. Click the Textbox tool on the drawing bar and type the text you want while no
other text is selected
2. Click the Enter box or press Enter
To delete chart text:
1. Click the text to select
2. From the Edit menu or Shortcut menu, choose clear
To edit chart text:
1. Click the text on the chart to select it
2. Click inside the text
3. Make your editing
4. Click somewhere else but don’t press Enter.
Adding, Deleting, And Formatting A Chart Legend
A chart legend provides a guide to the data marker in much same way that a toad map
legend provides a guide to the colors and symbols used in a map.

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To add a legend:
1. Click the chart to which you want to add a legend
2. On the Chart menu, click Chart Option, and then click the Legend tab
3. Select the show legend check box
4. Under placement, click the option you want
To delete legend:
Select the legend and choose the Clear command from the Edit menu formatting the
Chart Legend
You can control the style, color and weight of the borderline around the legend, and
the pattern, foreground color and background color used within the area of legend
box. To format the border and area or the legend box:
1. Double click the legend to display the Format legend dialog box. You can also
click the legend to select it and choose selected legend from the Format menu
or the shortcut
2. Select the Font tab and the patterns tab independently
3. To format the font of the legend text, choose the Font tab, and then select the
options You want
4. To apply all your changes and close the dialog box, choose the OK button









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Chapter 5: Microsoft Access
5.1. What is a Database?
Definition: - Database is an organized collection of related information, i.e.
description of set of objects, people, events, transactions, locations, etc.

The origin of DATABASE is some (Business, Home, personal etc.) problem. The
problem itself may be simple or complicated which occurs regularly or happens only
once. The role of the database is then to provide a way to organize facts pertaining to
the raised problem in such a way that the organized facts suggest the solution itself.

People run their personal business with DATABASE such as checkbook, address
book, phone book, Mail list etc. Your bank for instance keeps track of your money
and the Accounting department monitors your payable and receivable accounts. Each
of the above examples organizes information (DATABASE) in such a way that it be
easily STORED, RETRIEVED and ACCESSED.
5.1.1. Starting Microsoft Access 2003
To Start Microsoft accesses do one of the followings:
• Click on the Start button, highlight programs, and then click on Microsoft
Access, or
• Double click on the shortcut icon from your desktop.
• Select Blank Database to create a new database.
• Select Database Wizard to create a new database with the help of Wizard
(a feature that guides you throughout the operation)

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Note: - When you select one of the above options you will be prompted to
name the file, give it a name and click on Create button.
• Select Open an Existing Database, then the file you want from the list to
open an existing database.

5.1.2. The Microsoft Access 2003 Screen
After opening a new or an existing database, you will be launched to the Microsoft
Access Screen
(See fig.3 below)
MS – Access application Window

Fig .3 The Microsoft Access application windows

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Application Window: -is a window that contains a running application. The
name of the application and any associated document, and the
application’s menu bar, appear at the top of the application window.
Database Window: -is a Window that display all database objects in the
current database.
Database Objects: -are list of database tables, queries, forms or other
database parts. For example, Membership List and Membership Code
tables in fig. 3 above are database objects.

Tabs: - are tags within the same window that show different
classification of the same topic. Clicking these tabs lets you switch to a
specific part of the topic. For example, clicking the table’s tab displays list
of all objects of that type. (See fig.3 above).
Toolbar: - contains buttons that give you quick access to many commands
and features.
The MS- Access has different Toolbars that are used to perform different
tasks
To display or hide any toolbar you want
• From view menu choose toolbars.
• Click on the toolbar you want to display or hide.




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5.1.3. Using Help
On – screen help is an important feature of MS-Access. You can get help on
important commands, topics, and features of MS – Access. This can be obtained
by using the MS- Access Help menu or pressing F1 key.
If you have a dialog box open, or if you have a question about a screen icon or
any tool on the toolbar, you can get context- sensitive help using the Help tool
(?), by clicking the question mark in the dialog box or pressing SHIFT+F1.
And clicking on the button you need help (you can also use the Help tool on the
toolbar.)
Getting help using help menu
To get help using the Help Menu:
• From the Help menu, choose Contents and Index. The Microsoft Access Help
application window appears. (see fig.4)
• Type the feature you want to get information about.
• Click on the topic you want to know about and click on Display button or
double-click the topic.






Fig .4 help window



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5.2. Designing and Creating Databases
5.2.1. Designing a Database

In a relational database, such as those created using Microsoft Access, you
store information about different subjects in separate tables.
To design a database:
• Determine the purpose of the database.
• Determine the tables.
• Determine the fields.
• Determine the relationships between information.
5.2.2. Creating a Database
When you create a Microsoft Access database, you create one file that contains
the data and table structures as well as the queries, forms, reports, and other
objects that make up the database.
To create a database:
• Click the New Database button on the toolbar, or
• From the File menu, choose New database.
Microsoft Access displays the New Database dialog box where you specify a
name and location for the database.
Note: - You can create a database on the way when you start Microsoft Access,
by selecting Blank Database or Database Wizard from the Microsoft Access dialog
box. (See fig.21).
Table: - is a collection of data about a specific topic. Table organizes data into
columns (called fields) and rows (called records).
Design View: - is a window where you design and modify table’s structure.
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Datasheet View:- is a window that displays data in column and row formats. In
the Datasheet View you can add, delete, append or modify your data.

5.2.3. Creating Tables
To create a table with a Wizard:
Form the Database window, click the Tables tab, and then choose the New
button. In the New Table dialog box (see fig.5 below), choose the Table Wizard
option and click on OK.








Fig. 5 New Table Dialog Box
To create a custom designed table:
• From the Database window, click the Tables tab, and then choose the New
button.
• From the New Table dialog box, select Design View and click on OK.
The Table Design View screen appears (see fig. 6 below).




Fig. 6 Table Design view
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In the Field Name column, type the name of the first field
In the Data Type column, select the data type you want by opening the list box
clicking the listing button . (About the available data types and their
selection refer the section.

Choosing Field Data Types
• In the Description column, type a description of the information this
field will contain.
Note that, the description is optional.
• Set the Filed properties for the field in the bottom part of the window,
depending on your choice.
• Repeat the above steps for each field in the table.
To save the table:
• Click the Save button on the toolbar or chose Save from the File
• menu to save the table design.
• Type a name for the table.
• Click on OK.









6
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The following table shows the Field Data Types available in Access:
Data type Use for
Text. Text and numbers, such as names and addresses, phone numbers
and postal codes. A Text field can contain as many as 255
characters. Access assigns a default length of 50 characters.
Memo
Lengthy text and numbers, such as descriptive comments or
explanations. A Memo field can contain up to 64,000 characters.
Number
Numerical data on which you intend to perform mathematical
calculations, except calculations involving money. Set the Field
Size property to define the specific Number type.
AutoNumber

Sequential numbers automatically inserted by Microsoft Access.
Numbering begins with 1.
Date/Time

Dates and times. A variety of display formats is available, or you
can create your own.
Currency
Currency values. Don’t use the Number data type for currency
values because numbers to the right of the decimal may be rounded
off during calculations. The Currency data type maintains a fixed
number of digits to the right of the decimal.
Yes/No

Yes/No, True/False, On/ Off, or fields that will contain only one
of two values.
OLE Object Objects created in other programs using the OLE protocol that can
be linked to or embedded in a Microsoft Access database through a
control in a form or report.
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Adding a Field to a Table

To add a field to a table:
• In table Design view, click on the row above which you want to add the new
field, then from the Insert menu choose Rows, or
• Click on the row above which you want to add the new field, then from the
Insert menu choose Lookup Field and follow the dialog box instruction to add
the new field.

Moving Fields in a Table
You can recorder the fields in a table. Changing field order in a table changes column
order in the table’s datasheet.
To move fields in a table:
• In the table’s Design view, select the fields you want to move by clicking each
field’s row selector.
• Click and hold down the mouse button in the row selector again.
• Microsoft Access displays a thin horizontal bar just above the last selected
row.
• Drag and drop the horizontal bar to the row just below where you want to
move the fields.
Deleting a Field from a Table
You can delete a field from a table at any time.
To delete a field from a table:
• In the table’s Design view, select the row containing the field you want to
delete.
• Press the Del key, or choose Delete Row from the Edit menu.
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Primary key
Primary Key: - is one or more fields that uniquely identify each record in a table. In
the same way that a license plate number identifies a car, the primary key uniquely
identifies a record. (See fig.7
1. Types of Primary Key
There are three types of primary Keys; single- field, auto-number and multiple-field.
Single-field primary key:- Most table have a single- field primary key. Microsoft
Access won’t allow duplicate values in this field. For example, in the Customers
table (see fig.7), no two customers can have the same customer ID.
Auto number primary key: - you can automatically assign sequential numbers to
the records in your table by using an auto numbered field as the table’s primary key.
In the Employees table (see fig.7), the first employee is automatically assigned the
number “1”, the second employee “2” and so on.
Multiple- field primary key:- If a table has more than one primary key field,
Microsoft Access can not accept duplicate combinations of values. In the Order
Details table (see fig 7.) an order can list many products, but each product can be
listed only once per order. The primary key of this table consists of two fields, Order
ID and product ID.
2. Defining primary key
To define primary key
• In the table deign view, select the field (s) you want to assign as
primary key
• From the toolbar click on the Primary Key button or from Edit menu
choose Primary Key.

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Adding and Editing Data
To add a record using a Datasheet:
• If you are in Table Design View, switch to the Datasheet View
(see fig.8) by clicking on the Datasheet View button from the toolbar
(Make sure to select Yes to save the design before you switch to the
Datasheet), or
• From Database Window highlight the table into which you want to
enter the record and click on Open button.
Type each field entry in the corresponding column
To delete a record:
• In the datasheet view, select the record you want to delete.
• Press the Del key or choose Delete from the Edit menu.
Microsoft Access prompts you to confirm the deletion.
• Choose Yes to delete the record permanently.
Editing a Files Data Type and properties
You can edit a field Data Type and properties any time you want. To do so,
• If you are in Datasheet view, click on the Design View button from the
toolbar
• From Database Window highlight the table you want to edit and click on
Design button
• Perform the edition you want, and then save the changes.





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Selecting Fields and Records
To Select Do this
A single record Click the recorded selector.
Several records Drag down the record selectors.
All records Click the top record selector or choose Select All Records from
the Edit menu.
A single column Click the field selector.
Multiple columns Drag across the field selectors.
Single cell Click inside the left edge of the cell.
Multiple cells Drag the pointer across the cells, starting inside the left edge of a
cell.

Undoing last action
MS – Access lets you undo most of last actions performed accidentally, such as,
deleting field, moving field and son on.
To undo the last action:
• From the Edit menu, choose Undo< Action>. Note that Action is a
variable that represents the action you performed, for example, delete, or
• If you are prompted for confirmation, select NO or Cancel to revert the
action.
Freezing and Unfreezing Columns
In a datasheet, three are often more columns than you can view in the window at one
time. To help you view your data, you can “freeze” one or more columns on the left
side so that they don’t scroll off the screen.


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To freeze a column:
• Click anywhere in the column, or click the field selector of the column
you want to freeze.
• From the Format menu, choose Freeze Columns.
To unfreeze column:
• From the Format menu, choose Unfreeze All Columns option.
Hiding and Unhanding Columns
You can temporarily hide columns in a datasheet. This is useful for removing
extraneous data from the screen without running or rerunning a query and for
copying and pasting data in specific columns:
To hide columns:
• Click anywhere in the column, or click the field selector of the column you
want to hide.
• From the Format menu, choose Hide Columns.
To unhide columns:
• From Format menu, choose Unhide Columns.
• Microsoft Access displays the Unhide columns dialog box. Exposed columns
have a check mark next to them.
• Check the column you want to unhide and click on Close button.





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5.3. Organizing your Data

Using Microsoft Access’s sort feature you can sort the records in Ascending or
Descending order.
To sort records:
• In Datasheet view, select the column on which you want to base the sort.
• Click the Sort Ascending or Sort Descending button on the toolbar, or
• From Records menu choose sort, and then choose Ascending or
Descending.
5.3.1. Filtering Records
Using criteria you supplied, a filter can temporarily narrow your focus to a particular
set of records.
To filter records:
• In datasheet view, choose Filter from the Records menu.
• Select one of the Filter options, (Filter by From, Filter by Selection or
Advanced Filter/Sort)
Filter by Form: - Displays a datasheet where you enter the filter criteria. Enter the
criteria in the field column, which is used as filter criteria.
Note: - If you want to use multiple criteria for filtering, enter each criteria in its
corresponding column within the same row, for AND and for OR enter the first
criteria, then by clicking on Or tab enter the next criteria and continue doing the
same for the rest.




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Filter by Selection:- Selects the records by the highlighted (selected )field.
Advanced Filter /Sort:- Displays window with two portions. The top portion of
the window contains a field list for the underlying table or query and the lower
portion displays the grid in which you specify the filter criteria.
Add the field or fields for which you want to specify criteria in the grid by double-
clicking it from the top portion of the window.
Enter the criteria for the fields you have included in the defined area.
Note:- For multiple criteria related with AND, enter the criteria in the same row,
whereas for criteria related with OR, enter the criteria in different rows.
If you want to sort the filtered records, click the sort box of the fields on which you
want to base the sort, click the arrow, and then choose Ascending or Descending.
To apply the filter, click the Apply Filter/Sort button on the toolbar, or
Choose Apply Filter/Sort from the Records menu.


5.3.2. Entering Criteria
Criteria is an instruction you use to tell Microsoft Access to display the records you
want. You can enter criteria for on e or more fields.
To enter criteria:
• In the Filter window, click the first Criteria cell beneath the field for which
you want to set criteria.
• Enter the criteria expression by typing it or by using the Expression Builder.
• To enter another expression in the same field or in another field, move to the
appropriate criteria cell and enter the expression. (For AND and OR relations
see the notes in Filtering Records section).

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5.3.3. The AND and OR Relations
If you want to use multiple- criteria to select records, you relate the criteria either
with AND or with OR.
• To relate criteria with AND enter all criteria you need in the same row.
Note: - If the criteria are related with AND unless all conditions are fulfilled the
record will not be selected.
• To relate criteria with OR enter each criteria in different rows.
Note:- If the criteria are related with OR, the record will be selected if at least one
condition is fulfilled.

5.3.4. Inserting Column or Row
To insert a column (field):
• Click anywhere in the column to the right of where you want the new column
to be inserted.
• From the Insert menu, choose Column.
To insert a row (record):
• From Insert menu, choose Record.
5.3.5. Deleting Column or Row
To delete a column (field):
• Select the column by clicking its column selector or click any where in the
column
• Choose Delete Column from the Edit menu.
To delete a row (record):
• Select the row by clicking its row selector or click anywhere in the row
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• Choose Delete Record from Edit menu.

5.3.6. Removing a Filter
When you remove a filter from a table or form, Microsoft Access redisplays all the
records from the underlying table or query in their original order.
To remove a filter:
• Click the Apply Filter/Sort button 0 on the toolbar, or
• Select Remove Filter/Sort option from Records menu.

5.3.7. Saving a Filter as a Query
You can save a filter as a query for later use. The query will contain the criteria and
sort order you entered in the Filter window.
To save a filter as a query:
• In the Filter window, click the right mouse button, and then choose Save As
Query from the shortcut menu or choose Save As Query from the File
menu.
• Type a name for the query.
• Click on OK. The new query appears in the Database window within the
Queries tab.

5.3.8. Copying and Moving Microsoft Access Objects or
Text
To copy a database object:
• In the Database window, select the object you want to copy.
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• From the Edit menu, choose Copy.
• If you are copying the object into a different database, close the current
database and open the database into which you want to past the object.
• From the Edit menu, choose paste.

5.3.9. Printing a Datasheet
Microsoft Access prints a datasheet as it appears on the screen.
For large datasheets, Microsoft Access prints from left-to- right and then from top-
to- bottom. For example, if Your datasheet is three pages wide and two pages long,
Microsoft Access prints the top three pages first, then the bottom three pages. You
can preview your datasheet before printing by choosing print preview from the
File menu.
To print a datasheet:
• Display the table, query or form datasheet.
• If you intend to print selected records. To print all the records, select
nothing.
• Click the print button on the toolbar, or choose print from the File menu.
• In the print dialog box, under print Range, choose one of the following
options:
• Define the number of copies you want to print
• Click on OK.
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5.3.10. Renaming a Database Object
To rename a database object:
• In the Database window, select the object from the appropriate object list.
• From the Edit menu, choose Rename.
• Type a new name for the object, following Microsoft Access standard naming
Conventions, and then click on OK.












This option Prints
All All of the records in the table.
Selection The selected records.
Pages Specific pages from your table. Specify the page numbers of the first
and
Last pages you want to print.
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5.4. Queries

You use queries to view, change and analyze data in different ways. You can also use
them as the source of records for forms and reports.
5.4.1. Types of Queries
In Microsoft Access there are six types of queries available. (Select query, Crosstab
query, Maketable query, Update query, Append query and Delete query). The
Maketable, Update, Append and Delete queries are called Action Queries.

Select Query:- Retrieves data from one or more tables using criteria you specify
and then displays it in the order you want.
Crosstab Query:- Displays summarized values( Sums, Counts, Averages and so on)
from one field in a table and groups them by one set of facts listed down the left side
of the datasheet and another set of facts listed across the top of the datasheet.
Marketable Query:- Creates a new table from all or part of the data in one or
more tables.
Update Query:- Makes global changes to a group of records in one or more tables.
For example, you can raise the salaries by 5% for employees with in a certain job
category.
Append Query:- Adds a group of records from one or more tables to the end of
one or more tables.
Delete Query:- Deletes a group of records from one or more tables. Once you
delete records using a delete query, you can’t undo the operation. Make sure
you have selected only the records you want to delete before running your
query. It is advisable to have backup copies of your at all times, so that if you
delete the wrong records, you can retrieve them from your backup copies.
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5.4.2. Creating a Query with a Wizard
With a Query Wizard, you can quickly create advanced queries.
To create a query with a Wizard:
• In the Database window, click the Queries Tab, or
• Choose Queries from the database Objects submenu under the View menu.
• Click the New button.
• From New Query dialog box, choose the Wizard type you want, then click
on OK
• Follow the instructions in the Wizard dialog boxes.

5.4.3. Creating a Custom Designed Query
To create a custom designed query:
• In the Database window, click the Queries Tab, or
• Choose Queries from the View menu.
• Click the New button.
• From New Query dialog box select Design View and click on OK.
• The Show Table dialog box will be displayed as follows:







Fig.10 The Show Table dialog box
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• Select the table or query you want to use and click on Add button.
• Multiple selections is possible.
• Close the show table dialog box. The query design screen will be displayed
as follows:
• Double-click the field you want to use in the query from the upper part of
the query design screen. The field will be added in the Design Gird (the
lower part of the query design screen). You can select and drag on field
or several fields, as described below.

To select Do this
A field Click the field name. (You can also double-click the name
in the field list or select a field directly from the list box
in the Field row on the Design Grid.)
A block of fields Hold down the Shift key and select the first and last
fields in the block.
Non- contiguous fields Hold down the Ctrl key as you select the fields.
All fields Double-click the title bar of the field list.
The whole table or
query
Click the asterisk (*).

Note: - If you want to remove a field after you added it in the Design Grid,
select the field by clicking its column selector, then press the Del key, or choose




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Delete Column from the Edit menu.
• Select the query type you want to apply from the Query menu
• Enter additional information you need, depending on the type of query
you are creating
• When you finish click on Run button, to execute the query, or
• Save the query by clicking on save button and giving a name to the
query.
5.4.4. Expressions in Queries and Filters
You can use expressions in queries and filters to specify criteria, update values
in a group of records, or create query fields that are based on a calculation.
You can type an expression in several places in the Design grid.
The table below shows where to type an expression to perform these operations.
Type in To
A Criteria cell Specify criteria for a select, cross tab, or action query.
An Update To
cell
Update records according to the results of the expression
(update queries only).
A Field cell Create a calculated field.

When you are designing a filter, you can type an expression in a Criteria cell or
a Field cell.





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5.4.5. Creating Select Query
To create a select query:
• In the Query Design View, choose Select from Query menu. (Select Query is
the default query).
• Refine your query by entering criteria, sorting, creating calculated fields, and
so on.
• When you finish run and /or save query.
5.4.6. Creating Make table Query
To create a make table query:
• In the query’s Design view, choose Make-Table from Query menu.
• Type the name of the new table in the Table Name box, or select the table
from the list if you want to replace the data in the selected table with the data
from the new table.
• Click on OK
• Set criteria just as if you are creating a select query to select the records you
want to create the table with.
• Click the Run button on the toolbar, or choose Run from the Query menu.
• Microsoft Access displays a confirmation box that tells you how many records
will be pasted to the new table.
• Choose OK to confirm the displayed prompt.
A new table with the selected records will be created.



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To view table with the selected records will be created.
• Click the Database Window button or select Database Objects from
view menu, to display the Database window.
• Click the Tables Tab to display the list of tables, and then double-
click the name of the table you just created or click on the table
and click on Open button.
5.4.7. Creating an Update Query
To update records:
• In the query’s Design vies, select Update from the Query menu
• Set criteria just as if you are creating a select query to select the records you
want to update.
• In the Update To cell for the field you want to update, use the Expression
Builder or type an expression or a value to change the data. For example, to
reduce prices by 20 percent in a Cost field, type {cost} *.8.
• Click the Run button on the toolbar, or choose Run from the Query menu.
• Microsoft Access displays a confirmation box that tell you how many records
will be updated in the table.
• Click on OK to confirm the update.
To view the results of an update query:
• From the Query menu, choose Select:
• Click the Datasheet View button on the toolbar to see your updated
records in Datasheet view.



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5.4.8. Creating an Append Query
To append records to a table:
• In the Query's Design view, select Append from the Query menu.
• In the Append dialog box, type the name of the table you want to append
the records to in the Append To list box, or select table name from the list.
• Choose OK when you finish.
Microsoft Access adds the Append To row to the Design Grid of the Append
Query window.
• Set criteria just as if you are creating a select query to select the records you
want to append.
• Select from the list, the field names of the table you are appending records to
in the Append To row, matching them to the fields in the Filled row.
• Click the Run button on the toolbar, or choose Run from the Query menu.
• Microsoft Access displays a confirmation box that tells you how many records
will be added to the table.
• Choose OK to confirm the displayed message.
5.4.9. Using a Calculated Field in a Query
You can create fields in a query by using an expression to calculate values.
To create a calculated field in a query:
• In the query's Design view, click the right mouse button in an empty cell, in
the Field row.
• Select Build.
• In the Expression Builder dialog box, type the field name for the new
calculated field to be created, then type colon (:).
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Note: - that, if you don't enter a field name in the Expression Builder, Microsoft
Access assigns names such as Expr1, which may be meaningless for the field you
are creating.
• Enter the expression (formula) you want. For building the expression you can
use fields from the Database Objects, Built- in functions, numbers and other
operators and constants, directly from the Expression Builder dialog box.
• When you finish click on OK.
5.4.10. Editing a Query
You can modify a query or save it with a new name to create a new query.
To insert fields:
• In the query's Design view, drag the fields from the field list to the column in
which you want them inserted in the Design grid.
• The field currently shown in that column and all fields to its right move one
column to the right.
To delete fields:
• In the query's Design view, click the column selectors of the fields you want
to delete.
• Press the Del key, or choose Delete Column from the Edit menu.
To move fields:
• In the query's Design view, click the column selectors of the fields you want
to move.
• Click the column selectors again, and drag the fields to their new location.
The displaced field and all fields to its right move to the right.


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5.5. Forms
Forms are used for data entry, to open other forms, to accept user input and then
carry out an action based on that input.
5.5.1. Types of Form Views
Microsoft Access offers four types of form views; Design View, print preview,
Datasheet View and Form View.
5.5.2. Creating A Quick form
To create a quick form:
• In the Database window, click the Forms tab.
• Click on New button
• Select the table or query on which you want to base the form.
• Select one of the Quick Form options (Columnar, Tabular or
Datasheet), displayed in the New Form dialog box.
• Click on OK.
Microsoft creates the form type you selected automatically.
5.5.3. Creating A Form Using A Wizard
With a Wizard, you can quickly create a basic form that shows all the fields
and records in a Form View.
Note:- You can modify the form created using the Wizard any time you want.





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To create form without a Wizard:
• In the Database window, click the Forms tab.
• Click on New button
• Select the table or query on which you want to base the form.
• Select Form Wizard from the New Form dialog box
• Click on OK.
Follow the instructions of the Wizard's dialog boxes and perform the needed tasks
5.5.4. Creating A Custom Designed Form
To create a form without a Wizard:
• In the Database window, click the Forms tab.
• Click on New button
• Select the table or query on which you want to base the form.
• Select Design view from New Form dialog box
• Click on OK.
• The Form Design View will be displayed.






fig. 14 The Form Design View



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• Click on Field List button from the toolbar
• Drag the Field you want on the Form Design View
• Apply the formatting you want using the Formatting toolbar and the
Toolbox
Perform other tasks you want. When you finish, Click on Form View button o to
view the appearance of the form.
5.5.5. Making a Form Read-Only
You can prevent data from being accidentally changed, inserted in, or deleted from a
table by setting the Allow Edits property for a form.
To make a form read-only:
• In the form's Design view, display the properties box for the form.
• Set the Allow Filter, Allow Edits, Allow Deletions and Allow
Additions properties to NO.
Validating Fields and Records in Forms
A Validation Rule sets limits on the values you can enter in a field. If the rule is
violated, Microsoft Access displays an error message that you define in the
Validation Text property.
To create a validation rule for a control on a form:
• Display the properties box
• From the form, select the field for which you want to set a validation rule.
• In the properties box, enter the Validation Rule and the Validation
Text properties for the selected field.


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Property Description
Validation Rule Tests data before it's stored in a table.
Validation Text Specifies the error message displayed when the
expression in the Validation Rule property
evaluates to False.

5.5.6. Creating a Form with multiple Screens or pages
For a form used in Form view, you can add a page break to mark the start of a
new screen.
For printed forms, you can add a page break to start a new page n the middle of a
section.
To create a multi screen or multi page form:
• In the Design view of your form, display the toolbox and properties
box if they are not already displayed.
• Choose the page break tool in the toolbox, and then click on the form
where you want a new screen or page to start.
5.5.7. Adding a Label and Editing Label Text
A label is a type of control you can place on your form to add information.
To draw a freestanding label:
• Click the label tool in the Toolbox.
• Click where you want to place the label.
• Type the label you want.

To Edit text in a label:
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• Click the label you want to edit.
• Click the label again.
• Add the new text or delete the text you want from the label.

5.5.8. Changing the Appearance of Text

To change the text appearance
• Click on the label.
• Select the format type you want, such as font, size, font style, and so on, from
the Formatting toolbar.
• If the label text doesn't fit in its box, you can resize it as you do with any other
boxes.
You can change the visual style of the label to give it a better look.
To change the visual style of a label:
• Click on the label.
• Display the properties box.
• Click on the Format tab in the properties box.
• Click the option that refers to the style you want to apply. For example,
Special Effect, border Style, Back Color, and so on.
• Click on the corresponding drop-down arrow of the style you want to apply,
then select the option you want.
• Close the properties box.
• To change the color, and other formats of the label, use the Formatting
toolbar buttons.

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5.6. Reports
Report is an effective way to present your data in a printed format. Because you have
control over the size and application of everything on a report, you can display the
information the way you want to see it.
5.6.1. Generating a Quick Report
To create a quick report:
• In the Database window, click Reports Tab.
• Click on New button.
• Select the table or query on which you want to base the report, from the New
Report dialog box.
• Select one of the two Auto Report options (Columnar or Tabular).
• Click on OK.
• Microsoft Access will create the report for the table or query you have
selected automatically.
5.6.2. Generating a Report using a Wizard
With a Wizard, you can quickly create a basic report that shows all the fields and
records in a table or query, or you can create a custom report that displays data from
selected fields in a particular format such as mailing labels.
To generating a report with a wizard:
• In the Database window, click the Reports Tab.
• Click on New button.
• Select the table or query on which you want to base the report, from the New Report
dialog box.
• Select Report Wizard, and then click on OK.
• Follow the instructions in the Wizard dialog boxes.
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5.6.3. Generating a Custom Designed Report
To create a report without a Wizard:
• In the Database window, click the Reports Tab.
• Choose the New button.
• Select the table or query on which you want to base the report, from the
New Report dialog box.
• Select Design View, then click on OK.
• A blank report appears in Design view. You can add controls, sorting and
grouping levels, and other design features according to your specifications.
• Click on Field List button from the toolbar
• Drag the Field you want on the Report Design View
• Apply the formatting you want using the Formatting toolbar and the
Toolbox.
5.6.4. Changing a Form or Report's Underlying Table or
Query
Microsoft Access stores the name of the table or query from which a form or report
gets its data in the Record Source property. To change the underlying table or
query, reset the Record Source property.
To change the underlying table or query for a Form report:
• In the form or report's Design view, display the properties box for the form
or report.
• In the Record Source property box, select or type the name of a table or
query.

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5.6.5. Creating a Sub report
A report within another report is a subreport.
You can use sub reports to
• Display summary data or detail records related to the information in a main
report.
• Combine two or more unrelated reports in an unbound main report.
To create a subreport:
• Create a report that you want to use as a subreport and save it.
• Open the main report in Design view.
• Press F11 to display the Database window.
• From the Database window, drag the report you created to the appropriate
section in the main report. For example, to print the report the report before
each group, drag it to the group header.
• Move the subreport control to the desired location and adjust the size of the
section, if necessary.
• If the data in the subreport is related to the data in the main report, ensure
that the subreport prints the correct records for each group by linking the
subreport control to the main report.

To link the subreport to the main report
Display the properties box for the subreport control, then set Link Child Fields
and Link Master Fields properties. In most cases, Microsoft Access will set these
properties automatically.
Lining a Subform/ Subreport Control to a Main Form or Report
When you use a subform or subreport, you want to make sure that it displays the
records that correspond to the record in the main form or repot. To synchronize the
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records, you specify the linking fields or controls in the main form or report and the
linking fields in the subform/ subreport.

To link a subform/ Subreport control to a main form or report:
• In Design view of the main form or report, open the Properties box for the
Subform/subreport control.
• Set the Link Child Fields property to the linking fields in the Subform or
subreport.
• Set the Link Master Fields property to the linking fields or controls in the
main form or report.
5.6.6. Changing the Layout of a Subform or Subreport
To facilitate making changes to a sub form’s or sub report's design, you can open it
from the main form or report in which it was inserted.
To change the layout of a subform or subreport:
• In Design view of the main form or report, make sure the subform or
subreport control is not selected. (To cancel the selection, click any where in
the main form or report outside the subform or subreport control.)
• Double- click within the subform or subreport control.
• Make changes to the design.
• Save and close the subform or subreport.
• On the main form or report, click inside the subform or subreport control.
• Press Enter to load the changed subform or subreport.

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5.6.7. Sorting and Grouping Data in Reports
You can print data in a specified order. If you want to highlight or summarize certain
information, you can divide data into separate groups and sort records within the
groups.
To sort data:
• In the report's Design view, display the Sorting and Grouping box, by clicking
on the Sorting and Grouping button, from the toolbar.
The sorting and grouping dialog box appears.
Fig 18 Sorting and Grouping dialog box
• In the First row of the Filed/Expression column, select a field name, or type
an expression.
• To change the sort order, select Descending from the Sort Order list.
• When you finish close the dialog box.
To group data:
• Set the sort order for the data in the report as specified above.
• Click the field or expression whose group properties you want to set.
• Set the group properties listed in the following table, in the Group
properties section.








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Use this property To
Group Header Add or remove a group header for the field or expression.
Group Footer Add or remove a group footer for the field or expression.
Group On Specify how you want the values grouped. The options you
see depend on the data type of the field on which you're
grouping. If you group on an expression, you see all the
options: Text, Data/ Time, and numeric fields.
Group Interval Specify any interval that is valid for the values in the field or
expression you're grouping on.
Keep Together Determine whether Microsoft Access prints all or only part of
a group on one page.


5.6.8. Changing Sorting and Grouping Order
You can change how the data in a report is sorted and grouped by changing the order
in which the fields or expressions are listed in the Sorting and Grouping box.
To change sorting and grouping order:
• In the Report's Design view, click on the Sorting and Grouping button from
the toolbar.
• In the Sorting and Grouping box, click the selector of the field or expression
you want to move.
• Click the selector again, and drag the row to a new location in the list.
Note:- If the groups you're rearranging have headers or footers, Microsoft Access
moves the headers, footers, and all the controls in them to their new positions.
However, you must adjust the locations of the controls in the headers and footers
yourself.
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To insert an additional sorting or grouping field or expression:
• In the Sorting and Grouping dialog box, click the selector of the row
where you want to insert the new field or expression, and then pass the
Ins key.
• In the Field/ Expression column of the blank row, select the field you
want to sort on, or type an expression.
• In the Sort Order column, select Ascending or Descending.
To delete a sorting or grouping field or expression:
• In the Sorting and Grouping box, Click the Selector of the field or
expression you want to delete, and then press the Del key.
• Choose OK to delete the sorting or grouping level, or choose Cancel to keep
it.
5.6.9. Hiding Duplicate Data on a Report
In grouped reports, you can display the name of each group either above the detail
records in the group header or beside the detail records in the detail section.
To hide duplicate data:
• Add a text box (bound to the field you're grouping on) to the report's detail
section.
• Display the properties box for the text box.
• Click on Format tab of the properties box.
• Set the Hide Duplicates property to Yes.

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5.6.10. Adding or Removing Headers and Footers on a
Report
You can add or remove report, page, and group headers and footers on a report.
To add or remove a report header and footer:
• In Design view, choose Report Header/Footer from the View menu.
To add or remove a page header and footer:
• In Design view, choose page Header/Footer from the View menu.
Note:- If you want a page or report header but no footer, or vice versa, see the
section on sizing a header or footer later in this topic.
To add or remove a group header or footer:
• In Design view, click the Sorting and Grouping button on the toolbar, or
choose sorting and Grouping from the view menu.
• In the sorting and Grouping dialog box, click the field name, or type the
expression for which you're creating a header or footer.
• To add a group header or footer, set the Group Header or Group Footer
property to Yes. To remove a group header or footer, set these properties to
NO.
To size a header or footer:
• Move the pointer to the bottom or right edge of the header or footer until
the pointer turns into a plus sign with an arrow at its top and bottom tips.
• Drag the bottom edge up or down to change the height, and drag the right
edge in or out to change the width.




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To set properties for a header or footer:
• In Design view, select the header or footer.
• Display the properties box if it isn't already displayed.
• Set the properties for the headset or footer.
5.6.11. Sizing Sections in a Form or Report
You can increase or decrease the height of form or report sections individually.
However, a form or report has only one width. When you change the width of one
section, you change the width of the entire form or report.
To change either height or width:
• In the form's or report's Design view, change either the height or the width by
placing the pointer on the bottom edge or right edge of the section. The
pointer changes to a double-headed arrow.
• Drag the pointer up or down to change the height of the section.
• Drag the pointer left or right to change the Width of the section.
To change both height and width:
• To change the height and width simultaneously, place the pointer in the
lower- right corner of the section. The pointer changes to an arrow- head
cross. Drag the pointer in any direction to adjust the size of the section.
5.6.12. Adding page Numbers to a Form or Report
You can display page numbers and the total number of pages in a form or report by
using the page and pages properties.
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To add page numbers to a form or report
• In Design view, add a text box by clicking the text box button the toolbox, to
the section (usually the page header or footer) where you want the page
number to appear.
• Display the properties box for the text box.
• In the Control Source property box, type a page number expression, or
Use the Expression Builder to produce the results you want.

5.6.13. Adding the Current Date and Time to a Form or
Report
You can have Microsoft Access automatically display the date and time that is stored
in the system clock on a form or report.
To add the current date or time to a from or report:
• In the form or report's Design view, add a text box to the section in which
you want the date or time to appear.
• Display the properties box for text box.
• In the Control Source property box, type = followed by an expression
using the Now or Date function.
For example: = Date ( ), or
• Crate the expression by using the Expression Builder.
• Use the Format property to display a date in a predefined format. For
example, to display a date such as 5- May-97, type = Date ( ) in the Control
Source property box, and set the Format property to Medium Date.


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• Use the Format or Format$ function to display a date in a format you define in
an expression. For example, to display a date such as 5- May -97, type =
Format (Date( ), "dd-mmm-yy") in the Control Source property box,
and leave the Format property box blank.

5.6.14. Drawing Lines and Rectangles on Forms and Reports
You can create controls on a form or report and then draw lines and rectangles
around them; or you can draw the lines and rectangles first and then create controls
on top.
To draw a line:
• In Design view of your form or report, display the toolbox, and then select
the line tool
• Draw the line to the desired length, by dragging the mouse and then release
the mouse button.
Note:- To draw straight, horizontal or vertical lines, press the Shift key before you
click the Line tool. Continue pressing the Shift key while you draw the line.
To draw a rectangle:
• In Design view of your form or report, display the toolbox, and then select
the rectangle tool
• Draw the rectangle. Once you have drawn it, you can move or resize it.
5.6.15. Previewing a Report
When you preview a report to see how it will look on the printed gage, you can
choose from two views: Use print preview to check the data or to see the entire
report exactly as it will be printed. Use Sample preview to take a quick look at your
report and check its font, font size, and general layout.
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To preview an entire report from Design view:
• Click the print preview button, or
• From the File menu, choose print preview.
To preview a report from the Database window:
• Click the Reports Tab.
• Select the report you want to preview.
• Click the preview button, or
• From the File menu. Choose print preview.

To see an overall view of the report:
• In print preview, place the pointer on the report, and then click the mouse
when the pointer turns into a magnifying glass.
• Click again to return the report to its original size, or
• Click the Zoom button on the print preview toolbar to enlarge or reduce
the view.











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Chapter 6: Microsoft Power Point
6.1. Introduction To Power Point
Microsoft PowerPoint is a software product used to perform computer-based
presentations. There are various circumstances in which a presentation is made:
teaching a class, introducing a product to sell, explaining an organizational structure,
etc.
6.2. Starting PowerPoint
One easy way to start PowerPoint is to select it from the Start menu. Depending on
your Windows version and the way Windows is set up, PowerPoint may appear at
the top of the Start menu, or it may require you to open the All Programs (or
Programs) menu to find it.
1. Click on Start. The Start menu will appear.
2. Click on Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2003 if it appears on the Start
menu's top level. PowerPoint will open, and you can skip the rest of these
steps. Otherwise, continue to step
3. Move the mouse pointer to All Programs (or Programs). The
Programs menu will appear.
Note The difference in wording in step 3 is due to the Windows version.
Windows XP uses All Programs; all other versions use Programs.
4. Move the mouse pointer to Microsoft Office. A menu of Microsoft
Office applications will appear.
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5. Click on Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2003. PowerPoint will open and
will display a new, blank presentation.
Tip You can force PowerPoint to always appear at the top of the Start menu by
"pinning" it there. In step 4, instead of clicking on Microsoft PowerPoint, right-
click it and choose Pin to Start menu. From then on, a shortcut to PowerPoint
will appear at the top of the Start menu, and you'll never have to open the All
Programs menu again to locate it.
6.3. Creating a Desktop Shortcut for PowerPoint
If you use PowerPoint often, you might want to put a shortcut to it on the desktop.
You can double-click it to start PowerPoint instead of going through the Start menu
each time.
1. Click on Start. The Start menu will appear.
2. Move the mouse pointer to All Programs (or Programs). The
Programs menu will appear.
3. Move the mouse pointer to Microsoft Office. A menu of Office
applications will appear.
4. Move the mouse pointer to Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2003.
PowerPoint will be highlighted.
5. Hold down the Ctrl key and drag Microsoft Office Power-Point 2003
to the desktop. A shortcut to Microsoft PowerPoint will appear on the
desktop.
Tip You can use these steps to create a desktop shortcut for any program that is
installed on the computer.
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Starting PowerPoint and Opening a Saved File
If you already have a PowerPoint presentation started, you can start PowerPoint by
opening that file. PowerPoint files have a .ppt extension, and the icon matches the
PowerPoint 2003 icon (orange).
The following steps are for Windows XP, and they assume that your existing file is
stored in the My Documents folder. If you have an earlier version of Windows, or if
your file is located somewhere else, see the notes following the steps.
1. Click on Start. The Start menu will appear.
2. Click on My Documents. The My Documents folder will appear.
3. Double-click on the presentation file. PowerPoint will start, and that
presentation will open within PowerPoint.
Note Don't have Windows XP? Then double-click the My Documents icon on the
desktop instead of performing steps 1 and 2.
Note File stored in some other location? Open My Computer and browse for it. In
Windows XP, click Start and then click My Computer. In all other Windows
versions, double-click the My Computer icon on the desktop.
6.1 Exiting PowerPoint
When you're finished working with PowerPoint, you'll want to exit the program to
free up the system for other tasks, and to make your screen more tidy.
1. Click on Close in the upper-right corner of the PowerPoint window. If
there are no unsaved changes, PowerPoint will close immediately. If there are
changes, a Save dialog box will appear.
2. Click on No to discard your changes. PowerPoint will close.
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Note Notice that there are several X buttons near the upper- right corner of the
window. The topmost button closes PowerPoint itself. The button directly
beneath that closes the open presentation only. The button about one inch
below those two closes the task pane.
Minimizing and Restoring PowerPoint
If you don't want to close PowerPoint but simply want to move it out of the way
temporarily, minimize it. Minimizing a window shrinks it down to an icon on the
Taskbar. You can then click that icon to reopen—restore—the window when you're
ready to use it again.
• Click on the Minimize button in the upper-right corner of the PowerPoint
window. PowerPoint will disappear except for its icon in the Taskbar.
• Click on the PowerPoint icon on the Taskbar. The Power-Point window
will appear again.
6.4. Understanding PowerPoint Views
PowerPoint operates in several different views. Each view is useful for a different
type of activity.
Normal view is the default view. In Normal view, you'll see the following panes:
• Slides pane. Thumbnail images of the slides in the presentation appear here.
The other tab at the top of this pane is for the Outline pane, "Organizing the
Presentation Outline."
• Current slide. A single slide at a time appears here. It's enlarged so you can
work on it.
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• Notes pane. Any speaker notes you type for the slide appear here. These
notes aren't visible to the audience.
• Task pane. This pane changes depending on what you're doing. You can also
click its Close (X) button to give you more room.
6.4.1. Changing to a Different View
There are two other views: Slide Sorter and Slide Show. Slide Sorter view shows
thumbnail images of all the presentation slides at once. Slide Show view shows full-
screen images of each slide.
1. Click on the Slide Sorter View button. PowerPoint will switch to Slide
Sorter view. You might use this for a bird's-eye view of the presentation, or to
rearrange the slides more easily.
2. Click on the Slide Show View button. PowerPoint will switch to Slide
Show view.
3. Press the Esc key. Slide Show view will close and the screen will return to
Slide Sorter view.
4. Click on the Normal View button. PowerPoint will switch back to Normal
view.
5. Click on the Outline tab. The presentation outline will come to the front.

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Working with the Task Pane
The task pane is an area that appears to the right of the other PowerPoint panes.
There are actually many different task panes, each one containing tools and
options appropriate for a certain activity. Most of the time, the correct task pane
will appear automatically when needed. For example, if you select the command
to change a slide's layout, the Slide Layout task pane will appear automatically.
Many people prefer to work with the task pane hidden so they have more space
onscreen. You can redisplay it when you need it.
1. Click on the Close button on the task pane. The task pane will disappear,
and the current slide will have more space available.
2. Click on the View menu. The View menu will appear.
3. Pause for a few seconds if there is a down-pointing arrow at the bottom of the
menu. The full menu will appear after a brief delay.
4. Click on Task Pane. The task pane will reappear.
Tip Instead of steps 2 through 4, you can press Ctrl+F1.
5. Move the mouse pointer over the border between the current slide's pane
and the task pane. The mouse will become a two-headed arrow. Then drag
to the left or right to resize the task pane.
Choosing a Different Task Pane
PowerPoint will often display a certain task pane based on what you're doing.
You can also choose which task pane you want to see at any given moment.
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1. Click on the Task Pane down arrow. A list of available task panes
will appear.
2. Click on a task pane. The selected task pane will appear.
6.4.2. Working with Toolbars
A toolbar is a collection of buttons you can click to issue commands. Nearly all of
these buttons are shortcuts to menu commands—alternatives to using the menu
system. Displaying the Standard and Formatting Toolbars on Separate Rows
By default, PowerPoint shows both the Standard and Formatting toolbars on the
same row. This causes some buttons on each toolbar to be obscured. Most people
prefer to display these toolbars on separate rows. (That's how they're shown in most
of the figures in this book.)
1. Click on the down-pointing arrow at the end of the Standard or
Formatting toolbar. A menu will appear.
2. Click on Show Buttons on Two Rows. The Formatting toolbar will
move to a new row below the Standard toolbar.
6.4.3. Moving a Toolbar
You may find that the location of toolbars is inconvenient for the way you work.
Toolbars can be moved to any location on the screen that's convenient for you. A
toolbar may be docked (attached to other toolbars), or it may float all by itself.


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1. Move the mouse pointer over the toolbar handle (the set of dots at its left
edge). The mouse pointer will change to a four-pointed arrow.
2. Drag the toolbar handle to another location on the PowerPoint window.
The toolbar will move with the mouse.
Hiding or Displaying a Toolbar
There are many toolbars available in PowerPoint. Some of them appear automatically
when needed; others must be displayed manually.
Right-click on a toolbar. A shortcut menu appears.
Click on the name of the toolbar you want to display (if it's not already
checked) or hide (if it's already checked).
6.4.4. Turning off the Personalized Menus Feature
By default, the Personalized Menus feature is turned on in PowerPoint. When you
open a menu, only a few of the available commands appear. PowerPoint monitors
your usage, and if you've used a certain command before, it's on that short, initial
list. The rest of the commands appear after a few seconds, or when you click the
down arrow at the bottom of the menu.
The figures in this book have this personalized menu feature turned off to avoid
inconsistency between the book's pictures and your screen. To follow along more
closely with the figures in this book, we recommend that you turn this feature off,
too.


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1. Click on Tools. The Tools menu will appear.
2. Click on Customize. The Customize dialog box will open.
3. Click on the Options tab. The Options tab will come to the front.
4. Click on the Always show full menus check box. A check will be
placed in the check box.
5. Click on Close. Your new setting will be applied.
6.5. Using the AutoContent Wizard
PowerPoint contains many sample presentations that can give you a quick start. You
can use these samples to learn how an effective presentation is built or as a starting
place for your own. All of them can be changed to suit your needs.
1. Click on the File menu. The File menu will appear.
2. Click on the New command. The New Presentation task pane will appear.
Note The New button on the toolbar starts a new, blank presentation, which is not what
we want right now.=
3. Click on From AutoContent wizard in the New Presentation task pane.
The AutoContent wizard will start.
4. Click on Next. The Presentation type page of the wizard will appear.
5. Click on the button for the category of presentation that you want to
create. A list of presentation types will appear on the right side of the dialog
box.
6. Click on a presentation type that closely matches the information that you
want to use in your presentation. The presentation type will be selected.
7. Click on Next. The Presentation style page of the wizard will appear.
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8. Click on the option button for the method you will use to display the
presentation. The option will be selected. Select from one of these options:
9. Click on Next. The Presentation options page of the wizard will appear.
10. Click in the Presentation title text box and type a title for your
presentation.
11. Click in the Footer text box and type the text that you want to appear in
the footer area at the bottom of each slide, if any.
12. Click in the Date last updated check box if you do not want to display
the date when you last made updates to the presentation. (This information is
found in the footer area of a slide.) The check box will be cleared.
13. Click in the Slide number check box if you do not want to show the slide
number in the footer area. The check box will be cleared.
14. Click on Next. The Finish page of the wizard will appear.
15. Click on Finish. The presentation will appear in the PowerPoint window.
6.6. Starting a New Presentation using a Template
You don't need to be an artist to create a good-looking presentation, complete with a
background and other images. There are several design templates bundled in
PowerPoint that will be pleasing to both you and your audience. Take a look at some
of the design templates from which you can choose, and see if any of them suit your
needs.
1. Click on the File menu. The File menu will appear.
2. Click on the New command. The New Presentation task pane will appear.
3. Click on the From design template hyperlink. The Slide Design task
pane will appear.
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4. Click on a design. It will be applied to the slide, so you can see what it looks
like.
5. Repeat step 4 until you find the design you want.
6. Click on the Close button for the task pane. The task pane will close.
6.7. Starting a Blank Presentation
If you are not sure what design or content you want, you might wish to start with a
completely blank presentation with no text and no formatting.
1. Click on the New button on the toolbar.
Previewing the Presentation Onscreen
As you're working on a presentation, you may want to see how each slide will look
when displayed onscreen in Slide Show view.
1. Display the slide you want to preview.
2. Click on the Slide Show View button.
Note In step 2, you can also use the View, Slide Show View command or the Slide
Show, View Show command, or you can just press F5. The only difference is that
they all start with the first slide rather than the currently displayed one.
a. Click the left mouse button to move to the next slide. Continue
through the presentation.
OR
b. Press the Esc key to return to PowerPoint.
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6.8. Printing the Presentation
When you want a paper copy of a presentation, send the file to a printer. Let’s just
print a single copy of the presentation with each slide on a separate page.
1. Click on File. The File menu will appear.
2. Click on Print. The Print dialog box will open.
3. Click on OK. The presentation file will be sent to the printer using the
default print settings.
6.9. Working with Presentation Files
Before you get too involved in developing a presentation, you'll need to save the
presentation file. Remember to save the file often so that you don't lose your
valuable efforts. Then, once you've started on the presentation, you'll want to see
how you are progressing. You can easily preview the presentation or print it.
Saving Your Presentation
It can never be stressed enough that you must save your work often while you are
working on a presentation. Also, you may want to back up the presentation file to a
floppy disk, a Zip disk, or a recordable CD, in case you run into a computer
problem.
1. Click on the Save button on the Standard toolbar. The Save As dialog box
will open.
2. Click on the Save in drop-down list arrow and select the folder in
which you want to store the file. The folder will be selected.
3. Click in the File name text box and type a name for the presentation.
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4. Click on Save. The presentation file will be stored in the designated folder,
and the file name will appear in the title bar of the PowerPoint window.
Note After you've saved the presentation file the first time, you can save your changes by clicking on the
Save button.
Closing the Presentation
When you've finished working on a presentation, close the presentation file. You can
close a presentation file without closing the PowerPoint program, or you can close
both at once.
a. Click on the Close button for the presentation. The presentation
file will close and PowerPoint will stay open. OR
b. Click on the Close button for the PowerPoint program. The
program will close.
Opening a Recently Used Presentation
PowerPoint keeps a list of the saved files you've worked with recently. This list is
found at the bottom of the File menu.
1. Click on File. The File menu will appear.
2. Click on the presentation file in the recently used file list. The
presentation will appear in the PowerPoint window.
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Opening any Saved Presentation
If the presentation you want to open does not appear at the bottom of the File
menu, you can use the Open dialog box to select and open it.
1. Click on the Open button on the toolbar. The Open dialog box will
appear.
2. Click on the Look in drop-down list arrow and select the
folder in which you want to look for the file. The folder will be
selected.
3. Click on the file name for the presentation.
4. Click on Open. The presentation file will open in the PowerPoint
window.
Note You can also open a presentation file and start PowerPoint at the same time by double-
clicking the presentation file in a Windows file management window.
6.10. Displaying Outline View
Much of the activity in this chapter takes place in the Outline pane. If it does not
appear in Normal view already, you can display it easily.
1. Click the Normal View button. If any other view is in use, it will be
replaced by Normal.
2. Click on the Outline tab. The presentation outline will appear.
Note If the Outline tab is not already showing, it will not have the word "Outline" on it.
Instead, it will have some horizontal lines representing text.
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Displaying the Outlining Toolbar
1. Click on View. The View menu will appear.
2. Move the mouse pointer to Toolbars. A list of available toolbars will
appear.
3. Click on Outlining. The Outlining toolbar will appear along the left side of
the PowerPoint window.
6.1.1 Outlining a Presentation
The most important part of a presentation is the outline, which will keep your
presentation organized and on track. Before you start adding graphics,
animations, and transitions, make sure you have a solid foundation for your
presentation.
Note If you've created an outline in Microsoft Word, you can import it into PowerPoint. To
learn how, see the "Sharing Outlines with Microsoft Word" section later in this chapter.
Creating Slides in the Outline Pane
If you used the AutoContent Wizard to start your presentation, an outline has
already been started for you (as shown in the preceding figures). It is a simple
matter of editing the outline by changing a few words or adding a few new slides.
If you started with a blank presentation, you'll need to create each new slide by
adding text to the outline.
1. Click to the right of the slide icon. The cursor will move there.
2. Type the text that you want to appear as the title of the first slide.
3. Press the Enter key. A new slide icon will appear on a new line.
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4. Click on the Demote button on the Outlining toolbar, or press Tab. The
new line will be demoted in importance so that it represents text on the
preceding slide.
Note Each time you press Enter, a new line appears at the same outline level as the
previous line. Since you were typing title text in step 2, pressing Enter in step 3
started a new slide. Demoting the line makes it part of the preceding slide.
5. Type additional text for the slide.
6. Press the Enter key. Another line on the same slide will appear for typing.
7.
a. Return to step 5 to type additional text. OR
b. Click on the Promote button on the Outlining toolbar, or press
Shift+Tab. The new line will be promoted in importance so that it
represents a new slide title.
8. Type the text for the title of the second slide and press Enter.
9. Continue adding text until all the topics that you want to cover in the
presentation appear in the outline.
Promoting and Demoting Lines
Once you've added the topics that you want to cover in the presentation, you
may want to change the level at which some outline items appear.
1. Click on the line that you want to promote or demote. The
insertion point will appear in it.
2.
a. Click on the Promote button or press Shift+Tab. The
text will be promoted to a higher outline level. Or
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b. Click on the Demote button or press Tab. The text
will be demoted to the next outline level.
Promoting to the highest level makes the text into slide title text on a separate
slide. Demoting a slide title makes it a bullet point on the previous slide.
Rearranging Outline Text
Each paragraph in the outline is either a slide title or a bullet point on the body of a
slide. You can move individual paragraphs or groups of them up or down in the
outline.
Alternative-1:
a) Click on a slide icon. The entire slide and all its subordinate text will
be selected. Or
b) Click to the left of an individual paragraph. Only that paragraph
will be selected.
Note To select multiple slide icons or multiple paragraphs, hold down Shift as you click on
additional ones.

Alternative-2:
a. Click on the Move Up button or drag the selection upward.
The selection will move higher in the outline. Or
c) Click on the Move Down button or drag the selection
downward. The selection will move lower in the outline.
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Sharing Outlines with Microsoft Word
If you use the outlining feature in Microsoft Word, you may find it easier to create
the outline in Word and then import it into PowerPoint. If you started an outline in
PowerPoint, you can export it into Word and edit it there.
Importing an Outline
1.
a. Start a new, blank presentation. A new presentation with a single
Title slide will appear. Or
b. Select the slide after which the imported outline text will appear.
2. Click on Insert. The Insert menu will appear.
3. Click on Slides from Outline. The Insert Outline dialog box will appear.
4. Display the folder in which you've stored the Word outline file. The folder
will appear in the Look in list box.
5. Click on the file that contains the outline that you want to add to the
presentation. The file will be selected.
6. Click on Insert.
Exporting an Outline
You can also send a PowerPoint outline to Word and save it as a Word document.
1. Click on File. The File menu will appear.
2. Click on Send To. The Send To submenu will appear.
3. Click on Microsoft Office Word. The Send To Microsoft Word dialog
box will open.
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4. Click on the Outline only option, if it is not selected already.
5. Click on OK. The outline will open in Microsoft Word.
From Word, you can edit or save the outline normally.
Printing the Outline
Before you print a presentation outline, display the items in the Outline tab that you
want to print. If an item is collapsed (that is, hidden), it will not print. Use the
Outlining toolbar to expand and collapse the outline.
1. Click on File. The File menu will appear.
2. Click on Print. The Print dialog box will open.
3. Click on the Print what drop-down list arrow and select Outline
View from the list. The option will appear in the list box.
4. Click on OK. The outline will be sent to the printer.
6.11. Inserting Slides from another Presentation
If you want to add an existing presentation to a presentation you're working on
right now, just insert the slides from the existing presentation. You can insert the
entire presentation or just a group of slides.


1. Click on the Slide Sorter View button. The display will change to
Slide Sorter view.
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2. Click in the space where you want the slides from the other presentation
to appear. The insertion bar will appear in the selected location.
3. Click on Insert. The Insert menu will appear.
4. Click on Slides from Files. The Slide Finder dialog box will open.
5. Type the path and file name of the presentation that contains the slides
that you want to add to the open presentation.
6. Click on Display if the slides do not appear automatically. A preview of
the presentation slides will appear in the Select slides area.
7. Click on the slides that you want to insert into the presentation. The
slides will be selected.
8. Click on Insert. The selected slides will be inserted into the open
presentation.
9. Click on Close. The Slide Finder dialog box will close.
6.12. Editing Text
Once the basic outline structure is in place, you can make any changes you want to
the outline. You may need to change a few words or add a few new words.
6.1.2 Selecting Text
Before you can edit or format text, you'll need to select the text. Selected text
appears inside a boxed background. The selected text can be a single letter or word,
or several words. Here are a few tips for selecting text.
• To select a paragraph, triple-click it.
• To select the entire outline, press Ctrl+A.
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• To select a block of text, click and hold at the beginning of the text,
and then drag the mouse pointer to the end of the text. Release the
mouse button.
6.1.3 Revising Text
When you need to revise items in the outline, select the words that you want to
replace and add a few of your own.
1. Select the text that you want to replace. The text will be highlighted.
2. Type the new text. The selected text will be deleted and replaced with the
new text.
Adding Text to a Placeholder
If you have created some slide titles in the outline with no subordinate text beneath
them, you'll notice that on the slide is a "Click to add text" placeholder.
1. Display a slide that contains a text placeholder. The slide will appear in
Normal view.
Note Click the slide you want in the Slides or Outline pane.
2. Click on the text in the placeholder. The placeholder text will disappear,
and the cursor will appear in the text box.
3. Type the text that you want in the placeholder.
Deleting Text from a Slide
The process for deleting text from a slide is identical to deleting text from the
presentation outline.
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1. Select the text that you want to delete. The text will be highlighted.
2. Click on the Cut button or press Delete. The text will be removed from
the slide.
Note Cutting and deleting are actually two different things. Cutting moves text to the
Clipboard; deleting simply deletes it. If you do not subsequently paste the text from the
Clipboard, however, the overall result is the same.
6.13. Using the Replace Feature
You can use the Replace feature to search for text, such as individual words, phrases,
or characters in a presentation, and then replace it with some other text.
1. Click on Edit. The Edit menu will appear.
2. Click on Replace. The Replace dialog box will open.
3. Type the text that you want to locate in the Find what text box.
4. Type the text to be used as the replacement in the Replace with text box.
5. Click on Find Next.
6.
a. Click on Replace. The text that is highlighted on the slide will be
replaced with the text specified in the Replace with text box. Or
b. Click on Find Next to skip that occurrence.
7.
b. Repeat steps 5 and 6 until all instances have been found. A
dialog box will appear stating that it is finished. Then click the OK
button. Or
b. Click on Close to end the search early.
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6.14. Spell Checking the Presentation
Before your presentation makes its debut, run the spell checker. Not only will the
spell checker help you spot misspelled words, but it will tell you when you repeat
yourself.
1. Click on the Spelling button.
2. Click on the correct spelling in the Suggestions text box. The word
will be selected and will appear in the Change to text box.
3.
a. Click on Change. The misspelled word will be corrected, and the
next misspelled word will appear. Or
b. Click on Ignore. The word will be left as is, and the next
misspelled word will appear. When PowerPoint has checked the
last word in the presentation, a confirmation dialog box will
appear.
4. Click on OK. The presentation will be spell checked. You should save the
file so that the corrections are preserved.
6.15. Using the Research Tools
The research tools, new in PowerPoint 2003, work best when you are
connected to the Internet. They rely on Internet databases, such as
encyclopedias and news services.

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6.16. Using the Thesaurus
The thesaurus enables you to find synonyms or antonyms for a word.
1. Double-click on the word you want to look up. It will be selected.
2. Click on Tools. The menu will appear.
3. Click on Thesaurus. The Research task pane will open.
4. Point to the desired replacement. A drop-down arrow will appear
beside it.
5. Click on the down arrow. A menu will appear.
6. Click on Insert. The selected word will be replaced by the new one.
6.17. Using Other Research Tools
The thesaurus is only one of Office 2003's research tools. To find extended
information about a topic, use the Research command.
1. Click on Tools. The menu will appear.
2. Click on Research. The Research pane will appear if it is not displayed
already.
3. Type the word or phrase to research in the Search for box. The word
or phrase will appear there.
4. Choose a source from the list of online reference sources.
5. Click on the article you want to read. A Web browser window will
display the article.
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6.18. Working with Slides in Slide Sorter View
You don't have to work with just one slide at a time. The Slide Sorter view displays
all the slides as miniatures in neat rows across the screen. This is a good way to see
the big picture and view the progress of your presentation. Use this view to
rearrange, add, and delete slides.
1. Click on the Slide Sorter View button. The presentation slides will
appear in the Slide Sorter view.
6.18.1. Selecting Slides
Before you can perform certain functions with slides (such as deleting or moving),
you'll need to select the slides with which you want to work. You can select a single
slide, a contiguous group of slides, or random slides.
Here are a few tips for selecting slides:-
6.18.2. Inserting a Slide
While browsing in the Slide Sorter view, you may find a place where an extra slide is
needed. You can easily add a new slide.
1. Click in the space between the two slides where you want the new slide to
appear. The insertion bar will appear between the two slides.
2. Click on New Slide on the Slide Sorter toolbar.
Note To add text to the new slide, double-click on the slide to display it in Normal view.
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6.18.3. Duplicating a Slide
When you want to make an exact copy of a slide, use the duplicate
command.
1. Click on the slide that you want to copy. The slide will be selected.
2. Click on Insert. The Insert menu will appear.
3. Click on Duplicate Slide. An identical slide will appear just after the
original slide. The duplicate slide will be selected.
6.18.4. Moving a Slide
The Slide Sorter view can also be used to reorganize slides. Slides can be moved
around to better present information with a simple drag and drop.
1. Click and hold on the slide that you want to move. The slide will be
selected.
2. Drag the mouse to where you want to move the slide. The insertion bar
will appear in the selected place.
3. Release the mouse button. The slide will appear in the new position.
6.18.5. Deleting Slides
You may find that you don't need a slide in a presentation. Here is how to delete
slides that you do not want.
1. Select the slide or slides that you want to delete. The slide(s) will be
selected.
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2. Click on the Cut button on the Standard toolbar or press the Delete
key. The slide(s) will be removed from the presentation.
6.19. Changing the Design Template
A design template applies a preset font, color, background, and placeholder
arrangement to every slide in the presentation. You learned how to start a new
presentation using a design template "Learning About Presentations." You can
change to a different design template at any time.
1. Click on the Design button on the toolbar. The Slide Design task pane
will appear.
2. Click on the design template that you want to change to. The template
will be applied.
6.20. Changing the Color Scheme
Each design template comes with several different color schemes. You can switch
to one of its alternate schemes, or you can start with one of those schemes and
customize it to make your own color scheme.
Because the color schemes are associated with design templates, you should make
your design template choice first, and then choose the color scheme.
Selecting an Alternate Color Scheme
1. Click on the Color Schemes hyperlink in the Slide Design task pane. The
color schemes will appear for the chosen design template.
2. Click on the desired color scheme. The presentation will change to that
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Customizing a Color Scheme
After selecting a color scheme, you may decide to change one or more of its
colors.
1. Click on the Edit Color Schemes hyperlink. The Edit Color Scheme
dialog box will open.
2. Click on the color you want to change. It will be selected.
3. Click on Change Color. A dialog box will appear for changing the
selected item.
For example, if you chose the background color in step 2, the box will be
called Background Color.
1. Click on the Standard tab if it is not already displayed.
2. Click on the desired color. It will be outlined.
3. Click on OK. The new color will appear in the Edit Color Scheme dialog
box.
4. Repeat steps 2 through 6 for additional colors, if desired.
5. Click on Add As Standard Scheme if you want to save this color
scheme. It will be added as a new color scheme on the Slide Design task
pane.
6. Click on Apply. The dialog box will close and the new color scheme will
be applied.

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6.21. Working with Masters
The Slide Master is a template that applies to every slide in the presentation (except
slides that use the Title Slide layout, because those take their design from the Title
Master template). When you apply a design template, you are making changes to the
Slide Master and Title Master. You can also change those Masters manually to
customize the design.
1. Click on View. The View menu will appear.
2. Point to Master. The Master submenu will appear.
3. Click on Slide Master. The Slide Master view will appear.
4. Click on the Slide Master or Title Master to select the one you want to
edit.
5. Make changes as desired. Keep reading to find out some of the changes you
can make. You are limited only by how creative and artistic you want to be.
6. Click on the Close Master View button when you have finished.
6.22. Changing Text Formatting
You will learn how to format slide text on a single slide, such as adding bold or italic,
choosing a different font, or changing the size. You can do the same formatting to the
text on the Slide Master or Title Master to change all the slides at once.
1. Select the text that you want to format. The text will be highlighted.
2. Apply text formatting to the text.
Some of the formatting you can apply includes:
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Moving and Resizing Text Placeholders
You can change the size of the Title Area, Object Area, Footer Area, Date Area, and
Number Area placeholders.
1. Click on a placeholder. A border will appear around the placeholder that
contains resize handles.
2. Click and drag a resize handle. A dotted line will show the new size of the
placeholder.
3. Position the mouse pointer over the placeholder. The mouse pointer will
become a four-headed arrow.
4. Click and drag the placeholder to a new location.
6.23. Working with Footers and Special Placeholders
The Slide Master contains placeholder boxes for date/ time, slide number, and
footer. These can be moved around or resized (see the preceding steps). You can also
turn them on or off.
1. Click on View. The View menu will appear.
2. Click on Header and Footer. The Header and Footer dialog box will
open.
3. Click in the Slide number check box if you want the slides to be
numbered.
4. Type text in the Footer box if you want footer text on each slide.
5. Click in the don’t show on title slide check box if you want to omit all
placeholders from title slides.
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By default, the date/time does not appear, even though the placeholder is
turned on. That's because Fixed is the default setting, and the Fixed box is
blank.
6.
a. Type today's date in the Fixed box to make it appear on each slide.
Then skip to step 9. Or
b. Click on Update automatically to set up an automatic date/time
on each slide. Today's date will appear in the box beneath it.
7. Click on the down arrow next to the date. A menu will appear.
8. Click on the date format that you want. It will appear in the box.
9. Click on the Apply to All button. The footer information on the slide
master will be updated.
6.24. Applying a Slide Background
You have hundreds of choices for a slide background. You can use clip art from the
Microsoft Clip Organizer or that you've found on the Internet, scanned photographs,
or images you've created in a graphics program, such as Microsoft Photo Editor.
Explore your options.
1. Click on Format. The Format menu will appear.
2. Click on Background. The Background dialog box will open.
3. Click on the down arrow next to Background fill. A list of color
options will appear.
4.
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a. Click on a placeholder color. A color will be used from the
current color scheme. If you change color schemes, the background
color will change. Or
b. Click on More Colors and then select a color from the
Background Color box. A specific solid color will be used. Or
c. Click on Fill Effects and then select a gradient, texture, pattern,
or picture as the background.
5. Click on Apply to All after selecting a background. The background
will be applied to the Slide Master.
6.25. Using Slide Transitions
Moving from one slide to another is called a slide transition. It can be a simple
replacement of one slide for the next, or you can set up fancier transitions that move
between them.
1. Select the slide(s) to which you want to apply the transition effect. The
slide(s) will be selected.
If you want to apply it to all slides, it does not matter which slide(s) you
select.
2. Click on Slide Show. The Slide Show menu will appear.
3. Click on Slide Transition. The Slide Transition task pane will appear.
4. Click on a slide transition. The transition will be selected, and a preview
of the transition will appear if the AutoPreview check box is selected.
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5. Click the Speed list box arrow and select the speed at which you want the
transition to play. The speed will appear in the list box.
6. Click the Sound list box arrow and select a sound to play during a slide
transition, if desired. The sound will appear in the list box.
Note The first time you select a sound, a box may appear prompting you to install the
Sound Effects feature. Click OK to do so.
7. Specify when the transition will occur:
8. Click on Apply to All Slides if you want all slides to use this transition. It
will be applied to all slides. If you don't do this, it will apply only to the slides
you selected in step 1.
9.
a. Click on Play. The transition effect will play in Normal view. Or
b. Click on Slide Show. The transition effect will play in Slide Show
view.
6.26. Applying an Animation Scheme
Whereas a transition moves from one slide to another, an animation moves an
individual object onto or off of the screen within a slide. PowerPoint comes with
many preset animation schemes that are designed for ease of use. You can also create
custom animations, as covered later in this chapter.
1. Display the slide to which you want to apply the animation. The slide will
appear in Normal view. If you want to apply the animation to several slides,
select the slides in Slide Sorter view.
2. Click on Slide Show. The Slide Show menu will appear.
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3. Click on Animation Schemes. The Slide Design task pane will appear, and
the available slide animations will be listed.
4. Click on an animation scheme. The animation will be applied to the selected
slides.
5. Click on Apply to All Slides if you want every slide in the presentation to
use the same animation scheme.
6.27. Creating Custom Animation
Custom animation allows you to specify exactly what you want to animate and how it
should be done.
Tip You can start with an animation scheme from the preceding set of steps, and then
customize it.
1. Open the slide that contains the element that you want to animate. The slide
will appear in Normal view.
2. Click on Slide Show. The Slide Show menu will appear.
3. Click on Custom Animation. The Custom Animation task pane will
appear.
If you applied an animation scheme previously, the animation for it will be shown.



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Adding an Animation Effect
Start with a slide that does not already have any animation effects for this procedure.
1. Click on the element on the slide that you want to animate. The element
will be selected.
This could be a title, a bulleted list, or a graphic object.
2. Click on Add Effect on the task pane. A menu will appear.
3. Point to a category of effects. A second menu will appear.
Note Entrance effects control how the object enters the slide. Emphasis effects make it do
something after its entrance. Exit effects control how it leaves the slide. A motion
path is an advanced feature that enables you to specify exactly where the object
travels.
4.
a. Click on one of the effects shown on the menu. It will be applied to
the object, and you are done. Or
b. Click on More Effects. A dialog box with a list of special effects will
open.
5. Click on an effect.
6. Click on OK when you have selected an animation effect. The animation will
be applied to the slide elements. You can now modify the animation.
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Modifying an Animation
Do this on a slide that already has one or more animated objects.
1. Click on the animation effect in the task pane. It will be selected.
2. Select an event trigger from the Start list. On Click is the most common.
3. Select a direction from the Direction list.
The significance of Direction depends on the animation type. For example, if
it is an entrance effect, the object will enter the slide from the chosen
direction.
4. Select a speed from the Speed list.
Tip You can also right-click the animation on the task pane and choose Effect Options to open
a dialog box containing more choices. For example, you can enter a delay to be used with
the After Previous event trigger, and you can specify a sound that should play with the
animation.

Reordering Animations
Objects are animated on the slide in the order in which you created the animations
for them. You can rearrange them on the list to make them occur in a different
order.
1. Click on the animation you want to move in the task pane. It will be
selected.
2.
a. Click on the Up button to move it up on the list. Or
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b. Click on the Down button to move it down on the list.
Removing an Animation
1. Click on the animation you want to remove. It will be selected.
2. Click on Remove. The animation will be removed.
6.28. Publishing the Presentation in Web Format
Publishing in Web format is useful when you are trying to reach an audience over a
network. This can include the Internet or an internal corporate intranet. The main
advantage of this distribution method is that the people viewing it do not need
PowerPoint installed on their PCs—or even a Windows-based operating system.
1. Click on File. The File menu will appear.
2. Click on Save as Web Page. A special version of the Save As dialog box
will open.
3. Click on the down arrow next to Save as type and select the type of
file you want.
4. Click on Change Title. The Set Page Title dialog box will open.
5. Enter the title you want in the Page title box. This title will appear in the
user's Web browser when he or she displays the presentation later.
6. Click on OK. The title will appear next to Page title in the Save As dialog
box.
7. Click on Save. The presentation will be saved in Web format.


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Chapter 7: Types of Web Browsers
7.1. Internet Explorer
This is the most widely-used web browser by people around the world. It was
developed by Microsoft in 1994 and released in 1995 as a supportive package to
Microsoft Windows line of operating systems. It is presently known as Windows
Internet Explorer, was formerly called Microsoft Internet Explorer (MSIE), and
more is commonly known as IE. People have a misconception that browsing the
Internet is possible only through Internet Explorer. They are unaware of various web
browsers that are available. This simply proves that Internet Explorer is used by the
majority. According to statistics, its usage share from 1999 to 2003-04 was around
95%. Since then, there has been a lot of competition in the market, with many
software companies coming up with web browsers that challenge IE in their features
and usage. Microsoft occasionally releases updates to their previous versions of IE,
which have some enhanced capabilities. The latest version is Internet Explorer 8
which is a free update. The 'favicon', which is the favorites icon was introduced first
in IE, and was later adopted by many other web browsers. Initially, IE did not
support tabbed browsing, but today, it can be used even in the older versions, by
installing toolbars.
7.2. Mozilla Firefox
It is owned by Mozilla Corporation and was the result of an experimentation. This
browser has gone through many name changes due to name clashes with other
products. 'Mozilla Firefox' was officially announced in February 2004. It was earlier
named Phoenix, Firebird, and eventually Firefox. It is the second-most famous
browser after Internet Explorer, as there were around 100 million downloads within
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a year of its release. Until November 2008, 700 million downloads were recorded.
Since the release of Firefox, the sale of Internet Explorer has gone down drastically.
It has around 22% of the market share at present. It has undergone many updates and
version changes that were made to improve usability to the universal users. It can be
used on most
operating systems, but was found to be more prone to vulnerabilities. However, the
problems were fixed in the newer versions. As it is an open source software, its
source code is available,thus allowing everyone to access the code. It supports tabbed
browsing that allows the user to open multiple sites in a single window. Session
storage is also an important feature of Firefox, which allows the user to regain access
to the open tabs after he has closed the browser window. Apart from these, there are
many user-friendly features that Firefox offers.
7.3. Safari
This is a web browser from Apple Inc., which is compatible with Mac OS X
operating system, Microsoft Windows, and the iPhone OS. Safari was released by
Apple in January 2003 as a public beta. As of March 2009, the market share of Safari
has gone up to 8.23%. The Safari 4 beta release claims to have many features like
VoiceOver Screen Reader, that reads aloud everything that takes place on the screen,
with text and web links. It also has features like CSS Canvas, LiveConnect, XML 1.0,
and JavaScript support, and Cover Flow. 'Grammar Checking' is an interesting built-
in feature, which performs a grammar check on the typed text and gives suggestions
to correct your sentence if wrong. If you need to fill an online form with your
personal information, AutoFill is a feature that automatically does that for you, with
the help of information that is stored in your address book or Outlook. Safari
supports all the functions that are available in other web browsers.

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7.4. Opera
This web browser was developed by Opera Software in 1996. It is a well-known
browser that is mainly used in Internet-activated mobile phones, PDAs, and
smartphones. Opera Mini and Opera Mobile are the browsers used in PDAs and
smartphones. It is compatible with many operating systems such as Solaris, Linux,
Mac OS X, and Microsoft Windows. Though it is not a renowned computer web
browser, it is popular as a web browser in mobile devices. It is also compatible with
Symbian and Windows Mobile operating systems for smartphones and PDAs. Opera
9.64 which is the latest version, provides an e-mail client known as the Opera Mail.
The company claims that Opera is the fastest browser in the world. It also has some
common functions like zoom and fit-to-width, content blocking, tabs and sessions,
download manager with BitTorrent, and mouse gestures.

7.5. Netscape Navigator/Netscape
It was developed by Netscape Communications Corporation and was most popular in
the 1990s. Exceptional features were provided at the time of its release, which
helped it rise to fame with a market share of more than 50% in the 1990s. It was
compatible with almost every operating system. Since 2002, it has almost
disappeared from the market due to strong competition from rivals like Internet
Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, etc. It had undergone many version changes to
maintain its stake in the market, none of which were very successful.
Although there are many web browsers available and many more are likely to arrive
in future, only those which are exciting and user friendly will be able to survive
market competition and hold on to a substantial market share.

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Chapter 8: How to Use Internet
8.1. Getting Started
To launch Internet Explorer
On a Windows PC, double-click on the Internet Explorer icon on your desktop.
You can also click on the Start menu and go to All Programs to select Internet
Explorer
To turn on the Menu Bar
Internet Explorer 7 does not display the Menu Bar by default.

1. Click on the Tools button on the upper right corner of the browser.

2. Then make sure Menu Bar is checked



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URL of current webpage


The Internet Explorer 7 window displays a home page upon launch. The URL
(Universal Resource Locator) is the address of the webpage being viewed. Each
webpage has its own unique URL. Some URLs are case-sensitive and all have to be
typed exactly, including spaces or special symbols such as ~.
Navigate Backwards and Forwards

The Back button lets you return to the last webpage that you visited. If you click on
the downward facing triangle to the right of the button, you can see a menu of webpages
you have visited.
Reload and Stop Load Buttons

When displaying a webpage, IE transfers a copy of the webpage from the Internet onto
your computer. Therefore if the webpage changes, you can update the webpage in your
browser window by clicking the Reload button with the green arrows. If the webpage
is taking too long to load, you can stop the process by clicking on the Stop button
with the red X. Click on the Reload button to start the loading process again from the
beginning.
Home Button

The Home button lets you return to the home page that you set. You can change
the home page.
Search Engine / Search Provider

You can type in a word or a phrase to search the Internet. Putting a phrase in quotes will
search for that exact phrase. You can change the default search engine to Google
or something else.
Favorites Buttons

In order to save the webpage URL link for future web browsing sessions, you must save
it as a bookmark by clicking on the Add Favorites button . Clicking on the
View Favorites button , allows you to see all your favorites you have saved.
You can also export and import bookmarks.
Tab Browsing Features

The Tab Bar allows you to have multiple webpages open at once in a single window.
Each webpage will appear under a separate tab and you can simply click on the tab to
access that webpage. Read the tab browsing overview.
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8.2. Using Internet Explorer 7 Overview
Below is a picture of the Internet Explorer window with important components
highlighted

.






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8.3. Tabbed browsing overview
• Tabbed browsing allows users to open multiple websites in one Internet Explorer
window by clicking on the open New Tab button or pressing CTRL+T.
• Users can preview thumbnail images of all open tabs in a single view, by clicking on the
Quick Tab button (also see screenshot below).
• The Add Tab Group to Favorites feature allows users to save multiple tabbed windows
into one favorite tab group. For example, a user may have ten tabs open and instead of
saving each tab one-by-one, she can save them all at once into one group. Click on the
add favorites star icon and select Add Tab Group to Favorites. Then next to
Tab Group Name, type in a name (e.g. Disease Pathology websites visited Sept 1). Finally,
click Add.







8.4. To change your home page
your home page is displayed when Internet Explorer first opens or when you click
the Home button. You can choose any webpage to be your home page.





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Option 1
1. Open Internet Explorer and go to the webpage you want to use as the home
page.
2. Click the down arrow to the right of the Home button , and then click
Add or Change home page.
3. In the Add or Change Home Page dialog box, click Use this webpage as
your only home page.
4. Click yes to save your changes.
Option 2
1. Go to Tools and select Internet Options.
2. In the General tab, under the Home page category, type in the URL you wish
to be your home page (e.g. http://www.wellesley.edu).
3. Click Apply to save your changes. Click OK.
8.5. To add a new search provider (search engine)
1. Click the down arrow to the right of the Search Options button .
2. Click Find More Providers.
3. Click the search provider you want to add. The Add Search Provider
dialog box will appear.
4. If you want the provider that you just added to be used by default when
searching from the Address bar or search box, select the Make this my
default search provider check box.
5. Click Add Provider.
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8.6. To remove a search provider (search engine)
1. Open Internet Explorer. Click the down arrow to the right of the Search
Options button.
2. Click Change Search Defaults.
3. Select the search provider you would like to remove. Click Remove and
then click OK.
8.7. To restore default settings in order to prevent IE7
crashes
Occasionally Internet Explorer may become unstable and start constantly crashing.
Before you consider uninstalling and reinstalling Internet Explorer, you can try
returning IE7 to its default settings.
1. In Internet Explorer 7, go to Tools > Internet Options. Click the
Advanced tab. (If your IE7 browser won't even open without crashing, you
can also right-click on your IE7 desktop icon and select Properties and then
click the Advanced tab.)
2. Click the Reset... button near the bottom. A window will appear explaining
to you what restoring your settings will do to your browser. For example,
your favorite bookmarks will not be erased. Your add-ons will be disable and
your temporary internet files and cookies will get erased. Most users will not
notice these items are gone or can easily re-enable them later. So if your
browser is unstable, we recommend that you reset your browser settings.
3. Click Reset.
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4. You will be prompted to close and reopen your browser.
8.8. To fix error "SSL certificate REV failed [12057]"
You are on a Vista computer trying to access the Wellesley network, but you
cannot get through Cisco Clean Access. You get the message: Network Error!
SSL certificate REV failed [12057].
1. Open Internet Explorer 7.
2. Go to Tools > Internet Options > Advanced.
3. Go to the Security section and uncheck Check for server certificate
revocation. Click OK.
4. Try to log into CCA again. You may need to restart your computer.
8.9. To empty the Temporary Internet Files folder
(cache)
Every time you visit a webpage, Internet Explorer saves a copy of the webpage to
a folder called Temporary Internet Files. If this folder gets too full, Internet
Explorer may run more slowly and behave in an unstable way. Also, if a webpage
is not loading correctly and shows an error message (such as "Range not
satisfiable..."), a common solution is to empty the cache. You should clear the
cache at least once a month.
1. In Internet Explorer, click the Tools button, and then click Internet
Options.
2. In the General tab, under Browsing history, click Delete.
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3. In the Temporary Internet Files category, click Delete files, and
then click Yes.
4. Click Close, and then click OK.

8.10. To clear the browsing history
The browsing history is a listing of all the recent websites you have visited within a
set period of time (e.g. two weeks). Clearing your history list does not affect your
bookmarks.
1. In Internet Explorer, click the Tools button, and then click Internet
Options.
2. On the General tab, under Browsing history, click Delete.
3. In the History category, click Delete history, and then click Yes.
4. Click Close, and then click OK.
8.11. To save a picture from a webpage

1. In Internet Explorer, using the mouse, right-click the picture you want to
save.
2. Click Save Picture As.
3. In the Save Picture dialog box, browse to the folder where you want to save
the file, and then click Save.
8.12. To save a webpage onto your computer

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1. In Internet Explorer, go to the webpage you want to save. Click the Page
button and then click Save As.
2. Navigate to the folder in which you want to save the webpage.
3. In the File name box, type a name for the webpage.
4. In the Save as type box, pick one of the following from the drop down menu:
o Webpage, complete: To save all of the files needed to display this
webpage, including graphics, frames, and style sheets, select
Webpage, complete. This option saves each file in its original
format.
o Webpage, HTML only: To save just the current HTML webpage,
click Webpage, HTML only. This option does not save individual
files of images, sounds, or video onto your computer. But it does save
all the HTML code information that would preserve formatting, text,
hyperlinks, and the pathways to images, sounds, and video.

o Web Archive, single file: To save all of the information needed to
display this webpage in a single file, click Web Archive, single file.
This option saves a snapshot of the current webpage. This option is
available only if you have installed Outlook Express 5 or later.
o Text File: To save just the text from the current webpage, click Text
File. This option saves the information on the webpage in text format.
5. Then click Save.
8.13. To open the webpage that you have saved
1. Launch Internet Explorer 7. Then go to the File menu and select Open.
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2. Click on Browse to find and select the file you want to open.
3. Click Open and then click OK.
8.14. To make WebPages load without images or
sounds
Loading a webpage with no images or sounds can speed up the time that it takes the
webpage to load.
1. In Internet Explorer, click the Tools button, and then click Internet
Options.
2. Click the Advanced tab.
3. In the Settings section, under Multimedia, uncheck the boxes next to
Play sounds in webpages and Show pictures. Click OK.
Notes: To view one image without downloading the other images, right-click on
the selected image and then click on Show Picture.
8.15. Bookmarks
Bookmarks provide a permanent and easy way to remember your favorite webpages.
They are only deleted when you delete them, not when you quit Internet Explorer
To create bookmarks (favorites)
1. Go to the webpage you want to bookmark.
2. Click on the Add to Favorites icon or go to the Favorites menu.
3. Then click on Add to Favorites.
4. Give the webpage a name (e.g. American Revolution Prints) or keep its original
name.
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5. Select the folder you would like the bookmark to reside in.
6. Click Add.
To view and use bookmarks (favorites)
1. In Internet Explorer, click click on the View Favorites button and select
Favorites. (Another option is to click on the Favorites menu in the main
toolbar.)
2. From that list, click on the bookmark of the webpage you want to see.
To organize your bookmarks (favorites)
Internet Explorer lets you arrange your bookmarks in folders and change the order in
which they appear. You can also rename and delete your bookmarks.
1. In Internet Explorer, click on the Favorites menu and select Organize
Favorites.
2. The Organize Favorites window will let you create folders and place
bookmarks in those folders by using the New Folder and Move buttons.
You can delete and rename existing bookmarks by using the Delete and
Rename buttons. Dragging bookmarks around within the display window
will change the order in which they appear.
3. Click Close to save your changes.
Note: In the Favorites menu itself you may also drag bookmarks around to change
the order in which they appear or to move them into folders.



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To import bookmarks (favorites) into Internet Explorer 7
First, you must have your bookmarks exported from your old web browser. In most
browsers, this is done by saving all your bookmarks into a file (you can name it
whatever you want, but it is usually called bookmarks.html). Detailed
instructions for backing up your bookmarks are available for specific
browsers such as Netscape, Safari, Firefox, and older versions of Internet Explorer.
After you have created a bookmarks file, do the following:
1. In Internet Explorer, click the Add to Favorites button , and then click
Import and Export.
2. The Import/Export Wizard will open up. Click Next.
3. Under Choose an action to perform, select Import Favorites. Click Next.
4. Under Import from a File or Address, select Browse.
5. Find and select your bookmarks file (e.g. bookmarks.html) and then click
Next.
6. Select the folder where you would like to place the imported favorites. Click
Next.
7. You have successfully imported your bookmarks. Click Finish.
To export bookmarks (favorites) out of Internet Explorer 7
1. In Internet Explorer, click the Add to Favorites button , and then click
Import and Export.
2. In the Import/Export Wizard, click Next.
3. Under Choose an action to perform, select Export Favorites. Click Next.
4. Then select which folder you want to export. Clicking Favorites will export
all your bookmarks.
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5. Click on Browse to choose where you want to save your bookmarks, which
will be in a file named bookmark.htm (you can also name it something else
if you want). Click Next.
6. Click Finish. Click OK.
7. To import your bookmarks into a different browser such as Firefox, Safari, or an older version of
Internet Explorer, follow the directions on this webpage, under the heading, Restoring
Bookmarks.

Introduction to Computers, Ms-Windows, Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER -------------------------------------------------------------- 8 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. What is a Computer?------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 Distinguishing Features of Computers ----------------------------------------------------------------- 8 Computer Hardware ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 9 Software ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15
Types of Software --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15

1.3.1. Organization of the Computer Hardware ------------------------------------------------------------------------------9

1.4.1.

Operating Systems -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16

CHAPTER 2: MICROSOFT WINDOWS ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 17 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. User Interface ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17 Logging into Your Computer -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17 The Windows Desktop --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18 Using Windows Explorer ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 19 Internet Option ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 34

CHAPTER 3: INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT WORD --------------------------------------------------- 35 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. Anatomy of Word Screen ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 36 Different Views of the Document --------------------------------------------------------------------- 37 Formatting----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 39

3.3.1. Character Formatting----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 40 3.3.2. Paragraph Formatting ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 42 3.3.3. Page Formatting----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 48 3.4. 3.5. 3.6. 3.7. Table of Contents --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 51 Headers and Footers ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 52 Spelling and Grammar Checking ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 54 Tables and Columns ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 57

3.7.1. Tables ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 57 3.7.2. Columns ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 64

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Introduction to Computers, Ms-Windows, Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 3.7.3. Drop Cap ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 65 3.7.4. Graphics and Text Boxes ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 66 3.8. 3.9. Working with Multiple Documents------------------------------------------------------------------- 66 Inserting AutoText ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 67

3.10. Insert Files ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 67 3.11. Use AutoRecover --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 68 3.12. Finding and Replacing Formatting -------------------------------------------------------------------- 68 3.13. Adding a Watermark ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 69 3.14. Creating Footnotes or Endnotes ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 70 3.15. Creating a Bookmark ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 71 3.16. Creating a Table of Figures ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 72 3.17. Numbering Heading Styles----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 73 3.18. Apply Numbering to Custom Heading Styles -------------------------------------------------------- 74 12.1. Numbering Lines ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 75 12.2. Creating an Equation ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 75 12.3. Creating Mail Merge Documents---------------------------------------------------------------------- 76 12.4. Creating Documents Using Automatic Formatting -------------------------------------------------- 77 12.5. Inserting Comments ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 77 12.6. Creating a Form ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 78 12.7. Printing -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 78 12.7.1. Editing Text in Print Preview -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 79 12.7.2. To Print a Document:----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 79

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Introduction to Computers, Ms-Windows, Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual CHAPTER 4: INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL ---------------------------------------------------- 81 Switching between sheets ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 81
4.2.1. Data Entry ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 81 Working with a Worksheet --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 83 Exiting Excel --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 84 Types of series ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 85 Creating a Series----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 86 Moving and Copying Data and Formats ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 87 Inserting Cells, Columns and Rows ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 90 Clearing and Deleting ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 90 Find and Replace ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 91

Moving the Cell pointer --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 82
4.2.2.

Select the worksheet ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 84
4.2.3. 4.3.1. 4.3.2. 4.3.3. 4.4.1. 4.4.2. 4.4.3.

4.5.1. Formatting the Appearance of Data-------------------------------------------------------------------- 92 4.5.2. Aligning Worksheet Data ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 93 4.5.3. Formatting Borders and Shading ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 93
4.6.1. 4.6.2. 4.6.3. 4.6.4. 4.7.1. 4.7.2. 4.8.1. 4.8.2. 4.8.3. Entering Database Information----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 95 Sorting a Database -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 95 Filtering a List-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 96 Data Forms ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 99 Cell References -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------101 Worksheet Functions----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------103 Creating a Chart ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------107 Parts of a Chart -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------108 Working with Chart and Chart Items --------------------------------------------------------------------------109

CHAPTER 5: MICROSOFT ACCESS--------------------------------------------------------------------------112 5.1. What is a Database? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------112
Starting Microsoft Access 2003 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------112 The Microsoft Access 2003 Screen-------------------------------------------------------------------------------113 Using Help ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------115 Designing a Database ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------116 Creating a Database------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------116 Creating Tables -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------117 5.1.1. 5.1.2. 5.1.3.

5.2.

Designing and Creating Databases -------------------------------------------------------------------116

5.2.1. 5.2.2. 5.2.3.

5.3.

Organizing your Data ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------125
Filtering Records---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------125 Entering Criteria ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------126 The AND and OR Relations --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------127 Inserting Column or Row ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------127 Deleting Column or Row -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------127 Removing a Filter --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------128

5.3.1. 5.3.2. 5.3.3. 5.3.4. 5.3.5. 5.3.6.

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5.11.2.6. 5. Queries--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------131 Types of Queries----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------131 Creating a Query with a Wizard---------------------------------------------------------------------------------132 Creating a Custom Designed Query ----------------------------------------------------------------------------132 Expressions in Queries and Filters ------------------------------------------------------------------------------134 Creating Select Query ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------135 Creating Make table Query --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------135 Creating an Update Query ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------136 Creating an Append Query---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------137 Using a Calculated Field in a Query ----------------------------------------------------------------------------137 Editing a Query -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------138 5. 5.3. 5.6.9.5.14.6.5. 5.5.1. 5.9.5.6.4. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 5.4.4.1. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5.Introduction to Computers.12.1.5.5. Forms----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------139 Types of Form Views-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------139 Creating A Quick form --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------139 Creating A Form Using A Wizard -------------------------------------------------------------------------------139 Creating A Custom Designed Form -----------------------------------------------------------------------------140 Making a Form Read-Only ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------141 Creating a Form with multiple Screens or pages -------------------------------------------------------------142 Adding a Label and Editing Label Text-------------------------------------------------------------------------142 Changing the Appearance of Text ------------------------------------------------------------------------------143 5.13.10.6. 5. 5.6. Ms-Windows. 5. 5.6.6.8.3.9.5.6.5. 5.1 Introduction To Power Point -------------------------------------------------------------------------156 Starting PowerPoint -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------156 Creating a Desktop Shortcut for PowerPoint -------------------------------------------------------157 Exiting PowerPoint ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------158 Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 5 of 208 . 5. 5.8. Reports -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------144 Generating a Quick Report---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------144 Generating a Report using a Wizard ---------------------------------------------------------------------------144 Generating a Custom Designed Report ------------------------------------------------------------------------145 Changing a Form or Report's Underlying Table or Query -------------------------------------------------145 Creating a Sub report----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------146 Changing the Layout of a Subform or Subreport-------------------------------------------------------------147 Sorting and Grouping Data in Reports-------------------------------------------------------------------------148 Changing Sorting and Grouping Order ------------------------------------------------------------------------149 Hiding Duplicate Data on a Report-----------------------------------------------------------------------------150 Adding or Removing Headers and Footers on a Report ----------------------------------------------------151 Sizing Sections in a Form or Report ----------------------------------------------------------------------------152 Adding page Numbers to a Form or Report-------------------------------------------------------------------152 Adding the Current Date and Time to a Form or Report ---------------------------------------------------153 Drawing Lines and Rectangles on Forms and Reports ------------------------------------------------------154 Previewing a Report-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------154 5.5.6.3.6.5. 5.4. 6. 5. 5.2. 5. Saving a Filter as a Query -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------128 Copying and Moving Microsoft Access Objects or Text----------------------------------------------------128 Printing a Datasheet -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------129 Renaming a Database Object-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------130 5.2.5. 5.7.4.8. 5.4.7.3.4.3.15.4.10. 5.6.6. 5.4.7. 5.6.1. 6. 5.4.3.4. 5. 5.10.8. 5.2.3.6. 6. 6.4.5. 5.6.6.7.3.4.6.6.4.

6. 6. 6.2 Selecting Text ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------175 6. Using the Thesaurus -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------179 6.1. 6.18. 6.1.6. Ms-Windows.1. Understanding PowerPoint Views -------------------------------------------------------------------159 Changing to a Different View ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------160 Working with Toolbars -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------162 Moving a Toolbar --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------162 Turning off the Personalized Menus Feature -----------------------------------------------------------------163 6.10. Changing the Design Template -----------------------------------------------------------------------182 6. 6.5.15. Using the Replace Feature ----------------------------------------------------------------------------177 6. Using Other Research Tools --------------------------------------------------------------------------179 6. Displaying Outline View ------------------------------------------------------------------------------169 6.Introduction to Computers.4.9.4. 6. 6.2.19.20.2.13.4.1. Working with Masters---------------------------------------------------------------------------------184 6. 6.3 Revising Text-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------176 6. Editing Text --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------175 6. Inserting Slides from another Presentation ---------------------------------------------------------174 6.18. Selecting Slides -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------180 Inserting a Slide ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------180 Duplicating a Slide-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------181 Moving a Slide ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------181 Deleting Slides------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------181 6. Using the Research Tools -----------------------------------------------------------------------------178 6.3. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 6.11.4.4.18. Changing the Color Scheme---------------------------------------------------------------------------182 6.5.4.21.4.14.3.18.18.1.8. 6. 6.7. 6. Spell Checking the Presentation----------------------------------------------------------------------178 6.16.18. Working with Slides in Slide Sorter View -----------------------------------------------------------180 6.17. Changing Text Formatting ----------------------------------------------------------------------------184 Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 6 of 208 . Using the AutoContent Wizard-----------------------------------------------------------------------164 Starting a New Presentation using a Template ------------------------------------------------------165 Starting a Blank Presentation -------------------------------------------------------------------------166 Printing the Presentation -----------------------------------------------------------------------------167 Working with Presentation Files ---------------------------------------------------------------------167 6.12.22.1 Outlining a Presentation ------------------------------------------------------------------------------170 6.

1. 8.4.4.3. To clear the browsing history-------------------------------------------------------------------------203 8. To save a picture from a webpage --------------------------------------------------------------------203 8. 8.5. 7.1. Using Slide Transitions --------------------------------------------------------------------------------187 6.25. 8. Applying a Slide Background-------------------------------------------------------------------------186 6. Creating Custom Animation --------------------------------------------------------------------------189 6.13. 7. 8.6. 7. Ms-Windows.11. To save a webpage onto your computer -------------------------------------------------------------203 8.28.14.23.Introduction to Computers. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 6. Internet Explorer --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------193 Mozilla Firefox -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------193 Safari------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------194 Opera -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------195 Netscape Navigator/Netscape -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------195 8. Working with Footers and Special Placeholders----------------------------------------------------185 6. Publishing the Presentation in Web Format ---------------------------------------------------------192 7.7.5.12. To open the webpage that you have saved ----------------------------------------------------------204 8. Applying an Animation Scheme ----------------------------------------------------------------------188 6.3.8.10.2.9.2.26. 8.27. 8. Getting Started -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------196 Using Internet Explorer 7 Overview -----------------------------------------------------------------198 Tabbed browsing overview ---------------------------------------------------------------------------199 To change your home page ---------------------------------------------------------------------------199 To add a new search provider (search engine)------------------------------------------------------200 To remove a search provider (search engine) -------------------------------------------------------201 To restore default settings in order to prevent IE7 crashes ----------------------------------------201 To fix error "SSL certificate REV failed [12057]"----------------------------------------------------202 To empty the Temporary Internet Files folder (cache)---------------------------------------------202 8.24. To make WebPages load without images or sounds ------------------------------------------------205 Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 7 of 208 . 8. 7. 8.

Versatility (General Purpose): If given the correct instructions. Ms-Windows.2. Speed: modern computers can process billions of instructions per second. 5. Memory (Storage): Computers can store data so that it can be retrieved whenever needed. Distinguishing Features of Computers 1. Diligence (Tirelessness): If there are billions of instructions to be processed. 2. 6. Computers process the first and the last instruction with the same speed and accuracy. process the data to produce useful information under the direction of step-by-step instructions. This feature of computers is Programmability. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer 1. Accuracy: Computers are extremely accurate. 1. 3. Programmability: The Computer can do virtually everything provided that it is given the correct set of instruction. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 8 of 208 .Introduction to Computers. The physical part of the computer is called Hardware and the instructions are Software. Erroneous results may occur due to human rather than technological weakness. What is a Computer? A computer is an electronic data processing machine that is designed to accept and store data. called programs. Computers can do virtually everything.1. 4.

3. scanner and etc. The widely used Input devices include keyboard.1. It accepts (reads) the list of instructions and data from the outside world. 1. The unit that links the external environment with the computer system performs this task. Organization of the Computer Hardware Control Arithmetic Unit Logic unit Register Input Device Output Device Memory Secondary Storage Input device Data and instructions must enter the computer before any computation can be performed on the supplied data. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 9 of 208 . Ms-Windows. the input unit performs the following functions.3. Computer Hardware The physical component of a computer system that can be seen. mouse. touched and felt. In short. It converts these instructions and data in a computer acceptable form. It supplies the converted instructions and data to the computer system for processing. There are different categories of input devices.Introduction to Computers. placed inside the system or outside make up the hardware. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 1.

Function keys / programmable keys: F1through F12 3. BkSp Or Backspace . Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Keyboard A computer keyboard is an electromechanical component designed to create special standardized electronic codes when a key is pressed. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 10 of 208 .purpose keys: Alt. Ctrl. Page down. Caps Lock .Use The Shift Keys To Type Capital Letters And To Type The Upper Character On Keys With Two Characters On Them.Introduction to Computers. .Moves The Cursor Down One Line And Enters Commands. “.Moves The Cursor Five Spaces To The Right. etc. 0-9. ?. .Cancels A Menu Or Message Box.Locks The Keyboard So It Types Capital Letters (A Light Goes On When Caps Lock Is On) Tab . Keyboards come in a variety of sizes and shapes but most keyboards have common layouts: 1. Arrow Keys . etc 4. Home. Del Or Delete .Moves The Cursor One Space At A Time To The Right. Space Bar .Deletes The Character At Cursor And/Or Characters To The Right Of The Cursor. pause. Numeric keys: located at the right side of the keyboard Keyboard layout and Data Entry Enter Or Return .Deletes The Character To The Left Of Cursor. Esc Or Escape .Moves The Cursor Around Document With Out Changing Text. . Standardized typewriter keys: A-Z. Ms-Windows. 5. Special . Cursor movement keys (arrow keys): Page up. 2. Shift Key . End.

access commands by themselves or in combination with the three command keys. They have different uses with different software. Scanner reads a hardcopy data from source document (including image graphs. and ALT. As well the command keys are all used to move through documents and edit text faster and easier.The Shift key used to type CAPITAL LETTERS. . Output Device Output devices provide the right information to the right person in the right format at the right time.normally do nothing on their own but work in combination with other keys. Ms-Windows. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Function Keys or F keys . .The Alternative key or Alt is often used to access menus. Each piece of software uses the command keys differently.Introduction to Computers. type and handwritten documents) in to computer usable form. Mouse Is a hand held device connected to the computer by small cable. Output hardware is categorized according to whether it produces hardcopy or softcopy. Command keys . The mouse has two buttons the left one is used to select objects and text and the right one is used to access menus. Scanners Scanning devices are called optical Character Recognition input device. . CTRL. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 11 of 208 .The Control key or Ctrl is often used to Access commands. SHIFT.

) CPU (Central Processing Unit) The ability to process (organizes and manipulate) data is a critical aspect of a computer system. Printer The printer takes the information from the computer and transfers it to paper. The principal hardcopy output devices are Printers and Plotters. Inkjet printers: work like dot matrix printers but fires a stream of ink from a cartridge directly on to the paper. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 12 of 208 .Refers to information that has been recorded on a tangible medium such as paper or microfilms. and laser. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Hardcopy: . The three basic types or printer are. Monitors come in many type and size from the simple monochrome (one color) screen to full color screen. Softcopy: . Dot matrix printers: work like a typewriter transferring ink from a ribbon to paper with a series or 'matrix' of tiny pins. processing is accomplished by and interplays between one or more of the central processing units and primary storage. inkjet. Laser Printers: use the same technology as a photocopier using heat to transfer toner (black powder) onto paper.Introduction to Computers. There are many different types of printers with various levels of quality. In a computer system. Most desktop computers use a monitor with CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) and notebook computers use LCD (Liquid Crystal Display. Monitor Is a device that shows the progress and operation of the computer. Ms-Windows.Refers to the temporary data output such as displayed on a computer screen. dot matrix.

Registers are high-speed storage areas used to temporarily hold small units of program instructions and data immediately before. Main Memory Located physically close to the CPU (to decrease access time). Ms-Windows. the combination of circuit states is fixed and therefore the data represented by this combination will bot be lost if the power is removed. The CPU of a computer is also called brain of the computer. ROM . Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Each central processing unit (CPU) consists of three associated elements: the arithmetic logic unit the control unit. primary storage and even secondary storage and various output devices. the registers. The control unit sequentially access program instructions. Instructions or data can be temporarily stored in RAM. The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs mathematical calculations and makes logical comparisons.Introduction to Computers.it exists only as long as the electric current is maintained. RAM chips will lose their contents if the current is turned off or disrupted. during and after execution by the CPU. In ROM. ROM provides permanent storage for Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 13 of 208 .is temporary and volatile . memory provides the CPU with a working storage area for program instructions and data.is usually nonvolatile. and the register areas. decodes them and coordinated the flow of data in and out of the ALU. The chief feature of memory is that it rapidly provides the data and instructions to the CPU. Types of Memory There are two types of memory: RAM (Random Access Memory) ROM (Read Only Memory) RAM .

Inside the drive the disk spins at a very high speed and the read/write head reads information from the surface and feeds it to the computer or receives information from the computer and stores it on the disk. The most common way of storing information permanently is on magnetic storage medium. Magnetic disks are generally manufactured without tracks and sectors.Introduction to Computers. Aside from its high cost.There are other types of nonvolatile memory as well like PROM (programmable read-only memory) EPROM (Erasable Programmable read-only memory) Secondary Storage Devices (Auxiliary Memory) Main memory serves as the primary storage for the computer. Ms-Windows. A device called a disk drive is used to read from or write information to the disk. The amount of information on the inner track is the same as that of on the outer track though much compressed. Based on the backing material (plastic or metal). Thus. Magnetic Disk Magnetic disks are made of metal or plastic coated with magnetic material. The tracks are further divided into sections called Sectors. magnetic disks can be divided into two: Floppy Disks & Hard Disks Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 14 of 208 . Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual data and instructions that do not change like programs and data from the computer manufacturer. Examples of magnetic storage medium are magnetic tapes. there should be other types of storage devices capable of permanent storage. Information is recorded on a disk in concentric circles called Tracks on both surfaces of the disk. RAM is volatile and ROM is read only. Tracks and sectors are created by the operating system of the computer by a process called formatting. magnetic disks etc. .

Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Floppy Disk (Diskettes) Diskettes are often referred to as “floppy” because they are made of flexible material. 1.. To store and retrieve data from a floppy disk. Ms-Windows. All computers have at least one hard disk Has a massive storage capacity that can be measured in GB.4. Visual Basic Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 15 of 208 . MS DOS.g. The finite set of instructions that tell the computer hardware what to do is called PROGRAM.4. Hard Disks Standard secondary storage device of all computers.Introduction to Computers. Software Software is part of a computer that gives instructions to the physical part (hardware) to carry out its tasks. Different software is used for different purposes. UNIX o Language/Developing Software E.1. Pascal. you must place it into a disk drive. FORTRAN. Can store and retrieve data much faster than floppy diskettes. Non-removable as it is fixed inside the computer. MS WINDOWS.. 1.g. which contains special mechanical components for storing and retrieving data. C++. Types of Software There are 2 types of software: System Software: o Operating System Software E.

Operating Systems In a computer system there are at least three components: the computer hardware. etc) NB: Without the operating system the application software would be unable to run Functions of the Operating System: Controlling Activity Input/output Management Command Processing/Interpretation Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 16 of 208 . etc 1. Games. Spreadsheet software. Database Management software o Accounting System software.5. word processor software. the software and the user. To use the computer effectively there should be efficient communication between these three components. word processing software.Introduction to Computers. Virus Protection and detection Software. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Application Software: o Developed to meet particular user interest E. It is the master program that allows the user to run application programs (Games. The operating system is a program that acts as a link between the user. Ms-Windows.g. the computer software.. and computer resources.

the operating system takes keyboard inputs from the user and translates it into operations that the computer performs.2. MSDOS is example of an operating system with CLI as its operating environment. Mouse is a pointing device with two buttons which controls the movement of a pointer on the screen. User Interface Users communicate with their computers through the operating system. During the loading process you will see the Windows logo and other messages. This operating environment is known as Graphical User Interface (GUI). The user interface (operating environment) of most modern operating systems incorporates graphical elements. Once this process is completed. In CLI.Introduction to Computers. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Chapter 2: Microsoft Windows 2. 2. Microsoft Windows XP. In all operating systems there are two operating environments – Command Line Interface (CLI) and Graphical User Interface (GUI). Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 17 of 208 . the first program to be loaded into the computer’s memory is the Operating System. depending on the settings of the computer. Ms-Windows. you will be requested to provide user name password to start using your computer. in this case. Logging into Your Computer When you press the power button of your computer to turn it on. The primary input device of operating systems using GUIs is the mouse. messages are displayed in message boxes.1. Different objects of the operating system are represented by small pictures called icons. and dialog boxes are displayed to the user to provide input.

Introduction to Computers. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Figure 1 . The Windows Desktop The Windows Desktop is the background area where different windows are opened. Ms-Windows.A System Tray 18 of 208 JUCAVM . A text box appears below the user name (Fig. Select the user name by clicking the picture representing your user account. Icons Start Button Computer Center & ICT Division Quick Launch Toolbar Taskbar 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 Typical Windows XP Desktop Figure 2 . The desktop images and other attributes may vary between users 2. 1) 2. The windows desktop appears. Type in the password and press Enter key or click the right pointing arrow on the screen.Login (Welcome) Window To login to your computer: 1.3.

Note that moving the mouse to a given icon on the SysTray displays a screen tip describing the program represented by the icon. 1. Using Windows Explorer.4. Start Button – an access point to various programs and components 3. opened windows. you can open a folder that contains a file you want to copy or move. and then drag the file to another folder or another drive. and search for files and folders. and drives on your computer. move. It also shows any network drives that have been mapped to drive letters on your computer. 2. Quick Launch Toolbar – a shortcut area on the taskbar that is used to launch frequently used programs. the current time and other background programs. Icons – small pictures representing a file or a folder on the desktop. You can add or remove program icons into this toolbar by dragging icons to or from the area 5. System Tray (SysTray) – Status area for utility and background programs such as antivirus software. For example. All folders created by users are represented by small yellow pictures whereas files are represented by different pictures depending on the type of data or program stored in the file. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Some of the components of the desktop are Icons. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 19 of 208 .Introduction to Computers. Using Windows Explorer Windows Explorer displays the hierarchical structure of files. the format of the data file or the type of the program used to create the file. you can copy. folders. Whenever a window is opened. rename. Taskbar – status information area showing open applications and multiple windows as buttons. taskbar and the system trey (Fig 2). Ms-Windows. 2. a button will be shown on the taskbar to indicate that it is open. 4. start button.

Point to All Programs (or just Programs if you are using the Classic start menu) and then click Windows Explorer or Right click a folder icon and click Explore or Open a folder window and click Folders button on the Standard Buttons bar Folder (Tree) Panel Contents Panel Figure 3 . You can view My Network Places. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual There are other places in Windows where you can view and work with files and folders. which lists other computers that are connected to your local area network (LAN).Windows Explorer Window Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 20 of 208 . Ms-Windows.Introduction to Computers. graphics. or other files you want to access quickly. To Open Windows Explorer: Click Start. My Documents is a convenient place to store documents.

The existence of sub folders in a given folder is indicated by a + or – sign to the left of the folder icons on the tree Panel. For example. you can use wildcard characters 1 to locate all files or folders that include that part in the name. Searching For Files and Folders The Search tool of Windows XP offers the most direct way to locate a file. The Contents Panel displays contents of a selected folder. or if you know when you last changed a file. Windows Explorer provides a suitable alternative to copy and/or move files and folders to different locations using the Drag and Drop Method. All secondary storage devices (hard disk. and Special letter. Special letter. Windows recognizes two wildcards – Asterisk (*) representing any number of characters and Question mark (?) representing a single character 1 Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 21 of 208 .Introduction to Computers. When a folder is selected from the tree Panel. Flash Disk and so on) reside at the third level. Use Search if you are looking for common file types. All folders on the desktop including My Computer. The Folder Panel displays the hierarchical structure of folders. Wildcard Characters represents any character in filename specifications. Ms-Windows. CD. My Network Places and the Recycle Bin are found at the second level. its contents are displayed in the Contents Panel. + indicates that the sub folders are listed beneath the parent folder. If you know only part of the name. *letter.txt.* will find Holiday letter.doc. All other folders created on the disks are at the fourth and lower levels. The Desktop is at the top level of the hierarchy. if you remember all or part of the name of the file or folder you want to find. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual The Windows Explorer window is divided in to two parts – Folders (Tree) Panel and Contents Panel.doc. floppy disk. My Documents.

However. Date or period of last modification VI. Ms-Windows. Music or Videos button and select one of the three categories (i. 3. You can use the Back button to go back one step. To provide specific criteria. All or part of the file name V. move or rename the files and folders found.e. To search for Pictures. Found items will be listed on the right Panel of the search window. point to Search and then click For Files and Folders) Tip: Pressing F3 on the key board also opens the Search window 2. Picture. copy. Location to look in etc Click Search.. click Documents III. Stop button to stop the search process. Specify the search criteria in the left Panel I. Music or Video) II. select All Files and Folders Specify additional criteria IV. Music or Videos click Pictures. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 22 of 208 .Introduction to Computers. To search for Documents (such as Ms Word files). (If you are using the Classic Start Menu. delete. if you don’t remember the location of the files or if they are stored in different locations use the Search Tool To use the Search Tool: 1. click Start. Click Start and then click Search to display the Search window. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Use Windows Explorer or My Computer if you know the exact location of the files or folders. Note: You can open.

Help and Support Window There are several ways that can be followed to access the help resources First Column . Index. Use the Search feature. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Using Help Microsoft Help and Support Center is a comprehensive resource for practical advice. and demonstrations to help you learn to use Microsoft Windows XP. or table of contents to view all Windows Help resources. (Fig.Pick a Help Topic .Introduction to Computers. The Help and Support Window appear. To display the Help and Support Window: Click Start and then click Help and Support. tutorials.lists help topics that would be found in table of contents Second Column – displays online (Internet or Local Network) alternatives from where the user may get help Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 23 of 208 . including those that are on the Internet. 4) Figure 4 . Ms-Windows.

To search for help topics. Articles and Tutorials section which contains overview texts or practical demonstrations. which is automatically opened when items labeled Practice: are clicked.Introduction to Computers. type in the keyword or press ENTER key Index Search – clicking Index on the menu bar displays the lists of items in the left hand Panel of the window Whenever a help topic is selected the contents of the selected topic are displayed in the right hand Panel (Fig. there is Overviews. Figure 5 . click the Search box. shows practical demonstrations of help topics. 5).A Help and Support Window displaying a help topic For some searched topic. The Windows Interactive Training. Ms-Windows. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Keyword Search – you may type the keywords that identify the topics you are looking for. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 24 of 208 .

or use Sounds and Audio Devices to replace standard system sounds with sounds you choose. To open Control Panel: Click Start and then click Control Panel. Some of these tools help you adjust settings that make your computer more fun to use. hold your mouse pointer over the icon and read the text that appears. point to Settings. If your Start Menu is set up in Classic view. and then click Control Panel. double-click its icon. Ms-Windows. click Start. For example. To find out more information about an item in Control Panel while in Category view: Hold your mouse pointer over the icon or category name and read the text that appears. To find out more about an item in Control Panel while in Classic Control Panel view. Other tools help you set up Windows so that your computer is easier to use. use Mouse to replace standard mouse pointers with animated icons that move on your screen. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Control Panel Elements Control Panel is full of specialized tools that are used to change the way Windows looks and behaves. if you are left-handed. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 25 of 208 . you can use Mouse to switch the mouse buttons so that the button on the right performs the primary functions of selecting and dragging. If you open Control Panel and do not see the item you want. To open an item.Introduction to Computers. click Switch to Classic View. For example.

For example. Ms-Windows.Introduction to Computers. Double-click Folder Options. you can indicate that you want your folders to display hyperlinks to common tasks. click Tools. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 26 of 208 . and detailed file information. Or to open Folder Options from a folder window. and then click Folder Options. You can also change the items that appear on your desktop. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Some of the tasks that can be done in the control panel are discussed here. and then click Control Panel. 2. other storage locations. click Show hidden files and folders. You can change the program that opens a file type. On the View tab. To display hidden files and folders: 1. Folder Options With Folder Options. under Hidden files and folders. o o Click Start. You can also choose to open items with either a single or a double click. To change folder options settings: Open Folder Options in Control Panel. you can specify how your folders function and how content is displayed. Open Folder Options in Control Panel.

.Date and Time Properties Dialog Box Tip: Double clicking the System Clock on the System Tray also displays the same dialog box Change the formats of Numbers. and time zone Figure 6 . Language and Regional Options in Category View 2) Select one of the Tasks . Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Date and Time To change Date and Time: 1) Open the Control Panel and click Date. Change the Date and Time – Click this tab to display the dialog box that can be used to change the current time.. Dates and Times – Click this button to change number formats. date and time formats Add Other Languages – To include multilingual support Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 27 of 208 . date. Ms-Windows.Introduction to Computers. Time.

To change the appearance of your windows: 1. Select different options by clicking each tab: Themes Tab – This tab is used to change the desktop theme.Display Properties Window 2. fonts. colors. Desktop Tab – this tab is used to change the desktop background image Screen Saver Tab – Screen Saver is an animated text or graphics that is displayed when the user stops interacting with the system for Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 28 of 208 . Open the control panel and switch to classic view by clicking the Switch to Classic View button and then double click the Display icon to show the Display Properties window Figure 7 . Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Appearance/Display/Screen Saver/Resolution The appearance of the Windows XP can also be changed from the control panel.Introduction to Computers. Ms-Windows. sounds. A desktop theme is a predefined set of icons. and other window elements that give your desktop a unified and distinctive look.

Ms-Windows. and a list of recently visited Web pages. picture. size. With a user account. and password.Introduction to Computers. If you do not use a password for your user account. documents you create or save are stored in your own My Documents folder. or the screen saver. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 29 of 208 . Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual a specific period of time. There are also other advanced activities performed using this tab. separate from the documents of others who also use the computer. The type of screen saver. User Accounts User accounts personalize Windows for each person who is sharing a computer. the idle time interval for the screen saver to appear. If you have a user account and you change computer settings. other people will have access to your account and be able to see all of your folders and files. a list of favorite Web sites. You can choose your own account name. such as the type. A user account gives you a personalized view of your own files. use a password for your user account. and choose other settings that will apply only to you. can be set from this tab Appearance Tab – This tab is used the color and style of windows and buttons Settings Tab – This tab is used to change the screen resolution and the color depth of (number of colors displayed on) your screen. those settings will apply only to your account. To help keep your files more secure and to help make sure they remain private. You can still mark certain items as shared if you want other people to be able to access them.

and have full access to all accounts on the computer. and account types. • Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 30 of 208 . Ms-Windows. delete. Cannot change his or her own account type to limited unless there is at least one other user with a computer administrator account. you can create. install software.Introduction to Computers. You can create as many accounts on the computer as you want. and change all user accounts on the computer. passwords. Types of User Account There are two types of user accounts available on your computer: computer administrator and limited. A user with a computer administrator account: • • Can create and delete user accounts on the computer. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual As a user with a computer administrator account. and access all non private files on the computer. Can change other users' account names. The guest account is available by default for users with no assigned account on the computer. This ensures that there is always at least one user with a computer administrator account on the computer. Computer Administrator Account The computer administrator account is intended for someone who can make system wide changes to the computer. Only a user with a computer administrator account has full access to other user accounts on the computer. pictures.

Can change his or her account picture and can also create. Ms-Windows. There is no password for the guest account. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Limited account The limited account is intended for someone who should be prohibited from changing most computer settings and deleting important files. but can access applications that have already been installed on the computer. A user with a computer administrator account must make these kinds of changes. Can change the guest account picture. • • Guest Account The guest account is intended for use by someone who has no user account on the computer. or delete his or her password. change. but can access programs that have already been installed on the computer. Cannot change his or her account name or account type. A user with a limited account: • Generally cannot install software or hardware.Introduction to Computers. Cannot change the guest account type. so the user can log on quickly to check e-mail or browse the Internet. A user logged on to the guest account: • Cannot install software or hardware. • • Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 31 of 208 .

Create Password is shown instead. Click either Computer administrator or Limited. 1. If password is not set. Click the name of the account you want to change. Change the Picture – to change the picture displayed as the logo for the user Change the account type – to change the account type from Limited to Administrator or back Delete Account – to delete a user account Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 32 of 208 . To change an existing account: You must have a computer administrator account to change a user's account type.Introduction to Computers. Open User Accounts in Control Panel. Type a name for the new user account. and then click Create Account. depending on the type of account you want to assign to the new user. 2. 3. and click Next. 3. 1. Ms-Windows. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To add a new user to the computer: You must have a computer administrator account to add a new user to the computer. click Create a new account. Select different options: Change the Name – to change the account name. Open User Accounts in Control Panel. 4. 2. Under Pick a task. This does not work for Guest Account Change Password – to change the password of the user.

Click on the Hardware Tab and click on the Device Manager 3. Go to start and click control Panel 2. Click on Next 4. Choose the application you want to Run and click next 5. .To get device Manager in windows 1. Right-click on the My Computer Icon from the desktop and click on property 2. Type the name of the Task and choose the time you want 6. Close the window when you are done Scheduled Tasks Scheduled tasks allow users to have Windows automatically run a specified program or open a certain file at a set time. Enter the name and password of a user 8. Select the time and day you want this task to start 7.To make a scheduled 1. Choose the driver you want to enable or disable Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 33 of 208 . . Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 4. Ms-Windows. Double-click Scheduled Task 3.Introduction to Computers. Scheduled tasks can be used to open programs and/or files that you always use. And click finish Device Manager Device Manager is an OS feature that lets you view and change the properties of all devices attached to your computer.

In Proxy Server. In the General Tab type the default web page you want 3.5.Introduction to Computers. clear the Use a proxy server check box. Ms-Windows. clear the Automatically detect settings and Use automatic configuration script check boxes. Internet Option To configure internet options for internet connection sharing 1. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 2. Go to control panel and click on Internet Options 2. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 34 of 208 . Click on the connection Tab 4. Click on never dial a connection and click LAN Setting 5. 6. In Automatic configuration.

Microsoft word lets you prepare a variety of documents. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Chapter 3: Introduction to Microsoft Word Microsoft word is a powerful word processor that combines text with imported graphics. spreadsheet and charts. When necessary you can easily correct errors by adding or deleting words. sentences.Introduction to Computers. Ms-Windows. you can print it and store it on hard disk or floppy disk for reuse or future references. After you have created and corrected your text. paragraphs or pages. System Icon Title bar Ruler Standard Tool bar Menu bar Formatting Toolbar Tables and borders toolbar I-Beam I Status bar Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 35 of 208 .

When you click on the menus on the menu bar. moving and closing the word window Enables you to minimize to restore the window size Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 36 of 208 .Introduction to Computers. choose Toolbar command from view menu and click on the toolbar you want to display Ruler Work Area Insertion Point (-) Scroll Bar View Buttons Status bar Browse buttons Displays information about the active or highlighted command Used to move through the document by page. If the toolbar is not visible. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 3. Enables you to see the hidden part of the document Used to switch to different views of the document Enables you to set Margins. Ms-Windows. Tab stops and indents Where the text and graphics displayed The blinking bar that shows where the text you type will appear Displays the title of the window.1. comment. etc. Anatomy of Word Screen Title Bar System Menu Icon Sizing buttons Menu bar Displays a list of menu options. it displays word commands that enables you to instruct word to perform an action Toolbar Displays different toolbars that are used for quick access for commonly used commands. section. in this case: Microsoft Word and the name of the active document Displays the menu with command for sizing.

as it will appear on the printed page. where you can collapse or expand various parts of the document. Page layout: in this view. footnotes. columns. how big the headings appear. You see headers and footers. page numbers. headers or footers. Print Preview: this view shows you exactly how the document will look when printed. where the pages breaks fall and others. It doesn’t show columns or frames. It is the fastest view option because it doesn’t display as many different screen elements. This let’s you see the document in hierarchical form. Ms-Windows. But graphics and full paragraph formatting are not shown in this view. graphics and paragraph formatting. You can use it to manipulate texts that aren’t possible in the other view. character formatting.Introduction to Computers.2. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 3. Outline: this view shows the document in outline form if you are using the built-in numbered heading styles. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 37 of 208 . graphics and frames and just about every other formatting feature. Different Views of the Document Normal: This view shows text. In this view you can view several pages at onetime and also see where the pages look even. Online layout: this view is designed specifically to make documents easier to read on screen. It is the default view that means it’s what you get when you start word the first time. This view includes a new feature called a Document Map that gives you an outline View of your document’s structure and allows you to easily navigate to different portions of the document. everything in your document is displayed and positioned.

Introduction to Computers.Click on the View button in the lower left corner of the word screen. Dialog Boxes Choosing a menu command will usually followed by dialogue box. Tabs Text Box List Box Drop down list Check box Preview Box Command button Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 38 of 208 . almost everything you do in word happens through a dialog box. Aside from some very basic commands. Ms-Windows.Click on the View menu then click on one of the view options you want to apply Or . Point on the respective view buttons to obtain the view button names. Let’s take a look at font dialog box (click on format menu hen click on font command). Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Changing the View: to change from one view to other: .

So it is the view before you apply it into your document When pressed. Whenever you select an option you will see how it look in the preview box.g. i. checked (selected). Indicates whether an option is selected or not. Character formatting can be applied to any amount of text and it includes changing the font style. Clicking on Character Spacing or Animation will take you to the respective section containing different option related to the tab Text Box List Box DropDown list Button Check box Preview box Command Button Indicates you which option is selected from the list box. Press OK to execute the commands you have chosen and close the dialog box and CANCEL to close the dialogue box without executing the command Tells you that it is 3.3. italic or underline. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 39 of 208 . color of text. Page formatting applies to entire pages and sections and it includes margins. and making text bold. Formatting Word divides its formatting options as follows: character.e. and headers and footers. Used to display different options or drop down list of the respective property. tabs and indents. size. Displays different options related to Textbox name. Paragraph formatting applies to a paragraph or multiple paragraphs and it includes line spacing. click on color drop down list button to display different color and click on one of it to select it.Introduction to Computers. and text alignment. E. page numbering. Ms-Windows. paragraph and page. To see more of the options you can use scrolls if available. make something to happen. otherwise it is not selected. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Tabs Divides the dialog box into different sections.

you can highlight the text or add color to it. Italic or underline from the Toolbar. To make text bold. you can change the type of style or size.e. Click on the appropriate formatting drop-down list button from the toolbar and select any option you want. it gives you access to even more appearance options. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 3. Or Use Keyboard shortcuts i. color.Introduction to Computers. • Press Ctrl + B to make the text bold. Ms-Windows. You can make it bold or italicize it. Using the Font Dialogue Box The font dialogue box lets you change as many characteristics as you want at once. shading. the change applies to the whole word.3.1. Click on the appropriate button: Bold. and text bordering: 1. italic. or underline: 1. If your insertion point is positioned in the middle of a word without anything selected. Select the text you want to change or position the insertion point where you want the change to start. 2. • Press Ctrl + I to make the text Italic • Press Ctrl + U to make the text underline To change the font. 2. Select the text you want to format or place the insertion point where you want to begin applying the formatting. In addition. size. Character Formatting There are many ways you can change the appearance of text. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 40 of 208 .

Choose Font from the Format menu to open the font dialogue box 3. Select the text you want to change or place the insertion point where you want the font change take effect. Stop when the text is the way you want it.Introduction to Computers. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 41 of 208 . So you can experiment with the available options and preview the results Changing Text to Uppercase and Lowercase To change the case of a text: • Select the text you want to change • Choose change case from the Format Menu to open the change case dialogue box shown below • Select the option you want and click on OK button Note: Select the text and then press Shift + F3 to cycle among the change case options. Format selections are immediately reflected in the preview window of the dialogue box. Select the various formatting options under the respective tab 4. such as the copyright symbol. used regularly in documents that aren’t on the standard keyboard. Ms-Windows. ©. 2. Inserting Special Symbols There are many symbols. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To make changes with the font dialogue box: 1.

Choose Symbols from Insert menu 2. Click insert button. without typing the tab at the beginning of every paragraph using first line indent or you can also indent the entire paragraph using the standard indent. press Shift + Enter Paragraph Indention and Alignment Word has features that allow you to indent just the first line of each paragraph. Ms-Windows.Introduction to Computers. Click Close 3. Setting indents using the ruler and the Toolbar First Line Indent Hanging Indent Increase Indent Left Indent Ruler Right Indent Decrease Indent Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 42 of 208 .2.3. Choose a symbol from Symbol Font Sets shown in the character map on the symbol page or from the list on the special characters page 3. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To insert symbols: 1. And you can also indent the rest of the line except the first line called hanging indent. To start a new line with out starting a new paragraph. Every time you press the ENTER key while typing. you create a new paragraph. 4. Paragraph Formatting In word paragraph is one of the basic units of a document.

And drag it to the left to remove the hanging indent. Or • Drag the left indent marker to its original place To indent the first line (First line indent): • Drag the first line indent marker to a new position on the ruler. expanding the spaces in each line to align text at both the left and right margins.Introduction to Computers. To indent the rest of the line except the first line (hanging indent) • Drag the hanging indent marker to the new position on the ruler. Ms-Windows. i. Or • Drag the left indent marker on the ruler (all the three indent marks will move together) To indent back to normal: • Click the decrease indent button on the formatting toolbar. Word aligns or positions text left. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 43 of 208 .e. To indent the entire paragraph from left: • Click the increase indent button on the Formatting toolbar. To indent the entire paragraph from the right: • Drag the right indent marker that is found at the right side of the ruler Changing alignment By default. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To use any indent: • Put the insertion point in the paragraph you want to indent or select multiple paragraphs. aligning it along the right margin or justified. However you have the option of centering text. And drag it to the left to remove the first line indent. which indents with a standard measurement.

Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 44 of 208 . Click anywhere in the paragraph you want to format.Introduction to Computers. • To indent only the first line choose First Line from the Special drop-down list and enter a measurement in the By box. to remove click it again. • To indent the entire paragraph. Note: when you choose one of the alignment buttons it appears pressed in. The following dialog box will be displayed. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To align text: 1. Ms-Windows. Or select multiple paragraphs 2. Click one of the paragraph alignment buttons on the formatting toolbar. Using the Paragraph dialog box: • Click the Paragraph you want to format or select multiple paragraphs • Choose Paragraph from the format menu. enter measurement in the left and/or right boxes to specify how far to indent the paragraph from the left or right margin.

But you can control this situation by four different features. Click the Paragraph you want to format or select multiple paragraphs 2.Introduction to Computers. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual • To align text. word moves the text to the next page as soon as you get to the bottom margin. • To change the measurement of the space in between the lines of the paragraph. The first. click the line spacing drop down list button and select any. 3. Note: as you select different options the preview box shows what the formatting will look like on the page Keeping text together As you are typing. choose one of the alignment options by clicking the alignment drop-down list. Choose Paragraph from the Format menu and select the Line and Page Break tab. • Specify the spacing before and after the paragraph in the spacing section by clicking the decrement and increment buttons inside the respective boxes. It doesn’t care whether it’s breading a two-line paragraph or ripping a heading from its accompanying text. Hard Page Breaks are inserted with a keystroke or by choosing Page Bread from the Break dialog box. Ms-Windows. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 45 of 208 . Check or uncheck the appropriate option and click OK. You can obtain the rest through the following procedure: 1.

Text appears to the right of the tab stop Center: Text automatically appear to the left and the right of the tab stop until centered under the tab stop Right: text appears to the left of the tab stop Decimal: used for numeric entries. Drag the tab-stop marker off the ruler to remove the tab stop Setting Tabs and Leaders Using the Tabs Dialog Box 1.4 to set several tab stops 6. vertically aligning text within. One of the most common uses of a tab is to indent the first line of a paragraph. optionally. Click OK 7. Select an alignment style and. Click the Tab button at the left end of the ruler to toggle through the four tab choices. Setting Tabs Using the Ruler 1. Drag the Tab-stop marker on the ruler to change the tab position 4. a leader style. Enter text. 2. Text lines up with the decimal point Tabs are also used to create parallel columns. Repeat step 2 . Click Set 5. There are four basic types of tab stops: Left: the default type. 3. pressing Tab between each column Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 46 of 208 . Pressing the tab key moves the cursor from one tab stop to the next. Open the Tabs dialog box by choosing Format Tabs 2. The tab-stop settings can be changed by using the ruler or the tabs dialog box.Introduction to Computers. Ms-Windows. Type a decimal value in the Tabs Stop Position text box. 4. a document. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Using Tabs Tab stops are markers set by default at half-inch intervals across the width of the document. Click on the ruler to set the tab-stops 3.

If you can not find bullets or numbers of your choice. Select the list 2. Choose Bullets and Numbering from the Format menu to display bullets and numbering dialogue box 3. Click OK button of Bullets and Numbering dialog box Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 47 of 208 . To create a custom Bullets and Numbers: 1. Click the Numbering or Bullets button to create a numbered or bulleted list from the Standard Toolbar To remove Bullets and Numbers: 1. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Bullets and Numbering To create a bulleted or numbered list: 1. select one of the preview boxes and click Customize. Select the different options from the dialog box that appears and click OK 5. Select the bulleted tab to apply bullets or the numbered tab to apply numbering 4. Ms-Windows. Select the list 2. 2.Introduction to Computers. Click the Numbering or Bullets button in the standard to remove the numbered list or bulleted list. Select the Bulleted or Numbered list. Select one of the bullets or numbers out of the preview boxes.

3. 4. Indicate whether you would like the first page of the document to display a number 3. Click OK again to set the page numbering 4. But there are times when you may want to force a page to break at a certain place. b. Click OK. Or use Keyboard shortcut as: • Press Ctrl + Enter key after placing the insertion point in the appropriate position Creating and Modifying Page Numbers To create page numbers: 1. Page Formatting Page Breaks With word. Choose Page Number from the Insert menu to open page number dialog box 2. you usually don’t have to worry about where to end a page. or to start at a number other than one. Check the page break option. Choose OK button. to continue the numbering from the previous section. Click Format to change the type of numbers (1. word inserts automatic page break and starts anew page for the text that follows. Position the insertion point where you want the page break 2.2. c). The break dialog box will appear 3. if not checked. View page numbers in page layout view or print preview To Remove page numbers: Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 48 of 208 . Choose alignment & Position of the page numbers.3. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 3.3 or a. Choose the Break command from the insert menu.Introduction to Computers. As soon as you type more text than will fit on a page. Ms-Windows. To insert page break: 1.

Choose Boarder and shading from the format menu to open the Borders and shading dialog box as shown 3. Choose close Adding Boarders and Shading You can grab the reader’s attention by making boarders and shadings to the text of paragraphs. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 1. You can make boarders and shading by using the Table and Boarder Bar or Border and shading Dialog Box. As you move your mouse pointer over the different options. Or double-click on the page number. and width lists Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 49 of 208 . Click the down arrow next to the Line Style button and select a style 4. Place the insertion point in the paragraph you want to add a boarder to or select Multiple paragraphs 2. Ms-Windows. (Select multiple paragraph) 2. Place your insertion point in the paragraph you want to format. Make any selections you want from the style. 2. Click the Table and Boarders button on the standard toolbar to open the Table and Borders Toolbar 3. And press Backspace or delete key. Choose Header and Footer from the View menu. Click the down arrow to the Line weight button and select a line thickness 5. color. notice the ToolTip that tells you what the option does.Introduction to Computers. Select page number. To apply Boarders: 1. 3. Click to select a border option. Using Table and Boarder Bar 1. Click the down arrow next to the Boarders button to open the boarder’s palette 6.

Click on one of the settings button Selecting None gives you no boarder at all. Ms-Windows. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 4. color and Width setting you select Selecting Shadow applies a shadow effect. Use this option to get rid of existing boarder on selected text Selecting Box gives you a standard box that uses any Style. You can click the different buttons to mix and match various boarder options Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 50 of 208 . (Works only for box with four boarders) Selecting Three-D gives you a 3-D effect Selecting Customs creates a box using the options you click in the preview diagram.Introduction to Computers.

• From the Insert menu. Ms-Windows. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To Apply Shading behind a paragraph: • Position your insertion point in the paragraph you want shade (or select multiple paragraphs) • Display Border and Shading dialog box and click on shading tab • Choose a fill amount or color from the Fill palette. • Select the Table of Contents tab from the Index and Tables dialog box • When you finish Choose OK Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 51 of 208 . • Choose a color from the color list • Choose OK when you’ve made all your selections Note: To apply border and shading to a text. Table of Contents A table of contents lists headings in the order they appear in a document and the page numbers where the headings appear. Choose Index and tables tab.4. select the text you want to apply the formatting and follow the above procedure 3. • Choose a pattern from the style drop-down list.Introduction to Computers. A table of contents usually appears at the beginning of a document and can include several levels of headings. To compile a table of contents by using built in heading styles: • Position the insertion point where you want to create the table of contents.

Double-click on the header or footer or from the view menu choose the Header and Footer command 2. Enter the text you want to print on top of every page. Click on Close button To create different Header and Footers for odd and even pages: 1.Introduction to Computers. choose the close button. choose the Header and Footer command. 3. Ms-Windows. choose Header and Footer 2. You can format header and footer just as you format any other text in your document. Delete the contents of the header and footer area. From the View menu. Under Header and Footer section select the Different odd and Even check box 4. To remove header or footer: 1. 2. To return to the document work area. Click on the Switch between Header and Footer button to switch to the footer area. From the View menu. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 3. Click the Page Setup button and select the Layout tab 3. The insertion point is placed in the header area. A non-printing dashed line indicates the header and footer in the document. To create header or Footer: 1. 3.5. Choose OK Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 52 of 208 . Headers and Footers A header or footer is piece of text that word repeats at the top of every page (header) or at the bottom of every page (footer) in an entire document. Word changes the document view to page layout view and displays the header and footer toolbar.

The default paper size is A4. Enter setting in the Top. with the shorter side at left and right. From the Apply To list. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Setting Page Margins: Word gives you wonderful margins of 1-inch at the top and bottom and 1. Click Ok Setting the Paper size and Orientation: The paper size tab of the page Setup dialog box lets you set the size of paper on which the document will be printed and select the page orientation. you don’t have to do any thing. If you plan to bind your document after printing.24inch on the left and right. paper size and layout. select whole document or This point forward 4. Three of the tabs in this dialog box provide options for various page elements: Margins. The Portrait option means that the document will print down the page.Introduction to Computers. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 53 of 208 . But if you want to change the margins. Left and Right text boxes. word lets you do it directly from the ruler or with precise measurements in a dialog box. To add this extra margin enter a measurement in the Gutter box 3. From the box. you can add an extra margin along one side of the page to allow for binding. 2. Ms-Windows. Check the preview box to make sure that the margins are the way you want them. To set margins using the dialog box: 1. select the paper size you will be using for printing from the Paper Size drop down list. with shorter side at the top and bottom. You will see the page setup dialog box. If these defaults work for you. Bottom. The Landscape option means that the document will print across the page. Choose the Page Setup from the File menu and select the margins tab.

Ms-Windows.Introduction to Computers. which contains most common words. 3.6. and how the text is vertically aligned If the text in your document does not completely fill a page. To check spelling and grammar: On the Tools menu. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual The Layout tab The Layout tab of the page setup dialog box controls how headers and footers are setup. click Spelling & Grammar or click spelling button on the standard toolbar which display the spelling and grammar dialog box Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 54 of 208 . Spelling and Grammar Checking Word checks your document for spelling errors by using its main dictionary. you can set its vertical position on the page in the vertical alignment box: • The Top Setting starts the text at the top of the page • The center setting moves the text down so that it is centered as a block between the top and bottom margins • The Justified setting increases the space between the paragraphs so that the first line of text prints at the top margin and the last line prints at the bottom margin.

Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 55 of 208 .) • Choose Ignore All to leave all occurrence of a wavy underlined word without changing it. do one of the following: • Choose the Change button to accept the current selection in the suggestion box. • Choose the Auto correct button to add the misspelled word and its correction to the Auto Correct list so that word will correct it automatically as you type.Introduction to Computers. (The wavy underline will disappear. Ms-Windows. it displays the spelling and grammar dialog box (Spelling errors are typed in red while grammatical errors are typed in green in the dialog box) A list of suggested spellings or grammatical corrections automatically appears in the spelling and grammar dialog box. • Choose the Change All button on replace all instances of this misspelled word in the document • Choose Ignore to leave the word unchanged. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual If word finds a word that is not contained in any of the active dictionaries or any grammatical error. For every word that is displayed in dictionary box.

where you can open a different custom dictionary or change the rules that word uses to check spelling and Grammar. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual • Choose the Next Sentence to click in your document and manually edit the current sentence. and displays a massage box on completion • Choose the OK button to return to the document. then click Next Sentence to accept your manual changes and continue the spelling and grammar check • Choose the Add button to add the highlighted word in the Not in Dictionary to the custom dictionary. it will not take it as an error. Ms-Windows. The next time word encounter this word. To choose the spelling and grammar command from the Tools menu.Introduction to Computers. Word opens the spelling and grammar dialog box and allows you to make corrections. Word continues searching for spelling mistakes for the rest of the document. • Choose the options button to open the Spelling and Grammar option dialog box. or if the word or selection contains no spelling or grammar mistake. • On completion of the spell check. word displays a dialog box which ask you whether you want to continue checking the remaining document or not • Choose the Yes button to continue the spell check for the rest of the document • Choose the No button to return to the document Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 56 of 208 . Checking Spelling in a selection To check the spelling of a single word or range of text of text instead of the entire document: • Select the word or range of text • Click on the spelling and grammar button on the standard toolbar. • If the word or selection contains any spelling mistakes.

Ms-Windows. 5. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 57 of 208 . select from the drop-down list under Looked Up. To look up words in Thesaurus: 1.1. A table is made up of rows and columns. 3. Tables and Columns 3. You can quickly find synonyms (word with the same meaning) for a selected word or phrase. Tables With tables you can arrange columns of numbers and text in a document without using tabs.7.Introduction to Computers. The intersection between rows and columns is called Cell. 4. Double-click on terms to look up those words 3. Double-click to get a list of words that have the same or similar meaning. Click on the word you want to look up and choose Tools →Language→ Thesaurus to open the thesaurus dialog box 2. you may also find antonyms (word with opposite meaning) related words. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Using the Thesaurus Command You can use the Thesaurus to improve the precession and variety of your writing. For some words.7. Click on words in the meaning column the best represent your context to see synonyms for them. Within each cell. You can fill cells with text or even graphics. Enter a new word to look up in the Replace with synonym text box. The cell expands vertically to fit the amount of text you type. To review previously looked up words. text wraps just as it does between the margins of documents.

Click the Insert Table command from the Table menu. To move around in a table: Click in the cell you want to move to. Row and Column Within a cell you can move the insertion point and select text just as you do in the rest of your document.Introduction to Computers. Moving and Selecting a Cell. The insert table dialog box will appear. Position the insertion point where you want to create a table 2. Specify the number of columns and rows in the respective boxes. 3. And specify the exact measurements for the width of columns in Column Width box. And click OK To create a table using the standard toolbar: Click the Insert Table button on the standard toolbar and drag over the grid until you have selected the number of rows and columns you wanted to create and release the mouse button. Or use the cursor control keys (Arrow keys and Tab) To select a text inside a cell: Drag over the text Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 58 of 208 . Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Creating Tables To create a table using the Insert Table command: 1. Ms-Windows.

3. rows or columns: • Drag across the cell. row or column. To select multiple cells. Choose the Insert Cells command from the Table menu. columns or the entire by positioning the insertion point in the table and choosing Select Row. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To select a row: Click the row selection bar (to the left of the row.Introduction to Computers. Ms-Windows. and then click the OK button Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 59 of 208 . row or column and hold down Shift key. The insert cells dialog box appears. NOTE: you can select rows. Select one of the options. Rows or Columns To add a cell to a table: 1. the I-Beam will be changed to a right pointing arrow) To select a column: • Click the column’s top gridline or border. Select a cell or cells above which you want to insert the new cells 2. or select a single cell. Or Select Table command from the Table menu Inserting and Deleting Cells. Select Column. Notice that the pointer becomes a thick a thick down-arrow.

or from Tables and Borders toolbar Deleting Cells. choose Delete Rows or Delete Columns. Select the cell(s) you want to delete. Choose the Insert Rows command from the Table menu or the Tables and Borders toolbar Note: to add a single row to a table. position the insertion point outside the table at the end of a row. Or click the Cut button from the standard toolbar Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 60 of 208 . or you can remove the cell. Select the column(s) to the left of which you want to add the new column(s) 2. Rows and Columns You can delete just the text in cells. rows or columns.Introduction to Computers. Or to add a row at the end of the table. row or column. Select the row(s) above which you want to insert the new row(s) 2. and then press Enter. To add column(s) to a table: 1. Ms-Windows. position the inserting point in the last cell of the last row and press Tab key. as you would do else where in a document. The delete cells dialog box appears 3. To delete a text in a cell. and click OK To delete rows or columns: 1. To delete cells: 1. just select and delete it. Choose one of the options. Select the row(s) or column(s) you want to delete 2. row or column. Choose the Delete Cells command from Table menu. From the table menu. 2. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To add a row(s) to a table: 1. Choose Insert Columns command from Tables menu.

Ms-Windows. From the Table menu choose Merge Cells. Cells from Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 61 of 208 . the pointer will be changed to a bi-directional arrow. From the Table menu. Select the cell(s) you want to split 2. Select the cells. Enter the number of row and column you want to split the selected cell(s) and choose OK Changing Column Width and Row Height You can change the width of selected cells and entire column/row you want by dragging the table column markers on the ruler or by dragging the column/row boundaries.Introduction to Computers. Merging and Splitting Cells and Columns To merge (join a number of cells in to one) cells in the table: 1. To do so: 1. rows or columns you want to copy or move 2. To move the selection drag it to the new location when the arrow pointer slants to the left 4. To copy the selection hold down Ctrl key while you drag the selection. Select the cells you want to merge 2. Position the mouse pointer over the selection 3. rows or columns in a table. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual You can move or copy cells. You can also specify exact column width or row height by using the Cell Height and Width dialog box. choose Split Cells. Or click Merge Cells button from the Tables and Border toolbar To split (divide) cells: 1. Or click Split the Tables and Border toolbar 3. When you position the mouse pointer to column/row boundary.

Click OK To change the row height: 1. Choose the various options in the dialog box 5. Choose the Cell Height and Width command from the Table menu. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To change the Column Width 1. The cell Height and width dialog box appears 3. Ms-Windows. Select the Rows tab. or columns whose width you want to change 2. Click OK Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 62 of 208 . Choose the Cell Height and Width command from the Table menu. if not selected 4. if not selected 4. The cell Height and width dialog box appears 3. Specify a value in the Width of Column box 5. Select the Column tab. Select the row(s) whose Height you want to change 2. Select the column.Introduction to Computers. Specify a value in the Space Between Columns Box 6.

The sort dialog box appears 2. Under My List has section 3. Select the available format from the format list. select Number or Text. Under Type. The best way to format a table is to allow Word automatically format the table. Ms-Windows. From the Table menu. aligning the text. The preview window displays a sample table of the selected format 3. repeat step 4 and 5 6. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Formatting Tables You can improve the readability of a table by formatting the text in the table. creating column headings and adding borders and shading. Under sort by select column number. To sort a table: Select the rows you want to sort 1. Choose OK Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 63 of 208 . or Date and then select the Ascending or Descending option 5. choose Sort command. field number. If you have a heading that you do not want to sort. Click the OK button Sorting a Table You can arrange entries of a table in alphabetical or numeric border. select the Header Row option. You format text within cells as in the rest of the document.Introduction to Computers. To do so: Select the entire table or just place the insertion point in the table 1. To use additional columns as a basis for sorting. or you can sort by date. Choose the Table Autoformat command from the Table menu. paragraph or name 4. The Table Autoformat dialog box appears 2. Word changes the order of rows based on the first column unless you specify a different column as the basis of sorting.

Click the Paste Function list arrow and then select a function 3. Under insert section select Column Break and choose OK Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 64 of 208 . Position the insertion point where you want to start the new column 3. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To Calculating a Value in a Table 1. Controlling Column Breaks A column break is the point in the text where one column ends and the nest begins.7. To create Columns: 1. Form Format menu choose Columns. Click the page layout view button 2. switch to page layout view or print preview. Ms-Windows. To display the Break dialog box 4. if you want to format part of the document in to columns. click any where in the document. You can also vary the number of columns in a document or on a page. Word automatically distributes columns on pages. From insert menu choose Break. Columns You can change the way a document looks by creating newspaper style columns. Switch your view to page layout view by clicking its button on the horizontal scroll bar and do one of the following: If you want to format the entire document. Go to Table Menu and Click on Formula 3. Click the cell in which you want the result to appear 2. To see multiple columns on screen. select part of the document 2. To insert a column break: 1.Introduction to Computers. but you can insert column breaks where you want one column to end and the next column to start.2. Columns can be of equal or unequal width.

Select the paragraph that you want to begin with an initial or dropped capital letter 2. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 3.3. Ms-Windows. Select any other options you want 5. the Drop Cap dialog box appears: 3. Click OK Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 65 of 208 . Drop Cap You can format a paragraph to have a large initial or dropped capital letter or a large first word To put a Drop Cap: 1. Click Dropped or In Margin 4.Introduction to Computers.7. Choose Drop Cap from Format menu.

Working with Multiple Documents Multiple open documents are handy if you want to refer to an old report or copy parts of one letter into another. Ms-Windows. Select Clip Art tab. You can view each document in its own window or all open documents in horizontally tiled windows. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 3.8. they are called handles and they appear whenever an image is selected.Introduction to Computers.4.7. Notice the little boxes around the picture. 3. and the picture is part of your document. The handles disappear. Click to select the graphic you want. Word places the image you selected in your document. To insert an image from the clip gallery: Position the insertion point where you want the picture Choose Picture from the Insert menu and Clip Art from picture menu. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 66 of 208 . Click on category name in the left column to display the pictures for that category. To view different parts of a document (convenient for summarizing a long report). Graphics and Text Boxes Word makes it easy to bring electronic images called Clip into your document by using the clip gallery. you can split it into two windows that you view simultaneously but edit and scroll through independently. you can view them side by side and scroll through them at the same time. This opens Microsoft Clip Art Gallery. If you need to compare two documents. Click on the Insert button. Click anywhere outside the picture.

Introduction to Computers, Ms-Windows, Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual

Switch between Documents
• •

Click the Word Document button on the taskbar you want to display. Click the Window menu, and then click the document on which you want to work.

Arrange Multiple Document Windows
• •

Arrange All to fit all open windows on the screen. Compare Side By Side With ..., click a document, and then click OK to tile two windows and scroll through both documents at the same time.

3.9. Inserting AutoText
1. 2. 3. 4. Position the insertion point where you want the AutoText to be inserted. Click the Insert menu' and then point to AutoText. Point to a category, and then click an entry. To see additional choices or add your own entries, click the Insert menu' point to AutoText' and then click AutoText. 5. To add an entry to the menu, type an entry in the Enter AutoText Entries Here box, and then click Add. 6. Scroll down the list to find the AutoText entry you want to make, and then click Insert.

3.10. Insert Files
1. Click the place in your document where you want to insert the file. 2. Click the Insert menu' and then click File. 3. Click the Look In list arrow to find the file to insert. 4. Select the file, and then click Insert.

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3.11. Use AutoRecover
1. Click the Tools menu, and then click Options. 2. Click the Save tab. 3. Select the Save AutoRecover Info Every check box. 4. Enter the number of minutes, or click the up and down arrows to adjust the minutes. 5. Click OK.

3.12. Finding and Replacing Formatting
Suddenly you realize all the bold text in your report would be easier to read in italics. Do you spend time making these changes one by one? No. The Find and Replace feature locates the formatting and instantly substitutes new formatting. If your search for a formatting change is an easy one, click Less in the Find And Replace dialog box to decrease the size of the dialog box. If your search is a more complex one, click More to display additional options. With the Match Case option, you can specify exact capitalization. The Go To tab quickly moves you to a place or item in your document. Find Text or Formatting 1. Click the Edit menu, and then click Find. 2. If you want to locate formated text, type the word or words. 3. Click More, click Format, and then click the formatting you want to find. When you're done, click OK. 4. Click Find Next to select the next instance of the formatted text. 5. Click OK to confirm Word finished the search. 6. Click Cancel.
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Find an Item or Location 1. Click the Edit menu, and then click Go To. 2. Click an item in the Go To What box. 3. Enter the item number or name. 4. Click Next, Previous, or Go To to locate the item. 5. When you're done, click Close. Replace Text or Formatting 1. Click the Edit menu, and then click Replace. 2. If you want to locate formatted text, type the word or words. 3. Click the More button, click Format, and then click the formatting you want to find. When you're done, click OK. 4. Press Tab, and then type any text you want to substitute. 5. Click Format, and then click the formatting you want to substitute. When you're done, click OK.

3.13. Adding a Watermark
You can use a washed out version of your company logo, or you can add text such as SAMPLE, DRAFT, PROPOSAL, or CONFIDENTIAL. Watermarks are useful for making your documents look more professional. If you decide to change your watermark, it's as easy as typing in some new text.

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Create a Watermark from a Picture 1. Click the Format menu, point to Background, and then click Printed Watermark. 2. Click the Picture Watermark option. 3. Click the Select Picture button. 4. Navigate to the picture you want to select and insert, and then click Insert. 5. Select any Scale or Washout options, and then click Apply. 6. Click Close. Create a Watermark from Text 1. Click the Format menu, point to Background, and then click Printed Watermark. 2. Click the Text Watermark option. 3. Select the Text options you wish to apply. 4. Click Apply and click close

3.14. Creating Footnotes or Endnotes
Footnotes are used to provide additional information that is inappropriate for the body of the text, and to document your references for information or quotes presented in the body of the document. Footnotes are appropriate for academic, scientific, and, occasionally, business purposes. Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page on which the information is cited, and Word automatically inserts a reference mark at the insertion point to associate the information presented with the note at the bottom of the page.

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3.3… is selected. phrase or section you can use bookmarks. Word moves the insertion point to the bottom of the page corresponding to the number of the reference mark. Click Insert to insert a reference mark in the text. Click the Insert menu' point to Reference' and then click Footnote. Ms-Windows. 9. Endnotes differ from footnotes in that they appear at the end of the document or section (in the case of longer documents). can return to it quickly. Type the text of your footnote or endnote. 3. Click the list arrow next to the Footnotes or Endnotes option. Bookmarks are used to mark text so that you. 2. and then select the location where you want to place the footnote or endnote. 6. Click the Footnotes option or the Endnotes option.15. Creating a Bookmark Instead of scrolling through a long document to find a specific word.2. not the bottom of the page on which the reference mark appears. Verify that the Number Format option of 1.Introduction to Computers. 5. You can also navigate documents with bookmarks by selecting a bookmark as a destination in the Go To dialog box. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Creating and manipulating endnotes is identical to performing the same functions for footnotes. Create a Footnote or Endnote 1. Click inside the body of the document to reposition the insertion point at the desired location to continue with your work. Position the insertion point where you want to insert a footnote.n 8. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 71 of 208 . 7. Using bookmarks as a destination lets you navigate through a long document quickly. Click Close. or your reader. 4.

If you want. 3. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Create a Bookmark 1. Click in your document where you want to insert a Bookmark. and then click Go To. 3. Ms-Windows. 4.16. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 72 of 208 . Word looks for text with the Style code that you specify (Figure. 6. You can also add a tab leader to make the table easier to read. etc. 2. 5. Click Go To. A Table of Figures is like a Table of Contents except that it deals only with the graphic content of a document. 3. choose another bookmark. 2.). Click Close. Go to a Bookmark Location 1. diagrams etc.). click Bookmark. and then click Bookmark. Creating a Table of Figures If you are creating a document in which there are many illustrations (art. charts.Introduction to Computers. Click the Enter Bookmark Name list arrow. Click Add. To create the Table of Figures. Click the Insert menu. it is often helpful to the reader of your document to provide a Table of Figures. photographs. Type a one word descriptive name for your Bookmark. Click the Edit menu. Table. 4. On the Go To tab. not the written content. and then select the bookmark you want to move to.

and then click Close. 7. Click the Formats list arrow. Click the Insert menu' point to Reference' and then click Index And Tables. Click the Table Of Figures tab. 6. Click the Style list arrow. Click the Tab Leader list arrow. Some examples of the proper times to use numbered headings include legal documents. If you want to create a Table of Figures from something other than the default Figure style. Click OK. Consult the Formatting and Styles guide of the institution you are preparing the document for to determine whether this formatting is preferred. Ms-Windows. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 73 of 208 . select the text formatting that you want Word to search for when building the Table of Figures. 3. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Create a Table of Figures 1. and so forth. Numbering Heading Styles If you use the pre-defined heading styles provided by Word. All figure callouts of the selected style are tagged for inclusion in the Table of Figures. or the Table style. 8. click Options. such as those that appear in the Normal . Heading 3). 4. 5. and then select the format you want to use for the Table of Figures. and then select the tab leader you want to use. Put your cursor where you want the Table of Figures to appear.Introduction to Computers.dot template (Heading 1. 3.17. Heading 2. you can also optionally number headings with a format of your choosing. 2. scientific or other academic papers.

and so on. Click the heading level you want to number. Ms-Windows. 6. and then click OK. Click the Link Level To Style list arrow. "Heading 2". Click a numbering format that contains the text "Heading 1". 3. Click the Styles and Formatting button on the Formatting toolbar. and then click OK. Click the Outline Numbered tab. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Create a Numbered Heading Using Styles 1. 10. 3. 2. "Heading 2". and then select the heading style that you want. 4. Click the Format menu' and then click Bullets And Numbering. 8. and then click Customize. Click a numbering format that contains the text "Heading 1". and then press Enter. and then select the name of the custom style of text that you want to use for the level of numbering that you selected in Step 6. 6.Introduction to Computers. and so on. 9. 5. Click the Font button. Click the Outline Numbered tab. Click the Format menu' and then click Bullets And Numbering. and then click OK. 7. format the selected heading level number. In your document. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 74 of 208 . 12. Type the text of the heading. Repeat Steps 6-8 for each custom heading style that you want to number. 11. 5.18. Apply Numbering to Custom Heading Styles 4. position the cursor where you want to place the numbered heading. Click More to expand the Customize Outline Numbered List dialog box. Select the text in which you want to apply a style.

2. 2. Click Line Numbers. You can have Word automatically number each line of text within a document. Other types of documents that sometimes use this convention are movie and television scripts. Ms-Windows. Numbering Lines Many legal documents use the formatting convention of numbering every line of text to make it easier for multiple parties to refer to very specific text in a longer document in the context of their discussions. Creating an Equation If you are creating a scientific or academic paper that involves complex equations. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 12. 8. and then select the options you want. The standard keyboard does not have all of the mathematical symbols you might need to create the equation. Click OK. Click OK. 5. 7. you may need to display them in the text without actually using them in conjunction with a table.Introduction to Computers. so you must use the Equation Editor. Click the View menu' and then click Print Layout. Click the Edit menu' and then click Select All. and then click Selections.1. Number Each Line in a Document 1. 6. If you're adding line numbers to part of a document. click the Apply To list arrow. Click the File menu' and then click Page Setup. 12. 4. 3. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 75 of 208 . Click the Add Line Numbering check box to select it.

Click the Tools menu' point to Letters And Mailings' and then click Mail Merge. 4. Select the type of document you are working on (in this case the Letters option).Introduction to Computers. 2. 4. Click Next: Starting Document on the task pane to display Step 2 of 6. and then by typing variables and numbers. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Create an Equation 1. Click a starting document option (such as Use The Current Document). displaying Step 1 of 6 in the Mail Merge Wizard. click Microsoft Equation 3. 6. Click Next: Select Recipients on the task pane to display Step 3 of 6. 3. In the Object type box. Build the equation by selecting symbols from the Equation toolbar.0.3. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 76 of 208 . and then click OK. 5. 3. Creating Mail Merge Documents Mail merge is used to send the same letter to several people and spend a lot of time changing personal information. Press Enter to show the equation and return to your document. The Mail Merge task pane opens. such as names and addresses? Start the Mail Merge Wizard 1. 12. Click the Insert menu' and then click Object. 2. Ms-Windows.

Ms-Windows. Creating Documents Using Automatic Formatting Word can automatically perform some formatting functions for you as you type a document. 4. Click OK.Introduction to Computers. Position the insertion pointer where you want to insert a comment. Click the AutoFormat As You Type tab 4. 2. Click the Insert menu' and then click Comment or click the Insert Comment button on the Reviewing toolbar.4. Click the AutoFormat As You Type tab. Select or clear the AutoFormat check boxes you want to use 5. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 12. Type your comment in the balloon. 12. Set Up Automatic Formatting 1. and then click outside the balloon to save it Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 77 of 208 . 3. 1. Click the View menu' point to Toolbars' and then click Reviewing. 3. Click the Tools menu' and then click AutoCorrect Options 2.5. Inserting Comments Comments are useful when someone who is editing the document has queries pertaining to the document.

3. 2. it is good to make sure that it will be printed the way you want it. Click the One Page button on the print preview toolbar to display one page at a time.6. Word changes from current view to print preview. over the grid to select the number and configuration of pages to display two or more pages at a time. click the Print Preview button. and gain information and feedback from them in the process. and click the mouse button to view a magnified area of the document. Click the Multiple Page button. 1. To preview a document before printing: On the standard toolbar. Move the mouse pointer to the location you want to view. Printing Before printing a document. including the page that contains the insertion point. Position the insertion point where you want to insert a form field.7. Use Print Preview to display a document. as it will look when printed. Click the Down Arrow next to the Zoom Control box. Ms-Windows. Creating a Form Forms are an easy way for you to interact with users of your documents. either online or in print. 12. and then drag. Click the View menu' point to Toolbars' and then click Forms. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 12. and then displays one or more pages. Or from the file menu. and select a magnification type or percentage to enlarge or reduce the page(s) displayed. Use the Forms toolbar to insert form fields.Introduction to Computers. choose the Print Preview command. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 78 of 208 .

Move the mouse pointer to the location you want to edit and then click the left mouse button 3. In print preview display the page you want to edit 2. To Print a Document: Click the print button in any view.7. To return the hidden elements to the screen. click the magnifier button.Introduction to Computers. Do one of the following: To return to the original magnification. Click the magnifier button to restore the insertion point and then edit the document. click the Full Screen button again or press Esc. 12. and then click the document To exit print preview.1. then word prints one copy of the document Setting Printing Options 1. and return to the previous view of the document. Ms-Windows. Editing Text in Print Preview 1. You can specify printing options such as number of pages or number of copies you want to print in the print dialog box. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Click the Full Screen button to hide all screen elements except the displayed page. To set printing options: Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 79 of 208 .2. click the Close button 12.7.

you have to make a selection.9 means print pages 5 and 9 5. Click on the drop-down list button next to the name field and select the desired printer. Ms-Windows. 4. For example. choose the print command to display the print dialog box as shown bellow. Check Pages option to print any range of pages. From the file menu. If the name in the Name box is the printer you actually have and want to print to. To print a number of copies: Type or adjust the number of copies you want to print. To choose page range: Check All option to print the entire document Check Current Page option to print the current page (the page the insertion point is found) Check Selection option to print only selected part of the document. you can move right ahead to printing. 3. in the Number of Copies box Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 80 of 208 . 5. If there is no printer listed or you want to choose a different printer. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 2.Introduction to Computers.

charting and database application. The intersection of each row and column makes a box called Cell and it is into the cells that you type your data. However. Excel’s prime function is as a spreadsheet. Worksheets A workbook may contain a single sheet or as many sheets as necessary.1. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 81 of 208 . which provides a method by which data can be analyzed and used in complex calculations. a powerful application for handling data. By default Excel opens with a workbook of three sheers. Ms-Windows. 4. Switching between sheets If you wish to make a different sheet active simply click on its tab. which together create a cell address or references. as in the figure opposite.for calculating.for creating charts. The workbook consists of worksheets. mostly numerical data. Each cell is referenced individually by a column letter and row number. and charting sheets.2. A spreadsheet is rather like an electronic ledger. is indicated by the tab in bold at the bottom of the worksheet. Components of the workspace Workbook A workbook is the file Excel uses to store your data.1. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Chapter 4: Introduction to Microsoft Excel Excel is spreadsheet. A workbook named book1 is displayed and is ready for input 4.Introduction to Computers.2. Data Entry The worksheet is divided horizontally into rows and vertically into columns. Getting Start Excel To start MS-Excel Click on the start button then click on Microsoft Excel from the program submenu. The sheet currently in use is known as the Active Sheer. 4.

or down. right. Clicking on (X) in the formula bar makes the active cell blank. use the keyboard arrow days. The table below shows other frequently used keyboard commands. numbers. Using the Backspace or Delete ( ) key will remove the entire contents of a selected cell. Data can be entered into a cell on the worksheet.Introduction to Computers. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To enter data in a cell move the pointer to the preferred cell and then click on the mouse button. . or. Keystrokes to move the cell pointer Keys PgDn PgUP Home Ctr1+ Home To Move Down one Screen Up one screen To column A in the current row To cell A1 JUCAVM 82 of 208 Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 . You can also make cells blank if you wish. up. Moving the Cell pointer To move the pointer one cell to the left. called the Active Cell On top of the window in an area called the Formula Bar Editing Data Once data has been entered into a cell. You will find it easier to edit using the formula bar tether than editing in the cell it self. When you begin to type the data you are entering will appear in two places: In the cell it self. It is also necessary to start with the first cell. if the pointer is in the formula bar.g. the Backspace or Delete enables you to make changes in the content of the cell. Ms-Windows. You can type any kind of data in a cell e. text. When you have finished typing either click on ( ). you can make changes by clicking on the cell and editing in the Formula Bar.

Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To activate a cell with a mouse. To scroll up or down on row. If you want to see other areas of the worksheet. Ms-Windows. 4. Working with a Worksheet To rename a worksheet: 1. then select the Rename command from the shortcut menu displayed and type the new mane Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 83 of 208 .2. Or Right –Click being on the worksheet name. Use the arrows at the either end of horizontal scroll bar to scroll one column to the left or right. To de-select just click anywhere in the window. Select the worksheet 2. To select all in the worksheet click on the select All box. use the scroll bars. click the up or down arrow at the ends of the vertical scroll bar. Selecting Data You can select data in excel cells in various ways: To select an entire column or Row: Click on the column or row letter To copy adjacent columns or rows: • Hold down the mouse button and drag the pointer across the column the columns and rows To select Non contiguous rows or Columns: • Hold down the ctrl key and click on each column or row or cells in the columns and rows Block of cells can be selected by clicking on the top left cell and dragging diagonally to the bottom right hand cell. Choose the Rename command from the Formant menu the sheet command. simply click the cell. Type the new name then click anywhere on the worksheet.Introduction to Computers.2.

Exiting Excel Choose exit from the file menu or Click on windows close button Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 84 of 208 . Select the worksheet 2. Activate the worksheet 2.2. After you apply this command the worksheet will not be visible. Select the worksheet you want to unhide from the unhide dialog box 3. Select the background file by opening the appropriate folder or drive from the sheet background dialog box 3. Click on OK button To change the background of the worksheet: Select the worksheet 1. From the edit menu select the delete sheet command 4.3. Choose the hide command from the format menu then sheet command. Choose the unhide command from the format menu then sheet command 2. Click on OK To delete a worksheet: 1. Ms-Windows.Introduction to Computers. To display the hidden worksheet (unhide the worksheet): 1. Choose the background command from the format menu then sheet command 2. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual You can also make the worksheet non-visible by using the Hide command To hide the worksheet: 1.

product3.54 • Auto File: This extends several types of data. product2. 3.3. and the fill series command on the edit menu. weeks. 4. Jan ⇒ Feb. 12:00… Mon.6… and so on. Wed. 11:00. 7. Microsoft excel increases or decreases values by constant value. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 85 of 208 . sates and mixed text. Series Microsoft Excel can create a variety of series such as sequential numbers. Example: 2 (step value2) 4. or months.16 2 (step value 3) 6. to include 4.18. Example: 9:00 ⇒. 85.3. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 4. Apr… • Linear: When you create a linear series. ⇒ 5. Types of series You can create several types of series in Microsoft excel. 95. 2. 2. 1st period. • Time: A time series can include increments of days. Example: 1. 80 • Growth: when you create growth series.8. ⇒3. 4.1.Introduction to Computers. 1. 3rd period. Example: product 1. 2nd period. ⇒ 90. Mar. For example.3. ⇒ Tue. 9… 100. Ms-Windows. The Auto Fill feature logically repeats same series. you can extend a series such as 1. Microsoft Excel multiplies values by a constant factor. 5….5. The methods used to create a series are the FILL HANDLE on a cell or range selection. Th.

• From the edit menu. This changes as you drag the Fill Handle. • You can see the current value in the series in the reference area of the formula bar. select a series type. while the series command is better suited for creating very large series or for specifying a stop value. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 4. Leave the range selected • To extend the selection into the adjacent cells to the right.Introduction to Computers. To create the series with the series command: • In the first cell where your want to start the series. • Select the cells in the row or column in which you want to extend the series. • Under Type. enter a starting value.3. select the row option under Series In. select the column option under Series In.2. To create a series by dragging: • Select a range of two cells and enter the first tow values for the series. starting at the cell in which you entered the starting value of the series. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 86 of 208 . Ms-Windows. the Fill Series dialog box appears: • If you want the series to be in a row. choose Fill Series. If you want the series to be in a column. The primary difference between the two is that the Fill Handle is more direct and more interactive that. drag the Fill handle down. Creating a Series The fill handle can create most types of series that the series command on the edit menu can create. drag the Fill Handle to the right • To extend the selection into the adjacent cells below.

e. to another worksheet. Microsoft Excel automatically adjust relative cell references to the moved cells so your formulas still work. the original cells are not affected. the mouse pointer changes to an arrow Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 87 of 208 . Otherwise. or to any other application that can read data from the clipboard. • If you want Microsoft Excel to stop extending the series when it reaches a certain value. You can move or copy cells to different part of the same worksheet. Moving and Copying Data and Formats With Microsoft excel. type that value in the stop value box.3.Introduction to Computers. you can copy cells containing notes and formats. Microsoft Excel extends the series until it fills the entire selection • Choose the OK button 4. Moving Cells Moving cells is like physically cutting out the cells and transferring them to a new location either on the same worksheet or on different worksheet. Ms-Windows. If you copy cells. Drag & Drop and Cut/Copy-paste method. When move cells. or growth factor you want to use. Microsoft Excel moves the cells content the cell format and any notes attached to the cell. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual • In the Step value box type the increment. To move and replace cells by dragging: • Select the cell or cells you want to move • Position the mouse pointer over the border. decrement.3. If you move cells. As in Microsoft word you have two methods to copy or move any screen element i.

the cell formats and any notes attached to the cell. Copying Cells Copying cells duplicate the cells and paste them into another location. The Selection moves to cells around by the border. the mouse pointer changes to an arrow • Hold down shift and drag the border to the row or column grid line where you want to insert data. • Release the mouse button.Introduction to Computers. • Release the mouse button. To move and replace cells with Cut and paste command: • Select the cell or cells you want to move • From the Edit menu Choose Cut. To move and insert cells between existing cells by dragging: • Select the cell or cells you want to move • Position the mouse pointer over the border. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual • Hold down Shift and drag the border to the row or column grid line where you want to Insert data. the cells content. • From the Edit menu or standard toolbar. • Select the upper left cell of the paste area you want to move the data to or select the entire paste area. Microsoft Excel copies. Ms-Windows. When you copy cells. deleting the cells in the paste are. choose paste. The selection is inserted between the cells bordering of the row or column grid line. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 88 of 208 .

select the shift Right option button • Choose OK button. Microsoft Excel displays a dialog boxes so that you can chose which way you want to shift the original cells. the pointer changes to an arrow. • Position the border so that is surrounding the paste area you want t. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To copy and replace cell by dragging: • Select the cell or cells you want to copy. Ms-Windows. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 89 of 208 . or choose copy from the Edit menu or the shortcut menu. • From the Insert menu or shortcut menu choose copied cells. • Position the mouse pointer over the border. • Hold down Ctrl and drag the selection to where you want to copy the selection. To insert copied cells between existing cells with insert command: Select the cell or cells you want to copy • Click the copy tool. • Select the upper left cell in the range where you want to insert the copied cells. Release the mouse button Note: To copy and inset cells between existing cells follow the above procedure but instead of pressing only ctrl Key press Ctrl + Shift key.Introduction to Computers. • To shift the cells in the past area right.

Release the mouse button. Columns and Rows You can insert blank cells. Select the entire row or column by clicking the row or column heading 2. Select the shift cells right or down option to shift the other cells in the worksheet to accommodate the inserted cells 4. Select the same size of rows or columns equal to the number of rows or columns you want to insert 2. comments. Clearing and Deleting Clearing a cell clears the contents. But deleting a cell completely removes the cell and its contents from the worksheet and moves adjacent cells to close-up the space that was occupied by the deleted cells Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 90 of 208 . From the insert menu or from the shortcut menu choose Cells 3. From the insert menu or short cut menu choose row or column To insert cells: 1. position the mouse pointer over the Fill Handle 3. or blank rows and columns To insert a row. Editing a Worksheet 4.4. or formats from that cell but leaves the cleared cell in the structure of the worksheet. or range by dragging: 1.2. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 4.1. Select the same size of cells as the range of blank cells you want to insert 2. press Shift and drag the Fill Handle and select the number of rows or columns you want to insert 4.Introduction to Computers. Inserting Cells.4. To insert an entire row or column by using the insert command: 1. Ms-Windows.4. column. Choose the OK button 4.

End your work with the close button Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 91 of 208 . Ms-Windows. From the Edit (or shortcut) menu choose clear 3. To search forward from the active cell choose the Find Next button. To search the entire worksheet. contents. To limit the search. select the appropriate options from the sub-menu or choose clear contents from the shortcut menu. From the Edit menu select Find command 3. Find and Replace To find cells containing specific data: 1. 2. Press Shift and Drag the Fill Handle across the rows or columns you want to delete 4.Introduction to Computers.4. To clear formats. Release the mouse button 4.3. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To clear cell contents. formats or comments: 1. Drag across the range of cells you want to erase 2. Drag the Fill Handle across the rows or columns you want to erase 3. Select the cell(s) you want to clear 2. or comments. Release the mouse button To delete a row. Position the mouse pointer over the Fill Handle 3. select the cell range you want to search 2. To search backward hold down shift key and choose the Find Next command 5. Select the cells you want to delete. Repeat step 5 until all occurrences of what you specified are found 6. To erase a range of cells by dragging: 1. column or rang by dragging: 1. Select the options you want 4. formats. select a single cell.

Select the options you want 6. select the cell range you want to search 2. In the Replace What box type the data that will replace what you specified Find What box 5. Click OK Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 92 of 208 . or with the Cells command on the Format menu or shortcut menu. 3. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To Find and Replace data: 1. From the Edit menu select Replace command 3. You can format worksheet cells before or after you enter the data. Click Close button 4. size and so on from the list 5. Formatting the Appearance of Data To add emphasis to your data. To limit the search. You can format the appearance of data with tools on the format toolbar. To search the entire worksheet. Select the Font tab under Format Cells 4. Choose Replace all 7. To replace data in the active cell and fond the next occurrence. Formatting a Worksheet 4. you can use the formatting features of Excel. Select the font styles. Ms-Windows. In the Find What box type the content you want to find and replace 4. select a single cell. The format cells dialog box will appear. To change the appearance of data using Cells command: 1. choose Cells. or to make your worksheet easier to read.Introduction to Computers. To replace all occurrences of the data.1.5. choose the replace button. From the Format menu or shortcut menu. Select the cells you want to format 2.5.

From the format cells dialog box.2. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Formatting Data with Numbers Microsoft Excel includes variety of number. Select the desired number format 6. You can use one of the built-in formats. top. Click the Alignment tab from cell Format dialog box 3. date or time format: 1. Formatting Borders and Shading You can shade cells or put a border around them. Ms-Windows. or bottom of a cell. Select the cell or range you want to format 2. choose Cells 3.5.5. select the Number tab 4. or you can create your own. To add borders or shading: 1. Aligning Worksheet Data You can format cell entries and text box so that the data is aligned or rotated the way you want. dates. right. Click OK 4. and time formats. From the format menu. or you can use one of the built in formats. Select the desired option 4. Select the cell(s) you want to format Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 93 of 208 . You can draw any combination of horizontal and vertical lines on the left.Introduction to Computers. In the category box. To assign a number. Select the cell(s) you want to format 2. Click OK 4. select the type of entry you want to format 5. To align text and numbers with the alignment tools: 1. You can also create double underlines and column lines.3.

Form the format (or shortcut) menu choose Cells and select the patterns tab 3. Click OK To adjust row height to the best fit: Double click the line below the row heading. type the column width you want 3.Introduction to Computers. Select the entire column. Click OK To shade cells with a pattern: 1. If more than one column changes the column width of all selected columns To select the standard column width: 1. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 2. Click OK Changing Column Width and Row Heights To quickly adjust the column width to accommodate the longest cell entry in the column. Form the format (or shortcut) menu choose Cells 3. In the standard width box. If more than one row is selected double clicking the row heading line for one row changes the tow height of all selected columns You can also use the row and column command under the Format menu to customize the column width and row height as well as to fit them to the longest or widest entry Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 94 of 208 . Choose options you want 5. Ms-Windows. Choose options you want 4. double click the line to the right of the column heading. then from the format menu choose Column width 2. Form the cells dialog box select the Border tab 4. Select the cell(s) you want to format 2.

2. a list can be a listing of items with their corresponding price.6. 4. Entering Database Information After you decide the on the design of the database. you can search for data. sorting or subtotaling data. Sorting a Database You can reorganize the data in the database alphabetically or numerically with the sort command on the data menu. To use a data form your list should have column labels. A list can be used as a database: you can think of a list as a simple database. Using A List to Organize Data One way to store data on a worksheet is in a list.Introduction to Computers. find. You can sort rows or columns in any selection and you can choose whether to sort the rows (or columns) in ascending (or descending) order. edit or delete records by using a data form. you can create the database by first entering the records according to the following guideline: Database Size: a database can be as large as an entire worksheet Field Name Location: the first row of your database must contain the field names.6. A Data form is a dialog box that displays one complete record at time. When you click the criteria button in the data form. You can specify up to three keys to sort a database. Using criteria in data form. 4. Ms-Windows. Microsoft Excel automatically recognizes your list as a database.1. Each column in a database is a field. When performing most database tasks such as finding. Excel changes the data form so that you can you can type in the fields is interpreted as search conditions. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 95 of 208 . For example.6. Once you create a list you can you can add. where rows are records and columns are fields. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 4. A list is a labeled series of rows that contain similar data. a mane that identifies the data stored in a field.

From filter sub menu select Auto Filter. Select an item to display only those records. In Excel there are two types of filters: Auto filter and Advanced Filter Auto Filter To apply an auto filter: 1. Click on one of these arrows to display a list of all unique items in the column 4. 4.Introduction to Computers. Select the Sort command from the Data menu. The sort dialog box appears. 3. which conform to this criterion Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 96 of 208 . On the Data menu point to Filter. Select a single cell in the list 2.3. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To sort a list of data: 1. it is also possible to select the second and the third key columns from the two then By list boxes) 4. Filtering a List Microsoft Excel allows you to view selected data from your lists. Select a cell from the list 2. Click options and select one of the Option buttons to sort Rows or Columns and Click ok 6. In the sort by list box. Ms-Windows. (Excel places drop down arrows directly on the field manes (column labels of your list)) 3.you can use the sort Ascending and sort Descending buttons on the standard toolbar to Quickly sort the list by first selecting a cell from the list. For each key column determine the order of sorting by selecting Ascending or Descending. Click OK or press Enter key Note: . This can be done by applying filters.6. select your first key column (if required. 5.

” or “Suyama” in the Salesperson Column. 2. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Using Custom Criteria with Auto Filter Usually you need to filter more complex criteria than those which are listed directly under the drop down arrows. To enter Custom Criteria 1. the following criteria range displays the rows that contain either “Davolio. Sales person Davolio Buchanan Suyama Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 97 of 208 . The following dialog box will be displayed. Ms-Windows. Enter the required criteria by clicking the operator drop down arrow 3. Choose custom from the drop down list. For example. type the criteria directly below each other in separate rows.” “Buchanan.Introduction to Computers. Colic OK Advanced Filter Advanced filter criteria can include multiple conditions applied in a single column. multiple criteria applied to multiple columns. and conditions created as the result of a formula. Three or more conditions in a single column If you have three or more conditions for a single column.

enter the criteria in different rows of the criteria range. or the rows for salesperson Buchanan with sales values greater than $1. To find data that meets either a condition in one column or a condition in another column. Ms-Windows. For example. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Criteria from two or mote columns To find data that meets one condition in two or more columns.000.000. “Davolio” in the Salesperson column. enter all the criteria in the same row of the criteria range. the following criteria range displays all rows that contain “produce” in the Type column. or sales values greater than $1. and sales values greater than $1. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 98 of 208 Sales person Sales . For example. 5000.Introduction to Computers. Type Produce Devolio >1000 To find rows that meet one of two conditions in one column and one of two conditions in another column. the following criteria range displays the rows that contain Davolio in the Salesperson column and sales values greater than $3. Type produce Salesperson Devolio Sales >1000 Note: You can also specify multiple conditions for different columns and display only the rows that meet all the conditions by using the Auto Filter command on the Data menu.000. the following criteria range displays all rows that contain either “produce “ in the Type column. For example. type the criteria in separate rows. “Davolio” in the Salesperson column.

The advanced filter dialog box will be displayed 3. Choose Advanced Filter from the Filter submenu under the Data menu. The data form displays all fields of a record 3. Ms-Windows. Data Forms A data form is a dialog box that provides a simple way to view. either by typing the fields or by coping from the list and setting arguments accordingly 2. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Sales person Devolio Buchanan To practice Advanced Filter method: Sales >3000 >1500 1. 4. and delete records in your database. Click New (to add a new record) Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 99 of 208 . add. To do so click the Collapse Dialog button in the Copy to box and select blank cells. In the List Range box specify the range of cells from the list for which the criteria will be applied 4. Define the criteria in a blank cell of the worksheet. Add a record to a list by using a data form: 1. Click the Copy to Another Location button if you want the filtered list to be displayed in a different cell address. Excel displays the Data form. Click a cell in the list you want to add the record to. change.6. click the Collapse Dialog button and select the criteria range 5. 2.Introduction to Computers. In the Criteria Range box. or to find specific records based on a given criterion.4. On the Data menu click Form.

5. press ENTER or add the record. Ms-Windows. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 4. When you finish typing data. Formulas Entering formula is the basic technique you use to analyze data on a worksheet.Introduction to Computers. To move to the next field. click the Criteria button. Type the data you want to Look for in the corresponding field. and click Find Next to search forward or click Find prev to search backward. Type the information for the new record. To move to the previous field. A formula always begins with an equal sign (=) Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 100 of 208 . • Microsoft Excel adds the record when you move to another record or close the data form. values. the formula is not calculated until you press ENTER or click Close to add the record. Note: to find a record having a given data. With a formula you can perform operations such as addition. Cell references. The label cannot be changed in the data form. or functions. subtraction. • If you add a record that contains a formula. multiplication. click Close to add the new record and close the data form. you can undo changes if you click Restore before you press ENTER or click Close to add the record. A formula can include any of the following elements: operators. press TAB. Notes • Fields that contain formulas display the results of the formula as a label. 4. When you finish adding records. and comparison on worksheet values. press SHIFT+TAB. 6. • While you are adding a record. division.7.

and ∧ (exponentiation) 2. 4.connects or concatenates two or more text values together 3. Ms-Windows. A$1 A1 – this type of cell reference is called Relative Reference because it changes relative to the position pointer. Arithmetic Operators: performs basic mathematical operations to produce numeric results Example: + (addition). Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Using Operators Microsoft Excel uses three types of operators. This reference does not change with the position of the cell pointer. The “$” sign indicates tat both the row number and the column letter are fixed. $A$1 – this type of cell reference is called Absolute Reference. $A1/A$1 – in $A1 the column letter is fixed and in A$1 the row number is fixed Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 101 of 208 . % (percentage).7.<>(not equal to ) Normally when you enter a formula in a cell.1.>=(greater than or equal to ). Test Operators: To combine two or more text values into a single text value.* (Multiplication).-(Subtraction or Unary Minus). $A1.<. the result will be displayed in the cell and the formula will be displayed in the formula bar. Cell References There are four types of cell references – A1./ (division). Comparison Operators: compares two values and produces the logical value True or False Examples: =. Example:& . <=(less than or equal to ). $A$1. 1.>.Introduction to Computers.

Ms-Windows.. To mane cells or range of cells. To enter a formula:1. You can also type the name directly in the formula bar. Press F4 to toggle between the four reference types 4. type the formula.g.g. A1. E. Select the cell into which you want to enter the Formula 2. select the cell (s). When you are finished press Enter Cell Reference Operators There are three types of cell reference operators: Range (colon) – produces a reference to all cells between the two references inclusive. Select the cell that contains a reference type you want to change 2. Intersection (Space) – produces one reference. which is common to the two separate references. A1:D5 means cells from A1 up to D5 including A1 and D5. Union (Comma) – produces one reference..g. which includes the two separate references E. The formula bar displays the formula and the cell displays the result. Click the enter box ( ).D5 means the two separate cells: A1 and D5. The formula appears both in the formula bar and in the cell 4. E.. Select the cell reference by clicking it on the formula bar 3. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To change a cell reference type: 1. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 102 of 208 . Type equal sign to activate the formula bar 3. B7: D7 C6:C8 means only C7 Note: when using reference there is another way available: naming cells and range.Introduction to Computers. select Define from the Name submenu on Insert menu and then type its name.

Type the arguments or type the collapse Dialog button to select the the argument in the appropriate argument boxes 5.) The function dialog box will be displayed 3.) The argument is a series of numbers. Select Functions from Insert menu (or click the paste function button on the Standard tool bar. Number2…. Sum ignores references to text values. ranges or cell references that result in numbers. Select the cell into which you want to `paste the function 2. When you finish editing the formula click OK or press Enter Note: you can also type the complete formula in the formula bar Mathematical Functions Microsoft Excel provides several mathematical functions for carrying out specialized calculations quickly and easily The sum Function The sum function adds a series of numbers. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 4.Introduction to Computers. To build the formula = Sum (A1:A4) To use functions: 1. Ms-Windows. formulas. The arguments must be enclosed in parenthesis. For example instead of typing =A1+A2+A3+A4.7. logical values or blank cells Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 103 of 208 . you can use the Sum function. Worksheet Functions A function is a special prewritten formula that takes a value or values ( which are called Arguments). It tales the form: = Sum (Number1.. Select a function from the list to display the function dialog box 4. performs an operation and returns a value or values.2.

It takes the form: =Average (number1. logical and text cells.) Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 104 of 208 . It takes the form: =Max (Number1. the SQRT function returns the #Num! Error value The product Function Multiplies all the numbers referenced by its arguments.) Statistical Functions The Average Functions The Average Function computes the Average of the numbers in a range by summing a series of values and then dividing by the number of values.Introduction to Computers.) It ignores blank. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual The Auto sum button If you select a cell and click the Auto sum button Excel creates the =Sum ( ) formula and guesses which numbers you want to add. Ms-Windows. Number2…. Number2…. The SQRT Function The SQRT function returns the positive square root of a number. If the proposed argument is correct you can click the Auto sum button for the second time to enter the formula or else you can select the correct set of values to be added.. The Max Function The Min function returns the smallest value in a range.. Number2…. It takes the form: = PRODUCT (Number1. It takes the form: = SQRT (Number) If the number is negative.

In these cases. Note that the text arguments are enclosed in double quotes You can use formulas as arguments in If functions. E. The If Function = if (Conditional test. B2 * 0. Every conditional test must include at least one logical operator. the greater than(>) logical operator compares the values in cells A1 and A2. “Pass”. “Fair”. value if condition is true. the function returns “pass”. “Fail” ) If the value in cell B2 is greater than 50.g.) Logical Functions Most logical functions use conditional test to determine whether a specified condition is true or false. formulas. otherwise it will be 10%of the amount.. B2 * 0. otherwise it returns “Fail”. functions. The Nested If Function At times you can not resolve a logical problem using only logical operators. = If (B2>500. in the conditional test A1>A2. E. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual The Min Function The Min function returns the smallest value in a range. You can use if function inside another if function to create a hierarchy of tests. = If (B2<50.2. For example. It takes the form: =Min (Number1. the commission is calculated as 20% of the amount if the value in cell B2 is greater than 500. if (b2<70.1) In the above example. Number2…. labels or logical values. “Failure”. Good”) Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 105 of 208 .g. A conditional test is an equation that compares the numbers. value if condition is false) You can use text arguments in If functions to return text strings instead of numeric values Example: = If (B2>=50.Introduction to Computers. Logical operators define the test relationship between elements of the conditional test. Ms-Windows.

Introduction to Computers. logical value2…. E. The functions work in conjunction with the simplest operators: =.) The not function has only one argument and it takes the form: =NOT (Logical Value) These functions are usually used with If function. >. “Pass” will be displayed. <.C2>50). logical value2…) =OR (logical value1. and Not functions These three additional functions help us develop compound conditional tests. = IF (And (B2>50. Otherwise “Failure” will be displayed. and <= The AND and OR functions can have as many as 30 logical arguments. Or.2. E. = IF (OR (B2>50. the function returns. Ms-Windows. “Failure”) If the value in either B2 or C2 is greater than 50. otherwise “Good” will be returned. “Failure”) If the value in both B2 and C2 is greater than 50. if B2 is greater than 50 and less than 70) “Fair” will be returned. >=. They have the form: =AND (logical Value1. If it is not less than 50 it compares it with 70 and if it is true (i.1.e. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual If the value of in cell B2 is less than 50. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 106 of 208 .g.g. C2>50). otherwise “Failure” will be displayed. “pass”.” Failure”.. “Pass” will be displayed. The And. “Pass”.

or data points displayed as bars lines. Microsoft Excel inserts the chart according to your choices Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 107 of 208 .8. 6.8. Charts A chart is a graphic representation of worksheet data.e. To create an embedded chart on a worksheet with the chart wizard: 1. In the final step (Step4 of 4) of the chart wizard specify the chart location i. The char dialog box appears.. Values from worksheet cells. Click the chart wizard tool from the standard tool bar or select chart command from insert menu. Data points are grouped into data series which are distinguished by different colors or patterns. 2. Select any appropriate tab and set the options in the third step of the wizard.Introduction to Computers. you can create a chart directly on a worksheet or as a separate document on its own window.1. pie slices or other shapes in the chart. 3. Select the range of worksheet cells that contain the data you want to plot including any worksheet column or row labels that you want to use in the chart. Ms-Windows. Enter the data range and click next 5. Creating a Chart After selecting worksheet data that you want to plot. Click finish. Do not select empty cells. columns. select As Object In Option 7. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 4. 4. 4. A chart created on a worksheet is a graphic object called embedded chart and is saved as part of the worksheet on which it was created. Select the type of chart you want and click next button to move to the next step.

Plot Area: The area in which Excel plots data Data Marker: A bar. A chart can have one or more data series. Grid Lines: Optical lines that extend from the tick marks on an Axis across the plot area to make it easier for you to view data values Chart text: Text that describes data or object in a chart Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 108 of 208 . Chart Toolbar: The tool bar that displays charting tools. including all elements of the chart such as labels. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 4.8. Axis: A line that serves as a major reference for plotting data in a chart Category Name: Category name corresponds to the labels for the worksheet data that are usually plotted along the X-axis. Scale or Chart data series. Series Formula: A formula describing a chart data series. Axes. Parts of a Chart Chart: The entire area in the chart window. The chart data series manes are used in legend Tick Mark: A small line that intersects an Axis and marks off a category. Chart Menu Bar: The menu bar that displays the name of the chart menus when a chart document is active. data markers. Ms-Windows. chart formatting tools and the chart wizard tool. area.Introduction to Computers.2. picture or other symbol that marks a single data point or value Data labels: Are values of the worksheet displayed on top of the chart type which it represents Chart Data Series: A group of related values such as all the data values In a single row or column of the worksheet selection. Dot.

To move the chart on the worksheet: • Select the chart or any chart item you want to select. colors. Select the embedded char 3. Working with Chart and Chart Items To select a chart or a chart item: • Just click on the chart or chart item you want to select. To change the size of the chart: • Select it and point to one of its corners when the pointer changes to a double headed arrow. drag the chart to resize it To delete an embedded chart: 1. From the edit or shortcut menu choose clear.Introduction to Computers. Or click the arrow next to the chart type button on the chart toolbar and select the chart type you want from the list To delete an embedded chart: 1. Ms-Windows. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Legend: A key that identifies the patterns.8. Microsoft Excel removes the chart from the worksheet To delete a non embedded chart use the delete sheet command from the edit menu Formatting a Chart Adding and Deleting Chart Text and Axis Titles Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 109 of 208 . or symbols associated with number of a chart data series and shows the chart data series name that corresponds to each data marker 4. Select the chart type you want.3. Select it 2. Open the worksheet containing the embedded chart 2. Choose the chart type command from the chart menu 3.

To add one or more axis titles. Click the Enter box or press Enter To delete chart text: 1. To add a charter title. Click the Textbox tool on the drawing bar and type the text you want while no other text is selected 2. Click somewhere else but don’t press Enter. and then type the text you want. click in the chart options. 3. Click the text to select 2. click the text on the chart menu and click where you want to insert the line break. 4.Introduction to Computers. Deleting. On the chart menu. choose clear To edit chart text: 1. Click inside the text 3. For example. And Formatting A Chart Legend A chart legend provides a guide to the data marker in much same way that a toad map legend provides a guide to the colors and symbols used in a map. Click the chart to which you want to add a title 2. To add a chart title or axis title: 1. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 110 of 208 . Adding. Ms-Windows. Click the text on the chart to select it 2. From the Edit menu or Shortcut menu. click in appropriate box for each title and then type the text you want Note: to insert a line break in a chart title or axis title. and then type the text you want. and then press ENTER. To add unattached text: 1. click the Chart Title box. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual You can enhance the appearance of your chart by adding the required information. Make your editing 4.

To format the font of the legend text. To format the border and area or the legend box: 1. and then select the options You want 4. and the pattern.Introduction to Computers. Ms-Windows. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To add a legend: 1. choose the Font tab. Double click the legend to display the Format legend dialog box. click Chart Option. Select the Font tab and the patterns tab independently 3. To apply all your changes and close the dialog box. Click the chart to which you want to add a legend 2. click the option you want To delete legend: Select the legend and choose the Clear command from the Edit menu formatting the Chart Legend You can control the style. choose the OK button Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 111 of 208 . Select the show legend check box 4. and then click the Legend tab 3. On the Chart menu. Under placement. foreground color and background color used within the area of legend box. color and weight of the borderline around the legend. You can also click the legend to select it and choose selected legend from the Format menu or the shortcut 2.

What is a Database? Definition: . events. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Chapter 5: Microsoft Access 5. RETRIEVED and ACCESSED. transactions. Starting Microsoft Access 2003 To Start Microsoft accesses do one of the followings: • Click on the Start button. People run their personal business with DATABASE such as checkbook.e. locations. Ms-Windows. 5. or • Double click on the shortcut icon from your desktop. Each of the above examples organizes information (DATABASE) in such a way that it be easily STORED. highlight programs. Home. description of set of objects. The problem itself may be simple or complicated which occurs regularly or happens only once.1.) problem. Your bank for instance keeps track of your money and the Accounting department monitors your payable and receivable accounts.Database is an organized collection of related information.1. Mail list etc. etc. people. and then click on Microsoft Access.Introduction to Computers. The role of the database is then to provide a way to organize facts pertaining to the raised problem in such a way that the organized facts suggest the solution itself. personal etc.1. i. • Select Database Wizard to create a new database with the help of Wizard (a feature that guides you throughout the operation) Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 112 of 208 . phone book. The origin of DATABASE is some (Business. • Select Blank Database to create a new database. address book.

The Microsoft Access 2003 Screen After opening a new or an existing database. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Note: . • Select Open an Existing Database.Introduction to Computers.When you select one of the above options you will be prompted to name the file. give it a name and click on Create button.3 below) MS – Access application Window Fig .1.2. Ms-Windows.3 The Microsoft Access application windows Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 113 of 208 . you will be launched to the Microsoft Access Screen (See fig. 5. then the file you want from the list to open an existing database.

appear at the top of the application window.contains buttons that give you quick access to many commands and features.3 above). Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 114 of 208 . Database Objects: -are list of database tables. and the application’s menu bar. queries. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Application Window: -is a window that contains a running application. Tabs: .are tags within the same window that show different classification of the same topic. Ms-Windows. Database Window: -is a Window that display all database objects in the current database. The MS. Membership List and Membership Code tables in fig. forms or other database parts. Toolbar: . Clicking these tabs lets you switch to a specific part of the topic. clicking the table’s tab displays list of all objects of that type. For example. (See fig.Introduction to Computers. 3 above are database objects. For example. Click on the toolbar you want to display or hide. The name of the application and any associated document.Access has different Toolbars that are used to perform different tasks To display or hide any toolbar you want • • From view menu choose toolbars.

and features of MS – Access. If you have a dialog box open. Ms-Windows.Access Help menu or pressing F1 key. or if you have a question about a screen icon or any tool on the toolbar.4 help window Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 115 of 208 . This can be obtained by using the MS. Using Help On – screen help is an important feature of MS-Access. The Microsoft Access Help application window appears. you can get context.4) • Type the feature you want to get information about. choose Contents and Index. And clicking on the button you need help (you can also use the Help tool on the toolbar.Introduction to Computers. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 5. Fig . by clicking the question mark in the dialog box or pressing SHIFT+F1.3.sensitive help using the Help tool (?). You can get help on important commands. topics. • Click on the topic you want to know about and click on Display button or double-click the topic.1.) Getting help using help menu To get help using the Help Menu: • From the Help menu. (see fig.

Introduction to Computers, Ms-Windows, Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual

5.2.
5.2.1.

Designing and Creating Databases
Designing a Database

In a relational database, such as those created using Microsoft Access, you store information about different subjects in separate tables. To design a database: • Determine the purpose of the database. • Determine the tables. • Determine the fields. • Determine the relationships between information.

5.2.2.

Creating a Database

When you create a Microsoft Access database, you create one file that contains the data and table structures as well as the queries, forms, reports, and other objects that make up the database. To create a database: • Click the New Database button on the toolbar, or • From the File menu, choose New database. Microsoft Access displays the New Database dialog box where you specify a name and location for the database. Note: - You can create a database on the way when you start Microsoft Access, by selecting Blank Database or Database Wizard from the Microsoft Access dialog box. (See fig.21). Table: - is a collection of data about a specific topic. Table organizes data into columns (called fields) and rows (called records). Design View: - is a window where you design and modify table’s structure.
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Datasheet View:- is a window that displays data in column and row formats. In the Datasheet View you can add, delete, append or modify your data.

5.2.3.

Creating Tables

To create a table with a Wizard: Form the Database window, click the Tables tab, and then choose the New button. In the New Table dialog box (see fig.5 below), choose the Table Wizard option and click on OK.

Fig. 5 New Table Dialog Box To create a custom designed table: • From the Database window, click the Tables tab, and then choose the New button. • From the New Table dialog box, select Design View and click on OK. The Table Design View screen appears (see fig. 6 below).

Fig. 6 Table Design view
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In the Field Name column, type the name of the first field In the Data Type column, select the data type you want by opening the list box clicking the listing button selection refer the section. Choosing Field Data Types • In the Description column, type a description of the information this field will contain. Note that, the description is optional. • Set the Filed properties for the field in the bottom part of the window, depending on your choice. • Repeat the above steps for each field in the table. To save the table: • Click the Save button on the toolbar or chose Save from the File • menu to save the table design. • Type a name for the table. • Click on OK. .

6

(About the available data types and their

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The following table shows the Field Data Types available in Access: Data type Text. Use for Text and numbers, such as names and addresses, phone numbers and postal codes. A Text field can contain as many as 255 characters. Access assigns a default length of 50 characters. Memo Number Lengthy text and numbers, such as descriptive comments or explanations. A Memo field can contain up to 64,000 characters. Numerical data on which you intend to perform mathematical calculations, except calculations involving money. Set the Field Size property to define the specific Number type. AutoNumber Sequential numbers automatically inserted by Microsoft Access. Numbering begins with 1. Date/Time Dates and times. A variety of display formats is available, or you can create your own. Currency Currency values. Don’t use the Number data type for currency values because numbers to the right of the decimal may be rounded off during calculations. The Currency data type maintains a fixed number of digits to the right of the decimal. Yes/No Yes/No, True/False, On/ Off, or fields that will contain only one of two values. OLE Object Objects created in other programs using the OLE protocol that can be linked to or embedded in a Microsoft Access database through a control in a form or report.
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then from the Insert menu choose Lookup Field and follow the dialog box instruction to add the new field. To delete a field from a table: • In the table’s Design view. click on the row above which you want to add the new field. • Press the Del key. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Adding a Field to a Table To add a field to a table: • In table Design view.Introduction to Computers. or • Click on the row above which you want to add the new field. • Drag and drop the horizontal bar to the row just below where you want to move the fields. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 120 of 208 . select the fields you want to move by clicking each field’s row selector. To move fields in a table: • In the table’s Design view. Ms-Windows. • Microsoft Access displays a thin horizontal bar just above the last selected row. or choose Delete Row from the Edit menu. Deleting a Field from a Table You can delete a field from a table at any time. select the row containing the field you want to delete. Moving Fields in a Table You can recorder the fields in a table. Changing field order in a table changes column order in the table’s datasheet. then from the Insert menu choose Rows. • Click and hold down the mouse button in the row selector again.

Order ID and product ID. auto-number and multiple-field.7). Defining primary key To define primary key • In the table deign view.7).field primary key:. 2. Multiple. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Primary key Primary Key: .field primary key. but each product can be listed only once per order.field. (See fig. the first employee is automatically assigned the number “1”.is one or more fields that uniquely identify each record in a table. Types of Primary Key There are three types of primary Keys. In the Order Details table (see fig 7. Auto number primary key: .If a table has more than one primary key field.Introduction to Computers. no two customers can have the same customer ID.you can automatically assign sequential numbers to the records in your table by using an auto numbered field as the table’s primary key. the second employee “2” and so on.Most table have a single. Single-field primary key:. select the field (s) you want to assign as primary key • From the toolbar click on the Primary Key button or from Edit menu choose Primary Key. Microsoft Access won’t allow duplicate values in this field. in the Customers table (see fig.7 1. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 121 of 208 . the primary key uniquely identifies a record. single. The primary key of this table consists of two fields.) an order can list many products. Ms-Windows. In the same way that a license plate number identifies a car. Microsoft Access can not accept duplicate combinations of values. For example. In the Employees table (see fig.

• Choose Yes to delete the record permanently. select the record you want to delete. • Press the Del key or choose Delete from the Edit menu. switch to the Datasheet View (see fig. Type each field entry in the corresponding column To delete a record: • In the datasheet view. Ms-Windows. click on the Design View button from the toolbar • From Database Window highlight the table you want to edit and click on Design button • Perform the edition you want. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Adding and Editing Data To add a record using a Datasheet: • If you are in Table Design View. Editing a Files Data Type and properties You can edit a field Data Type and properties any time you want. • If you are in Datasheet view.8) by clicking on the Datasheet View button from the toolbar (Make sure to select Yes to save the design before you switch to the Datasheet). Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 122 of 208 . To do so. and then save the changes. Microsoft Access prompts you to confirm the deletion. or • From Database Window highlight the table into which you want to enter the record and click on Open button.Introduction to Computers.

Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 123 of 208 . such as. Note that Action is a variable that represents the action you performed. or • If you are prompted for confirmation. choose Undo< Action>. Drag the pointer across the cells. you can “freeze” one or more columns on the left side so that they don’t scroll off the screen. select NO or Cancel to revert the action. To undo the last action: • From the Edit menu. Click inside the left edge of the cell. To help you view your data. Freezing and Unfreezing Columns In a datasheet. Click the field selector. moving field and son on. Drag down the record selectors. Multiple columns Drag across the field selectors. Undoing last action MS – Access lets you undo most of last actions performed accidentally.Introduction to Computers. starting inside the left edge of a cell. Ms-Windows. for example. Click the top record selector or choose Select All Records from the Edit menu. three are often more columns than you can view in the window at one time. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Selecting Fields and Records To Select A single record Several records All records A single column Single cell Multiple cells Do this Click the recorded selector. deleting field. delete.

choose Unfreeze All Columns option. This is useful for removing extraneous data from the screen without running or rerunning a query and for copying and pasting data in specific columns: To hide columns: • Click anywhere in the column. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 124 of 208 . • Microsoft Access displays the Unhide columns dialog box. To unfreeze column: • From the Format menu. Hiding and Unhanding Columns You can temporarily hide columns in a datasheet. • Check the column you want to unhide and click on Close button. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To freeze a column: • Click anywhere in the column. choose Freeze Columns. choose Unhide Columns. • From the Format menu. or click the field selector of the column you want to hide. or click the field selector of the column you want to freeze. To unhide columns: • From Format menu.Introduction to Computers. • From the Format menu. choose Hide Columns. Ms-Windows. Exposed columns have a check mark next to them.

To filter records: • In datasheet view. To sort records: • In Datasheet view. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 125 of 208 . enter each criteria in its corresponding column within the same row. Filtering Records Using criteria you supplied. Organizing your Data Using Microsoft Access’s sort feature you can sort the records in Ascending or Descending order.3. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 5. and then choose Ascending or Descending. Note: .If you want to use multiple criteria for filtering. or • From Records menu choose sort. select the column on which you want to base the sort. which is used as filter criteria. Filter by Selection or Advanced Filter/Sort) Filter by Form: . 5. choose Filter from the Records menu. • Click the Sort Ascending or Sort Descending button on the toolbar.1. (Filter by From. then by clicking on Or tab enter the next criteria and continue doing the same for the rest. • Select one of the Filter options. Enter the criteria in the field column.Displays a datasheet where you enter the filter criteria.3. for AND and for OR enter the first criteria.Introduction to Computers. Ms-Windows. a filter can temporarily narrow your focus to a particular set of records.

move to the appropriate criteria cell and enter the expression. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Filter by Selection:. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 126 of 208 .3.Displays window with two portions.Introduction to Computers. Add the field or fields for which you want to specify criteria in the grid by doubleclicking it from the top portion of the window. To apply the filter. Enter the criteria for the fields you have included in the defined area.For multiple criteria related with AND. • To enter another expression in the same field or in another field.2. You can enter criteria for on e or more fields.Selects the records by the highlighted (selected )field. enter the criteria in the same row. • Enter the criteria expression by typing it or by using the Expression Builder. click the first Criteria cell beneath the field for which you want to set criteria. and then choose Ascending or Descending. Ms-Windows. click the arrow. If you want to sort the filtered records. 5. To enter criteria: • In the Filter window. whereas for criteria related with OR. The top portion of the window contains a field list for the underlying table or query and the lower portion displays the grid in which you specify the filter criteria. Note:. Entering Criteria Criteria is an instruction you use to tell Microsoft Access to display the records you want. Advanced Filter /Sort:. (For AND and OR relations see the notes in Filtering Records section). click the sort box of the fields on which you want to base the sort. or Choose Apply Filter/Sort from the Records menu. enter the criteria in different rows. click the Apply Filter/Sort button on the toolbar.

Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 5. To delete a row (record): • Select the row by clicking its row selector or click anywhere in the row Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 127 of 208 .4.criteria to select records.If the criteria are related with AND unless all conditions are fulfilled the record will not be selected.If the criteria are related with OR. 5. you relate the criteria either with AND or with OR. Note:.3. 5.3.3. • To relate criteria with OR enter each criteria in different rows.5. Note: . • To relate criteria with AND enter all criteria you need in the same row. To insert a row (record): • From Insert menu. choose Column. • From the Insert menu. the record will be selected if at least one condition is fulfilled. Ms-Windows.Introduction to Computers. Deleting Column or Row To delete a column (field): • Select the column by clicking its column selector or click any where in the column • Choose Delete Column from the Edit menu. The AND and OR Relations If you want to use multiple. choose Record.3. Inserting Column or Row To insert a column (field): • Click anywhere in the column to the right of where you want the new column to be inserted.

Copying and Moving Microsoft Access Objects or Text To copy a database object: • In the Database window. • Click on OK. • Type a name for the query. The query will contain the criteria and sort order you entered in the Filter window.7. 5. or • Select Remove Filter/Sort option from Records menu.8. select the object you want to copy. To save a filter as a query: • In the Filter window. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 128 of 208 . Ms-Windows. Microsoft Access redisplays all the records from the underlying table or query in their original order.3. and then choose Save As Query from the shortcut menu or choose Save As Query from the File menu.Introduction to Computers. 5. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual • Choose Delete Record from Edit menu. Removing a Filter When you remove a filter from a table or form. To remove a filter: • Click the Apply Filter/Sort button 0 on the toolbar.3.3. The new query appears in the Database window within the Queries tab. Saving a Filter as a Query You can save a filter as a query for later use. 5.6. click the right mouse button.

Ms-Windows.bottom.9. To print all the records. • If you are copying the object into a different database. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual • From the Edit menu. if Your datasheet is three pages wide and two pages long. then the bottom three pages. 5. For example. choose Copy. • In the print dialog box.3. Printing a Datasheet Microsoft Access prints a datasheet as it appears on the screen. or choose print from the File menu. Microsoft Access prints the top three pages first. choose one of the following options: • Define the number of copies you want to print • Click on OK. select nothing. Microsoft Access prints from left-to. under print Range. For large datasheets. choose paste. • If you intend to print selected records. • From the Edit menu. You can preview your datasheet before printing by choosing print preview from the File menu. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 129 of 208 . query or form datasheet. • Click the print button on the toolbar.Introduction to Computers.right and then from topto. close the current database and open the database into which you want to past the object. To print a datasheet: • Display the table.

Specify the page numbers of the first and Last pages you want to print. 5. Ms-Windows.Introduction to Computers. • Type a new name for the object. Specific pages from your table. • From the Edit menu.3. choose Rename. and then click on OK.10. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 130 of 208 . select the object from the appropriate object list. The selected records. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual This option All Selection Pages Prints All of the records in the table. Renaming a Database Object To rename a database object: • In the Database window. following Microsoft Access standard naming Conventions.

Retrieves data from one or more tables using criteria you specify and then displays it in the order you want. Maketable query. Update query. change and analyze data in different ways. Once you delete records using a delete query. Update. Append Query:.Displays summarized values( Sums. Types of Queries In Microsoft Access there are six types of queries available.Creates a new table from all or part of the data in one or more tables. Ms-Windows. (Select query.Introduction to Computers. 5. so that if you delete the wrong records. Append and Delete queries are called Action Queries. you can retrieve them from your backup copies. Delete Query:. The Maketable.4. Crosstab Query:. For example. Make sure you have selected only the records you want to delete before running your query.Adds a group of records from one or more tables to the end of one or more tables. you can raise the salaries by 5% for employees with in a certain job category. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 131 of 208 . You can also use them as the source of records for forms and reports. Marketable Query:. Select Query:. Queries You use queries to view. Averages and so on) from one field in a table and groups them by one set of facts listed down the left side of the datasheet and another set of facts listed across the top of the datasheet. Update Query:.1. Crosstab query. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 5. It is advisable to have backup copies of your at all times.4.Deletes a group of records from one or more tables.Makes global changes to a group of records in one or more tables. you can’t undo the operation. Counts. Append query and Delete query).

• From New Query dialog box. • The Show Table dialog box will be displayed as follows: Fig. choose the Wizard type you want. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 5. • Click the New button.4. To create a query with a Wizard: • In the Database window.4. Creating a Custom Designed Query To create a custom designed query: • In the Database window.3.10 The Show Table dialog box Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 132 of 208 . or • Choose Queries from the View menu. click the Queries Tab. Creating a Query with a Wizard With a Query Wizard. you can quickly create advanced queries. then click on OK • Follow the instructions in the Wizard dialog boxes. 5. • From New Query dialog box select Design View and click on OK.2.Introduction to Computers. or • Choose Queries from the database Objects submenu under the View menu. • Click the New button. Ms-Windows. click the Queries Tab.

The whole table or Click the asterisk (*). Double-click the title bar of the field list. The field will be added in the Design Gird (the lower part of the query design screen). select the field by clicking its column selector. as described below. The query design screen will be displayed as follows: • Double-click the field you want to use in the query from the upper part of the query design screen. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual • Select the table or query you want to use and click on Add button. then press the Del key. Ms-Windows.Introduction to Computers.) A block of fields Non. or choose Hold down the Shift key and select the first and last fields in the block. • Close the show table dialog box. Hold down the Ctrl key as you select the fields. You can select and drag on field or several fields. (You can also double-click the name in the field list or select a field directly from the list box in the Field row on the Design Grid. • Multiple selections is possible.If you want to remove a field after you added it in the Design Grid. To select A field Do this Click the field name.contiguous fields All fields query Note: . Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 133 of 208 .

or • Save the query by clicking on save button and giving a name to the query. update values in a group of records. Create a calculated field. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 134 of 208 . depending on the type of query you are creating • When you finish click on Run button. Expressions in Queries and Filters You can use expressions in queries and filters to specify criteria. The table below shows where to type an expression to perform these operations. • Select the query type you want to apply from the Query menu • Enter additional information you need.Introduction to Computers. You can type an expression in several places in the Design grid. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Delete Column from the Edit menu.4. An Update To Update records according to the results of the expression When you are designing a filter. or create query fields that are based on a calculation. cross tab. (update queries only). or action query. you can type an expression in a Criteria cell or a Field cell. to execute the query. 5. Type in A Criteria cell cell A Field cell To Specify criteria for a select. Ms-Windows.4.

• Click on OK • Set criteria just as if you are creating a select query to select the records you want to create the table with. • Click the Run button on the toolbar. Creating Make table Query To create a make table query: • In the query’s Design view. Ms-Windows.4. 5. • Refine your query by entering criteria. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 135 of 208 . sorting. Creating Select Query To create a select query: • In the Query Design View. • Microsoft Access displays a confirmation box that tells you how many records will be pasted to the new table. A new table with the selected records will be created. • When you finish run and /or save query. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 5.6. or choose Run from the Query menu. choose Make-Table from Query menu. and so on. (Select Query is the default query). • Choose OK to confirm the displayed prompt.4.Introduction to Computers. choose Select from Query menu. creating calculated fields.5. • Type the name of the new table in the Table Name box. or select the table from the list if you want to replace the data in the selected table with the data from the new table.

• In the Update To cell for the field you want to update. • Click the Run button on the toolbar. select Update from the Query menu • Set criteria just as if you are creating a select query to select the records you want to update. use the Expression Builder or type an expression or a value to change the data. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 136 of 208 . to reduce prices by 20 percent in a Cost field.4. choose Select: • Click the Datasheet View button on the toolbar to see your updated records in Datasheet view. • Microsoft Access displays a confirmation box that tell you how many records will be updated in the table.Introduction to Computers. • Click the Database Window button or select Database Objects from view menu.8. Creating an Update Query To update records: • In the query’s Design vies. Ms-Windows. or choose Run from the Query menu.7. 5. to display the Database window. type {cost} *. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To view table with the selected records will be created. For example. and then doubleclick the name of the table you just created or click on the table and click on Open button. • Click on OK to confirm the update. • Click the Tables Tab to display the list of tables. To view the results of an update query: • From the Query menu.

type the field name for the new calculated field to be created. • Select Build. matching them to the fields in the Filled row.8. • Select from the list. • In the Expression Builder dialog box. type the name of the table you want to append the records to in the Append To list box.4. Microsoft Access adds the Append To row to the Design Grid of the Append Query window.4. • In the Append dialog box. click the right mouse button in an empty cell. To create a calculated field in a query: • In the query's Design view. • Choose OK to confirm the displayed message. Creating an Append Query To append records to a table: • In the Query's Design view. 5. the field names of the table you are appending records to in the Append To row. • Click the Run button on the toolbar.9. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 137 of 208 . in the Field row. or choose Run from the Query menu. • Choose OK when you finish. or select table name from the list. Ms-Windows. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 5. Using a Calculated Field in a Query You can create fields in a query by using an expression to calculate values. then type colon (:). • Set criteria just as if you are creating a select query to select the records you want to append. select Append from the Query menu. • Microsoft Access displays a confirmation box that tells you how many records will be added to the table.Introduction to Computers.

• Click the column selectors again. To move fields: • In the query's Design view. names such as Expr1. • Press the Del key. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 138 of 208 .10. For building the expression you can use fields from the Database Objects. or choose Delete Column from the Edit menu. numbers and other operators and constants. • The field currently shown in that column and all fields to its right move one column to the right. directly from the Expression Builder dialog box.that. click the column selectors of the fields you want to delete.Introduction to Computers.4. Ms-Windows. which may be meaningless for the field you 5. • When you finish click on OK. The displaced field and all fields to its right move to the right. click the column selectors of the fields you want to move. Built.in functions. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Note: . To insert fields: • In the query's Design view. • Enter the expression (formula) you want. Microsoft Access assigns are creating. To delete fields: • In the query's Design view. and drag the fields to their new location. drag the fields from the field list to the column in which you want them inserted in the Design grid. Editing a Query You can modify a query or save it with a new name to create a new query. if you don't enter a field name in the Expression Builder.

Creating A Form Using A Wizard With a Wizard. Microsoft creates the form type you selected automatically. Creating A Quick form To create a quick form: • In the Database window. Datasheet View and Form View.5. to open other forms. you can quickly create a basic form that shows all the fields and records in a Form View. Tabular or Datasheet). click the Forms tab. • Click on OK. Forms Forms are used for data entry.1. print preview.Introduction to Computers. displayed in the New Form dialog box.You can modify the form created using the Wizard any time you want. Ms-Windows. Types of Form Views Microsoft Access offers four types of form views.2. • Select one of the Quick Form options (Columnar.5.5. • Click on New button • Select the table or query on which you want to base the form. Design View. 5.5. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 139 of 208 .3. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 5. Note:. 5. to accept user input and then carry out an action based on that input. 5.

Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To create form without a Wizard: • In the Database window. • Click on New button • Select the table or query on which you want to base the form. • Select Form Wizard from the New Form dialog box • Click on OK.Introduction to Computers. click the Forms tab. fig.5. • Select Design view from New Form dialog box • Click on OK. Follow the instructions of the Wizard's dialog boxes and perform the needed tasks 5. Creating A Custom Designed Form To create a form without a Wizard: • In the Database window. Ms-Windows. 14 The Form Design View Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 140 of 208 . • Click on New button • Select the table or query on which you want to base the form. click the Forms tab.4. • The Form Design View will be displayed.

display the properties box for the form.5. Allow Edits. Microsoft Access displays an error message that you define in the Validation Text property. inserted in. Ms-Windows. • Set the Allow Filter. Click on Form View button o to view the appearance of the form. 5. If the rule is violated. To create a validation rule for a control on a form: • Display the properties box • From the form. or deleted from a table by setting the Allow Edits property for a form. Allow Deletions and Allow Additions properties to NO. select the field for which you want to set a validation rule.Introduction to Computers. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 141 of 208 . When you finish. Validating Fields and Records in Forms A Validation Rule sets limits on the values you can enter in a field. To make a form read-only: • In the form's Design view. • In the properties box. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual • Click on Field List button from the toolbar • Drag the Field you want on the Form Design View • Apply the formatting you want using the Formatting toolbar and the Toolbox Perform other tasks you want.5. Making a Form Read-Only You can prevent data from being accidentally changed. enter the Validation Rule and the Validation Text properties for the selected field.

Introduction to Computers. For printed forms. and then click on the form where you want a new screen or page to start. To Edit text in a label: Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 142 of 208 . you can add a page break to mark the start of a new screen. Ms-Windows. 5. To create a multi screen or multi page form: • In the Design view of your form. you can add a page break to start a new page n the middle of a section. • Type the label you want. To draw a freestanding label: • Click the label tool in the Toolbox. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Property Validation Rule Validation Text Description Tests data before it's stored in a table. Adding a Label and Editing Label Text A label is a type of control you can place on your form to add information. Specifies the error message displayed when the expression in the Validation Rule property evaluates to False. display the toolbox and properties box if they are not already displayed. 5.7.5.5.6. • Click where you want to place the label. Creating a Form with multiple Screens or pages For a form used in Form view. • Choose the page break tool in the toolbox.

8. size. you can resize it as you do with any other boxes. For example. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 143 of 208 . Ms-Windows. font style. use the Formatting toolbar buttons. • Click the label again. • Select the format type you want.5. To change the visual style of a label: • Click on the label. 5. • If the label text doesn't fit in its box. • To change the color. Special Effect. Changing the Appearance of Text To change the text appearance • Click on the label. • Add the new text or delete the text you want from the label. and so on. then select the option you want. • Click the option that refers to the style you want to apply. border Style. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual • Click the label you want to edit. such as font. • Click on the Format tab in the properties box. and other formats of the label. • Close the properties box. from the Formatting toolbar. Back Color.Introduction to Computers. You can change the visual style of the label to give it a better look. and so on. • Click on the corresponding drop-down arrow of the style you want to apply. • Display the properties box.

6. • Click on New button. 5. • Select one of the two Auto Report options (Columnar or Tabular). you can quickly create a basic report that shows all the fields and records in a table or query.1. Click on New button. • Microsoft Access will create the report for the table or query you have selected automatically.2. you can display the information the way you want to see it. Follow the instructions in the Wizard dialog boxes. Ms-Windows. Generating a Quick Report To create a quick report: • In the Database window. click the Reports Tab. 5. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 5. Generating a Report using a Wizard With a Wizard. Because you have control over the size and application of everything on a report.Introduction to Computers.6. Select Report Wizard. JUCAVM 144 of 208 Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 . or you can create a custom report that displays data from selected fields in a particular format such as mailing labels. To generating a report with a wizard: • • • • • In the Database window. Reports Report is an effective way to present your data in a printed format. • Click on OK. Select the table or query on which you want to base the report.6. and then click on OK. • Select the table or query on which you want to base the report. from the New Report dialog box. click Reports Tab. from the New Report dialog box.

display the properties box for the form or report. Changing a Form or Report's Underlying Table or Query Microsoft Access stores the name of the table or query from which a form or report gets its data in the Record Source property.3. To change the underlying table or query. select or type the name of a table or query. • In the Record Source property box. To change the underlying table or query for a Form report: • In the form or report's Design view. sorting and grouping levels.4. Generating a Custom Designed Report To create a report without a Wizard: • In the Database window. • Click on Field List button from the toolbar • Drag the Field you want on the Report Design View • Apply the formatting you want using the Formatting toolbar and the Toolbox. • A blank report appears in Design view. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 145 of 208 . from the New Report dialog box. • Select the table or query on which you want to base the report. reset the Record Source property. 5.6. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 5. Ms-Windows. You can add controls. • Select Design View. then click on OK. • Choose the New button. click the Reports Tab.Introduction to Computers. and other design features according to your specifications.6.

then set Link Child Fields and Link Master Fields properties. Microsoft Access will set these properties automatically.6. if necessary.5. • From the Database window. to print the report the report before each group. You can use sub reports to • Display summary data or detail records related to the information in a main report. To link the subreport to the main report Display the properties box for the subreport control. To synchronize the Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 146 of 208 . • Press F11 to display the Database window. • Open the main report in Design view. you want to make sure that it displays the records that correspond to the record in the main form or repot. ensure that the subreport prints the correct records for each group by linking the subreport control to the main report. For example. In most cases. To create a subreport: • Create a report that you want to use as a subreport and save it. Lining a Subform/ Subreport Control to a Main Form or Report When you use a subform or subreport. drag it to the group header. Ms-Windows. • Move the subreport control to the desired location and adjust the size of the section. drag the report you created to the appropriate section in the main report. Creating a Sub report A report within another report is a subreport.Introduction to Computers. • Combine two or more unrelated reports in an unbound main report. • If the data in the subreport is related to the data in the main report. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 5.

open the Properties box for the Subform/subreport control.6. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 147 of 208 . • Make changes to the design. click any where in the main form or report outside the subform or subreport control. • Set the Link Child Fields property to the linking fields in the Subform or subreport. you specify the linking fields or controls in the main form or report and the linking fields in the subform/ subreport. 5. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual records. you can open it from the main form or report in which it was inserted.) • Double. • Save and close the subform or subreport.6.click within the subform or subreport control. To change the layout of a subform or subreport: • In Design view of the main form or report. Changing the Layout of a Subform or Subreport To facilitate making changes to a sub form’s or sub report's design. • Press Enter to load the changed subform or subreport. • Set the Link Master Fields property to the linking fields or controls in the main form or report. (To cancel the selection. • On the main form or report. Ms-Windows. To link a subform/ Subreport control to a main form or report: • In Design view of the main form or report. make sure the subform or subreport control is not selected. click inside the subform or subreport control.Introduction to Computers.

Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 148 of 208 . select a field name. Fig 18 Sorting and Grouping dialog box • In the First row of the Filed/Expression column. To sort data: • In the report's Design view. Ms-Windows. or type an expression.6. • Set the group properties listed in the following table. • To change the sort order. If you want to highlight or summarize certain information. you can divide data into separate groups and sort records within the groups. in the Group properties section.7. by clicking on the Sorting and Grouping button. • Click the field or expression whose group properties you want to set. Sorting and Grouping Data in Reports You can print data in a specified order. from the toolbar. • When you finish close the dialog box. display the Sorting and Grouping box. The sorting and grouping dialog box appears.Introduction to Computers. select Descending from the Sort Order list. To group data: • Set the sort order for the data in the report as specified above. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 5.

you must adjust the locations of the controls in the headers and footers yourself. and all the controls in them to their new positions. Group Interval Keep Together Specify any interval that is valid for the values in the field or expression you're grouping on. click on the Sorting and Grouping button from the toolbar. footers. and numeric fields. and drag the row to a new location in the list. Determine whether Microsoft Access prints all or only part of a group on one page. However. Data/ Time. Microsoft Access moves the headers. If you group on an expression. Add or remove a group footer for the field or expression. click the selector of the field or expression you want to move. Note:. Specify how you want the values grouped.6. The options you see depend on the data type of the field on which you're grouping. • In the Sorting and Grouping box. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Use this property Group Header Group Footer Group On To Add or remove a group header for the field or expression. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 149 of 208 . Ms-Windows.8. • Click the selector again.If the groups you're rearranging have headers or footers.Introduction to Computers. you see all the options: Text. To change sorting and grouping order: • In the Report's Design view. 5. Changing Sorting and Grouping Order You can change how the data in a report is sorted and grouped by changing the order in which the fields or expressions are listed in the Sorting and Grouping box.

Ms-Windows. 5.6. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To insert an additional sorting or grouping field or expression: • In the Sorting and Grouping dialog box. • Choose OK to delete the sorting or grouping level. or choose Cancel to keep it. and then press the Del key. To delete a sorting or grouping field or expression: • In the Sorting and Grouping box. Click the Selector of the field or expression you want to delete. you can display the name of each group either above the detail records in the group header or beside the detail records in the detail section. • In the Field/ Expression column of the blank row. or type an expression. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 150 of 208 . • Click on Format tab of the properties box. To hide duplicate data: • Add a text box (bound to the field you're grouping on) to the report's detail section.Introduction to Computers. • In the Sort Order column. Hiding Duplicate Data on a Report In grouped reports.9. select the field you want to sort on. select Ascending or Descending. click the selector of the row where you want to insert the new field or expression. • Set the Hide Duplicates property to Yes. • Display the properties box for the text box. and then pass the Ins key.

see the section on sizing a header or footer later in this topic. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 151 of 208 . or vice versa. and drag the right edge in or out to change the width. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 5. set these properties to NO. To add or remove a report header and footer: • In Design view. Ms-Windows. To size a header or footer: • Move the pointer to the bottom or right edge of the header or footer until the pointer turns into a plus sign with an arrow at its top and bottom tips. choose page Header/Footer from the View menu. • To add a group header or footer.If you want a page or report header but no footer. set the Group Header or Group Footer property to Yes. or type the expression for which you're creating a header or footer. To add or remove a page header and footer: • In Design view. To remove a group header or footer. Adding or Removing Headers and Footers on a Report You can add or remove report. • Drag the bottom edge up or down to change the height. click the field name.Introduction to Computers.6. Note:. and group headers and footers on a report. To add or remove a group header or footer: • In Design view. page. or choose sorting and Grouping from the view menu.10. click the Sorting and Grouping button on the toolbar. choose Report Header/Footer from the View menu. • In the sorting and Grouping dialog box.

To change both height and width: • To change the height and width simultaneously.12. • Drag the pointer left or right to change the Width of the section. • Display the properties box if it isn't already displayed. select the header or footer. place the pointer in the lower. Ms-Windows.Introduction to Computers. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 152 of 208 . a form or report has only one width. 5. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To set properties for a header or footer: • In Design view. change either the height or the width by placing the pointer on the bottom edge or right edge of the section. Drag the pointer in any direction to adjust the size of the section. The pointer changes to an arrow. Sizing Sections in a Form or Report You can increase or decrease the height of form or report sections individually.6.6.right corner of the section. you change the width of the entire form or report.11. To change either height or width: • In the form's or report's Design view. 5. However. When you change the width of one section. Adding page Numbers to a Form or Report You can display page numbers and the total number of pages in a form or report by using the page and pages properties. • Drag the pointer up or down to change the height of the section.head cross. The pointer changes to a double-headed arrow. • Set the properties for the headset or footer.

5. Adding the Current Date and Time to a Form or Report You can have Microsoft Access automatically display the date and time that is stored in the system clock on a form or report.13. type = Date ( ) in the Control Source property box. • Use the Format property to display a date in a predefined format. For example. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To add page numbers to a form or report • In Design view. • Display the properties box for the text box. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 153 of 208 . add a text box to the section in which you want the date or time to appear. type a page number expression. • In the Control Source property box. or • Crate the expression by using the Expression Builder. to display a date such as 5.6. • In the Control Source property box. • Display the properties box for text box. type = followed by an expression using the Now or Date function. or Use the Expression Builder to produce the results you want. and set the Format property to Medium Date. to the section (usually the page header or footer) where you want the page number to appear.Introduction to Computers.May-97. For example: = Date ( ). Ms-Windows. add a text box by clicking the text box button the toolbox. To add the current date or time to a from or report: • In the form or report's Design view.

by dragging the mouse and then release the mouse button. For example. To draw a rectangle: • In Design view of your form or report.To draw straight.Introduction to Computers.6. Ms-Windows. to display a date such as 5. horizontal or vertical lines. and general layout. and then select the line tool • Draw the line to the desired length. Use Sample preview to take a quick look at your report and check its font. Once you have drawn it.May -97. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 154 of 208 . 5.15. Previewing a Report When you preview a report to see how it will look on the printed gage. press the Shift key before you click the Line tool. and then select the rectangle tool • Draw the rectangle. display the toolbox. display the toolbox. font size. and leave the Format property box blank. Note:.14. To draw a line: • In Design view of your form or report. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual • Use the Format or Format$ function to display a date in a format you define in an expression. you can choose from two views: Use print preview to check the data or to see the entire report exactly as it will be printed. 5. Drawing Lines and Rectangles on Forms and Reports You can create controls on a form or report and then draw lines and rectangles around them. "dd-mmm-yy") in the Control Source property box. you can move or resize it. or you can draw the lines and rectangles first and then create controls on top. Continue pressing the Shift key while you draw the line. type = Format (Date( ).6.

or • Click the Zoom button on the print preview toolbar to enlarge or reduce the view. Choose print preview.Introduction to Computers. To see an overall view of the report: • In print preview. place the pointer on the report. choose print preview. and then click the mouse when the pointer turns into a magnifying glass. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 155 of 208 . • Select the report you want to preview. To preview a report from the Database window: • Click the Reports Tab. • Click the preview button. • Click again to return the report to its original size. or • From the File menu. or • From the File menu. Ms-Windows. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To preview an entire report from Design view: • Click the print preview button.

The Start menu will appear. Ms-Windows. Click on Start.1. Otherwise. Introduction To Power Point Microsoft PowerPoint is a software product used to perform computer-based presentations. Click on Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2003 if it appears on the Start menu's top level.2. Starting PowerPoint One easy way to start PowerPoint is to select it from the Start menu. 2. or it may require you to open the All Programs (or Programs) menu to find it. Note The difference in wording in step 3 is due to the Windows version. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Chapter 6: Microsoft Power Point 6. explaining an organizational structure. 1. Windows XP uses All Programs. etc. There are various circumstances in which a presentation is made: teaching a class. and you can skip the rest of these steps. 6. Move the mouse pointer to All Programs (or Programs). The Programs menu will appear. continue to step 3. 4.Introduction to Computers. Move the mouse pointer to Microsoft Office. Depending on your Windows version and the way Windows is set up. PowerPoint will open. introducing a product to sell. A menu of Microsoft Office applications will appear. all other versions use Programs. PowerPoint may appear at the top of the Start menu. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 156 of 208 .

Hold down the Ctrl key and drag Microsoft Office Power-Point 2003 to the desktop. Click on Start. and you'll never have to open the All Programs menu again to locate it. A shortcut to Microsoft PowerPoint will appear on the desktop. The Programs menu will appear. You can double-click it to start PowerPoint instead of going through the Start menu each time. The Start menu will appear.3. 3. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 157 of 208 . In step 4. From then on. PowerPoint will open and will display a new. a shortcut to PowerPoint will appear at the top of the Start menu.Introduction to Computers. Move the mouse pointer to Microsoft Office. 6. 4. Ms-Windows. Click on Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2003. rightclick it and choose Pin to Start menu. Move the mouse pointer to Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2003. 2. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 5. Creating a Desktop Shortcut for PowerPoint If you use PowerPoint often. blank presentation. 5. Move the mouse pointer to All Programs (or Programs). Tip You can use these steps to create a desktop shortcut for any program that is installed on the computer. you might want to put a shortcut to it on the desktop. A menu of Office applications will appear. Tip You can force PowerPoint to always appear at the top of the Start menu by "pinning" it there. instead of clicking on Microsoft PowerPoint. PowerPoint will be highlighted. 1.

The My Documents folder will appear. Double-click on the presentation file. If there are no unsaved changes. Click on Start.1 Exiting PowerPoint When you're finished working with PowerPoint. and that presentation will open within PowerPoint. PowerPoint will close immediately.ppt extension. and to make your screen more tidy. you can start PowerPoint by opening that file. PowerPoint will start. 3. PowerPoint files have a . Click on No to discard your changes. 2. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Starting PowerPoint and Opening a Saved File If you already have a PowerPoint presentation started. see the notes following the steps. you'll want to exit the program to free up the system for other tasks. a Save dialog box will appear. Ms-Windows. Note File stored in some other location? Open My Computer and browse for it. If you have an earlier version of Windows. The following steps are for Windows XP. If there are changes. 1. double-click the My Computer icon on the desktop. click Start and then click My Computer. PowerPoint will close. or if your file is located somewhere else. 2. and they assume that your existing file is stored in the My Documents folder. In Windows XP. 1. Click on Close in the upper-right corner of the PowerPoint window. 6. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 158 of 208 . Click on My Documents. The Start menu will appear. and the icon matches the PowerPoint 2003 icon (orange). Note Don't have Windows XP? Then double-click the My Documents icon on the desktop instead of performing steps 1 and 2. In all other Windows versions.Introduction to Computers.

Introduction to Computers. "Organizing the Presentation Outline. The topmost button closes PowerPoint itself. The Power-Point window will appear again. The button about one inch below those two closes the task pane. In Normal view." • Current slide. A single slide at a time appears here. Each view is useful for a different type of activity. You can then click that icon to reopen—restore—the window when you're ready to use it again. Click on the PowerPoint icon on the Taskbar. Normal view is the default view. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Note Notice that there are several X buttons near the upper. • 6.4. The other tab at the top of this pane is for the Outline pane. • Click on the Minimize button in the upper-right corner of the PowerPoint window. The button directly beneath that closes the open presentation only. Understanding PowerPoint Views PowerPoint operates in several different views. minimize it. Ms-Windows. Minimizing a window shrinks it down to an icon on the Taskbar. Thumbnail images of the slides in the presentation appear here. PowerPoint will disappear except for its icon in the Taskbar. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 159 of 208 .right corner of the window. It's enlarged so you can work on it. Minimizing and Restoring PowerPoint If you don't want to close PowerPoint but simply want to move it out of the way temporarily. you'll see the following panes: • Slides pane.

2. You might use this for a bird's-eye view of the presentation. These notes aren't visible to the audience. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual • Notes pane. PowerPoint will switch to Slide Show view. 4. Ms-Windows.Introduction to Computers. Slide Show view shows fullscreen images of each slide.1. Any speaker notes you type for the slide appear here. Slide Show view will close and the screen will return to Slide Sorter view. Click on the Normal View button. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 160 of 208 . Click on the Slide Sorter View button. Click on the Outline tab. The presentation outline will come to the front. Task pane.4. This pane changes depending on what you're doing. You can also click its Close (X) button to give you more room. Click on the Slide Show View button. PowerPoint will switch to Slide Sorter view. 5. Slide Sorter view shows thumbnail images of all the presentation slides at once. Changing to a Different View There are two other views: Slide Sorter and Slide Show. 3. Press the Esc key. 1. PowerPoint will switch back to Normal view. or to rearrange the slides more easily. • 6.

you can press Ctrl+F1. The full menu will appear after a brief delay.Introduction to Computers. Choosing a Different Task Pane PowerPoint will often display a certain task pane based on what you're doing. Click on Task Pane. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 161 of 208 . Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Working with the Task Pane The task pane is an area that appears to the right of the other PowerPoint panes. Tip Instead of steps 2 through 4. You can redisplay it when you need it. Click on the Close button on the task pane. and the current slide will have more space available. the Slide Layout task pane will appear automatically. Move the mouse pointer over the border between the current slide's pane and the task pane. The View menu will appear. The task pane will disappear. each one containing tools and options appropriate for a certain activity. Click on the View menu. 5. Pause for a few seconds if there is a down-pointing arrow at the bottom of the menu. 1. You can also choose which task pane you want to see at any given moment. the correct task pane will appear automatically when needed. Many people prefer to work with the task pane hidden so they have more space onscreen. There are actually many different task panes. Ms-Windows. The task pane will reappear. 2. 4. The mouse will become a two-headed arrow. Then drag to the left or right to resize the task pane. 3. if you select the command to change a slide's layout. For example. Most of the time.

Click on Show Buttons on Two Rows.2.4. Click on the Task Pane down arrow.4.3. or it may float all by itself. Toolbars can be moved to any location on the screen that's convenient for you. (That's how they're shown in most of the figures in this book. Ms-Windows. 6. Most people prefer to display these toolbars on separate rows. This causes some buttons on each toolbar to be obscured. Working with Toolbars A toolbar is a collection of buttons you can click to issue commands. A toolbar may be docked (attached to other toolbars). Click on the down-pointing arrow at the end of the Standard or Formatting toolbar.Introduction to Computers. Click on a task pane. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 162 of 208 . Nearly all of these buttons are shortcuts to menu commands—alternatives to using the menu system.) 1. Displaying the Standard and Formatting Toolbars on Separate Rows By default. The Formatting toolbar will move to a new row below the Standard toolbar. 2. 2. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 1. The selected task pane will appear. A list of available task panes will appear. Moving a Toolbar You may find that the location of toolbars is inconvenient for the way you work. 6. PowerPoint shows both the Standard and Formatting toolbars on the same row. A menu will appear.

Introduction to Computers, Ms-Windows, Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual

1. Move the mouse pointer over the toolbar handle (the set of dots at its left edge). The mouse pointer will change to a four-pointed arrow. 2. Drag the toolbar handle to another location on the PowerPoint window. The toolbar will move with the mouse.

Hiding or Displaying a Toolbar
There are many toolbars available in PowerPoint. Some of them appear automatically when needed; others must be displayed manually. Right-click on a toolbar. A shortcut menu appears. Click on the name of the toolbar you want to display (if it's not already checked) or hide (if it's already checked).

6.4.4. Turning off the Personalized Menus Feature
By default, the Personalized Menus feature is turned on in PowerPoint. When you open a menu, only a few of the available commands appear. PowerPoint monitors your usage, and if you've used a certain command before, it's on that short, initial list. The rest of the commands appear after a few seconds, or when you click the down arrow at the bottom of the menu. The figures in this book have this personalized menu feature turned off to avoid inconsistency between the book's pictures and your screen. To follow along more closely with the figures in this book, we recommend that you turn this feature off, too.

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1. Click on Tools. The Tools menu will appear. 2. Click on Customize. The Customize dialog box will open. 3. Click on the Options tab. The Options tab will come to the front. 4. Click on the Always show full menus check box. A check will be placed in the check box. 5. Click on Close. Your new setting will be applied.

6.5. Using the AutoContent Wizard
PowerPoint contains many sample presentations that can give you a quick start. You can use these samples to learn how an effective presentation is built or as a starting place for your own. All of them can be changed to suit your needs. 1. Click on the File menu. The File menu will appear. 2. Click on the New command. The New Presentation task pane will appear. Note The New button on the toolbar starts a new, blank presentation, which is not what we want right now.= 3. Click on From AutoContent wizard in the New Presentation task pane. The AutoContent wizard will start. 4. Click on Next. The Presentation type page of the wizard will appear. 5. Click on the button for the category of presentation that you want to create. A list of presentation types will appear on the right side of the dialog box. 6. Click on a presentation type that closely matches the information that you want to use in your presentation. The presentation type will be selected. 7. Click on Next. The Presentation style page of the wizard will appear.
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8. Click on the option button for the method you will use to display the presentation. The option will be selected. Select from one of these options: 9. Click on Next. The Presentation options page of the wizard will appear. 10. Click in the Presentation title text box and type a title for your presentation. 11. Click in the Footer text box and type the text that you want to appear in the footer area at the bottom of each slide, if any. 12. Click in the Date last updated check box if you do not want to display the date when you last made updates to the presentation. (This information is found in the footer area of a slide.) The check box will be cleared. 13. Click in the Slide number check box if you do not want to show the slide number in the footer area. The check box will be cleared. 14. Click on Next. The Finish page of the wizard will appear. 15. Click on Finish. The presentation will appear in the PowerPoint window.

6.6. Starting a New Presentation using a Template
You don't need to be an artist to create a good-looking presentation, complete with a background and other images. There are several design templates bundled in PowerPoint that will be pleasing to both you and your audience. Take a look at some of the design templates from which you can choose, and see if any of them suit your needs. 1. Click on the File menu. The File menu will appear. 2. Click on the New command. The New Presentation task pane will appear. 3. Click on the From design template hyperlink. The Slide Design task pane will appear.

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4. Click on a design. It will be applied to the slide, so you can see what it looks like. 5. Repeat step 4 until you find the design you want. 6. Click on the Close button for the task pane. The task pane will close.

6.7. Starting a Blank Presentation
If you are not sure what design or content you want, you might wish to start with a completely blank presentation with no text and no formatting. 1. Click on the New button on the toolbar. Previewing the Presentation Onscreen As you're working on a presentation, you may want to see how each slide will look when displayed onscreen in Slide Show view. 1. Display the slide you want to preview. 2. Click on the Slide Show View button. Note In step 2, you can also use the View, Slide Show View command or the Slide Show, View Show command, or you can just press F5. The only difference is that they all start with the first slide rather than the currently displayed one. a. Click the left mouse button to move to the next slide. Continue through the presentation. OR b. Press the Esc key to return to PowerPoint.

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a Zip disk. The folder will be selected. 2. 2. once you've started on the presentation. Printing the Presentation When you want a paper copy of a presentation. or a recordable CD. Let’s just print a single copy of the presentation with each slide on a separate page. 6. Click on File. in case you run into a computer problem. Saving Your Presentation It can never be stressed enough that you must save your work often while you are working on a presentation. you'll need to save the presentation file. 1. 3. 1. Click on the Save in drop-down list arrow and select the folder in which you want to store the file. The presentation file will be sent to the printer using the default print settings. Click in the File name text box and type a name for the presentation. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 6.9. 3. Also. Click on Print. Ms-Windows. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 167 of 208 . The Print dialog box will open. Working with Presentation Files Before you get too involved in developing a presentation. You can easily preview the presentation or print it. The Save As dialog box will open.Introduction to Computers. Click on OK. you'll want to see how you are progressing. Then. Click on the Save button on the Standard toolbar. The File menu will appear. send the file to a printer. Remember to save the file often so that you don't lose your valuable efforts. you may want to back up the presentation file to a floppy disk.8.

Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 168 of 208 . The presentation will appear in the PowerPoint window. a. Click on File. The presentation file will close and PowerPoint will stay open. The program will close. Closing the Presentation When you've finished working on a presentation. Click on Save. close the presentation file. you can save your changes by clicking on the Save button. This list is found at the bottom of the File menu. The File menu will appear. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 4. You can close a presentation file without closing the PowerPoint program. and the file name will appear in the title bar of the PowerPoint window. Click on the Close button for the presentation. 1. The presentation file will be stored in the designated folder. Ms-Windows. 2. Click on the presentation file in the recently used file list. Opening a Recently Used Presentation PowerPoint keeps a list of the saved files you've worked with recently. Note After you've saved the presentation file the first time. OR b. or you can close both at once.Introduction to Computers. Click on the Close button for the PowerPoint program.

6. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Opening any Saved Presentation If the presentation you want to open does not appear at the bottom of the File menu. Displaying Outline View Much of the activity in this chapter takes place in the Outline pane. Click on the Outline tab. you can display it easily. Note You can also open a presentation file and start PowerPoint at the same time by doubleclicking the presentation file in a Windows file management window. The presentation outline will appear. Click the Normal View button. 4. 1. 1. Click on the Open button on the toolbar. it will not have the word "Outline" on it. Click on Open. 2. If it does not appear in Normal view already. Note If the Outline tab is not already showing.10. The folder will be selected. The presentation file will open in the PowerPoint window. Instead. Click on the Look in drop-down list arrow and select the folder in which you want to look for the file. it will be replaced by Normal. 2. Ms-Windows. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 169 of 208 . Click on the file name for the presentation. you can use the Open dialog box to select and open it. it will have some horizontal lines representing text. The Open dialog box will appear. If any other view is in use. 3.Introduction to Computers.

To learn how.1. animations. 3. The cursor will move there. 3. Click on View. you can import it into PowerPoint.Introduction to Computers. 6. 2. and transitions. Ms-Windows. It is a simple matter of editing the outline by changing a few words or adding a few new slides. A new slide icon will appear on a new line. The Outlining toolbar will appear along the left side of the PowerPoint window. A list of available toolbars will appear. Click to the right of the slide icon. make sure you have a solid foundation for your presentation.1 Outlining a Presentation The most important part of a presentation is the outline. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 170 of 208 . 2. The View menu will appear. Type the text that you want to appear as the title of the first slide. 1. Click on Outlining. If you started with a blank presentation. Press the Enter key. you'll need to create each new slide by adding text to the outline. Creating Slides in the Outline Pane If you used the AutoContent Wizard to start your presentation. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Displaying the Outlining Toolbar 1. which will keep your presentation organized and on track. Move the mouse pointer to Toolbars. Before you start adding graphics. an outline has already been started for you (as shown in the preceding figures). see the "Sharing Outlines with Microsoft Word" section later in this chapter. Note If you've created an outline in Microsoft Word.

Click on the line that you want to promote or demote.Introduction to Computers. Click on the Promote button on the Outlining toolbar. a new line appears at the same outline level as the previous line. Continue adding text until all the topics that you want to cover in the presentation appear in the outline. 1. Ms-Windows. 6. Note Each time you press Enter. or press Shift+Tab. 2. Promoting and Demoting Lines Once you've added the topics that you want to cover in the presentation. The new line will be demoted in importance so that it represents text on the preceding slide. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 4. a. 7. Return to step 5 to type additional text. or press Tab. Or Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 171 of 208 . The text will be promoted to a higher outline level. Since you were typing title text in step 2. Click on the Promote button or press Shift+Tab. you may want to change the level at which some outline items appear. Press the Enter key. Type the text for the title of the second slide and press Enter. OR b. Click on the Demote button on the Outlining toolbar. Type additional text for the slide. The new line will be promoted in importance so that it represents a new slide title. The insertion point will appear in it. Another line on the same slide will appear for typing. Demoting the line makes it part of the preceding slide. a. pressing Enter in step 3 started a new slide. 5. 8. 9.

Only that paragraph will be selected. The selection will move higher in the outline. You can move individual paragraphs or groups of them up or down in the outline. The text will be demoted to the next outline level. Alternative-1: a) Click on a slide icon. Promoting to the highest level makes the text into slide title text on a separate slide. Demoting a slide title makes it a bullet point on the previous slide. Or c) Click on the Move Down button or drag the selection downward. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 172 of 208 . Note To select multiple slide icons or multiple paragraphs. The selection will move lower in the outline. Click on the Demote button or press Tab. Ms-Windows.Introduction to Computers. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual b. Or b) Click to the left of an individual paragraph. Rearranging Outline Text Each paragraph in the outline is either a slide title or a bullet point on the body of a slide. hold down Shift as you click on additional ones. Alternative-2: a. The entire slide and all its subordinate text will be selected. Click on the Move Up button or drag the selection upward.

The File menu will appear. 6. Click on Insert. Click on Microsoft Office Word. Click on Send To. 1. you may find it easier to create the outline in Word and then import it into PowerPoint. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 173 of 208 . Start a new. Exporting an Outline You can also send a PowerPoint outline to Word and save it as a Word document. The Insert Outline dialog box will appear. 2. The folder will appear in the Look in list box. Importing an Outline 1.Introduction to Computers. you can export it into Word and edit it there. The file will be selected. Click on the file that contains the outline that you want to add to the presentation. 3. 4. A new presentation with a single Title slide will appear. Click on Insert. blank presentation. Click on Slides from Outline. The Send To Microsoft Word dialog box will open. Or b. If you started an outline in PowerPoint. Display the folder in which you've stored the Word outline file. Ms-Windows. 5. The Insert menu will appear. a. The Send To submenu will appear. 3. Select the slide after which the imported outline text will appear. Click on File. 2. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Sharing Outlines with Microsoft Word If you use the outlining feature in Microsoft Word.

Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 4. Click on OK. Click on OK. if it is not selected already. The option will appear in the list box. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 174 of 208 . Click on Print. 2. 1. Use the Outlining toolbar to expand and collapse the outline. 1. just insert the slides from the existing presentation. You can insert the entire presentation or just a group of slides. 5. 3. The File menu will appear. Printing the Outline Before you print a presentation outline.11. Click on File. 6. The outline will open in Microsoft Word. The Print dialog box will open. If an item is collapsed (that is. you can edit or save the outline normally. Click on the Print what drop-down list arrow and select Outline View from the list. Click on the Slide Sorter View button. 4. Inserting Slides from another Presentation If you want to add an existing presentation to a presentation you're working on right now. hidden). Click on the Outline only option. From Word. it will not print. display the items in the Outline tab that you want to print.Introduction to Computers. The outline will be sent to the printer. Ms-Windows. The display will change to Slide Sorter view.

Selected text appears inside a boxed background. A preview of the presentation slides will appear in the Select slides area. Click on Slides from Files. 3. Click on the slides that you want to insert into the presentation. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 2. Click on Close. Click on Display if the slides do not appear automatically. The Slide Finder dialog box will close. Ms-Windows.2 Selecting Text Before you can edit or format text.Introduction to Computers. The Slide Finder dialog box will open. press Ctrl+A. Editing Text Once the basic outline structure is in place. 5.1. Click in the space where you want the slides from the other presentation to appear. Click on Insert. triple-click it. 7. you'll need to select the text. You may need to change a few words or add a few new words. 6. The selected slides will be inserted into the open presentation. The slides will be selected. The selected text can be a single letter or word. or several words. 8. • • To select a paragraph. 9. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 175 of 208 . 4. The Insert menu will appear. The insertion bar will appear in the selected location. Click on Insert.12. To select the entire outline. 6. Here are a few tips for selecting text. 6. Type the path and file name of the presentation that contains the slides that you want to add to the open presentation. you can make any changes you want to the outline.

Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 176 of 208 . The slide will appear in Normal view. Note Click the slide you want in the Slides or Outline pane. Deleting Text from a Slide The process for deleting text from a slide is identical to deleting text from the presentation outline. Type the text that you want in the placeholder. Type the new text. 1.Introduction to Computers. 3. you'll notice that on the slide is a "Click to add text" placeholder. select the words that you want to replace and add a few of your own. Select the text that you want to replace. Display a slide that contains a text placeholder. 2. The text will be highlighted. Release the mouse button. 1. Ms-Windows. and the cursor will appear in the text box. Adding Text to a Placeholder If you have created some slide titles in the outline with no subordinate text beneath them. Click on the text in the placeholder. 2.3 Revising Text When you need to revise items in the outline. The placeholder text will disappear. 6. and then drag the mouse pointer to the end of the text. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual • To select a block of text. The selected text will be deleted and replaced with the new text.1. click and hold at the beginning of the text.

or characters in a presentation. Click on Close to end the search early. Click on Replace. phrases. 2. 2. a. 5.Introduction to Computers. Or b. 1. Then click the OK button. Repeat steps 5 and 6 until all instances have been found. however. The text will be removed from the slide. Ms-Windows. such as individual words. the overall result is the same. The Edit menu will appear. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 177 of 208 . deleting simply deletes it. Click on Replace. Click on Edit. 6. The text that is highlighted on the slide will be replaced with the text specified in the Replace with text box. Type the text to be used as the replacement in the Replace with text box. A dialog box will appear stating that it is finished.13. Click on the Cut button or press Delete. 3. Or b. and then replace it with some other text. The text will be highlighted. Cutting moves text to the Clipboard. Select the text that you want to delete. 4. Click on Find Next. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 1. The Replace dialog box will open. Using the Replace Feature You can use the Replace feature to search for text. If you do not subsequently paste the text from the Clipboard. b. Type the text that you want to locate in the Find what text box. 7. 6. Click on Find Next to skip that occurrence. Note Cutting and deleting are actually two different things.

and the next misspelled word will appear. and the next misspelled word will appear. Spell Checking the Presentation Before your presentation makes its debut. work best when you are connected to the Internet. Or b. 4. The misspelled word will be corrected. a confirmation dialog box will appear. run the spell checker. a. The word will be selected and will appear in the Change to text box. Not only will the spell checker help you spot misspelled words. Click on OK. Ms-Windows.14.Introduction to Computers. Click on Ignore.15. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 6. Click on Change. 2. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 178 of 208 . new in PowerPoint 2003. The presentation will be spell checked. Click on the Spelling button. such as encyclopedias and news services. 6. Using the Research Tools The research tools. You should save the file so that the corrections are preserved. They rely on Internet databases. 3. Click on the correct spelling in the Suggestions text box. 1. The word will be left as is. When PowerPoint has checked the last word in the presentation. but it will tell you when you repeat yourself.

The menu will appear. 4. A drop-down arrow will appear beside it. The Research task pane will open. Type the word or phrase to research in the Search for box. The selected word will be replaced by the new one. Point to the desired replacement. 3. Using the Thesaurus The thesaurus enables you to find synonyms or antonyms for a word. 3. Using Other Research Tools The thesaurus is only one of Office 2003's research tools. Click on Thesaurus. Click on Insert. 5. A menu will appear. 1. Ms-Windows. 2.16. 6. To find extended information about a topic. Choose a source from the list of online reference sources. Click on Tools. 4. Click on Research. 5. Click on the down arrow. It will be selected. The Research pane will appear if it is not displayed already. 6. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 6. 1. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 179 of 208 . Double-click on the word you want to look up. The menu will appear. A Web browser window will display the article. 2. Click on Tools. Click on the article you want to read.Introduction to Computers.17. The word or phrase will appear there. use the Research command.

1. You can easily add a new slide.18. Use this view to rearrange. The Slide Sorter view displays all the slides as miniatures in neat rows across the screen.18. Working with Slides in Slide Sorter View You don't have to work with just one slide at a time. Selecting Slides Before you can perform certain functions with slides (such as deleting or moving). add. you may find a place where an extra slide is needed. Click on the Slide Sorter View button.18. Click on New Slide on the Slide Sorter toolbar. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 180 of 208 . Here are a few tips for selecting slides:- 6.2. The insertion bar will appear between the two slides.Introduction to Computers. Inserting a Slide While browsing in the Slide Sorter view. Click in the space between the two slides where you want the new slide to appear. This is a good way to see the big picture and view the progress of your presentation. and delete slides. Ms-Windows. Note To add text to the new slide. you'll need to select the slides with which you want to work. 1. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 6. double-click on the slide to display it in Normal view. The presentation slides will appear in the Slide Sorter view. or random slides. a contiguous group of slides. You can select a single slide. 2. 6. 1.

Release the mouse button. Moving a Slide The Slide Sorter view can also be used to reorganize slides. 3. An identical slide will appear just after the original slide. Duplicating a Slide When you want to make an exact copy of a slide. 6. Click on the slide that you want to copy. 1. Ms-Windows. 6. Click and hold on the slide that you want to move. 3. 1.5.3. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 181 of 208 . Select the slide or slides that you want to delete. The insertion bar will appear in the selected place. The Insert menu will appear. Deleting Slides You may find that you don't need a slide in a presentation. 2. Drag the mouse to where you want to move the slide.18.Introduction to Computers. The slide(s) will be selected. 1. The slide will be selected. Click on Duplicate Slide. The slide will be selected.18.4. Slides can be moved around to better present information with a simple drag and drop. Click on Insert. The duplicate slide will be selected. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 6. The slide will appear in the new position. use the duplicate command. Here is how to delete slides that you do not want.18. 2.

The presentation will change to that scheme. 2. 6. background. Because the color schemes are associated with design templates. You learned how to start a new presentation using a design template "Learning About Presentations. You can switch to one of its alternate schemes. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 2. and placeholder arrangement to every slide in the presentation. Ms-Windows. Click on the Design button on the toolbar. Selecting an Alternate Color Scheme 1. 1. Click on the Cut button on the Standard toolbar or press the Delete key. Click on the Color Schemes hyperlink in the Slide Design task pane. The slide(s) will be removed from the presentation. 6. and then choose the color scheme. The Slide Design task pane will appear. you should make your design template choice first.19. or you can start with one of those schemes and customize it to make your own color scheme. 2. Changing the Color Scheme Each design template comes with several different color schemes. The color schemes will appear for the chosen design template. Changing the Design Template A design template applies a preset font.\ Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 182 of 208 .20. Click on the design template that you want to change to. Click on the desired color scheme." You can change to a different design template at any time. color. The template will be applied.Introduction to Computers.

1.Introduction to Computers. you may decide to change one or more of its colors. Click on the Edit Color Schemes hyperlink. Click on Add As Standard Scheme if you want to save this color scheme. 2. the box will be called Background Color. 5. if desired. The new color will appear in the Edit Color Scheme dialog box. Click on the desired color. Repeat steps 2 through 6 for additional colors. if you chose the background color in step 2. Click on OK. 1. It will be outlined. 4. It will be selected. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 183 of 208 . Click on the Standard tab if it is not already displayed. 3. 6. 2. A dialog box will appear for changing the selected item. Click on Change Color. The dialog box will close and the new color scheme will be applied. Click on the color you want to change. Ms-Windows. For example. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Customizing a Color Scheme After selecting a color scheme. Click on Apply. 3. The Edit Color Scheme dialog box will open. It will be added as a new color scheme on the Slide Design task pane.

Working with Masters The Slide Master is a template that applies to every slide in the presentation (except slides that use the Title Slide layout. Apply text formatting to the text. 1. such as adding bold or italic. 3. because those take their design from the Title Master template). 2. You can also change those Masters manually to customize the design. You are limited only by how creative and artistic you want to be. When you apply a design template. Some of the formatting you can apply includes: Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 184 of 208 . The Master submenu will appear. Ms-Windows.21. Click on Slide Master. Point to Master. The text will be highlighted. Changing Text Formatting You will learn how to format slide text on a single slide.Introduction to Computers. Select the text that you want to format. Click on the Slide Master or Title Master to select the one you want to edit. Keep reading to find out some of the changes you can make. You can do the same formatting to the text on the Slide Master or Title Master to change all the slides at once. 5. 4. 6.22. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 6. Make changes as desired. Click on the Close Master View button when you have finished. Click on View. The View menu will appear. 6. you are making changes to the Slide Master and Title Master. or changing the size. The Slide Master view will appear. 2. 1. choosing a different font.

and Number Area placeholders.23. A dotted line will show the new size of the placeholder. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Moving and Resizing Text Placeholders You can change the size of the Title Area. The View menu will appear. 4. These can be moved around or resized (see the preceding steps). Click and drag a resize handle. Click on Header and Footer. 1. Type text in the Footer box if you want footer text on each slide. Click on a placeholder. Ms-Windows. Position the mouse pointer over the placeholder. The Header and Footer dialog box will open. Object Area. Working with Footers and Special Placeholders The Slide Master contains placeholder boxes for date/ time. You can also turn them on or off. 5. The mouse pointer will become a four-headed arrow. A border will appear around the placeholder that contains resize handles. 3. Date Area. 2. Click in the Slide number check box if you want the slides to be numbered. 1. Click in the don’t show on title slide check box if you want to omit all placeholders from title slides. 3. Click on View. 2. and footer. 6. Footer Area. 4.Introduction to Computers. slide number. Click and drag the placeholder to a new location. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 185 of 208 .

9. 3. the date/time does not appear. Today's date will appear in the box beneath it. 1. Applying a Slide Background You have hundreds of choices for a slide background. That's because Fixed is the default setting. Ms-Windows. Click on Update automatically to set up an automatic date/time on each slide. even though the placeholder is turned on. and the Fixed box is blank. Click on the date format that you want. The Background dialog box will open. The Format menu will appear. The footer information on the slide master will be updated. 6. 4.Introduction to Computers. 7. Type today's date in the Fixed box to make it appear on each slide. Click on Format. 6. It will appear in the box. 2. A list of color options will appear. Click on the down arrow next to the date. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 186 of 208 . 8. Click on the down arrow next to Background fill. A menu will appear. scanned photographs. Click on the Apply to All button. Click on Background. such as Microsoft Photo Editor.24. Then skip to step 9. a. Or b. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual By default. or images you've created in a graphics program. Explore your options. You can use clip art from the Microsoft Clip Organizer or that you've found on the Internet.

and a preview of the transition will appear if the AutoPreview check box is selected. 1. Select the slide(s) to which you want to apply the transition effect. 5. Click on Apply to All after selecting a background.Introduction to Computers. Click on Slide Transition. 2. A specific solid color will be used. Or b. If you change color schemes. Or c. Ms-Windows. The slide(s) will be selected. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual a. it does not matter which slide(s) you select.25. pattern. The Slide Show menu will appear. The Slide Transition task pane will appear. or picture as the background. Click on a placeholder color. Click on Slide Show. 6. It can be a simple replacement of one slide for the next. Click on Fill Effects and then select a gradient. 3. If you want to apply it to all slides. or you can set up fancier transitions that move between them. the background color will change. Click on More Colors and then select a color from the Background Color box. Click on a slide transition. The transition will be selected. The background will be applied to the Slide Master. A color will be used from the current color scheme. Using Slide Transitions Moving from one slide to another is called a slide transition. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 187 of 208 . 4. texture.

select the slides in Slide Sorter view.26. The Slide Show menu will appear. it will apply only to the slides you selected in step 1. Click the Speed list box arrow and select the speed at which you want the transition to play. if desired. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 188 of 208 . Or b. 1. Display the slide to which you want to apply the animation.Introduction to Computers. Click on Slide Show. If you don't do this. Click on Apply to All Slides if you want all slides to use this transition. Click the Sound list box arrow and select a sound to play during a slide transition. Ms-Windows. 6. 7. Specify when the transition will occur: 8. 9. The slide will appear in Normal view. Click on Slide Show. as covered later in this chapter. The transition effect will play in Slide Show view. 6. It will be applied to all slides. 2. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 5. The sound will appear in the list box. an animation moves an individual object onto or off of the screen within a slide. PowerPoint comes with many preset animation schemes that are designed for ease of use. The speed will appear in the list box. a box may appear prompting you to install the Sound Effects feature. If you want to apply the animation to several slides. Note The first time you select a sound. The transition effect will play in Normal view. a. Applying an Animation Scheme Whereas a transition moves from one slide to another. Click OK to do so. Click on Play. You can also create custom animations.

and the available slide animations will be listed. If you applied an animation scheme previously. The animation will be applied to the selected slides. and then customize it. 5.27. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 189 of 208 . 2. The Slide Show menu will appear. 3. 6. 1. Creating Custom Animation Custom animation allows you to specify exactly what you want to animate and how it should be done. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 3. 4. The Slide Design task pane will appear. Open the slide that contains the element that you want to animate. The Custom Animation task pane will appear. Click on Animation Schemes. Click on an animation scheme. Click on Slide Show. Ms-Windows. Click on Custom Animation. the animation for it will be shown. The slide will appear in Normal view.Introduction to Computers. Tip You can start with an animation scheme from the preceding set of steps. Click on Apply to All Slides if you want every slide in the presentation to use the same animation scheme.

4. a bulleted list. or a graphic object. Click on OK when you have selected an animation effect. 3. Point to a category of effects. and you are done. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 190 of 208 . Click on one of the effects shown on the menu. A dialog box with a list of special effects will open. a. Note Entrance effects control how the object enters the slide. It will be applied to the object. Click on an effect. 1. The animation will be applied to the slide elements. 6.Introduction to Computers. 2. Or b. You can now modify the animation. Click on More Effects. Click on Add Effect on the task pane. Emphasis effects make it do something after its entrance. Ms-Windows. The element will be selected. A menu will appear. 5. This could be a title. Click on the element on the slide that you want to animate. A second menu will appear. A motion path is an advanced feature that enables you to specify exactly where the object travels. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Adding an Animation Effect Start with a slide that does not already have any animation effects for this procedure. Exit effects control how it leaves the slide.

The significance of Direction depends on the animation type. On Click is the most common.Introduction to Computers. 1. 2. You can rearrange them on the list to make them occur in a different order. 2. For example. Select an event trigger from the Start list. Select a direction from the Direction list. Tip You can also right-click the animation on the task pane and choose Effect Options to open a dialog box containing more choices. 1. It will be selected. 3. Select a speed from the Speed list. For example. a. Reordering Animations Objects are animated on the slide in the order in which you created the animations for them. Click on the Up button to move it up on the list. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Modifying an Animation Do this on a slide that already has one or more animated objects. Click on the animation effect in the task pane. 4. Ms-Windows. Click on the animation you want to move in the task pane. the object will enter the slide from the chosen direction. and you can specify a sound that should play with the animation. if it is an entrance effect. It will be selected. you can enter a delay to be used with the After Previous event trigger. Or Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 191 of 208 .

This can include the Internet or an internal corporate intranet. 5. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual b. This title will appear in the user's Web browser when he or she displays the presentation later. 2. Click on Save. The animation will be removed. Ms-Windows. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 192 of 208 . The Set Page Title dialog box will open. Click on OK. Enter the title you want in the Page title box. 6. The File menu will appear. 3. The presentation will be saved in Web format. Publishing the Presentation in Web Format Publishing in Web format is useful when you are trying to reach an audience over a network. The title will appear next to Page title in the Save As dialog box. 4. 2. Click on File.28. It will be selected. Click on the down arrow next to Save as type and select the type of file you want. Click on Save as Web Page. 1. Removing an Animation 1. The main advantage of this distribution method is that the people viewing it do not need PowerPoint installed on their PCs—or even a Windows-based operating system.Introduction to Computers. Click on Remove. 7. Click on Change Title. Click on the animation you want to remove. A special version of the Save As dialog box will open. 6. Click on the Down button to move it down on the list.

by installing toolbars.2. According to statistics. It is presently known as Windows Internet Explorer. but today. Internet Explorer This is the most widely-used web browser by people around the world. it can be used even in the older versions.Introduction to Computers. The 'favicon'. They are unaware of various web browsers that are available. Firebird. IE did not support tabbed browsing. and more is commonly known as IE. as there were around 100 million downloads within Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 193 of 208 . and was later adopted by many other web browsers. 7. was formerly called Microsoft Internet Explorer (MSIE). Mozilla Firefox It is owned by Mozilla Corporation and was the result of an experimentation. This simply proves that Internet Explorer is used by the majority.1. It was developed by Microsoft in 1994 and released in 1995 as a supportive package to Microsoft Windows line of operating systems. Since then. Ms-Windows. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Chapter 7: Types of Web Browsers 7. The latest version is Internet Explorer 8 which is a free update. Microsoft occasionally releases updates to their previous versions of IE. which is the favorites icon was introduced first in IE. which have some enhanced capabilities. and eventually Firefox. its usage share from 1999 to 2003-04 was around 95%. with many software companies coming up with web browsers that challenge IE in their features and usage. there has been a lot of competition in the market. It was earlier named Phoenix. 'Mozilla Firefox' was officially announced in February 2004. It is the second-most famous browser after Internet Explorer. People have a misconception that browsing the Internet is possible only through Internet Explorer. Initially. This browser has gone through many name changes due to name clashes with other products.

It supports tabbed browsing that allows the user to open multiple sites in a single window. The Safari 4 beta release claims to have many features like VoiceOver Screen Reader. the problems were fixed in the newer versions. It also has features like CSS Canvas. and the iPhone OS. Since the release of Firefox. which performs a grammar check on the typed text and gives suggestions to correct your sentence if wrong. with text and web links. and JavaScript support. Safari This is a web browser from Apple Inc.Introduction to Computers. Safari supports all the functions that are available in other web browsers. which allows the user to regain access to the open tabs after he has closed the browser window. that reads aloud everything that takes place on the screen.23%. 700 million downloads were recorded.3. Apart from these. its source code is available. LiveConnect. Safari was released by Apple in January 2003 as a public beta. and Cover Flow.. 7. It has undergone many updates and version changes that were made to improve usability to the universal users. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 194 of 208 . As of March 2009.thus allowing everyone to access the code. Session storage is also an important feature of Firefox. XML 1. 'Grammar Checking' is an interesting builtin feature. the market share of Safari has gone up to 8. However. AutoFill is a feature that automatically does that for you. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual a year of its release. If you need to fill an online form with your personal information. It can be used on most operating systems.0. Microsoft Windows. with the help of information that is stored in your address book or Outlook. there are many user-friendly features that Firefox offers. Until November 2008. As it is an open source software. but was found to be more prone to vulnerabilities. Ms-Windows. the sale of Internet Explorer has gone down drastically. which is compatible with Mac OS X operating system. It has around 22% of the market share at present.

7. It is also compatible with Symbian and Windows Mobile operating systems for smartphones and PDAs. Exceptional features were provided at the time of its release. none of which were very successful. tabs and sessions.5. only those which are exciting and user friendly will be able to survive market competition and hold on to a substantial market share. content blocking.Introduction to Computers. Opera This web browser was developed by Opera Software in 1996. and mouse gestures. Since 2002. Safari. It had undergone many version changes to maintain its stake in the market. Linux. download manager with BitTorrent. it has almost disappeared from the market due to strong competition from rivals like Internet Explorer. and Microsoft Windows. which helped it rise to fame with a market share of more than 50% in the 1990s. Opera 9. Netscape Navigator/Netscape It was developed by Netscape Communications Corporation and was most popular in the 1990s. The company claims that Opera is the fastest browser in the world. Mac OS X. Mozilla Firefox. it is popular as a web browser in mobile devices.4. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 195 of 208 . Opera Mini and Opera Mobile are the browsers used in PDAs and smartphones. It is compatible with many operating systems such as Solaris. It is a well-known browser that is mainly used in Internet-activated mobile phones. It also has some common functions like zoom and fit-to-width. provides an e-mail client known as the Opera Mail. etc. Ms-Windows. Although there are many web browsers available and many more are likely to arrive in future. PDAs.64 which is the latest version. and smartphones. Though it is not a renowned computer web browser. It was compatible with almost every operating system. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 7.

double-click on the Internet Explorer icon on your desktop.1. Then make sure Menu Bar is checked Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 196 of 208 . Getting Started To launch Internet Explorer On a Windows PC. 2. You can also click on the Start menu and go to All Programs to select Internet Explorer To turn on the Menu Bar Internet Explorer 7 does not display the Menu Bar by default.Introduction to Computers. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Chapter 8: How to Use Internet 8. Ms-Windows. Click on the Tools button on the upper right corner of the browser. 1.

Therefore if the webpage changes. Clicking on the . including spaces or special symbols such as ~. IE transfers a copy of the webpage from the Internet onto your computer. allows you to see all your favorites you have saved. Home Button The Home button lets you return to the home page that you set. Click on the Reload button to start the loading process again from the beginning. In order to save the webpage URL link for future web browsing sessions. Ms-Windows. you must save Favorites Buttons it as a bookmark by clicking on the Add Favorites button View Favorites button . Each webpage has its own unique URL. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual URL of current webpage The Internet Explorer 7 window displays a home page upon launch. Navigate Backwards and Forwards The Back button lets you return to the last webpage that you visited. You can also export and import bookmarks. Read the tab browsing overview. you can see a menu of webpages you have visited. The URL (Universal Resource Locator) is the address of the webpage being viewed. If you click on the downward facing triangle to the right of the button. When displaying a webpage. Tab Browsing Features The Tab Bar allows you to have multiple webpages open at once in a single window. you can update the webpage in your Reload and Stop Load Buttons browser window by clicking the Reload button with the green arrows. Each webpage will appear under a separate tab and you can simply click on the tab to access that webpage. If the webpage is taking too long to load. You can change the home page. Search Engine / Search Provider You can type in a word or a phrase to search the Internet. Putting a phrase in quotes will search for that exact phrase. you can stop the process by clicking on the Stop button with the red X. You can change the default search engine to Google or something else.Introduction to Computers. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 197 of 208 . Some URLs are case-sensitive and all have to be typed exactly.

Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 198 of 208 . Ms-Windows. Using Internet Explorer 7 Overview Below is a picture of the Internet Explorer window with important components highlighted .Introduction to Computers.2. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 8.

Click on the add favorites star icon click and select Add Tab Group to Favorites. type in a name (e. Ms-Windows. Disease Pathology websites visited Sept 1). • The Add Tab Group to Favorites feature allows users to save multiple tabbed windows into one favorite tab group. she can save them all at once into one group. • Users can preview thumbnail images of all open tabs in a single view. Tabbed browsing overview • Tabbed browsing allows users to open multiple websites in one Internet Explorer window by clicking on the open New Tab button or pressing CTRL+T. Tab Group Name.4.3. 8. Then next to Add. Finally. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 8. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 199 of 208 . For example. a user may have ten tabs open and instead of saving each tab one-by-one. To change your home page your home page is displayed when Internet Explorer first opens or when you click the Home button. You can choose any webpage to be your home page.g. by clicking on the Quick Tab button (also see screenshot below).Introduction to Computers.

wellesley. Ms-Windows.5. 5. Click the down arrow to the right of the Search Options button 2. Go to Tools and select Internet Options. type in the URL you wish to be your home page (e. If you want the provider that you just added to be used by default when searching from the Address bar or search box. Click Apply to save your changes. 3. In the General tab. Click yes to save your changes. 2. 4.edu). select the Make this my default search provider check box. Click the search provider you want to add. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 200 of 208 . Click OK. 2. http://www. 3. and then click 8.g. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual Option 1 1. The Add Search Provider dialog box will appear. In the Add or Change Home Page dialog box. Click the down arrow to the right of the Home button Add or Change home page. . click Use this webpage as your only home page.Introduction to Computers. 3. Click Add Provider. under the Home page category. 4. . Open Internet Explorer and go to the webpage you want to use as the home page. Click Find More Providers. Option 2 1. To add a new search provider (search engine) 1.

A window will appear explaining to you what restoring your settings will do to your browser. your favorite bookmarks will not be erased.. Click Change Search Defaults. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 201 of 208 . Click the down arrow to the right of the Search Options button. 3. Ms-Windows. Before you consider uninstalling and reinstalling Internet Explorer. button near the bottom. Open Internet Explorer. go to Tools > Internet Options.) 2.Introduction to Computers. Click Remove and then click OK. Select the search provider you would like to remove. you can try returning IE7 to its default settings. Most users will not notice these items are gone or can easily re-enable them later. 1. Click the Reset. To restore default settings in order to prevent IE7 crashes Occasionally Internet Explorer may become unstable and start constantly crashing. we recommend that you reset your browser settings. Click the Advanced tab.7. To remove a search provider (search engine) 1. you can also right-click on your IE7 desktop icon and select Properties and then click the Advanced tab.6. For example. (If your IE7 browser won't even open without crashing. 2. 3. Your add-ons will be disable and your temporary internet files and cookies will get erased. 8.. So if your browser is unstable. In Internet Explorer 7. Click Reset. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 8.

but you cannot get through Cisco Clean Access. You get the message: Network Error! SSL certificate REV failed [12057]. To fix error "SSL certificate REV failed [12057]" You are on a Vista computer trying to access the Wellesley network. Go to the Security section and uncheck Check for server certificate revocation. You should clear the cache at least once a month. 1. 4. 8.9. Go to Tools > Internet Options > Advanced. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 202 of 208 . In the General tab. If this folder gets too full. and then click Internet Options. 1. click the Tools button. You may need to restart your computer.. To empty the Temporary Internet Files folder (cache) Every time you visit a webpage. a common solution is to empty the cache. Ms-Windows.8. Click OK. Also.. Open Internet Explorer 7. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 4. Internet Explorer may run more slowly and behave in an unstable way. click Delete.Introduction to Computers. In Internet Explorer. 2. if a webpage is not loading correctly and shows an error message (such as "Range not satisfiable. 8. Internet Explorer saves a copy of the webpage to a folder called Temporary Internet Files. 2."). 3. under Browsing history. You will be prompted to close and reopen your browser. Try to log into CCA again.

Introduction to Computers, Ms-Windows, Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual

3. In the Temporary Internet Files category, click Delete files, and then click Yes. 4. Click Close, and then click OK.

8.10.

To clear the browsing history

The browsing history is a listing of all the recent websites you have visited within a set period of time (e.g. two weeks). Clearing your history list does not affect your bookmarks. 1. In Internet Explorer, click the Tools button, and then click Internet Options. 2. On the General tab, under Browsing history, click Delete. 3. In the History category, click Delete history, and then click Yes. 4. Click Close, and then click OK.

8.11.

To save a picture from a webpage

1. In Internet Explorer, using the mouse, right-click the picture you want to save. 2. Click Save Picture As. 3. In the Save Picture dialog box, browse to the folder where you want to save the file, and then click Save.

8.12.

To save a webpage onto your computer

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1. In Internet Explorer, go to the webpage you want to save. Click the Page button and then click Save As.

2. Navigate to the folder in which you want to save the webpage. 3. In the File name box, type a name for the webpage. 4. In the Save as type box, pick one of the following from the drop down menu:
o

Webpage, complete: To save all of the files needed to display this webpage, including graphics, frames, and style sheets, select Webpage, complete. This option saves each file in its original format. Webpage, HTML only: To save just the current HTML webpage, click Webpage, HTML only. This option does not save individual files of images, sounds, or video onto your computer. But it does save all the HTML code information that would preserve formatting, text, hyperlinks, and the pathways to images, sounds, and video.

o

o

Web Archive, single file: To save all of the information needed to display this webpage in a single file, click Web Archive, single file. This option saves a snapshot of the current webpage. This option is available only if you have installed Outlook Express 5 or later. Text File: To save just the text from the current webpage, click Text File. This option saves the information on the webpage in text format.

o

5. Then click Save.

8.13.

To open the webpage that you have saved

1. Launch Internet Explorer 7. Then go to the File menu and select Open.
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2. Click on Browse to find and select the file you want to open. 3. Click Open and then click OK.

8.14.

To make WebPages load without images or sounds

Loading a webpage with no images or sounds can speed up the time that it takes the webpage to load. 1. In Internet Explorer, click the Tools button, and then click Internet Options. 2. Click the Advanced tab. 3. In the Settings section, under Multimedia, uncheck the boxes next to Play sounds in webpages and Show pictures. Click OK. Notes: To view one image without downloading the other images, right-click on the selected image and then click on Show Picture.

8.15.

Bookmarks

Bookmarks provide a permanent and easy way to remember your favorite webpages. They are only deleted when you delete them, not when you quit Internet Explorer To create bookmarks (favorites) 1. Go to the webpage you want to bookmark. 2. Click on the Add to Favorites icon 3. Then click on Add to Favorites. 4. Give the webpage a name (e.g. American Revolution Prints) or keep its original name.
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or go to the Favorites menu.

Introduction to Computers, Ms-Windows, Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual

5. Select the folder you would like the bookmark to reside in. 6. Click Add.
To view and use bookmarks (favorites)

1. In Internet Explorer, click click on the View Favorites button toolbar.)

and select

Favorites. (Another option is to click on the Favorites menu in the main 2. From that list, click on the bookmark of the webpage you want to see.
To organize your bookmarks (favorites)

Internet Explorer lets you arrange your bookmarks in folders and change the order in which they appear. You can also rename and delete your bookmarks. 1. In Internet Explorer, click on the Favorites menu and select Organize Favorites. 2. The Organize Favorites window will let you create folders and place bookmarks in those folders by using the New Folder and Move buttons. You can delete and rename existing bookmarks by using the Delete and Rename buttons. Dragging bookmarks around within the display window will change the order in which they appear. 3. Click Close to save your changes. Note: In the Favorites menu itself you may also drag bookmarks around to change the order in which they appear or to move them into folders.

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html). After you have created a bookmarks file. . Clicking Favorites will export all your bookmarks. Firefox. Click Next. Safari. Ms-Windows. select Import Favorites. Detailed instructions for backing up your bookmarks are available for specific browsers such as Netscape. 7.Introduction to Computers. select Export Favorites. 5. 2. In the Import/Export Wizard. but it is usually called bookmarks. click Next. Click Next. The Import/Export Wizard will open up. and older versions of Internet Explorer. 4. this is done by saving all your bookmarks into a file (you can name it whatever you want. Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual To import bookmarks (favorites) into Internet Explorer 7 First. Click Next. Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 207 of 208 . In Internet Explorer. You have successfully imported your bookmarks. Find and select your bookmarks file (e. 2. Click Finish. To export bookmarks (favorites) out of Internet Explorer 7 . Under Choose an action to perform.html) and then click Next. 6. Then select which folder you want to export. Click Next. bookmarks. In Internet Explorer. select Browse. Select the folder where you would like to place the imported favorites. click the Add to Favorites button Import and Export. Under Choose an action to perform. you must have your bookmarks exported from your old web browser. 4. and then click 3. click the Add to Favorites button Import and Export. do the following: 1. Under Import from a File or Address. 3. and then click 1.g. In most browsers.

Ms-Windows. Click Next. Click Finish.Introduction to Computers. To import your bookmarks into a different browser such as Firefox. Click on Browse to choose where you want to save your bookmarks. Restoring Computer Center & ICT Division 307 0471-118107 or 0471-118544 JUCAVM 208 of 208 . which will be in a file named bookmark. 6. this webpage. follow the directions on Bookmarks. or an older version of Internet Explorer. Safari.htm (you can also name it something else if you want). Office Application & Internet Explorer Training Manual 5. 7. Click OK. under the heading.

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