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# Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 1 2007-09-06

## Turbine Design Parameters

Damian Vogt
Course MJ2429

Nomenclature
Symbol Denotation Unit
c Absolute velocity m/s
h Enthalpy J/kg
m& Mass flow rate kg/s
u Tangential velocity m/s
w Relative velocity m/s
α Absolute flow angle deg
β Relative flow angle deg
ω Rotational speed rad/s
C Normalized absolute -
velocity C = c u
W Normalized relative -
velocity W = w u
U Normalized tangential -
velocity U = u u = 1

Subscripts

0 Total
1 Inlet stator
2 Outlet stator (inlet rotor)
3 Outlet rotor
n Normal
x Axial component
θ Tangential component

KTH/EKV/DV
Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 2 2007-09-06

## Turbine Stage Denotations and Conventions

stator rotor
1 2 3
Stage denotations

1 stator inlet
2 rotor inlet Reference radius
3 rotor outlet

20

10
w3 u

0
u
−10 30
c3
c1
−20

w2
20

−30 10

10 u
20
c2

30

## Velocity triangles denotations

and conventions
Relative flow angle

## Axial velocity component Relative velocity

Origin (absolute and relative)
θ neg α, β neg
cx=wx
x pos Axial direction

α, β pos β wθ
α
w Relative circumferential
θ pos
velocity component
Absolute flow angle

c
Absolute circumferential
Absolute velocity u velocity component

Circumferential speed

KTH/EKV/DV
Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 3 2007-09-06

## Stage Velocity Triangles

The stage velocity triangles are commonly employed as graphical measure to represent averaged
kinetics of the flow at a reference radial position throughout the stage.

## Usually one of the following reference radial positions is used:

r +r
rm = h s Eq. 1
2

• Euler radius (Æ radius that splits the annular cross section in half)

rh 2 + rs 2
rE = Eq. 2
2

The absolute frame of reference is bound to the stator and is therefore non-rotating. The relative
frame of reference is bound to the rotor and rotates with the circumferential speed of the rotor u at
the reference radius obtained from

u = rref ⋅ ω Eq. 3

The relation between the velocities in the absolute frame of reference (denoted “absolute
velocities”) and the ones in the relative frame of reference (respectively denoted “relative
velocities”) is the following

wx = c x Eq. 4
wθ = cθ − u Eq. 5

where cx and cθ are the axial and circumferential components of the respective velocity as follows

c 2 = c x 2 + cθ 2 Eq. 6
2 2 2
w = w x + wθ Eq. 7

## The flow angles are defined as

c
tan α = θ Eq. 8
cx
w
tan β = θ Eq. 9
wx

Note:

• The relative velocity is the velocity that an observer sees while sitting on the rotor
• The rotor blades thus see the relative flow velocities
• The direction of the absolute flow velocity at stator outlet corresponds approximately
to the stator blade metal angle at the trailing edge
• The direction of the relative flow velocity at rotor outlet corresponds approximately to
the rotor blade metal angle at the trailing edge

KTH/EKV/DV
Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 4 2007-09-06

## First Design Parameter: Degree of Reaction

The degree of reaction relates the change in enthalpy effectuated in the rotor to the change in
enthalpy of the stage as follows

Δhrotor
R= Eq. 10
Δhstage

## , which can be rewritten as

Δhrotor Δhrotor h2 − h3
R= = = Eq. 11
Δh stage Δhstator + Δhrotor h1 − h2 + h2 − h3

The change in enthalpies in stator and rotor respectively are related to the velocities as follows

c2
In the stator the stagnation enthalpy h0 = h + is constant, thus
2

c 2 c 2
h1 + 1 = h2 + 2 Eq. 12
2 2

h1 − h2 =
1 2
2
(
c 2 − c1 2 ) Eq. 13

w2 u 2
In the rotor the rothalpy I = h + − is constant, thus
2 2

w 2 u 2 w 2 u 2
h2 + 2 − 2 = h3 + 3 − 3 Eq. 14
2 2 2 2

h2 − h3 =
1
2
(
w3 2 − w2 2 − u 3 2 + u 2 2 ) Eq. 15

Substituting these expressions into the equation of stage reaction above leads to the following
general expression

w3 2 − w2 2 − u 3 2 + u 2 2
R= Eq. 16
c 2 2 − c1 2 + w3 2 − w2 2 − u 3 2 + u 2 2

KTH/EKV/DV
Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 5 2007-09-06

## For a normal repetition stage with the following restrictions

r r
c1 = c 3 Eq. 17
c x,1 = c x, 2 = c x,3 = const Eq. 18
u 2 = u3 Eq. 19

## the expression of the degree of reaction can further be simplified.

Firstly it can be noted that the circumferential speed u cancels out. Secondly the velocities shall
be written in terms of their components as c 2 = c x 2 + cθ 2 and w 2 = w x 2 + wθ 2 respectively. This
yields the following expression

wθ ,3 2 − wθ ,2 2
R= Eq. 20
cθ ,2 2 − cθ ,1 2 + wθ ,3 2 − wθ ,2 2

The relative velocity components in the denominator shall be expressed by the absolute velocity
components as wθ = cθ − u leading to

wθ ,3 2 − wθ ,2 2
R= Eq. 21
cθ ,2 2 − cθ ,1 2 + cθ ,3 2 − 2cθ ,3 u + u 2 − cθ ,2 2 + 2cθ ,2 u − u 2

## After canceling out elements the expression can be rewritten as

wθ ,32 − wθ ,2 2
R= Eq. 22
(
2u ⋅ cθ ,2 − cθ ,3 )
( )(
At this stage the enumerator shall be expressed as wθ ,3 2 − wθ ,2 2 = wθ ,3 − wθ ,2 ⋅ wθ ,3 + wθ ,2 . The )
absolute velocity components in the denominator shall be expressed in terms of relative velocities
as cθ = wθ + u leading to

R=−
(wθ ,3 − wθ ,2 )⋅ (wθ ,3 + wθ ,2 ) Eq. 23
2u ⋅ (wθ ,2 + u2 − wθ ,3 − u3 )

Both the circumferential speeds in the denominator and the relative components
wθ ,3 − wθ , 2 cancel out finally yielding

R=−
1
2u
(
wθ ,3 + wθ , 2 ) Eq. 24

KTH/EKV/DV
Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 6 2007-09-06

At this position a more intimate analysis of the degree of reaction is appropriate. For this purpose
the relative circumferential velocity component at position 2 shall be expressed in the absolute
frame of reference as wθ = cθ − u yielding

R=−
1
2u
( ) 1 1
wθ ,3 + cθ , 2 − u = −
2 2u
(
wθ ,3 + cθ , 2 ) Eq. 25

c
By expressing the circumferential velocity components in terms of flow angles as tan α = θ the
cx
following expression is obtained for the degree of reaction

1 cx
R= − (tan β 3 + tan α 2 ) Eq. 26
2 2u

In the above equation the degree of reaction is expressed in terms of axial velocity component,
circumferential speed and stator and rotor outflow angles respectively, which are approximately
equal to blade metal angles at trailing edge. According to the convention of velocity components
depicted above flow angle β3 is negative whilst flow angle α2 is positive. This leads to the
following observations

## • An increase in flow angle α2 leads to a decrease in degree of reaction ( α 2 ↑⇒ R ↓ ),

i.e. the contribution of enthalpy change in the stator to the total change in enthalpy in
the stage gets larger
• An increase in flow angle β3 leads to an increase in degree of reaction ( β 3 ↑⇒ R ↑ ),
i.e. the contribution of enthalpy change in the rotor to the total change in enthalpy in
the stage gets larger
• For turbine stages the degree reaction usually lies in the range [0…1]

KTH/EKV/DV
Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 7 2007-09-06

The loading factor relates the change in total enthalpy effectuated in the stage to the rotational
speed as follows

Δh0
ψ= Eq. 27
u2

Under application of Euler’s turbine equation the change in enthalpy can be expressed as
Δh0 = u 2 cθ , 2 − u 3 cθ ,3 leading to

u 2 cθ , 2 − u 3 cθ ,3
ψ= Eq. 28
u2

## For a normal repetition stage with the following restrictions

r r
c1 = c 3 Eq. 29
c x,1 = c x, 2 = c x,3 = const Eq. 30
u 2 = u3 Eq. 31

## the expression of the loading factor can further be simplified to

cθ ,2 − cθ ,3
ψ= Eq. 32
u

Expressing the absolute flow velocities in the relative frame of reference as cθ = wθ + u the

wθ ,2 − wθ ,3
ψ= Eq. 33
u

## An equivalent expression can be obtained by substituting the relative velocity component at

position 2 in the absolute frame of reference as cθ = wθ + u yielding

c θ ,2 − wθ ,3
ψ = −1 + Eq. 34
u

## , which also can be expressed in terms of flow angles α2 and β3 as follows

cx
ψ = −1 + (tan α 2 − tan β 3 ) Eq. 35
u

According to the convention of velocity components depicted above flow angle β3 is negative
whilst flow angle α2 is positive. This leads to the following observations:

## • Increase in flow angles α2 and β3 lead to increase in loading factor ( α 2 , β 3 ↑⇒ ψ ↑ )

• To obtain a loading factor smaller than one tan β 3 must be greater than tan α 2

KTH/EKV/DV
Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 8 2007-09-06

## Third Design Parameter: Flow Coefficient

The flow coefficient relate the axial velocity component to the circumferential speed as follows

cx
φ= Eq. 36
u

The only observation to make for this coefficient is that the higher the axial velocity in the stage
the higher the flow coefficient. As can be recognized below the flow coefficient stretches the
velocity triangles in the axial direction.

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Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 9 2007-09-06

## The Normalized Velocity Triangle

At this position the normalized velocity triangle shall be introduced. The normalization consists
therein that all velocity components are depicted with reference to the outlet circumferential
velocity u3. The normalized velocity components are denoted by the respective capital letters and
yield from

c
C= Eq. 37
u3
w
W= Eq. 38
u3

u
U= Eq. 39
u3

The special case of a normal repetition stage shall be regarded here for the sake of simplicity.
The applied principle is however valid for all types of turbine stages.

Conveniently the velocity triangle is drawn with a common origin for stator and rotor outlet. As a
normal repetition stage with the condition c x,1 = c x,2 = c x,3 = const is considered the height of the
cx
triangle corresponds to C x = = φ , i.e. the flow coefficient.
u

W3
C2
Φ
W2 C3

U=1 U=1

ψ
−Wθ ,3 + Wθ ,2
R
2
Note:

## • The height of the velocity triangle corresponds to the flow coefficient Φ

• The loading coefficient corresponds to the circumferential distance between C2 and
C3. In the case of a repetition stage this equals to the circumferential distance
between W2 and W3.
• The degree of reaction equals to the distance between axial and half the midpoint
between W2 and W3.

KTH/EKV/DV
Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 10 2007-09-06

Special Cases
The special cases are here analyzed for the case of normal repetition stage. Similar analysis can
be performed in a general manner for other types of stages.

## The expression of the degree of reaction yields the following

R=0=−
1
2u
( )
wθ ,3 + wθ , 2 ⇒ wθ , 2 = − wθ ,3 Eq. 40

## Substituting this expression into the equation of loading coefficient yields

wθ ,2 − wθ ,3 2 ⋅ wθ , 2
ψ=
u
⇒ψ =
u
=
2
u
(
c θ ,2 − 1) Eq. 41

Velocity triangle

C2 W3

Φ
W2 C3

U=1 U=1

ψ
−Wθ ,3 + Wθ ,2
2
Note:

## • As wθ ,2 = − wθ ,3 and normal stage it follows that w2 = w3 and consequently

Δhrotor = 0 . The change in enthalpy in an action stage is thus entirely due to change
in enthalpy in the stator.
• The forces acting on the rotor are action forces, as the fluid is not accelerated
through the rotor. This leads to the denotation of “action stage”
• The rotor only effectuates deflection of the fluid but not expansion as β 2 = − β 3
• As the fluid is not expanded throughout the rotor the pressure up- and downstream of
the rotor is (practically) unchanged. In reality a minimum pressure drop is necessary
due to losses to drive the fluid, thus p 3 ≈ p 2
• As a consequence there is little axial force on the rotor in an action turbine

KTH/EKV/DV
Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 11 2007-09-06

## The expression of the degree of reaction yields the following

R=
1
2
=−
1
2u
( )
wθ ,3 + wθ , 2 ⇒ wθ , 2 + u = − wθ ,3 Eq. 42

## , which is equivalent to cθ ,2 = − wθ ,3 Substituting this expression into the equation of loading

coefficient yields

wθ ,2 − wθ ,3 2 ⋅ wθ , 2 2c θ ,2
ψ= ⇒ψ = +1 = −1 Eq. 43
u u u

Velocity triangle

C2 W3

Φ
W2 C3

U=1 U=1

ψ
−Wθ ,3 + Wθ ,2
R
2
Note:

## • As cθ ,2 = − wθ ,3 and normal stage it follows that c 2 = w3 and with the assumption of

repetition stage ( c1 = c 3 ) consequently Δhrotor = Δh stator . The change in enthalpy in a
reaction stage is thus equally split on stator and rotor.
• The forces acting on the rotor are partially action and partially reaction forces, as the
fluid is accelerated through the rotor. This leads to the denotation of “reaction stage”
• Both stator and rotor effectuate expansion of the fluid and thus p 2 < p1 and p 3 < p 2
• As a consequence there is a considerable axial force on the rotor in a reaction
turbine. In most cases this force is too large to be submitted to an axial bearing and
thus must be compensated for. Possible compensations are appropriate arrangement
of components such as to cancel out axial forces or application of a thrust
compensation devices (e.g. piston), see further below

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Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 12 2007-09-06

## With cθ ,3 = 0 = wθ ,3 + u ⇒ wθ ,3 = −u the degree of reaction writes to

1 wθ ,2
R=−
1
2u
( )
wθ ,3 + wθ ,2 = −
2 2u
Eq. 44

wθ ,2 − wθ ,3 wθ ,2
ψ= = +1 Eq. 45
u u

Combining the two expressions leads after reformulation to a relationship between degree of

ψ = 2 ⋅ (1 − R) Eq. 46

Velocity triangle

C2 W3

Φ
W2
C3

U=1 U=1

ψ
−Wθ ,3 + Wθ ,2
R
2
Note:

• The flow exists the stage purely axial, i.e. there is no swirl at stage exit
• For a zero exit swirl stage the degree of reaction and the loading factor are
dependent
• Example for a zero exit swirl stage are for example last stages of jet engines Æ thrust
maximized when jet flow purely axial

KTH/EKV/DV