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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Damian Vogt

Course MJ2429

Nomenclature

Symbol Denotation Unit

c Absolute velocity m/s

h Enthalpy J/kg

m& Mass flow rate kg/s

r Radius m

u Tangential velocity m/s

w Relative velocity m/s

α Absolute flow angle deg

β Relative flow angle deg

ω Rotational speed rad/s

C Normalized absolute -

velocity C = c u

W Normalized relative -

velocity W = w u

U Normalized tangential -

velocity U = u u = 1

Subscripts

0 Total

1 Inlet stator

2 Outlet stator (inlet rotor)

3 Outlet rotor

n Normal

r Radial component

x Axial component

θ Tangential component

KTH/EKV/DV

Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 2 2007-09-06

stator rotor

1 2 3

Stage denotations

1 stator inlet

2 rotor inlet Reference radius

3 rotor outlet

20

10

w3 u

0

u

−10 30

c3

c1

−20

w2

20

−30 10

10 u

20

c2

30

and conventions

Relative flow angle

Origin (absolute and relative)

θ neg α, β neg

cx=wx

x pos Axial direction

α, β pos β wθ

α

w Relative circumferential

θ pos

velocity component

Absolute flow angle

cθ

c

Absolute circumferential

Absolute velocity u velocity component

Circumferential speed

KTH/EKV/DV

Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 3 2007-09-06

The stage velocity triangles are commonly employed as graphical measure to represent averaged

kinetics of the flow at a reference radial position throughout the stage.

• Mean radius

r +r

rm = h s Eq. 1

2

• Euler radius (Æ radius that splits the annular cross section in half)

rh 2 + rs 2

rE = Eq. 2

2

The absolute frame of reference is bound to the stator and is therefore non-rotating. The relative

frame of reference is bound to the rotor and rotates with the circumferential speed of the rotor u at

the reference radius obtained from

u = rref ⋅ ω Eq. 3

The relation between the velocities in the absolute frame of reference (denoted “absolute

velocities”) and the ones in the relative frame of reference (respectively denoted “relative

velocities”) is the following

wx = c x Eq. 4

wθ = cθ − u Eq. 5

where cx and cθ are the axial and circumferential components of the respective velocity as follows

c 2 = c x 2 + cθ 2 Eq. 6

2 2 2

w = w x + wθ Eq. 7

c

tan α = θ Eq. 8

cx

w

tan β = θ Eq. 9

wx

Note:

• The relative velocity is the velocity that an observer sees while sitting on the rotor

• The rotor blades thus see the relative flow velocities

• The direction of the absolute flow velocity at stator outlet corresponds approximately

to the stator blade metal angle at the trailing edge

• The direction of the relative flow velocity at rotor outlet corresponds approximately to

the rotor blade metal angle at the trailing edge

KTH/EKV/DV

Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 4 2007-09-06

The degree of reaction relates the change in enthalpy effectuated in the rotor to the change in

enthalpy of the stage as follows

Δhrotor

R= Eq. 10

Δhstage

Δhrotor Δhrotor h2 − h3

R= = = Eq. 11

Δh stage Δhstator + Δhrotor h1 − h2 + h2 − h3

The change in enthalpies in stator and rotor respectively are related to the velocities as follows

c2

In the stator the stagnation enthalpy h0 = h + is constant, thus

2

c 2 c 2

h1 + 1 = h2 + 2 Eq. 12

2 2

leading to

h1 − h2 =

1 2

2

(

c 2 − c1 2 ) Eq. 13

w2 u 2

In the rotor the rothalpy I = h + − is constant, thus

2 2

w 2 u 2 w 2 u 2

h2 + 2 − 2 = h3 + 3 − 3 Eq. 14

2 2 2 2

leading to

h2 − h3 =

1

2

(

w3 2 − w2 2 − u 3 2 + u 2 2 ) Eq. 15

Substituting these expressions into the equation of stage reaction above leads to the following

general expression

w3 2 − w2 2 − u 3 2 + u 2 2

R= Eq. 16

c 2 2 − c1 2 + w3 2 − w2 2 − u 3 2 + u 2 2

KTH/EKV/DV

Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 5 2007-09-06

r r

c1 = c 3 Eq. 17

c x,1 = c x, 2 = c x,3 = const Eq. 18

u 2 = u3 Eq. 19

Firstly it can be noted that the circumferential speed u cancels out. Secondly the velocities shall

be written in terms of their components as c 2 = c x 2 + cθ 2 and w 2 = w x 2 + wθ 2 respectively. This

yields the following expression

wθ ,3 2 − wθ ,2 2

R= Eq. 20

cθ ,2 2 − cθ ,1 2 + wθ ,3 2 − wθ ,2 2

The relative velocity components in the denominator shall be expressed by the absolute velocity

components as wθ = cθ − u leading to

wθ ,3 2 − wθ ,2 2

R= Eq. 21

cθ ,2 2 − cθ ,1 2 + cθ ,3 2 − 2cθ ,3 u + u 2 − cθ ,2 2 + 2cθ ,2 u − u 2

wθ ,32 − wθ ,2 2

R= Eq. 22

(

2u ⋅ cθ ,2 − cθ ,3 )

( )(

At this stage the enumerator shall be expressed as wθ ,3 2 − wθ ,2 2 = wθ ,3 − wθ ,2 ⋅ wθ ,3 + wθ ,2 . The )

absolute velocity components in the denominator shall be expressed in terms of relative velocities

as cθ = wθ + u leading to

R=−

(wθ ,3 − wθ ,2 )⋅ (wθ ,3 + wθ ,2 ) Eq. 23

2u ⋅ (wθ ,2 + u2 − wθ ,3 − u3 )

Both the circumferential speeds in the denominator and the relative components

wθ ,3 − wθ , 2 cancel out finally yielding

R=−

1

2u

(

wθ ,3 + wθ , 2 ) Eq. 24

KTH/EKV/DV

Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 6 2007-09-06

At this position a more intimate analysis of the degree of reaction is appropriate. For this purpose

the relative circumferential velocity component at position 2 shall be expressed in the absolute

frame of reference as wθ = cθ − u yielding

R=−

1

2u

( ) 1 1

wθ ,3 + cθ , 2 − u = −

2 2u

(

wθ ,3 + cθ , 2 ) Eq. 25

c

By expressing the circumferential velocity components in terms of flow angles as tan α = θ the

cx

following expression is obtained for the degree of reaction

1 cx

R= − (tan β 3 + tan α 2 ) Eq. 26

2 2u

In the above equation the degree of reaction is expressed in terms of axial velocity component,

circumferential speed and stator and rotor outflow angles respectively, which are approximately

equal to blade metal angles at trailing edge. According to the convention of velocity components

depicted above flow angle β3 is negative whilst flow angle α2 is positive. This leads to the

following observations

i.e. the contribution of enthalpy change in the stator to the total change in enthalpy in

the stage gets larger

• An increase in flow angle β3 leads to an increase in degree of reaction ( β 3 ↑⇒ R ↑ ),

i.e. the contribution of enthalpy change in the rotor to the total change in enthalpy in

the stage gets larger

• For turbine stages the degree reaction usually lies in the range [0…1]

KTH/EKV/DV

Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 7 2007-09-06

The loading factor relates the change in total enthalpy effectuated in the stage to the rotational

speed as follows

Δh0

ψ= Eq. 27

u2

Under application of Euler’s turbine equation the change in enthalpy can be expressed as

Δh0 = u 2 cθ , 2 − u 3 cθ ,3 leading to

u 2 cθ , 2 − u 3 cθ ,3

ψ= Eq. 28

u2

r r

c1 = c 3 Eq. 29

c x,1 = c x, 2 = c x,3 = const Eq. 30

u 2 = u3 Eq. 31

cθ ,2 − cθ ,3

ψ= Eq. 32

u

Expressing the absolute flow velocities in the relative frame of reference as cθ = wθ + u the

loading factor can be expressed as

wθ ,2 − wθ ,3

ψ= Eq. 33

u

position 2 in the absolute frame of reference as cθ = wθ + u yielding

c θ ,2 − wθ ,3

ψ = −1 + Eq. 34

u

cx

ψ = −1 + (tan α 2 − tan β 3 ) Eq. 35

u

According to the convention of velocity components depicted above flow angle β3 is negative

whilst flow angle α2 is positive. This leads to the following observations:

• To obtain a loading factor smaller than one tan β 3 must be greater than tan α 2

KTH/EKV/DV

Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 8 2007-09-06

The flow coefficient relate the axial velocity component to the circumferential speed as follows

cx

φ= Eq. 36

u

The only observation to make for this coefficient is that the higher the axial velocity in the stage

the higher the flow coefficient. As can be recognized below the flow coefficient stretches the

velocity triangles in the axial direction.

KTH/EKV/DV

Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 9 2007-09-06

At this position the normalized velocity triangle shall be introduced. The normalization consists

therein that all velocity components are depicted with reference to the outlet circumferential

velocity u3. The normalized velocity components are denoted by the respective capital letters and

yield from

c

C= Eq. 37

u3

w

W= Eq. 38

u3

u

U= Eq. 39

u3

The special case of a normal repetition stage shall be regarded here for the sake of simplicity.

The applied principle is however valid for all types of turbine stages.

Conveniently the velocity triangle is drawn with a common origin for stator and rotor outlet. As a

normal repetition stage with the condition c x,1 = c x,2 = c x,3 = const is considered the height of the

cx

triangle corresponds to C x = = φ , i.e. the flow coefficient.

u

W3

C2

Φ

W2 C3

U=1 U=1

ψ

−Wθ ,3 + Wθ ,2

R

2

Note:

• The loading coefficient corresponds to the circumferential distance between C2 and

C3. In the case of a repetition stage this equals to the circumferential distance

between W2 and W3.

• The degree of reaction equals to the distance between axial and half the midpoint

between W2 and W3.

KTH/EKV/DV

Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 10 2007-09-06

Special Cases

The special cases are here analyzed for the case of normal repetition stage. Similar analysis can

be performed in a general manner for other types of stages.

R=0=−

1

2u

( )

wθ ,3 + wθ , 2 ⇒ wθ , 2 = − wθ ,3 Eq. 40

wθ ,2 − wθ ,3 2 ⋅ wθ , 2

ψ=

u

⇒ψ =

u

=

2

u

(

c θ ,2 − 1) Eq. 41

Velocity triangle

C2 W3

Φ

W2 C3

U=1 U=1

ψ

−Wθ ,3 + Wθ ,2

2

Note:

Δhrotor = 0 . The change in enthalpy in an action stage is thus entirely due to change

in enthalpy in the stator.

• The forces acting on the rotor are action forces, as the fluid is not accelerated

through the rotor. This leads to the denotation of “action stage”

• The rotor only effectuates deflection of the fluid but not expansion as β 2 = − β 3

• As the fluid is not expanded throughout the rotor the pressure up- and downstream of

the rotor is (practically) unchanged. In reality a minimum pressure drop is necessary

due to losses to drive the fluid, thus p 3 ≈ p 2

• As a consequence there is little axial force on the rotor in an action turbine

KTH/EKV/DV

Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 11 2007-09-06

R=

1

2

=−

1

2u

( )

wθ ,3 + wθ , 2 ⇒ wθ , 2 + u = − wθ ,3 Eq. 42

coefficient yields

wθ ,2 − wθ ,3 2 ⋅ wθ , 2 2c θ ,2

ψ= ⇒ψ = +1 = −1 Eq. 43

u u u

Velocity triangle

C2 W3

Φ

W2 C3

U=1 U=1

ψ

−Wθ ,3 + Wθ ,2

R

2

Note:

repetition stage ( c1 = c 3 ) consequently Δhrotor = Δh stator . The change in enthalpy in a

reaction stage is thus equally split on stator and rotor.

• The forces acting on the rotor are partially action and partially reaction forces, as the

fluid is accelerated through the rotor. This leads to the denotation of “reaction stage”

• Both stator and rotor effectuate expansion of the fluid and thus p 2 < p1 and p 3 < p 2

• As a consequence there is a considerable axial force on the rotor in a reaction

turbine. In most cases this force is too large to be submitted to an axial bearing and

thus must be compensated for. Possible compensations are appropriate arrangement

of components such as to cancel out axial forces or application of a thrust

compensation devices (e.g. piston), see further below

KTH/EKV/DV

Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 12 2007-09-06

1 wθ ,2

R=−

1

2u

( )

wθ ,3 + wθ ,2 = −

2 2u

Eq. 44

wθ ,2 − wθ ,3 wθ ,2

ψ= = +1 Eq. 45

u u

Combining the two expressions leads after reformulation to a relationship between degree of

reaction and loading coefficient as follows

ψ = 2 ⋅ (1 − R) Eq. 46

Velocity triangle

C2 W3

Φ

W2

C3

U=1 U=1

ψ

−Wθ ,3 + Wθ ,2

R

2

Note:

• The flow exists the stage purely axial, i.e. there is no swirl at stage exit

• For a zero exit swirl stage the degree of reaction and the loading factor are

dependent

• Example for a zero exit swirl stage are for example last stages of jet engines Æ thrust

maximized when jet flow purely axial

KTH/EKV/DV

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