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Department of Energy

llll'Sl~
National Nuclear Security Administration
Service Center
P. 0. Box 5400
NaUonal Nuclear 5ecurity Administrsffon Albuquerque, NM 87185

MAR 0 1 2010

Mr. John Greenewald, Jr.

Dear Mr. Greenewald:

This letter is the final response to your June 16, 2009 Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
request for a copy of In-Flight Participation of a B-66 A irplane, dated October 1956.

Pursuant to Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1004.6 (1 0 CFR 1004.6), the Office
of Classification, Office ofHealth, Safety and Security, in the Department ofEnergy (DOE) has
completed its review of the document responsive to your request. This document located in the
files of the Defense Technical Information Center, contains information properly classified
Formerly Restricted Data (FRD); therefore, it is provided to you with deletions.

Title 5, United States Code, Section 552(b)(3) (5 USC 552(b)(3) (Exemption 3), exempts from
disclosure information "specifically exempted from disclosure by statute (other than section
552(b) of this title), provided that such statute (A) requires that the matters be withheld from the
public in such a manner as to leave no discretion on the issue, or (B) establishes particular
criteria for withholding or refers to particular types of matters to be withheld .... " The Atomic
Energy Act (AEA) of 1954, as amended, 42 USC 2011 et seq., is an Exemption 3 statute.
Sections 141-146 of this Act (42 USC 2161-2166) prohibit the disclosure of information
concerning atomic energy defense programs that is classified as either Restricted Data or FRD
pursuant to the AEA, as amended. The portions deleted from the subject document pursuant to
Exemption 3 contain information about weapon yields that has been classified as FRD.
Disclosure of the exempt data could jeopardize the common defense and the security of the
nation.

To the extent permitted by law, the DOE, pursuant to 10 CFR 1004.1, will make available
records it is authorized to withhold under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) whenever it
determines that such disclosure is in the public interest. With respect to the information withheld
from disclosure pursuant to Exemption 3, the DOE has no further discretion under the FOIA or
DOE regulations to release information currently and properly classified pursuant to the AEA, as
amended.
Mr. John Greenewald, Jr. 2 MAR 0 1 2Dt0
Pursuant to 10 CFR 1004.6(d), Dr. Andrew P. Weston-Dawkes, Director, Office of
Classification, Office of Health, Safety and Security, is the official responsible for the denial of
the DOE classified information.

Pursuant to 10 CFR 1004.8, the denial of a FOIA request may be appealed, in writing, within 30
days after receipt of a letter denying any portion of the request, to the Director, Office of
Hearings and Appeals, Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington,
DC 20585. The written appeal, including envelope, must clearly indicate that a Freedom of
Information appeal is being made, and the appeal must contain all other elements required by 10
CFR 1004.8. Judicial review will thereafter be available to you in the District of Columbia or in
the district where: (1) you reside, (2) you have your principal place of business, or (3) the
Department's records are situated.

There are no fees chargeable to you for processing your request.

If you have questions, please contact me by e-mail at cbecknell@doeal.gov or write to the


address on the first page. Please reference Control Number FOIA 10-00005-C in your
communication.

Office of Public Mfairs

Enclosure
MAR 0 1 2010
cc with copy of redacted document:
Wanda Peigler, SSO
AD338527
Dooo 167¥3

IN-FLIGHT PARTICIPATION OF A 8-66 AIRPLANE (U)


!
j

SANDIA NATIONAL LABS ALBUQUERQUE NM

OCT 1956

Distribution authorized to U.S. Gov't. agencies and their


contractors; Administrative/Operational Use; OCT 1956. Other
requests shall be referred to Atomic Energy Comn·•ission,
Washington, DC. Restricted Data.

f
'


'
LASSIFIED

-. ... ~ - .

.AD .3385 2,7 :


....

DEFENSE DOCUMENTATION CENTER


FOR
SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAl INFORMATION
CAMERON STATION. ALEXANDRIA. VIRGINIA

CLASS FIE .zoo1ooo 31.''


U!iCLASSIFIED

NOTICE: Wben government or other drawings, speci-


fications or other data. are used for any purpose
other than in connection vith a definitely related
government procurement operation, the u. s.
Government thereby incurs no responsibility, nor any
obligation 'Whatsoever; and the fact that the Govern-
ment may have formulated, furnished, or in 8.ZlY way
supplied the said drawings, specifications, or other
data is not to be regarded by implica.tion or other-
wise as in any manner licensing the holder or any
other person or c.~r,t1om-~ion 1 or conveying any rights
or permission to manufacture, use or sell any
patented invention that may in any way be related
thereto.

NOTICE:

THIS DOcuMENT CONTAINS INFORMATION

AFFECTING THE NATIONAL DEFENSE OF

THE UNITED STATES "w'i'l'HIN THE MEAN-

ING OF THE ESPIONAGE LAWS, TITLE 18,

U.S .C, 1 SECTIONS 793 end 794. THE


TRANSMISSION OR THE REVELATION . OF

ITS CO!fl'ENTS IN ANY MANNER TO AN

UNAUTHORIZED PERSON IS PROHIBITED

BY LAW.
,,
..~... ¥.;
t

u c. ASS.Li IL· I.
WDD
TECHNICAL LIBRARY
,t:_ s·o7
Document No. ~ J YJ>-
- - · ·· · --- ·--· - ·-------- - - - - - - -

_U_.
, __: __, ..: ..:::·.·--· ·· ---· __ .. :. ~~- - __: ___.__.:.· . ··

. . · CLASSIFIED

. "
This is a preliminary report based on all data
available at the close of this project's participa-
tiort in Operation REDWING. The contents of this
report are subject. to change upon completion of
evaluation for the final report. This preliminary
report will be superseded by the publication of
the final (WT) report. Conclusions and recom-
mendations drawn herein, if any, are therefore ..,
.

tentative. The work is reported at this early


time to provide early test results to those con-
cerned with the effects of nuclear weapons and
. to pr9vide for an mterchange of information be-
tween projects for the preparation of final re-
ports.

'

When no longer required, this document may be



~estroyed in accordance with applicable security
' .
regulations. When ·destroyed, notification should
be made to
AEC Technical Information Service Extension
P. 0. Box 401
Oak Ridge, Tenn.
DO NOT RETURN THIS DOCUMENT
,.;.·
'
•%!Iis docmment contains iiJf'ormation affeating the National
Defsose of the United S~ates within the meaning of the
Espionage Laws, Xitle 18, U. ·S. c., Section 793 end
794. Its transmission o~ the revelation of its oontents
in any mam1er to en unauthorized person is prohibited
by la'l'o I

:- . .: ~· - ._...~..._......
___...... ... .:.._..... ..:.. ...·~ ...
:

f,

OPEWION BEDWING :- PllBliiMllU!t! :IU!IPBR!

. PBOJmT 5.,3
OCTOBER 1956

Aircraft Laboratory
Wright Air Developnent Center
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base
Dayton, Ohio

L. L. Wood\fe.rd, Col. , USA!'


Technical Dil'ector , / ij) (~ /~

~3R}?
.;:;r~~~
X. D. ColeiiiiD, Col. , USAF
Coiiiiii8Dder, Taak Unit 3


017.£J&__
J.I. Dabl ,. CDR, USN.
Director, Progt•am 5

-~······ ·: y .
.• ~ .. 1:' ..

SUMMARY OF SHOT DATA, OPERATION REOWING

Shot- Date ·Time L-tiCXI Typa JUdi Coardinates GeogroaJidc


(Uilc:is.ad.t'ied) (PPG) (App!.'CIEI.Date) (Aatu&l ~ z.....,)
D I •
.............. s~ 0629 Eni.wtok
y,--
Stir!'ace
Lan4
124515 E
106885 !I
ll 33 29
162 2l. 18
Ch.robe 21.~ OS51 Bilc:lJ11 Air Drop (1,320tl.50 fi) 96200 ~ 100 E llJ.JSO
Oft Cbaz'Ue Orer ll.tc- 185100 !: soo If 165 19 46
Zuni 28 May 05S6 1Wdn1 Sin-race llO'J09 E ll 29 48
7..,.. Land Vater 1001~ II 165 22 09

. Y- 28 May rnS6 Eniwtok 200-tt r....,.. l12l55 l! 113724


•' Sal.l3 130604 If 162 19 l.3
,.


l!rle 311-hy 0615 Ezdwtol< 3~1'-- 1.27930 E 11.32 41
YvC8'Ule 102o60 I: 162 21. 52
S<iadaol.e 6 June 1255 Eniwtal< SUr.raoe 75;:37 I: ll 4C 35
Irane l.t.DI!a 14'9897 Y. 1.62 13 0:!
Fl.athead 1:! June 0626 .B ild:li
Of! Doc-
!large
\latar
llu7a! E
164094 II
l1 4C 22
165 23 l3 0
BlAold:oat 12June 0626 Eniwtol: 2c»-tt TOVO!l" 12601!0 E l1 33 04 tit
Jackapoo
'
14 J'Wl<l lll6
YvotmiS
Eniwtok
sally
3c»-tt TOYBr
104435 II
11.4018 E
132295 N
162 21. 33
ll 37 4l.
162 1'9 32
>.
r.n
... En1wet.ok (6!l0•35 tt) ll6647 ! 50 E

ZPL .. U2
08&!1" 1.6 June l314 /dr lln>p n 324a i
Yvonne o....r Lao! ].02851 t so If 162 2l. 39
Inoe 22 JUDe 0956 Eniwtak 200-f't 'riMI1' 105300 E 1137 :>3
H
Pearl. 133!i40 I! 162 l.8 04
Dakota ;z6 Jim& 0606 Bild.ld ~se U67(fl E ll4022
Of! Dog Wt.tar 164097 If 1.65 23 13
tfollawl< 3 Jlil¥ 0606 Eni-tok 3oo-tt Tcnoar 109737 E n 37 39
Ruby 1321.65 II 162 l.8 49
Apuhe 9.Taq 0606 Ezd.wetak Barge f:H227 E l1 40 17
F1oz<~. ""'tar 148063 II 162 1.2 01.
.lf..,..;lo l l Jal;r 05S6 B1.lr:1n1 Barge l.l68L6 E ll 39 48
Of! Dog Watllll' 160604 !I 165 23 l4
T- 21.1'~ 0546 Bild.Jd Barp '19'n6 E n 40 26
Obarll-g R-t' ilater 164476 II 165 20 22
llU1'0il 22~ o6l.6 Eni....tok Barge 70015 E ll40 1'9
L_
Fl.oz<~. llater 148304 If 162 1.2 09
- - - ---
'

I
&see 1:!&-1344 t:or turtber dete1l<o,

' - .. •lo
- - - - - - - - - -- - - -- - - - - ····-····· · ------ ---- - ··--- -- - - - -----
UNCLASSIFIED
--------,.;.--:-~~
:· --~.:= - . -~-·-
·:~==---;

j
..,.:
" CHEROKEE _,>
'"'''*) /
Un1111NIIt

f
, Norllto l MIMI

.\

.,~~
I
/
j XINC
~ LDIIC p
I
( MIKE

\
•·
\ c:;

Alruldljl Oboe Boktlletol<utol<u AI!a Ellllrlkku Uncle Racl\lkara! ~.o.. e


Alruklraru Peter Bolmb,...SU Allie Enl.nllll.n Tue Romurlkku FCII
Aomoen Oeorae Bolr.onejlon Baker Enyu Nan Rukojl VIetor
Arrllkan Yolu> Bokonl\lailkll II em lonchebl Mike Uorlkku E:asy
BIJI,rtn a.,•• Bokororyuru Br&YO NIJilu Charley Yom,uu llJ
Bikini Haw 011eerete WIW&m OVultaen Zo:bn Yurocbi DDa
Enlalro ICing Reere Sup.r

Bikini Atoll. IQcations of test detonations during Operation REDWING


are iDdic&ted by large lettering and arrow. Native island names
With correspondin8 military 1dent11'ie:rs are given 1n the tabulation•

...

..'

--~·· _
....,. ., - - ':"':"" -·· ..
SIFIED

SOIII'*-'11 II\
AJUOfl #

.
I
SllelllllUIW• ••
Will NUIII

Aananblru Vera Chlnleero Alvin lprln Olenn Rlblllon James


All•• Olive Cllinlmi Clyde Japtan David Rlgllt Leroy
AnlyUIIU Bruce Coehlta Daily Klrlnian ;...cy 11oJoa Ureula
ADman
Blljiri
Bopll'lkk
Sally
Tilda
He leo
Coral Hnda
Ellertru
Elugelab
Mack, Clacar
Ruby
Flora
""'"
Mui
ll!uzin
Zona
Henry
Kate
Ruehl
Rujoru
RW\It
Clara
Pearl
Yvonne
Bogallua Allee Eagebi Janet Pury Elmer SandUdelonao Edn&
Bogoa•bogo Belle En!YI!tok Fred Pllraal Wilma Telteirlp\ICchl Gene
BD&M Irene Glr11nlen Keith Pakon Irwin Yelri Nancy
Bollonurappu Mary

Eniwtok Atoll. locations ot test detonations during Oparation. HEDWIHG


ue indiea.t.ed b} la:rp ht~'f~ and a:rrow. Hr.ti."'f'a u l d naaa
with correspond~ lidlltary identitiers ue given 1n tb!a tal;lulation•

... •.
- . .. · -·-· -· ··- - .. -------·- ····-· -· -- ... - ·----·-·---·----- - ---- - - -

UNCLASSIFIED
.ABSTRACT

~ rhe objective o! this proJect was to measure the overpressure, gust,


and thermal effects o! a nuclear dotonation on a B-66 aircraft in tlight
to detemiD& ita delivery capabilit)·· Tbe measured effects will be used
to correct the B-66 Weapons Ielivery Halldbook, In addition, the project
provided buic research data for the desip criteria of' future milltB.17
aircraft,~
'rhe a"irefart was instrumented by the Douglas Ail"craft CompiZil
{D.AC) !or the Air Force to record gust load stresses, thermal atreasea,
temperatures, overpressures, accelerationa, allli other airt-ratt aDd input
data, The aircraft waa flow to a time•zero position vbich provided the
maximm available load combination during each of ten nuclear detona~ions~
rhe highest temperature recorded was 444"1 on an elevator of 0,016 ·
inch thick aluminum skin painted to have an absorptivity of 0,45, The
maxhmam thermal stress mea.suremente indicated a local stre8s of 39,600
psi induced by .a temperature rise of 37"//F on 0,016 inch thick aluminum
skin located at Station 94 of. the elevator.
Maximum overpressure recorded was l.OZ psi. The max:hnnm gust load
. received was ),26 g at the center of gravity, This value is 107 perceDt
of the gust allovable load factor, The resultant s~ss level at Wing
Station /1)7 vas equivalent to ·uo percent of the limit allowabl8 J,oad on
.. the wingo The max1mull1 measured dynamic magnification factor was 1.59
at Wing Station 407•
l:lased upon preliminary data reduced under i'iald coDditions, it was
concll¥1ed that the B-66 has nuclear wapon delivery capabilities equal
to or in e:zcess of those stated in the special wapon :feasib111ty
stwy made by DAC for the Wright Air Developmant Center ( WAOO) durizlg
1955. No further testing of the effects of nuclear detonations on the
B-66 is reeOJIP!If!nded.

- '·

5
..... ·.. .·

c· As
. ~- -·· - . . . -·· ..... .. -~ - - ···- -· ~ ·· - ·- - -··--·------ --···- - --

FOREWRD

This report preaents the results ot oDe ot the 48 projects par-
ticipating 1n the Mllitary Effects Program of Operation REDWDiG, which
included 17 test detonations.
For readera interested in other pertinent test information, refer-
ence 1s made to ITR·l344, SU111111817 lleport or the Oolll!llal:lder, Tuk Unit ;.
This 8UIIIIII817 report includes the following 1n1'ormat1on or general
interest: (l) an overall description.. of each detonation, inclwlillg
7!eld, height or bunt, grouzd zero location, time of detonation, 8lld
ambient atmospheric conditioDB at detol:l8tion; (2) a discussion of all
project resultsi (3) a SUJIIIIIB.17 of each project, including objectives
and results; and (4) a complete l1st1Dg of all :reports coverillg the
Military Effects Program. ·

PREFACE

This report presents prel1millary data reduced in the test area and
is subject to revision BDd correction tolloving the detaUed reduction
.
and analysis of the data. However, it is auieved that :re!ineiiiSllt of
the measured effects will result in final figures \lbicb are near the
approximate ones given in this :report.
'l'he author aclalovledges the help of 2/Lt Gerald E. Holmes and 2/Lt
John P. Betma:r, \lhose wrk u aasista:nt project otf1cel'8 materilllJ.:r
' aided in mald.ng Project 5.; a success. The work of- Walter E. Workman,
project coordinator for the Dou8J.as Aircraft Comp8IJ1, bas been .out-
standing; without his constant efforts to achieve the required time
schedules, the project could not have been completed. In aadition, the
project officer aclalovledges the participatin& persoDDSl of the Douglas
Aircraft Compflll1, the Wright Air .IlevelopDent Center fiight crew and
ground m.aintell.8JlC8 crew, BDd the JIWl1 other orgenizations and illdivid-
ual.s wboee efforts have gone into the completion of the project. .An
orgenization chart for Project s.;
or.·_Operation .REDWlNG is presented as
Appelldix A to this report •


---------"7'"""-------·-- ·--· . -.
--...--- ·-··. --- ·--- ·- ·

CLASSIFIED.

CON'l'EIITS

.. 665
• ABSTRACT.
FOREWORD,
PREFACE • • •
CHAPrER 1 INTRODUCTION. .u
1.1 Objective .11
1. 2 Ba.clrgrOUDd • .11
1 •.3 Tbeoey • . • • • • • .ll
1 •.3,1 Capabilitr Calculation~. .12
1 •.3.2 B-66 PositioniDg Curves. .12
1 •.3 •.3 Positioning Limitations, .12
CHAP'l'ER 2 INSTRUMENTATION • • 16
2.1 General • • • • • • 16
2.2 Tranaducer Types rmd IDCatiODI • .16
2.2.1 Thermal Meaaurementa • ,16

2.2.2 Gust ~ad J~saaurements •
2.2 •.3 Fhoto-Panel Instrumentation,
2.2.4 Engine Instrumentation •
• • .. •
• 18
.22
,22
2.2. 5 Thermal Inputs .22
.. 2 •.3 Recording Equi Jlll&nt • • • .24
2•.3.1 Junction Poane1 • . • 24
2.3.2 Control Fanele • .24
2•.3.) Oscillographs • • .24
2 •.3.4 Pboto Recorder • .24
2.4 Inatallation aDd Calibration. • 26
2.4.1 Strain Gage Installation • .26
2.4.2 Strain Gage caJJ.bration, .26
2.4.3 Thermocouple IDBtallatioo • .26
2.4 •.4 Thermocouple Calibration • .2C
2.4.5 Acoelerc:a.etar Inatallatioo and Calibration • .26
2.4.6 !\'assure Transduce Installation and Calibration • 27
CHA.Pl'ER 3 OPERA.TIONS • • ,28
3.1 Aircratt Pre}:U'ation. .28
3.2 Aircratt Configuration • .28
3.3 Shot Participation •
. ..
• • 28
3•.3.1 Shot Lacroase • • .31
.. 3.3.2 Shot Cherokee • • .32
3•.3.3 Shot Zuni • .32
· 3 •.3.4 Shot Erie • • 32
• .3.3.5 Shot Flathead · • .32
3 •.3.6 Shot Inca • • • • 32
7

• •: I ., ,_;. • ' · ··, ';'•


· ·- . . - -·-· -- -UNetA:SSIFIED

;.;.7 Shot Dakota. • • • • • • t • 32


;.;.s Shot Mohawk • • • • • • • • • .32.
3•3.9 ShOt Apache • • • • • • • • • • 33
).).10 Shot N&vajo • • • • • • • • • • JJ
J,J,ll Shot Tewa • • • • • • • • • • 33
),),12 Shot Huron • • • • • • •
t • • 33
3.4 Data Reduction • • • • • • • • • .33
3.5 Correlation • • • • • • • • • • • 33
CHJ.PTER 4 RESULTS • • • • • • • • • • 37

CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION • • • • • • • , • • 50
5.1 Desired Effects • • • • • • • • • 50
5.l,l Overall Considerations • • • • • t 50
5,1.2 .Ei'tects Desired from Shot to Shot • • • • 50
5,1,) Degree of Attainment • • • • • • 52
5.2 Input and Response Predictions • • • • • • 52
5,2,1 Thermal Input • • • • • • 52
5,2.2 Thermal Response • • • • • • • • 52
5,2,3 Shock Wave • • • • • • • • • 53
5.2.4 Gust Response • • • • • • • • • 53
5•.3 Sp!cial Areas of Concern Affecting Positioning • • 54
5.3.1 Participation in Low-Yield Tests • • • • 54
5• .3.2 Engine Criticalness • • • • • • • • 54
5.3.) Temperature Rises in the Nose Radome • • • 54
5.4 Weapons Delivery Handbook • • • • • • • • 54
5.5 Thermal Protective Paint • • • • • • • • 55
5,6 Application of Data to Future Military Aircraft • • 55
5. 7 laboratory Testing • • • • • • • 55 .
CHAP'JD 6 CONCWSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS • • • • • 56
6.1 Conclusions • • • • • • • • • 56
6,2 Recommendations • • • • • • • • • 56
PBO;JW! OliD.AN12A'l'lON • • • • • • • 58
.APPENDIX B ERRATA • • • • • • • • •
• 59
REFERENCES
• • • • • • • • • • • 60

Photo-panel Instrumentation • • • • • • • 20
Quantity and location of Fuselage
Miscellaneous Instrumentation • • • • • • • 21
Quantity and Location of Horizontal-stabilizer
and Elevator Instrumentation • • • • • • • 23
Quantity and location of Wing and Aileron '
Instrumentation • • • • • • • • 25
• •
SbOt Data • • • • • , • • • • 34
SllDIIIlB.l'y' of *'teorologicel Data • • • • • • 35 "'
SU1111!1a%'y of Aircraft Position and Attitude • • • • 35

~,. •••
··- ·- · ·· --· · - -·- - .. ... ~-- · ~- . - w• • • • -. ----· ·--------------- --

UNCLASSIFIED
~
i,. .
. ·. . . /.
. .' i

. .

.·.3·4 Summary of Performance Data , , , , • • • • .36


.3•5 CQ!!IP~ir~o.n of Desired and Ac-t ual Positions •
• • • 3"6
4-l Summary o! Thermal Re~ults • • • • • • •
4.2 Summary or Shock Arrival Results • •
5.1 Summary of Planned and Me·asured Ei'i'ects Area& • •
• .. •
• 39
• 51
.39

s, : : Postsbot Comparison or Predicted and Recorded Values, • 5.3


FIGURES
1,1 B-66 feasibility for 6,boo-root airburst and abnormal
day • , , , , , • • , , • • 1.3
1.2 B-66 feasibility for surface burst and normal day , 14
1• .3 Typical high-yield positioning envelopes , • , ·14
1,4 Typical low-yield positionin€ envelopes • , • 15
1,5 Typical uedium-yielci positioning envelopes , • 15
2,1 Typical thermocouple installation , , , ., , • 17
2,2 Typical w1llg section, showing strain gage and
thermocouple installation , , • • , • • • 17
2,.3 Typical horizontal stabilizer section, showing strain
gage and thermocouple installations • • • , • • 18
2,4 Typical elevator section, 13howing strain gage and
thermocouple installations , , , • , • , , 19
2,5 Typical strain gage installation, shoving protective
coatings • • • • , , • • • • , 19
3.1 Typical mission profile at Bikini Atoll , , , • 29
3,2 Typical mission profile at Eniwtok Atoll , • • • 29
3,3 Configuration or the test aircraft , • , • , • .30
4,1 Typical plots of thermal input versus time, Shot Dakota • 40
4,2 Typical plots or skin telilperature from Shot Apache • , 40
4,.3 Typical histories or shock-arrival tine, Shot Dakota. , 41
4.4 Maximum temperatures or thin skin • • • • • • 41
4, 5 Maximum temperature rises of thin skin , , , • , 42
4o6 Summary of total temperatures o , , , 4.3
4o 7 Summary of temperature rises , • , • , • 43
4,8 Percent of limit stress versus ving station o • • 44
4. 9 Dynamic-magnification !actor versus wing station , • 44
4,10 Radom damage; tail radome after Teva ml AN/ARN-6
antenna cover after Dakota • · • • , , • • 45
4,11 Damage to elevator due to Shot Dakota , . , • 46
4,12 S1lllllll8l"y of radiant exposure received and comparison
to predicted values • • , · • , , , , 47
4.13 Incidence angles, thermal input • • , , • 47
4.14 Incidence angles, overpresSQre • • · • , • • • 48
4,15 Incidence angles, mte:dal velocity , , • , , • 48
4,16 Critical values or blast , , , , , , , , 49
. 4,17 Estimated maximum overp~s~ to uncboke the jet
nozzle • • • • · • •. • • • • 49

..
-~--: •;JL. _, ' · ~ ...··; ,· ··~-.

__ ._...,. ______
. .... -·. . -· ·-········---···· - ·-·- -- --- --. ·---·--- -- --

- - - - - - " - - -- -tJNCLASSIFIED

CHAPl'ER l
INl'RODUCl'ION

1.1 OBJECTIVE

The objective or this project vas to measure the overpressure,gust,


8lld thermal effects of a nuclear detonation on a B-66 aircraft in flight
to determiDs its delivery capabUity. The measured data can be uaed to
correct the B-66 Weapons Delivery Handbook and to provide basic research
data for the design criteria of future USAF aircraft.

1.2 BACKGROUND
The initial wrk or wapon effects on aircraft consisted or appror
imate and ~thetical studies performed tor Operations CROSSROADS and
SANDSTONE. Followicg Operation SANDSTONE, Massachusetts Institute o!
Teclmology (MIT) was contracted by Wright Air Iavelopment Center (WAOO)
to develop theories !or predicting the effects o! · nuclear eJCplosions on
aircraft structures. nurteen aircraft wre wsed duriDg Operation
GREENHOUSE to gather data !or veritication of those theoretical studies.
These tests resulted in the puhl.ication o! a W.W:: weapon effects repcrt
(Reference l).
A B-47 (Reference 2) and a B-36 (Reference 3) participated during
Operations M and CASTLE, and a B-50 (BefereiiCe 4) and a B-36 (Refer-
ence 5) participated duriDg Operation UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE. The tests
gathered additional data !or veri!'ication, correction, and extension of
· existil:lg theories developed !rom GREENHOUSE. The tests also determined
the ma'""nmm delivery capabilities of the B-36 and B-50 aircraft and re-
sulted in weapon-delivery handbooks for these ai.l'cratt. The capabil-
ities of the B-47, as limited by thermal e!fects, ware investigated for
inclusion in a handbook. ·'
lethal volume studies were made duriDg Operation TEAPOT by the use
or drone QF-00 aircraft and telemetered data (Reference 6). Operation
TEAPOT also involved· two F-84F aircraft in an investigation of thermal
stress phenomena and the e!!ects or side blast loads on escort type
aircraft (Reference 7). ·

1.3 THEORY
Eight wapon effects aircraft participated during Operation
BEDWlNG since it vas not deemed feasible to establish the delivery
capabllities or an aircraft b)' other tban_direct exposure to the
ll
overpressure, gust, and thermal phenomena. Analytical methods used to
calculate aircraft delivery capabilities were not adequately proven,
and it was considered impractical and inconclusive to reproduce thaN
tests ' in the la.boratory, It is li.k:ely tha.t ths IllUSive data. acquired
on m.iny types of aircraft during the operation will result in adequate
aDd proven analytical methods of determinillg a1rcra.tt-del1verr capabil-
ities. ·

· .1.,),1 Capability ·calculations. At the request of WAOO, the


Douglas Aircrart Company (DE) mad.e a complete investigation am report
or the capability or the B-66 for the deliverr or nuclear wapons
(Reference 8), The report indicated the suitability of the B-66 air-
craft as a c~ier or nuclear weapons up to and inclw:lillg the multi- .
megaton yields, The use of' a reflective white paint vas reco~~~~~eJided in
the report, The pre-REDWING general limitations of the aircra.tt are
~how ·in Figures l.l and 1.2 for the specific conditions iJldicated,

1,.),2 ll-66 Positioning Curves, From the analysis given in Ref-


erence 8, positioning curves were drawn· to indicate the locus of time
zero positions of the aircraft which produce specific load responses
(Figures 1,.3, 1.4, aiJd 1,5). From such curves, the best poslible posi-
tion of tb8 aircraft at tim zero for the measuremnt of effects on tbe
aircraft can be selected, The instrumentation to measure these et'f'ects
is described in Chapter 2,
The positioning of' the aircraft fi"om calculations and curves of .
this t~ has been conservative in the past, In particular, the select-
ed position vas that which would give the effects required to achieve
the project objectives, 'l'bia Dl8ant that in order to obtain the de-
sired loads, a combination of actual weapon yield near that of the
po~itioni.ng yield and predicted atmospheric collditions vas necessary,
With only a m1nimmn number or te.s ts acb:lduled for an operation and an
ina.bUity to predict the test yields or meteorological conditiona ac-
curately, the probabilities or obtaining the desired. loads were very
low, In addition, the inherent conservatisms of the prediction theories
reduced the chances ot achieving tb:l desired loads,
The phUosoplJ.v of posi tioniJ:!8 for Operation REDW.mG vas developed
to achieve positiona at which responses were sate but, nevertheleas,
would provide tbe data required to i'ul.!ill the test objectives, It vaa
hoped that this positioning philosophy would provide all neceasary in-
puts during tbe siDgl.e series or tests in order to assure ear4 avaU-
abUity or accurate wapon-delivery haadbooltB to interested agencies
Slid to avoid costly retestill& of' tbe same aircraft during fUture opera-
tions,

l.3.i6 Positioning Limitations, For thermal effects tbe positions


of' the B- ware selected so that neither the temperature rise nor total
temperature would be more than I:I:XPF in the critical ~raft SfCtiQn,
based on the positioning yield, and not IIIQre than 4000f for the er
pected yield, In addition, a l:imit temperature of JI;:IJOF on the nose
raclome vas established, Special panels which differed in absorbtivity
becau2e of differences in paint color wre allowed to obtain

12

• ..,.· · .. . ·,..... ·. . :~_x· ' <:.;· ..... ·,


~~ .UNCtASSIFIED--
-----, -'i,·-v~---.if~-~ · · ·•
temperatures up to 9000F buecl on the positioniDg y1elcl, For gust
ef'.tects the positio~ V~Jre ~$l.e.cted to giw .no more than 9§ percent of
the limit allowable loeda at the, positioning yield d not _,re than
8:> percent of the limit allowable loads at the ezpected )'ields, For
overpressure effects the positions were seleoted to give not .,re than
100 percent of limit allowable noiidamagillg overpressure (2.0 psi) ,as
based on the positioning )'ield. For nuclear radiation eftects, the
positions were selected to give not ~re than l nm per test at the
positioning yield nor ~re tban a total ot 7 rem tor the entire
operation•

..
l~Tl ~f'
. ..
v
I.MFIIGhl-

l/1
~\
/Lt.-Toro ~ ~-,Y

••
I--"
_/--------v Wloo o...

l
f-~--"'
1\

,>b,

l
ill
1/
---- Dr'
)
0
kUft' IOIIIJ SOWT
'"''

li~ 1.1 B-66 f'easibllity tor 6,000-foot airburst and abnormal day:
{l) visib1lit7, 60 statute mlles; (2) water-vapor pres81.1re, 2 m of
11181'CU1'1j (3) albedo, o.si (4) hue-layer height, 10,000 feet; and (5)
aiN:ra!t painted White (.He!erence l) •


,.
. - -- · ~- ~ ---·· - .. - - ····- . -- ... -·· ·-
I

.... ,.., _ t'-
1\
I~ T&n

l/
v
0 '
0

v v
1-)1
/ /
"'

0101('1 100 JilT


~

,.,
- I - 1--

'"" ~OIIT

Moxtmum Otlh'err Yltld

Figure 1,2 B-66 feasibility !or surface burst 8Dd normal d11: {l)
visibility, lO statute miles• (2) water-vapor pressure, 5 llllll oi'
mercll17i (3) albedo, 0.3; {4j haze·l&j'8r height, 10,000 teet; (S)
aircraft painted white (Reference l); and (6) v1ng over descending
turn, 8lld :Ilm!e.lmann i'euibWty exceeds 100 Ml'.

··-~~~~;t===r·t-~ti\lt=~==~~~~::~
67 , _ , _ _ ,
100 Ptrctfll GLII

---+--!-_...., '1 ...,, so,..~


l 11ii--_.::L=:
1 00
" ---!-----!--I---,/-W--l,---#== 80
'"'":_:;:• ::...':..:. P.rellftt

i·~~~~
G&let

.
. .. --'---+-----<l--+--++---fl-l-1r-+.,._- ~......":: r.::,.,,
'IGL...,.... ~-'
u.s,., .

10 15 10
Hotcontal Raftge, Fttf 1 ()~"
u .
(b)(3)
--·- -·- --- ----·

UNCLASSIFIED

(b)(3)

(b)(3)

.... .. """ '"" ·. ·.. '(,] . . ... .·.


~

f..
CHAPTER 2

INSTRUMENTATION

The instrumentation vas installed 1n the B-66 b1 DAC lmder the


supervision of WAOO proJect personnel. Installations were made to per-
mit IIIBaSUl"8JDBnt of: {l) load distributions on the wing aM horizontal
stabllizer; {2) temperat\11'8 rises ·of critical skin aJ:¥1 stringer com-
binations; {3) thermally induced structural strains azW. stresses; {4)
radiant e:zposure; {5) irradiance; {6) !raestream overpressure; {7)
spectral distribution of the thermal radiation; {8) dynamic response
due to the gust ef'i'ects; {9) radome skin-temperature rises; {10) re-
sponse or the engine to the thermal and blast phenolll8na; aJ:¥1 {ll) ad-
ditional supporting data pertinent to the extrapolation and refinement
of the response measureamts to other yields, test parameters, and
aircraft. The instrumentation is summarized in Tables 2.1 to 2.4.
A large number or chmmels vas i.nstall.Eid to cover the gust and
thermal JDBasurememts, either separately or combined. The selection o!
the channels to be recorded on any particular shot vas made to obtain
the measurement of the predominant effect • .

2.2 'rRANSDUCER mrs AND lllCAT!ONS

2.2.1 Thermal Measurements. Skin temperaturaa wre measured by


means of two types of thermcouple iustallations. The moat COIIIIIlon
thermocouple vas a washer type. On some thick skin installations a
hollow acrev type vas employed. Typical installations ot lDtb t1P's
are shovn 1u Figure 2.1. Ice baths were used to provide a temperature
reference of 320F.
The aircraft had 65 thermocouples distributed over six stations on
the left vi.Dg. The thezmocouples made apanviee aJ:¥1 chordvise akin tem-
perature surveys, as well as panel temperature distributions. Six
thel'IIIOCouples located at one station on the riibt wing correlated the
two viDgs. A typical wing station is shown in Figure 2. 2.
'lhe left aileron had six aDd the right aileron had three thermo-
coupaa to meuure inner and outar skin temper6.t\lrea on the aurtace
skin 1M internal skin doubler.
The left stabUizer had 75 thermocouples at four ·ap~;~iiJe stations
to measure span'4se aDd chordvise temperature distribution. For cor- "·
relation, the r!ght stabilizer had four themocouples at tw stations.
A typical stabilizer station is show in Figure 2.3.

l.6

• rt · ·.
SCREW TYPE INSTALLATION WASHER TYI'E INSTALLATION

hollow shanl; screw \_\...-- ___


"\: 2 Pair Copper Constantan thor.,ocouple
Lead wires ora soldered
to thin oappw washer
lead wirt

Figure 2.1 Typicel thermocouple installations,

'--11-f"-o:::-- Airlaad• Shear


Strain Gaoo

Strlnoer Wob 8 Floogo


TherMOCouple
RdF T-raturo Gogo

Airfood StroioGaoo& oo IMido a


Outlide Skin SurfOCM
Sponwloo 8 Chordwiu Strain Gooos

Scraw T.YIII ThlltiiiCICGIIflll ( SurfOOI T1111911VIUrt)

Woahtr Typ1 Tharmoc:ouplo (Skin Tlnii*Qiurtl

Figure 2,2 l'ypical wing section, shov.t..ng strain gage


and thermocouple installations •


Stringer Axial Lood Stroln Goot

Figure 2•.3 Typical horizontal stabilizer section, .


shoving strain gage and thermocouple installations.

The left elevator had 18 thermocouples at three stations, and the


right elevator had eight .tbermoc~ples at one ·station• These thermo-
couple a JDSuured skin .temperatures of the upper and lower surfaces, A
typical station is shown in Figure 2.4.
The nose radome had 11 thermocouples at three stations measuring
radome skin temperatures beneath the .i'ull lcypolon coating and coating .
temperatureJ betwen the tirst and second coats of Hypolon.
The fuselage had 11 the:rmocouples at eight stations to iaeasure a
lover skin temperature distribution !rom nose to tall. •
Tbe vertical stabilU8r . bad two thermocouples tor the lii8U\Il'81118nt
of skin temperatures at the lett and right tin tip.
Temperature measurements in the e~~gine are covered in Section
2.2,4• . Skin stresses occur as a result or tbe thermal inputs, because
the external skin heats rapidly to a high temperature while tbl main
structural components increase little in temperature and otter nearly
complete resistance to thermal expansion or the skin. Baldwin Lima
Hamilton Corporation (BLHC) type EBDF~l3D strain gages were installed
to IIIBUure these strai.lls in the spanvise BDd cbordwise directions.
The · lett ving had 70 channels or thermal stress gaps at tour stations.
The left stabilizer had 26 channels at tour stations. One elevator
station had six elwmels on the lett and six on the right. BOO Type RDF
temperature gages were ·constructed similar to type EBDF·l)D strain
gages vith tine wire grids imbedded between thin bakelite sheets and
were installed at each thermal stress measurement area. The tempera·
tures recorded tro:m the g&&es wre used to determine .temperatures ot
the thermal stress gagee, a requirement for the data :reduction.
2.2.2 Gust Load Measurements. The gust loads resulting tro:m t.t»
material velocity associated with the overpressure shock vave were
measured on the vi:ag and stabilizer by the use ot BLHC t~ EBDF-1.3
strain gages. A typical gage installation is ahovn in Figure 2.5.
Spanwiu a Chordwlao Strain Gaqoa on lnaide Surface al
Oulor Skin within Bead Ana (Thermal Strain l

~ Soclion Showl"'l lolountinq ol Sttain Goqos a


Tbermocoupl"' on a within BICidod Soctlons

ThormOCOJpiiS !Skin Tomporaturel

Figure 2.4 Typical elevator section, shoVing strain gage and thel'IIIO•
couple installations.

EBDF·I30 Strain Gage

Baldwin BCIUIHt Stlllin


Gage C001ut

Epon VI on Electrlcot Conneation Ooly

ECBOI

Figure 2.5 Typical strain gage installation, showing protective coatings.


19

TABLE 2.1

-
00000®® Lilhh ( •) 1 011 1 1111Uoaie

00@@@@)@ Right bomb doar I•P•


lett bollb door ,..,.
;.

@@I I@@ llloae par door llf'•


Right par dool' llf'•
lett par door llf'•
(@@@@@@G) Jll!llL cu.n Nllo
111•10 oalib, bolt •oo, 1
@@@@)@@@ Corralation,

Faa, lzlltn.Dt HaUID'II


1 CoUDten :u.- 111 aooliiS1
2 Clock rs. or da,r
3 IJ.tU.ier Rafezuce T1mk hot11un
4 Dift, Preaa, Cap ADs!• of: !ttaclt .
6'
7
IJ.tt..ter
Unpeed lliiSI.Cator
&Uva1't 11 IJ.Utlllle
Ullaratt'• Ainpaecl
8 Dual Allto1711 lliiSioatol' lluddar (1) am 'thl'ott.l.e ( 2) Podtl..oll
9 Dual Allto1711 lliiSioator Right (1) am left (2) .lilaro11 Polo
lO Alltol)'ll llldicat.or C, 0, llozul Al:oellraU011
11 Haabllllical .&coallrcmetar 1101'11&1 . .iaoelel'&UOD
12 IJ.U..ier .BoQa IJ.Uiu~M .
13 AiriiJllld lliiSioatol' Boaa AiriiJllecl
14 'tao~ tar Ript .EDcia lpl
lS Dual .Auto•711 lliiSicatol' Ript (1) am left (2) SpoUer Poa.
16 Dual Alltoa;ya ladicator Elnator (1) IIIII Stall1ll.r ( 2) poa,

17 .F.lDv Rata Illdioatol' .Pual Flov to left EagiDe


18 &v Rata 1111S1catol' .Pual Flov to ·Ript EngW
19 .Auto1;ya lliiSioatol' lllddar 1aroe
20 Alltoe;ya lDdicator J.ileZ'OI1 Porce
21 Ttllpll'atun ladioator Ullaratt'• ou
22
23
2.4 l'ual Tctalilll' Total Pual to left .Ebgioe
2S 'l'llapratll!'l 1Dd1oator Rlght Ellgilla taUpipe Te~~p~ratll!'l
26 III-10 Tuperature IIIIS. Teat OA!
27 .Auto1;r~~ IIIIS1cator EliT&tol' Pol'Oe
28 .ltUtlllle Gp-o Ai.rplCIIII .ltUta
29 .UU..tll' Bolli> Ba,y AlUtude
30
)1 .1'1181 fot&UMr 'total l'uel to IU.ibt Ellg1.qe
.32 Maaitold hotllurw Gap IU.ibt Ellgilll TaUpipe l'n111n

T.1e locations of the majoritr 'of the gust gages wre selected at points
identical to the gage installations on tbe Air Force Flight ·Loads Sur-
ver aircrart (RE-66 52-829). This duplication enabled st:resa masUl'8-
mnts to be related di.Z'ectly to previous a.irload night test data. To
accomplish the co111parison and to permit postshot bending moment cal-
culations, alllocatioHS are installed 8lld .calibrated in terms of
stress at_a specific point. The number 8lld location of the strain gage
bridge channels are as follows:
The lett v1ng had 65 chlimlels at six stations. The right v1ng
had 16 c~ls at tvo stations.
20

E
. . UNCLASSIFiED

TABlE 2,2 QUANTITY AND lOCATION OF FUSELAGE


MlSCELLANEOUS INSTRUMENTATION

Item Sta. Sta, Sta. Sta, Sta, Sta, Stl, Sta, Sta, Sta, St.a,
0 40 74 83 245·5 4ll 6)9 641 64) 7l.l m
External
(lladol!lll) 2 2 7
l 1 l l 1 4 1 l

Sta, Sta, St.a, Sta, Sta. Sta, Sta, Sta, St&. Sta,
82 246.5 407 643 '/lO 745 '193
.lcoelero.ter 4 l 1
Preuure~ 1 l 1 6 l 1
Rate G,roo )
De!.l. c....raa 2( llillg) 1(tail)

Vertical StabilU.r: l'hanw>caupl.ea, .lcceleroalten 1 Praaaurea, &ad lliag .lcoelei'DIIIttan &ad Pratlllll'IIB
V,S, Sta, Fin Tip L.lliag 1\·llil>& L.111zlc l..lliag L,lliag Lt!'t Ript
197 l'ip raP llp.Sur!, fLo.Sur!, rw Hacel.ll Jlacella

The Z'IIIOcouplea 2
Accelel'OIII8tera l l l ) J
Preuurea 2 l l l

Tailpipe IDlet Fuel 1'\ial Fuel Turbine l!o5ala


R.W Duct Contl'Ol Mani!old PIDp
The:r.oocouplee s
Preaaurea 1 12 2 l 1
Tacbo~~~eter l
Flov Hotar l
Po•. Indicator l
JIRDL Mo1111te: Calor.latere 1 Radiomtera 1 &lid c..raa
Tail Botto11
Turrlt FwlolAigo

c....r .. 6 2

The horizontal stabilizer had 16 channels to measure elevator


actuator loads 8lld 4 cbamlels to measure elevator binge loads.
Tbe linear acceleration of tbe· aircraft center of gravity and
other specific structural compoDents wal'e !IIB&Sured b;y Statham. I.abora•
tories (SL) Types A·43 and A-4/J aceelerometers. For meaaurelll8nt or
.angular accelerations, SL 'l'ype AA-17 accelerometers were used. I.oca•
tion 8lld type or meaa'lireiiiBnts were as follows:
.Measurements at tbe center or gravity wre made or· li.Dear acceler·
ation, in three .ams, 8lld or .fuselage pitching acceleration. Fin tip
lateral acceleration a,nd left 8lld right wing plus lett stabilizer tip

21

• •
···-·· ·--·-· - -- · ···- --- -···-··-·--·- - ------·---------·- - -- --·- · - ---- --- ----

accelerations were also .measuret1. Vertical linear accelerations at the


nose ami taU sections ot
the fuselage wre measured to obtidn the com-
ple-t e dynamic response or the tu:sel age. ·. ·
Prusure mea&ure1118nts wre l!l&de with SL Types P-"128, P•l)l, and P-l40
pressure transducers. To reduce lag in the system, alllilles !rom the
pressure intakea to the tranaducers wre maintained at lengths oi' 18
inches or lesa. To maintain a atatioD&%'1 base pressure at shock arrival,
all differential-pressure transducers wre vented to a ret'erence tank
mounted ill the fuselage. At 15 Beconds prior to shock arrival the rei'·
erence tank was closed to the ambient air pressure b,- meana o£ a sole-
noid valve. One pressure measurement waa made at eaoh oi' five stations
on the i'uselage, at the tin tip, at the upper and lower sur!aces of the
lett wing, and at the upper surface or the lett stabllizer. AD addi-
tionU fuselage station measured overpressure at six points about the
fuselage circumference.
Rates oi' roll, pitch, 8lld yaw were measured at the center of gravit;y
by' Daystrom Pacii'ic Corporation (Dlt) Type R-2l.A rate gyros.
left and right wing tip defiections wre recorded b,- a 16-mm N-9
gun-sight-aiming-point lD)tion picture (GSAP) camera i'or each wi.Dg. The
same tJ'l)t or camera was used to record deflections or the lei't stabil-
izer tip.
2.2.3 Pboto-Fanel Inatrumentation. A photo panel was used to
record 27 miscellaneous items or information. These itema wre recorded
on two Pacii'ic Laboratories (PL) V-1 cameras and are itemized ill Table
2.1.
2.2.4 Engine Inatl'UIII8Dtation. Inatrumentation was installed to
record specii'ic engine-operating parameters during the thermal and
blut phenomena. Items masured wre five temperatures in a taUpipe
rake; 12 pressures at the inlet duc~j .t'ual control fuel inlet pressure;
fuel control ail' inlet pressure; tallpipe pressure; .t'uel manit'old pres-
sure; fuel pump pressure; tuel i'low; engine speed; aXld nozzle position.
Pressure tranaducers wre or the types described in Section 2.2.2.
Special g&Bes and izlstrumsntation ve:re developed by DAC and ..Allison
Division or General Motors (AmM) i'or other measurements.
2.2.5 Thermal Inputs. Thermal inputs were measured in conjunc· ·
tion with Project 5. 7 using GSAP cameras .and various t)'P8s or calorim-
eters and radiometers supplied b1 the Naval Radiological Defense Labor-
atories (.NlUlL). The instruments and cameras were munted in tw
locations on the fuselage. ·
An NlmL mount capable or conte.1ning as many aa six cameras aDd 2l
radiometers or calorimeters was iDBtalled on the taU gun turret. The
-.ount could be preset at an angle tram 0 to 70 degrees aft from the fuselage
rei'arence line {FRI.) to allow the instrumentation to be preset to aim
at grcniDd zero at time zero.
A secOIId NRDL munt vas installed in the bottom or the art fuSe•
lage and was capable or contai.Ding as IJIIUl1 as eight cameras and 21
cal.orimBten or radiometers. Part o.f the bottom lD)UDt was i'md to aim ·-
verticall,- and was c~able or contaiDiDg two cameras and three

~ -- ·:. ·~·· •. ·•· u . "'"': "";"..,

..
... -· · - ~ -·- ··- ·- ······· - ····- ·- - -·- ··- -- - ·-·- ·-- -- -- --·· -----
CLASSIFIED

TABlE 2.3 QUANTlTY AND IOOA1'ION OF HORIZON'l'.AL-STABILI2ER


AND ElEVATOR INSTRMNTMION

Sta- s\IZ'- hont a.t-11 Strizlc Stri!IB St.rl.Di Stt1JI( ~-30 50 pot 60-75 lietWHD lieU' llhct
tl011 !&at Spc l'l"ant llo. 1 llo. 5 No. 6 Ko. 7 pot Cbord pot P.IIZ' Spuo !'itti.Dc•
Sper Cllord Cbord Spq
IJld .&dj 1114.&dJ
Stt1JI( St.rizlc

T 1~2 ~2-<1 1~2 1~2


l6.5 Web o-o-2
B 2-<l-0 5~2 3-<l-0 )•2-o 3-<1-o 1-<1-o 5•4•2 5•1•2 ~ 2-<>-2
T 1•2-() 1-<1-o
50 B 2-2-o 1-<1-o

86
,. l-2-() l-<1-o
B 2-2-() 1-<1-o
't l-1>-0 ~2-<1 l-<>-0 l-<1-o
127.5
B 2-<1-o s-o-o )-()-() 3-2-<1 .)-<>-0 ,1.-1>-0 5•4-<1 l·l-o 5-<1-o 2-o-<l
.Lt't H Cl-0-2

Actuat D-o-2

T C>-0-2 1~2 D-<r2


16.5
Web D-<r2 D-<r2
B D-<r2 l-1>-2 D-<r2

127.5 ~ l~O
B l-lHl

.Lt't H o-cr-2
J.otuat o-o-1

Upper lDW2'
StiJI SldA

29.5 5-o IIOttl


1i1'wt cl1&1t ot 3 .ti&~D,.. iDdiG&tN tJ.mgaoupl...
52 5-<1 S.oOIId di&it iDIIJ.cl&ttl tl.n.l ltnill SIP••
!hift di&it 1DI:Ii4&tt• m lood et.rain ......
94 0-6
97 2-<1 6-()
= 4 au:
calorimeters. The remail11ng portion o! the ·Wnmt could be set at ~
angle i'rom 60 to 90 degrees from the t!iL. r-~1 'II~ also prel!lft to ·~ .
the instrument at groUDd zero at time zero• this portion or the mo1mt
vas capable of mo1mting six cWDSras and 18 c1fU.or1meters or rad1oll8tere.
When the aircraft time zero position w!ll at an &Zigl.e or 0 to 60
degrees between the FRL allli groUDd zero, tb!" tail turret mount vas UHd;
vben the angle was between 60 and 70 degre !'s, both mounts were used;
lllXl when the angle was between 70 mi 90 ~·;grees, the bottom 1'uselage
JD:)UDt vas used. 1

The total DUIIlber or instruments never exceeded 12 cll!IBras aDd 2l.


calorimeters or radiometers !o~ ~ case, even when both 1110unts ware
uaed simultaneoualy.

2 •.3 D::ORDIHG EQUIPMENT

The recording equipmont conei.sted or recording oscillographs and


photo equipment 'With the necessary associated equipmont required to
control imd convert the transducers 1 electrical signals to a recording.
The associated equipment consisted or a junction panel and control
units. ·
2•.3.1 Junction Panel. All inputs from the transducers wre routed
to a large junction panel which consisted or 540 cannon plugs mounted
along the starboard side o! the bomb bay and identified for simplified
selections., installation, and. checking. This panel permitted ~chan­
nel or i.nformation: to be connected to a desired osclllogreph.

2• .3.2 Control Panels. The Wheatstone bridge type instruments,


such as strain gages, press~ transducers, 8Ild accelerometers, wre
routed from the junction panel to a bridge control panel. The panel
provided bridge voltage control !or sensitivity adjustment, bridge
balance control !or balancing current flov to zero in a no-load condi-
tion, and an electrical calibration by means of shunting a predeter-
lldDed reeistance acrose one arm of the bridge. The shunt resistance
vaa selected to produce a specific, fixed ,trace deflection. The con-
trol panel vas set to calibrate automatically at the beginn1ng or each
oscillograph record.
Thermocouple control panels wre used for all thermocouples. 1'he
p8I18lB consisted or necessary c11'cuitl7 to adjust the aeuitiv1ty o!
the system by the .application or an electrical calibration using a
millivolt insertion method and wre calibrated automatically at the
beginning or each osoWograph record.

. tion 2.3.1 Oscillographs. Eight Consolidated El.ectrod1JW!ics Corpora-


(CEO Type 5-119P3·36 o.scUlographs wre installed in the bomb bay.
The galvanometers used were em Type · 7-315, which operate on the
D1Arsonal principle. Each oscillograph measured and recorded .36 chan-
nels or information.
2•.3.4 Photo Recorder. The photo recorder, which was installed in

f ASSI
······-·· ...·· .. ·--------- -------·· ·-UNCtASSIFIED

TABIE., 2.~4 QUANTITY AND I.OOATION OF WING AND Am:RON lNSTRl!MENTAUON

Sta• S\ll'!aat ll'ozlt Illtwill StriDe St.r.l.ai Strizl( "pot 50 pot littwill .Rear lllit'b•a O!it'b 14
tion SPil' Pront llo, l No, '3 Na, 4 Cbord Cbor4 Alar Spuo ~ !rail
Spu- Spu- Ida- lllp
aDd .AdJ lll4 .AdJ DouAl.ll'
St.rJ.Di Str111&

52 L f o-!>-2 Oo0-2 Oo0-2 Q-0-2


.. b
B o-!>-2 o-!>-2 ~~2 Q-0-2

l35L T ~~0 1•8•2 ~2-D l•l6•2 1•8-2


lltb 2-D-2 0-D-2
B 5·8-2 3-o-D 3-2-D 6-12•3 5+2 o-o-o
2471. 't Q-0-2 0-D-2 0-D-2
.. b o-!>-2 0-D-2
B ~~2 3•2-o 4-D-2 Q-0-2

J68L t
lleb
B
I
)-2-D

4071. t o-o-2 Q-0-2 o-~2


W.b o-~2 o-!>-2
B 3-c>-O 7-o-2 3·2·0 l•o-2 Q-0-2

518L B 1-o-0 s-o-o 3-c>-O 2-o-o

5li!R B l-D-0 s-o-o

lJ5l! T o-D-2 o-D-2 ~0:.2


W.b o-o-2 o-o-2
B D-0-2 0-D-2 Q-0-2

left Aileron: r~ ....couplae


Fira ~ digit ·or 3 !Jiufta 1ndic&tea
St&• Sur!ace Outer lm»r lnb 14 lnb 14 ~rmocouplaa,
tion SkiD Skl.n t, E. r. E. Sacolld digit 1nd1cataa Uerul at.rain
Doubler Ia&•• •
Thl.rd digit 1Ddicatea air load at rain
'18 r KIIP••
B 2 l
J28 T
B 2 1

328 r
B 2 1

25

•··
· ·- ··-· - .. - . .. - -·· -·- -· ···-- -··-· ---· -·--· ·-· ··-- ·-··· ·-·-··--·-·--·--- -... -----------·- ------

the bomb bay, used two FL Model V-1, 35-uim mtion picture cameras. The
instruments faced a front surrace-sllvered mirror, and the image a! the
instruments was reflected ·into the cameras.

2,4 INSTALLATION AND CALIBRATION .•


2,4,1 Strain Gage Installation. Strain gages were installed 'by
use of BLHC 'bakellte strain &age cement. Surfaces were cleaned and
roughened prior to gage installation with fine sandpaper and emery
cloth and ware washed with methyl ethyl ketone, Electrical leads were
treated with Shell Oil Company (SOC) Epon VI cement. Gages were mois•
ture proofed vith a layer of Products Research Company (FRO) 1301,
which was covered by a layer of Minneapolis M1niDg Corporation lMMC)
EO 801.

2.4.2 Strain Gage Calibration. Load calibrations of the strain


gages were not made on the B-66 prior to Operation REDWING, because the
installation of the instrumentation and construction of tbe aircraft
required all the time available, Plans were made to perform a load-
point calibration immediately after the operation, In order to obtain
appro:.dmate stress levels .ill the field, a gage correction factor was
applied to each e.irload gage, 1'bis !actor vas obtained b7 comparison
o! identical .peak tall loads and s~trical pul.lup demnstratiOn tests
oi' the REDWING aircratt and the airload aircraft (RB-66 No, 2, AFSN
52-829). . . .

2.4.3 Thermocouple Installation. Thermocouple leads wre of two


sizes, 5 and 10 mil, and were increased to .20-gage vires at an adjacent
terminal strip. The vaaher type thermocouple, used !or all measure-
ments of thin skin temperatures, was attached to the skin with l/16-inch
rivets. Inside skin temperatures of thick skins and internal component
temperatures used the washer type thermocouples attached by macbin.e
screw. Outside skin temperatures on thick skins were measured 'b7 the
hollow screwtype thermocouple , which vas installed in a tapped hole in
the thick skin. The final installation vas machined to llldn level to
. provide a SID)Oth surface.
2.4.4 Thermocouple Calibration. Bureau oi' Standard Tables or
electrical potential versus temperature .were wsed instead or a specific
calibration. Laboratory calibrations were made t however, or both types
or thermocouples .installed on various skin thicknesses. The calibra-
tions were performed at various heat input rates to establish time lag
correction factors for the installed thermocouples.
2,4,5 Accelerometer Installation and Calibration. The accelerom·
eters were installed on brackets rigidly attached to the structure at
the point or measurement. The instruments were calibrated with a
Genis co centrll'uge, which subjected tlie accelerometers to a specific
centrifugal force and tbe associated acceleration at a constant speed
condition.

ASS. Fl
2.4.6 Pressure Transducer Installation 8lld Calibration, The
pressure transducers were mounted on brackets attached to the aircraft
atruotur.e near the point of' ·mea:s'lll'ement. The iiisti"Wiint"B were ·cill-
brated by the uae or a mercU17 manomater to appl,- a series o! known
fixed preSSill'eSt

. .

'
... .
.,~ ... ~ --· -~· .._.
~::· .· .' .'.
~.

CHAP'.rER 3

OF£RATIONS

3.1 AIRcRAFT PREPARATION

In Jant18l7 of 1955, an addition vas mads to the BUIIJIIIS.17 ll-66 pro-


duction contract to have DAC install the Decessary inst.runsntation in
the B-66 for this project. Initallation of the instrumentation and in-
itial fabrication of the aircraft were started silllult~ous1y in March
1955 and completed on 15 January 1956. Practice flights and mainten-
ance checks were made at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The
aircraft was flow to Eni\letok Atoll via Trav.l$ AFB and Hickam AFB.

3.2 AIHCIW'T CONFIGURATION


The JB-66B aircraft differed from the production model B-66B in the
following ways at the onset of the series of tests:
The underside of the aircraf't waa painted white with Vita-Var Pl-
100, with B-103 overcoat. All Fiberglas radcms end fairlilgs were cov-
ered with white Hypal.on (Gates qineer1Dg IP-104). The twin 20-mn
guns wre removed from the tail turret, and the NRDL instrumentation ·
vas mounted on this turret. Another mount for NRDL 1nstru118ntat1on vas
plaCed in the bottom of the art fuSelage. Test instrumentation wigh-
illg 5,000 pounds was aboard the aircraft; 2,500 pounds of this was
located in the bomb bay. Two wing deflection CUI3ra i'airinp were lo-
cated on top of the .fuselage above the wing, and protective curtaillB
wre installed in the cockpit to minimise the possibility of flash
bJ 1nclness. ·
. 3.3
Figure illustrates the changes in
.
the aircratt configuration.

3.3 SHOT PARTICIPATION


.Aircra.tt positions \181'8 selected for each shot from positioning
curv8s such as those shown in Figures 1.3·, 1.4, and 1.5. 7he proJect
participated in tle following shots: Lacrosse, Cherokee, Zuni, Flathead,
Inca, Dakota, Mohawk, Apache, Navajo, Teva, and Huron. The shot sched•
ule, location, and other associated shot data are shown in Table 3.1.
A position was selected for each shot to achieve the desired loads
on the aircraft. From tbe selected on-time position, :mission profiles
vere draw to establish tlight altitudes, patterns, and takeoff and
lending timea. Bept"8senta.tive mission profiles are shovn in Figures
3.1 and 3.2.
CLASSIFIED

~Enol Climb at Crullo Alllluclo

Rtlurn lo Bolt
at Etinlok Begin Clmb 1o Cnne Allllude

!'igurs 3.1 Typical mission profile at B1ldni Atoll.

J'igure 3.2 Typical mission profile at Eniwtok Atoll.


29
--- ·u ----·.--- ---- - ---------- ------
------ - -- --~ - - - ..
NCLASSIFIED

· Durizli Shots Cherokee, Lacrosse, Z-.mi, l'lat.hBad, Navajo, Mohawk,


.' and Apacbt, the aircraft K~S navigation aDd bombing radar SJStem vu
used as tbiJ sole method of poeitiorWI8• In order to position the· &11-
craft co1'1'ectly at the desired point · in space at the preciM tilDe ot.
. ' detoution ot the teet dev1oe, a time-colllpll'iaon computer and indicator
w:re designed and manufactured by Radiation, Inc,, and installed u ID
awdliary aid to the pUot and uncator, The computer receiwd a
sigDal trom the K·5 e:yetem to repreient the tU. remdning prior to ar-
rival or tbe ail'cratt at the desired point in space. It also receiwd
a time tone signal from the · tirillg blmk8r at a know tilDe prior ·to

• ~ Hypalon CoatinQ

li'!25) Vita- Var Palftl

Figure ),) Coni'iguration or the test aircratt,

detonation. The computer 118&Sured the diUerence between tbt tw tiDe


aDd presented a constant indication to tbe pUot and navigator or the
number ot seccmda to be gained or loat in order to be in the proper po·
.s.1 tiOJl at tbe proper tiD.
During Shot Inca, H)Q·lA ground radar vas 'WIEld tor tracld.ng the
aircratt. It vas intended as a tracking dence .
tor post~hot int'ormation
aDd vas aet up to be capable _or assllllling priJaa.ey control tor positioz:d.Dg
in the event the aircratt radar IIIBltunctioned. 1'be · mission waa aborted,
because tbe navigator could not see the target clearl)' untU he had com-
pleted his final run-in to ground ~tro. :t'he pl.&ule would haw been out
ot poeition at tiae zero.
R - --·- " "' " ' " 0 ••• - '"" '
• " •• • •• • w• - --" -·- ·-·--·----- -·

CLASSIFIED
As a result of post-Inca discuseioDB, it wu apparent tbat MSQ-U
or the Raydist positioning system could sene a more useful pUrpOse than
to act o~_y ~ etandby .tor the. possibW.ty of ·cW'i'icultie·s ; 1'ht· ""MSQ~a - - ···
and Raydist systems wre capable or providillg considerable assistance
to the crew to position the aircraft. ·
Following the discussions, the conversion or the B-66 to a caj)-
abUity !or use o! MSQ·lA and the llqdist positioni.Dg system -VBB made.
This was only a capability installation, since all KSQ mi Rqdiat
systems in REDWmG were assigned to speaitic ail'crart, and use or a
system depended on withdrawal or an airoratt trom a abot •.
In order to d.etel'llline the compatibility of tbe K-5 aircra.tt radar
positioning methodS and the !light profiles with tba M3Q•lA and ~st
system, a practice mission was flow, using each system as a combill8d
backup and auxi J 'ary navigation sistem. The pattel'!lB !low w:re . those
of a K-5 .mission, because the radar could not position the ail'cratt
without the use or racetrack and wind-box !lights. At the conclusion
of the wind box, the airborne radar navigator and the . MSQ or ~st
controller wuld use tbe information of both systeDIB to reach tba in-
itial point on timB. During the 40-mil.e run in from tbe initial
point to ground zero, the pllot had & dual presentation or in.t'ormation,
one from the ground system and one !rom his airborne system. In every
case, these systems wre alike in thB presentation of position with
reference to tima, &lld tbe crew vas able to reach the d.esired position
on tim much easier with the dual system aapabllity worldzlg togetl:ar.
In addi~ion to the compatibUity, it was determined that With a mal-
function or either airborne or ground positioning &)'Stem, the flight
could be continued by use o! the reJM1n1ng system to position the
aircra.tt.
For Huron, the aircraft U8ed the l§Q•lA system, because of the non-
participation of a M)Q-lA controlled aircraft. All airoraft partici•
pated in Shots Apache and Navajo by using the existing M)Q and ~t
systems, and the B-66 was forced to use the K·5 aircra.tt radar without
either or the backup systems on these tests.
During CherokBe, !lathead, Dakota, Navajo, and Tewa, the ~at
tracking system gave atter-the·ract positions or the aircraft at tim
zero end timB or shock arrival, For Zuni, Apache, and Mohawk, tba
aircra.tt position at time zero wu dete:mined from radarscope photos
and in-tl.igbt recording or the pilot's colllllents on how early or late
the aircraft was at time zero. ·
b recorded tiD or shock arrival and an integration of photo-
pallSl airSpeeds during the period trom tille zero to shock arrival wre
used to detemine a:l.rcra.tt position at .shock arrival, During Huron,
positions wre determined by use or the methods of Zuni, Apache, and
Mobavk, plus the data recorder or.erated by Radiation, Inc. The re·
corder used inputs from the MSQ-lA . trac~ radar•
.3 • .3.1 Shot Le.crosse. For this shot, the airci-a.rt too~ ort at tbe
correct time and cli.JiU)ed to shot altitude. Arter cruising to the
initial point, the a:l.rcratt proceeded on course for tbe racetrack and
wind box pattel'tlS. At 13 minu~s prior to: shot tim the aircraft
instrull2nt powr system failed, am this resulted in tbe loss of bead·
iz18 reference to the K-5 system and the loss of the !light attitude
3l
CLASSIFIED

gyro. The courae to zero podtion was continued by use of the standby
compass . as a heading reference. The pilot was unable to keep the air- ·
cra.t't straight and level without the attitude
gyro. A3 a :re·au.u.~ the
flight was aborted at 2 minutes prior to shot time. The aircrlli't was in
no-effects position at time zero and at tims of shock arrival and re-
turned ~o ba:le to land at the correct landing time.
3.,3.2 Shot Cherokee. The aircraft took off at the correct time and
climbed to shot altitude. After cruising to the initial point, the air-
craft proceeded on course for the racetrack and wind box patterns. At
approximately ) minutes prior to shot ti.ll8 the timing calls of the drop
aircraft becag erroneous for tho correct aircratt. position. The air-
craft mde an abort turn of 146 degrees to the right to a beading of 251
degrees. The aircraft rolled out on a level night heading approximately
5 seconds prior to time zero. After shock arrival the aircraft returned .
to base and landed at the correct tiDe.
3•.3 •.3 Shot Zuni. The aircraft took off at the correct time and
climbed to t~ shot altitude. A successful mission profile was !low.
3.3.4 Shot Erie. The aircraft did not participate in this shot
because of a malfunction of a relay in the lett engine. The engiiiB
would not atart, and the .f.'light was cancelled.

3•.3. 5 Shot Flathead. The aircra!t took off at the correct tima,
climbed to the shot altitude, and suceesstully flew the mission pro-
file. At the beginning of the final ran in to target, approximately S
minutes prior to shot time, the K-5 radar becll!e erratic and was only
parti&l.ly effective. The aircraft was accelerated to aaaure arrival
either on time or early vithout use or radar. Arter shock arrival, the
aircraft retur.ced to the base and landed at the correct tims •
.3.3.6 Shot Inca. !be aircraft took ott at the correct time,
cl.abed to shot altitude, and success.t'ull.y flew the mission profile. On
tbo final run-in at 1 l/2 minutes prior to shot time, the aircraft was
5 secondes late at a point whore 2 aeconda late would result' in de.s truc-
ti:ve loading on the aircraft. Becawse of the bigh run-in. speed, ~
aircraft cou.l4 not make up the ti118, so an abort :-as made with a 90-
degree right turn to roll out on a heading of 1.40 degrees tor a no·
effects position at time zero and shock arrival. The drcratt returned
to base and landed at the correct ti.ll8.
3.3. 7 Shot Dakota. The aircra.rt took off at the correct time and
climbed to shot altitude. A successful mission profile waa f'lown, and
a.f.'ter shock arriv&l the aircraft returned to the base to land at the
correct tima.
3.3.8 Shot Mohawk. The aircraft took off at the corl'ect time and
climbed. to shot altitude. A mission protile was flown, and atter shock
arrival the aircraft returned to base and landed at the correct time.
A postflight inaplction revealed that the oscillograph-on and the
. I

,., ··"'·:- . .... ,·. _) • .....

. .... .
'V~
UNCLASSIFI -D

photo-recorder-on switches were accidentally tUrned ort pri,or to takeoff


and remained off during the entire flight. No data were recorded, e:ven
though aircraft positio~ w~ good.

3.3.9 Shot Apache. The aircraft took oft at the correct tiDIB,
climbed to the shot altitude, 8Jlli flew a successful mission profile.
After shock arrival, the aircraft retUl"DBd to base and landed at the
correct ti.ue.

3c.3.10 Shot NavaJo. The aircraft took off at the correct time and
climbed to shot altitude. After cruiSing to the initial point, the air·
craft flew the desired mission profile. It vas apparent on the racetrack
patterns that cloud coverage did not allow the target to be cl8arly dis•
tinguished untU late on the ti:ming run to ground zero. .No usable vind
runs wre obtained as a result of the heavy cloud cover. On the final
run the cover caused the aircraft to be 28 seconds late at 4 minutes
prior to shot time. This vas beyond the capability of the aircraft to
correct, so the aircraft followed the assigned re-position plan with a
turn at one lllinute 10 seconds prior to shot time to a heading of 241
degrees. The effects were small, as predicted for the re-positio:p.-'
After shock arrival, the aircraft returned to base and landed at the ··co~
re~time. ·

3.3.11 Shot Teva. The aircraft took ort at the correct time and
climbed to the shot altitude. A successfUl mission profile was flovn •

.3 •.3 .. 12 Shot Huron. The aircraf't took off at the correct timB,
clilllbed to shot alt1tude, and success.f.'ully !lew the mission profUe •

.3.4 DATA REDUCTION


At the test site, all records were developed and Jeak values of the
selected key channelB wre read. Where necessary to complete the data
comparison, a fev tim histories wre also read and plotted. The read•
1ng methods emplo)'ed were by use of ruler and pencil. In special in-
stances, where additional data wre required and bulk and tiDe were
critical factors, the WAOO data-reduction tra.1ler was used. The data
presented in this report are approximate and are subject to revision
prior to the final report.
After all correlation data required at the proving grounds wre
reduced, the original records and necessary data reduction instructions
ware shipped to the DAC Flight Test Division, Santa Monica, California,
for complete data reduction.

,3. 5 CORRELATION

In order to define accurately the errors and consistencies in pre-


diction mathods, _the Ibuglas positioning criteria personnel submitted
estimates of tbe responses expected from all key channels prior to each
shot. Upon determination of an estimated actual yield and mateorological
:.n

····- - - -- ---- . . - ·-·· .... . -.T ~--
;


'.
~ -~·· · .• .
. '

IDd position data, as shown in Tablaa 3.2, 3.3, ID4 3.4, tbe anticipated
n.aponaes were n·)::ll'tclicted. ·'l'be data were ftcluced tor theN ks;y
chamlala , and prel:IJD1J:w7 comparisons· -ot tlle· ·J18&8U1'8cl· data- to -tla pN•
dieted data wre -... 1'he meuu:ed data ~r the key ch~UJ.Dela 81'8 shown
in Ta.bles 4.1 and 4. 2. Wherever the meuUl'ed loada dittered cona1cler-
abl1 from the preclioted loads, a tield ~Dalyais · vu ll&de to re•olw
difterences, and tbe positioning criteria wre adjuated to oompenaate tor
the difterenc•••

(b)(3)
Iero11e

ZUlli

Bra
llatbud

.. '
.
:~. - ·, .
... -
.. . .. ·· ···· .... ·· - · . -- ··- ... -- --·---·- -·------··- - -----

~CLASSIFIED
TABU: 3.2 SUMMA.RI OF MED:OROIDGIO.AL DATA
.
!I
I
.P ,..o -.!t~;-·
• ij
..!:1 !~"'0 !!•• Ji.. l !.2 ii ·u.a.
~'"'0 ~ ~~ ~~ ...
~ ~5
~-~ ~~
~!

i
~ .
-.;~

~II'
~;
~=
i... ,$11:1 ~ ..
Ill ~
OF
.d a "~ ::o:U c!E ,u ,u ~~ .!::
or
•:.
~1 111l.11 k:aota dig, HI! or pc~t • ot 114!
-t.croslt Flight Abol'ted - See Pvlcnpb ).J,l
Cblroat •47 ),6) lO• 8 250 1009 Ill 73 '1'6 20,6
Zuni 20 7,32S 8 10 120 1010,5 81 'II'> 80 u.ss
l'latblld 28 8.225 10 9 160 1012,9 82 'II'> 82 23
Er~ Fll&bt 110t ""co!ipllebld • See PIJ'III'Ipb ), )o4

IDea Fli&bt ·i!Jorttd- Set Puo_,rapb 3,3,6


Dakota

ltlbawlc
2.7 js.l 110
Tllght CCIDplated.
·I 8 1160 11009.11 82 17S
IDatrlantatioll Ott • See Plni!'lpll 3.),8
180123.8

Apaobl 48.4 ll.OOb 10• 19 l.2C 1010,S 80,3 74.9 84 22..4


llavaJo 2.5 6, 'l'JS 10 20 80 1010.2 81.2 74 81 21,6
Hun~n 48.3 10.)10 lO l~ 90 1007.8 81,4 '11'>,2 84 22.6
%eva lb,7 7,2S 10. ll 12.0 1009.3 82 ., 85 23.8

Chorolale )6 ,ooo S2 ,640 2

19,000 27,000 ),6 'l'SD 97.7fJJ 2

lb,OOO 17,8)0 ),7 'l'SD 51,9 59,100 2

(Fliaht not. ICCOIIIpliahed • See Pu.gnph 3.3.4

lnea •Fl!.ght aborted • See IVII£l'&pb 3,3 ,6

DU:cta I 16,000 I 13,100 IM !&D j 28,5 I 3S,050 I 2


lbhavlc 'Fli8ht complllted • Inatru.ntation ott - See Parqraph ).3,8

Apache 8,000 2) 1 SOC 2,0 'tEll 47,7 60 1 500 2


NavaJo 2.1,000 71,000 4.5 1'£0 lJO 180.,000 2

Hurori 10,000 &1 540 1,1 'ltD lB 22,440 2

Teva 19,000 27,250 1.5 'JED 50 65,900 2

Note; 'n:D - Trailing E~Ste Dow,

-- ··- ···-- -· ... --··· .. '. - . . .......


~ ...0 ...0 ....II 8'
~ ~
...~• ~ ..i ·~
...·.s
... t: ...
~~ J;·
B H :1 .. ~
.~
..
I)
II. ~
~; ~
B
Ill ~a h ~~ J8. !~ ]~
tt.. tt., Jmg~· wt• lb. lllin, llin.

1'01M lli&h\ aborted • See l'ul&ftph ),3.1


Cblroklte ;32,,00 )6,000 49~ 498 ~8,6)0 22.4 H-93 11t48
Zuni 18~ 19,000 . 514 491 58, '7.20 22.4 H•8) lit)~

Fl.&tblld 15,3(,0 16,000 4~ 498 59,050 22.8 H•B3 llt)5


Erie Fli&ht IIDt acco~ahld • See Paragraph 3.3.4
IDea fl1&h\ aborted - See l'lngrljlll 3.3.6

Dako\a 15,51,0 I 16,000 1 458 I 457 1 60,!110 !23 I H•8) lilt)~


Hohavlt 1llcbt co.pleted - I.u\:111811\ation 0!! • See Paragraph ),3,8
ip.cbe 7,785 8,000 4'10 4Sl 62,240 2) H-77 lltl(,

ll&'f-.10 19,980 21,000 ~)2 474 59,610 22.9 H•83 .llt35

INroZI a 10,ooo 11/J 11/J S8,6)0 22,7 H-77 llt16


few a 19,000 457 457 (.0 ,2?'0 23 H•8) llt49

1 liot available,

TABIE 3.5 COMPAR!SON OF IESIRED AND ACTUAL KlSITIONS


- ... ..:..: ....

.."'• I·
.. !U l'j ••
.B
011
I! "!
... ..i-'-!
.!!:!~
"'f
'3 ... !~ ...
o!~
ij
i~
!~
u•
~
.li!!
!~

.u
1~
ill
cloo&l"'lt degree tt.. tt.. tt.. tt.. tt.. tt..
x.cra... 135 ~a• l3,QQO l),tm 5,300 Abort 22.,500 1b>rt

Chlrokae lOS 251b )6,ooc )6,000 )8,000 52,640 102,000 143,609


ZUlli 0'10 0'10 19,000 19,000 25,800 27,000 69,900 97,~

Erie Cllllltlld u,ooo 2,7io lb,)OO


l'l.&Uwad l20 l20 16,000 16,000 12,000 17,1Kl0 )7,500 '9,100

~· u,ooo
Inca 050 . 11,000 850 Allort 11,400 Abort

D&kote 124 124 16,000 16,000 13,500 13,100 39,150 )5,050


Hohavk oso oso 6,000 6,000 12,?00 . 12, ?00" .28,450 .28,450"
Naujo 124 24lb 21,000 21,000 ~.500 71,500 62,500 18:),000

.l~ oso 080 s,ooo s,ooo 20,500 2),500 4),000 60,500

Tava 124 124 19,000 19,000 27,100 27,250 67,000 65,900


lluron ~ ~ ID,ooo 10,000 8,?00 8,450 ~.coo 22,4Xl

a Allort.

~-
) '
.UNCLASSIFIElt

CHAPl'ER 4

RF..SULTS

The prelim1.Iiary peak values of the effects on thi! critical portions


of' the aircraft at time zero and time of' shock arrival are given in
Tables 4.1 and 4.2.
Typical tins history plots from which the ta'rul.ar peak values wre
selected are shown in Figures 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3.
Figures 4.4 and 4.5 show detailed results of' the recorded tempera-
tures and temperature rises. During all shots, other than Cherokee, the
aircraft was gust critical. Therefore, the variations in absorptivity
shown on these plots were necessary to obtain data throughout a r&tlge of'
temperatures up to tm limit used iD Reference 8 calculations {42J°F).
These figures illustrate the completeness of' data throughout the tempera-
ture range on skin thickrlesses of 0.016, 0.025, and 0.040 inch and
provide an indication or the temperature effects on thicknesses up to
0.070 inch.
The temperatures measured on the 0.016 inch thick elevator with a
protective coat of' white Vita-Var PV-100 paint (absorptivity of' 0.15}
compared closely with the temperatures measured on the nose radome.
Since the instrumented areas were repainted prior to Shot Dakota !or
higher absorptivities, no measure~~Snts of' the original surface condition
were made during Dakota or later shots. For this reason, the nose
rado!D3 temperatures f'ro:n Dakota and later shots, as show in Figures 4.6
and 4. 7, may be considered as equivalent to the temperatures attained by
a white-painted, 0.016 inch thick elevator panel.
The small stresses :measurad on the horizontal stabUizer appear tc
be a negligible consideration in the gust analysis.
The s panwise variations of' me uured percent llm1 t stress on the
wing (Figure 4.~) show the critical section of' the viilg to be an out-
board section. The dynamic-1118gtlif'ice.tion factor (IMP') is the prime
factor in relating the streases measured by an aircratt exposed to a
nuclear explosion to . the stresses predicted with the maneuvering rigid
body gust analysis. T~ measured values or the 00 are shown in Figure
4.9 for the saue shots and wing stations as the measured stress levels or
Figure 4.8.
Soma damage to secondary structural items occurred during the tests,
primarily on radomes and seals. Photographs of' principal damage areas
are presented as Figures 4.10 and 4.11.
The J~Sasured values of' radiant exposure varied from the predicted
values as ·show in Figure 4.12. Recorded values wre less than predicted
for m:;)St of' the shots but we:re eqilal or greater than predicted for two
shots. The data are shown for the radiant exposure masured on a
reeeiver parallel to the ground plane (vertical radiation) and a receiver
normal to the radial from the burst to the aircraft (direct radiation).
)7

..
--------,--·· --·-··- ·- ·- - ·--- -
ED
. ·. -·.- :_ - : -_ ·:-::.~~-_UNCt.A.SSiFJED
----- ~
cQI~l.aOD ot t h e _ : :nputi -u!oei&ted iDeidence
rile
qgles for radiant expoaure, material velocity, and ovvpressure are
sh~ in figw's /.,JJ, 4.14, aDd 4.•.15.
The positions selected were based on a critical aircratt structure
CCIIIponent. This resulted in the collection of o~ a minimum amQUJlt of
usable erigiDe-response data. The critical gust overp:eaiUl'es far the
structure and the qiDe ue plotted in Figure 4.16, The curves show
that the critical overpressure far the structure to be blast critical is
considera'bl1lover than the critical overprea8\ll'e tar the eDgi.ne in all
coaditions, The relations of the · power setting aDd overpresaure to · the
poa&ib1lit1 ot unoholdng the jet nozzle are shown iD Figuz'e 4.17. The
aircraft has a l1m1t overp:essure of 2.0 }:ei. DellVWf speeds are made
at pover settings on the arder ot 98 J;ercent ar greater. Therefore, the
p:robabilit1 ot unchold.rlg the jet nozzle waa negligible.
Ot 288 oscillograph channels recarding each test, au average of 96
percent operated auocessf'ully. or l2 cameras and 27 J:bcto-psnel instru-
ments, an average ot 99 percent operated successfully.
The aircraft positions and other parameters at:fecting the data are
shown 1n Tables 3.2, 3.3, aDd 3.4.
All values quoted are based upon observations made in the field.
Appraximatel1 20 percent ot the data recarcled were reduced to peak
values at the test site, This reduction is estimated to be accurate
within t 10 percent tar all cases il!o which no major error was made.
Rechecks were made onJ.r when answers were obvi0i1817 incorrect, AD
accrurate value ot wing stress levels receivecl cazmot be determined until
a.tter the airload calibrations are per!armed. These callbraticms are
scheduled to begin immediatelf following the REDWING test series.

s
NCLASSIFIED
TABLE 4.1.
j

cal/o.'l Total _I AT
Temp. 0 PJ 0 P
Total AT
Temp. "' 0 r
I
Tot.&l ~T
Temp. °F I ,
I Total
Temp, 0 1
I t.T
or
night Abortell - See Paragraph ),J,l

Cheraw 45 JO £,0 57
Zuoi 114 )7 127 51 1,000

Flathead 7,J 87 17 10) JO 4,290


Erie Pl1sht !lot Accompliehell - See Paregraph J,J,4
Inca night 4bonell - See Pua&nph J,J,6
Dakota JO I 436 I I JSt I I I 204 I lJt I 39 ,5t0
Flight Cclllplet811 • lnatrwaDntation orr • S.. Paregreph ),),8
Apache 19 187 89 152 55 107 9 ),8.411
NavaJo 10,6 129 56 ll5
Huron lS )6J 276 257 143 55
'l'eva )22 258 254 191 ll2 54

UBLE 4.2. SUMMARY OF SHOCK ARRIVAL RESULTS . /


.
..g
II
~
II

.,1~
s.u .. s.
a0 I" I"
s ~i
....
0
''"'·l
5
"
II
£
.,I:'
1
.s
.;s" 11~~
oi:':1
'i
~.,

$.,
.;.
.,.• ;~ J.
~i1 Jr: e.~ I
u • :1
ur.o .f..a.S £ "'~ £~
"
pe1 (tot.&l) 1 pen:ent poi po:raent bDtpz111

14c~lll night Ahoriell - See Paragraph ).),1

Cherckee 0,16 1.4 45.5 1.58 6,950 52 1

Zuni 0,)7 1.47 48 1.47 6,180 47 1

Flathead O,JJ 1.39 /J>.4 1.52 6,01,0 4S 1

Erie night Not Accollpliabt4 - See Parasn;>b ,3,3 ,4

Inca night Abortell - See J'angraph ),) ,6

Dakota 0.9)
I 2,75
I 94 I 1.)9
I 1.3,300 I 88
I 1

~:Ohavk Fliiht Compltttcl - wirulaentaUDn Ott - See Pa:~gr~pb ,3.),8

Apache 0,85 1.7 57 1.1.4 4,')00 48 1

NavaJo 0,17 1.14 )7.4 1.74 4,7UJ /J>,2 l

ilm'ol1 1,02· ),:/b 107 1.56 1.3,287 110 l

Teva 0.84 1.68 56 1.59 8.,62'1 65 1


8 :ltreaa llwls &Ill not at &ll8 s•
location 11111 to 1111Calibl'at.ed colldition. Six chlllllell &Ill
recorcled at oach station llld each baa • cliflel'llnt l'lla~na llld l.1:adt atl'llea, !'uk YLl'lll or
the channel . bavin& tJw b1gbtat ~rcent or l1111t allowable 1treaa ia illd1aattcl.

• 39

ASS
40

I
~cod.lant r~~~.....
Calor_, I·

. 1 INR'L 90" Ouarlr

~+- ,J.. "' J ,._,.,


I v"' - ---- - -- - . -··. -

0 '---
10 15 10

Tine fr01n T., HCOncll


II 10

Figure 4.1. Typical plots or tbel"'IIBl inpu.t versus time, Shot Dakota.

zoo

ISO

150
~

j
j
140

en 120

100 ·-
10
0 I 10
lime from T0 , IIConds
It
• zo

Figure 4.2. T7Pical plots ot skin temperature i'l'om Shot Apacbe •

• ,..)', •,\ :.\~.. "''"· !..~.~·. • ~

c
1 -
...
--~- ---- ···~ ~ - ---- ·· · ·

I
I
I
II· 3
f-At C.G.
_.,.
! 0>

.If
~.. 2
1\v ~
400

,
4Be


I
Tewp

'f'-J I'-../'
L II\/
400 A Huron_

l •
[]
Ool<ola
Z101i

1
z
I
tv M , 404

45•
58
0

11
Flall)ead
Cheri*ee
40. 454 X Apacne

,
:100!
Nt.~mbetl Adjacent :ro
Symbols ore AbaorptMtils -
z.o 354 46 of Paint fn Pereetf
!r
.Q.
o.sr--
,...,_
~
,.... _,-..
1"------F......
"'"'" " ./'.....,L :::::., .....
_{ ,
2!101
35• 46

I 1.0
j , ~
200

i 0.15
j 40X
451
~g
0,-w
~ , 36x 15

DDOO
1"\.
1!0
t4e rs tse

"[ 0000

I
I \
\
100',
120

120
140

140 ·lit f@
~

f
l'i
-
4000 r I 1\/ ~ eo:, 12A
14A
I
p
l !000

0
~
'--'
.r-- /.....__At Sta. 40T
.

I
I

' '0 ·-
.010 .020 --
.030 -·-
.040
Skin Thrc:f<nen, Inches
---
.0110 -
.oeoi
.ISd i
J
.0 10 >
U':J.
~
0 01 o.z o.'
llme from Shoclt Arrival, seconds Figure 4.4. Marlmnm temperatures

Figure 4 • .3. Typ1.cal. hist.;,ries o£


o£ th1n skin.
~
shock-arrival tiDB, Shot Dakota. ~-f
tzj
~
l
i

40 0

48e
TJ
·-


II
Daloolll
z....
0 Flftt.d
50
45• sa 6 ClllroiiN

--+::·
I
456
46
I
5~1 lilt
X
IUnlln ~ .10
••
AIIIOrp!Wifln-
ol ...... In Pliant

!
; 100
i
1: 46

l 1110
I
i
'
,..

10
1 !6
--f-----25-
Ii 40l
' 45l
14e
15
~g
i llfil
..Ji!..
110 · ·- 1----36 I-· --- - 1--" •-
\~&
1<411 15.
146
II~
120
0
i
.010
140
l1IO

Figure 4,5 Maximum tem,Perature riees of thin skin,

.. .

···i .:..~:: ·.
~SSIFIED
'· 600

i:-

u.
D

1...
.!!
.i
& I
c
!
Figure 4.6 s'UliiiiiSrY or total tempsraturea.

~~~--------------------------------------~
On 0 .016" Elevator Skin
On NoH Radome
c:l While Surface
• Gfay Surface
5~~~~--~~~~------------------------------,

u. 400

.."'·
D

if
.
!5 30_0

e
! z

Figure 4• 7 SUJ!llll8%7 of 'te!lllJI'l'&tul'e rises.


4'3

'
- --------·- -·--- .... ----- ·- -------
1:

120

• Tewo ..
• !Von
.. . . • _Qakota • ..
.- .··
oor~ Z~~tl
" Cil Flathead
A Chenak••
l Apache •
10

:t:
E
::; •
-
c:
8
ll
•B
~ •
0
A
0
40
I

~
20

\ ·Normal 1-g Fli9fll


IGross w1iQht • sapoo lbll
0
I
X.• 247 X.. 407

Wing Station

Figure 4.8 Percent of limit stress versus wing station •

.6

••
Tewo
Huron !
El
• Dakota
.4 II Zlli
Cll Flatt.ai
ll. CherokN
0
G
-
I A!lache
.2
6
I
0
I
.0
s •
0 .. I


1 ••• 1:55

Wng StatiOn

Figure 4.9 »Ynamic-magn1.1'ication !'actor ~reus viDg station.

UNCLASSIFIED
···-· . ~~-:·

,.....
.,

~

.- t~ . : \
.
:i
·.';

- ' 1..._<<\'·
" #

, ;:' ~~~tit ' '' ' i ---~


~ .. ·;: : . .. j
;. ~
. . ~ .
:~·:~~;,\'~ : ;y~--~. l
. !' .._: \- . ~: ! {·=if., -~!. ~:·
~:..... ~·- ~,.:- ;\
·. ~

·;.' ; )"
.,·
· .., -~
-~ ,. ·:"., :~:·,:\::.l"fi::_·;·;::·
' · . 'f#.
·: ;L ; ·'({ l-
;.J!. i i."' ~~~-~>_r;: ·.\\ ..": \
I
.I
•'. - ' ,•" ·- ~.... _.--, \1· ,-,'o ,~:l:- t ~ I .
~~ I. '~ ~- \T ,~,
. - .• · - - :v .
lr'~# .:J ~-·~...
!

1-~· ·-,;-:J
;.

-'~=- ~-·· ·. "'!"\ ~..,.. \ ' ': .


~- ,... ~-J
• J . , 1
CL . .r
... . ~--~ ''!:): \.
:' .. }~';r;~ ~- :~!:r::· : < ;, .).f .
• •• ' • • ·' . ' t • j(' .....
I ·.·;- "}k;- -. •• ·l 'l ; .
"'--~ :;·,:·_·. -.:_~'.>1\
~~-\i .j -·) i.-.·_;
'.! I. .
:-~

· ·~ ~'.
~

.. . . . )'\;
·: -~!' ! · ..
:... . '!':·i:: ·"••
·.,..I<;;. "'·· .. "
1:... ·'"'; l ,, . •
.'"
. : • ·. It;,·.·. '~· ' !· .- j ·
. :t·~ ;'' \.r:· .\t .
. . 1 f:':~ ... .: ~ • ., ._, i·

'(' ~--: ·
I

: ~~~- · ;,~ ;~<,..:; ' . ·:·c;~


- . I

:.-~·- . :. ·k.~}J-i . . •.. ·


.~
~<~:;.
:.:r

·-·
.... ._ ,(r,
<!·
.~\·:;~~~t{~\·.\.
..
., ~-:·· .;·: ::·

..
.·-;-.·
'· .•
.. ..
....
..;.
•! . -··::·i\
. ~ .r. :~/-~ .
~~ ..

{.1'2 p
~
~j >
rn
Figure 4.~0 Hadome damage ; tall radom after Tewa (~.f't) end AN/A.RN-6 -antenna cover at'ter Dakota. (right).
w
.._.,.

~
---------------------- #-------·

•. ,. ;_.·. i·:·

'I
~ .•,-,t,.:.,. ,_ ·.
·.·-; . .

.Li=----·~ "- =-~.J-. --.-··--:~


.... '" ''l
- -~--- ·- . - :.. . . . . ,·-..

ED
UNCLASSIFIED
•Tal Rodomn ~ad HypoiOn on Ohlrollte · and Apoclla ooly
voro• vor PV · 100 Yltd on oil olhtt !hell

0 Olrtcl Roclol'on Prediclod


a. -l)hel· -Radlollon--f!OCIIWid·
a V011icol RodlotiO'I Proili<lod
""J~flltlf VJIOYOI
• '«rlical ·RodioiiOI Roce11'td
~r-----------------------------~~~T~ol~l~~~~~·-.
Bur~ Eltvotor
SIDII

i8.
.
UJ

s
'6

JI I
0 -r-----r----~-----r-----r----~----~~
I .
0
i r
:. i
c

~ 8 c

(b)(3)
"
T,. ..,.,-·"l"it .. ·sw·fiii'

Figure 4.12. S'111111a17 at radiant 8%pCIIUZ'e received


and C<Jilp&rison to predicted values.

T Tewo
H Huron
C Ch1rok11
0 001\oto
F Flor~ood
A Aoocht 600 2
z Zuni /
/
/
/
/
/
r-""

Figure 4.13. lJloideDCf) USlea, tharmal input.


47

-------· ·- .... -
-uNCLASSIFIED .
I'
t

'i

-0.60 J
0

T TIWII
H Huron
C O..roloeo
0 Dakota
F Flathead
A Apache
Z Zu~l

-1.00

o•

T Tewa
H HU~Qft
c Chll'akoo -80
o Daloola
F Flattwad
A ApaclM
Z ZUlli

o•

l'igure 4.15. IDcidence a!:tgl.ea, •terial velooitr •

... . '.' :

'
.; .
i
I
--- --------~-------------------·--- - ----_~CLASSIFIED
1

~~r-------r-------,-----~--~~--~~--~------~
' - 6·66 A~rafl, 100% Gust (Carllln: DyftiiNc lilag
ntfll;pl.~ ~ : .LG.; Gtoss Wtitjrt. :;.54,000 .lbsl- . .
l·•
--- ~Bi!SL~ -~~Oilt. kMLA119It.-41- AIIoek .:S!'. .
fCoservalive Limit l I
- - - - 4 - - - Ale Veloell

I ~-l

1.0 2.0 2.5 to


(Mrpres$1¥e, psi

FiFe 4.1~. Critical values ot blABt. Aircraft


l.illl1ta are extrapolated above .30,000 teet •

l~. ~~"\
.
N
;~
..~
"

• ~ s';.
~

'
.
Q
\ \
.::..
. I 1\

.~
:"
r I \
~
...
10
1/ I
./ 1/ J
CM:rprusure , DS i
Figure 4.17. Eatiated 1118Jilr.llll overpressure to unchoke the jet
noszle. J7l-A-ll engine; aircratt veloc1't7, 0.76 Mach; these
data. baaed on Eaivetok: standard dq. ·


.,.---·- - -·-- - - - ---·---·- ·····

CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

The c011111ents of this chapter are based .on the prellminary results ..
of Chapter 4, and the field observations made by the ~oject pers~l.

5.1 DESIRED EFFECTS


In order to accCIIIplish the objectives ot the B-66 participatlon in
Operation REDWING, certain generill information vas required. Table 5.1
itemizes the desired effects and indicates for each shot which effect
vas expected. Some of these effects were used as the determin1Dg factor
in the selection of a final desired position, and such influencing fac•
tors are so indicated, In order to obtain a generaliDdication ot the
i tem1 accCIII.plished, a note wu made for each shot and effect to i.Ddicate
the specific accomplished items.
5.1.1 OVerall Considerations. The general objective of the test
required the measurement of a spread of temperatures on several skin
thicknesses and at several points on the aircraft having ditterent con-
vective cooling coefficients. It also required measurement of a spread
·or overpressures, accelerations, and limit-allowable stresses. In each
case, the desired spread of data up to the limiting value vall to be
measured. It vas considered adequate f'or satisfactory canpletion of the
individual objectives to obtain a maxlmum measurement of ~ 70 percent
of the limit effect.
Since the B-66 vas designed for tactical usage and has delivery
capabilities at all altitudes tram sea level up to at least 40,000 feet,
the positions ware selected to obtain a variety of altitudes and angles
of incidence of the 1npata. The flight time required to p:~rfarm the K·5
radar-positioning mission profiles and the range performance limitations
of the aircraft were such that low altitude participations could not be
made at Bild.ni. The low altitudes provided the best positions for the
B-66 when a max1mum amount of data was desired; therefore, the shots
following Cherokee were nown at medium or low altitu:les wherever pos-
sible. The high altitude position provided ~ the specif'ic 1nforme.-
tion of a high eqle gust loading and no other data.
5.1.2 Ftfects Deaired f\-Qm Shot to Shot. 'the pceitian selected
for each shot vas cme vhieh would give the JIWlx:!mm amounts and t7P8S of
data which had not ~en ~aemr~ ~p 1;Q ~§. t:lmQ Q! the. selection. As
data &egan to ·acouarul.ate frau the more successful shots and as ga:J;a in
the data occurred trau aborted shots, the positions were reshuf.t'l.ed to
obt.ain the missing data •

...... -~-----------.--~-=--~- - · - -·-. · ·---·------ - ..-·. --.- -,_,.,.,.


cA
1'ABLE 5.1 StJMM.m OF ·PLANNED AW MEASURED EFFECT'S AREAS
i

i

,.
87=oll "

• Ezpeoted Etteo~1
H.P'iila1 IW1UOII DetenliMCI
b7 the S1raif1o~• ot •• ..
DESIRED i'IIERM&L EFFEC1'S
~his Deline! Efteo~
I 4cOCIIplilbed Etfectl
!l
j
i
ID
.g ~• 1..~ ~ ,Q
II
~ ..
§ i1 !-1l
~
~
g
~
d N,
= '""' ~ l:l
?.

.. PrilllrT
1, . 'l'b11Hid.lll*l c011tro1 llll'f&etl
Im tuporatlll'll (0.150"1)
b. lllten.4iate teaporatlll'll (150-JOOOrl
• I I
I
t 1
I•
X • X
I
•I •I
4l
JX
o. llodium teaper,.t\lllel (J()().4200f)
4; J!1&h taporature• (l'VIIIDI11t sa~
II,
42001')
Rea U 1t1o ra41allt upoeure + peranea.t
11t em 1101'1111 paillt oollt1SIIl'at1oo (vh!te)
if

lillol sun
I 1:
cODJicieraticu bee- cntical.
• • • •x
.I
Cumot obtaill thil data 011 a gzoOIIIId burlt
I I
•I )X

2. NOll Rae!~
a. Lor.t
b.
temperature~ (o.l!SOOF)
llodiia tllllporat.uru (250.350'7)
• I

•I • I

• I
I •
X
I I
1 •I 71.
I ox
3. ha•lac• ~11
a. Im taperat~~~~ea OD realiltio 1tructure • 1 I • •I • •I I 1 • ox
b. lladiua t11111porature1 011 real.Utic a~-
till' I • • • • • X U
o. H1Bb teapent\ll'lll oa. teat pu.l onq •I • • • u
Seo!IIIIW7
l. SI!IW!of:zpaaure t o r.aliatio rldiaa.t upaiUI'o
2. Tail Rac!a.•E&poe\llle to :NalUtio radiut.-
• •I • • • lX

lzpoi\IZ'e • •I • • •I 2l

1. Quat
a, Lov peroea.tqe Ual.t ellG~aU. la.&l '
faotczr (.t.0-60J) · I I X 1 1 X bl
b, Madim Jlll'oe~~tlie liait allCIIablt 1o.d
faator (60-8~) I • 1 1 • l Ol

2.
o. ~:("~ llait allcwt.~
Oftrpreaaure
lo.d I I ll I I 'I IX 2l

•• Low "'"'J:I'e•nr• (0,1-o,?s pei ) • •I x • •x • • x 1' 4X

o. Ub\.
_______-.w___-__ ·-r
-··1111'•
b. Mad11a cmrpreuun (-o.?s-1.5 poi)
(1.5-2.0 -1)
-----------~--------~~~--~~~~~~~~- · ~
• X I
I
x • •x 1 •I 4X
I Ol
---
DESIRED PlllO.P' O.P' !'!lAS!: I (RetVIIllll 8)
1.. lf1&b. Ni.u.t ~ (w.~ tram-
burlta) . I •x I N Nl 2X
2, Low J.ltitu:le upoe1111e (0.30 daJZ'tt• trca
boriaoa.tal) • ll I 21
.3.
4.
Ia.te1Wdiate ucl• e:r;poaure U0-.45 dagzoMI )
Hisb .Altitude upoeure (4s-&O dav..• ~ca
•I •I X • II 4X
bariaCDtal) • • • • •I •.I 2X
s. Lcq Thcwl f'lllll II •.I •.I •.I •1 .5X
6. l l i llurat IX u


S.l.3 Degree ot .A tte.:tseut. S)lota· T-.. aDd Huron cODtpletecl nearq
all the gap111 1D the data uaept. ff# the med11111l tamperatU1'81 on the nose
radane, th• medlum peroent Of ?'_ !if't ~~~~-~~--~~-~oz.; -~ ili8h -:_
overpr~IHHI~ -- ·no·-a:u---ourst-aa1ia-w.a Uiil'on\lllateq CCIIlpt-CIIIiafid -b.Y the
timiDg ~ bambing errora of Shot Oberokee, aDd cmq a Jlli.DtJINm. amOUDt ·ot
data vu obtd.Deci. ·
· iD view ot the problema of maaauriiiiBnt of the radCDe temperatures r

aDi 1D view of the atu4iea now lmder wq or ptoopoaed for i.Dc.reuing the
strength of the nose radome on tbis airoratt, the lack · of bieber t8111)B1"a-
tures OD thia ipecUic ra4CIIIe is not a matter of great concern. .
Tbe aircraft receiYed tvo cl1fferent meaaur81118nts of high load.
factor -am stress l8'9el data which vere better than plazmed.
H1gb overpreaaure clata were extrame]J cU.fticult to obtaiD during
the operation, because of tbe other lim1t1Dg criteria of the aircraft
wbioh require poa1tiordng at lov altitudes. The measured overpressures
were adaquateq large to s~tantiate the data correlation.
As a result of the acccapl.isbment of all tbe desired ei'f'ecta, ezcept
tpe few items of m1.n1Jnma iaportlllCe 11181ltiODed above, the project was ·
successful iD the canpl.etian of the objectives.

5.2 D1POT AND RESRJNSE FBEDICTIONS

During REDWING, poe1tioD1ng criteria were aatiatactor;y, except tor


the shock-wa'Ye time of arrival and the }rediotion of OYer pressure. Gust
reapciDIIe cal.culatiOIUI vere modified to renect more realistic ~c
effects. Radiant exposure predictions agreed with measured inputs, and
no moditications were deemed necessary for this input ar ·associated -·
response. More srecitic discussion of these items is iftS8nted below.
Field reduced clata evaluated tar positioning and camparison of predicted
and recorded inputs aDd respCID888 are shown in Table 5.2. ·

5.2.1 .Thermal Inprl;. The method of CbaJIIIIIll.Seavq (RefereDCe 11)


vas used with mOdification for the operation. The I}U"ead of the data
VLB ~ exrected, because ot the . unknowns involved regardil3g specific
cloud and veathar clata required in the calculations. CODditions assumed
throughout the teat were:
(l) albedo of 0.6; (2) water-vapor pressure of
20m of merclll7; (3) vis1b111t;r of 20 m.Ues; (4) haze J.qer height of
10,000 feet.

5.2.2 Tbel'llal Response. Attar Cherokee, the absorpt1vit1 of Vita-


Var N-100 aaaUIII8d in ·the caloulation of predicted respcmses was lowered
frCIIIl 0.25 to 0.18. Between Zuni and Fla~head, the abaorptivit;r vas
DHl&Bured by use of the equiiJDBnt and services · of the Universit7 of
Da1tan. The measurements indicated an absorpt1v1t1 ot 0.12 to u.lS at
ve.ri0111 areas ot the PV-100. Following tbeae mea.eureii8Dts, 0.15 vaa
uaec1 u the ovanll aircratt abllorpt;ivit7. .
Jut ptiQl" to Shot Dakota, i.t waa concluded- tb&t the temperature
spreads desired on the thiD-eld.rmecl ccmponenta could not be aobiEived
unless the iDstrumented areas were painted to obtain higher absorptivi-
tiea. lligher aba~tivities vere ob~d bf the use of gi'(Q' paint tor
the remainder ot the shots. .

... . .
· ~- - ~ .. - .
,_,
n~

ASS F .l.:..; , I .
1
fl' TABLE 5,2 POSTSHOT . . -
OOMPAlUSC!i
. . . . OF. lUDICTED&
. . .. ..
AND RECORDED VALUES
. ... -··· -· .. .. . -- --·- .·· · -·- ·· - -
~l . -- .. . .. . .. - ···- . ····-.-·-····· - ---·- ------- -- ··- -
!
..
!

.3 . . i-·- lj . •.iu
... i.. •
If. 11 . · II·
l~· .
II
···· ~ · ...
...
.~ali
"'"f
.. ; · t ~ ~:<! ~II> b ~
.P. 5!18: ~ -~ b. o-f ~It~
• ...
i .. a s '=]
..
"'~
•J)
!i)j
~ =:..:
cal/=2
i&~i
~~ .
cal/~
=..: us 0

IICODdl
~:U - ~ o.l:
"t!
psi
8
Jl;:
~j!:
~ o~~d!
pe1 pei
-~
... ~ ~
or
••
·or
~

II percent
Cherokee
l'redicted 21,.7 13.7 125 0.21 U,l? 95 104 1.)8 45.5
Recorded 21 15,1 l24 0,16 0,16 0,16 )0 45 1.4 45
Zuni
Fr141cted )2.& 19.9 76.5 u.s
0,)7 . 0.)7
U,4l 72 is) 1.48 48.8
Recorded )l 15 84.4 U,)7 )7 114 1.4? 4?.5
Flathead
Fredicted 9.2 6.1 51 U,40 0,)) )2 116 1.51 su.J
RIDcarde4 7 5 51.9 0,)) 0,)) 0,)) 17 87 1.)9 46.4
Dakot&
Pn41cted )8.1 28.8 28,2 1.13 1.04 0,95 444 524 2.74 93.5
Recarded 30 2),6 28,5 o.93 0,9) 0.93 .380 444 2.7S 94
.l.pache
Fredicted 21,.2 8,7 47. U.94 0.86 o.78 115 220 1.?6 59
Recordoc! 19 5 47.7 U,85 o.85 0,85 89 187 1.7 57
NanJo
Fr141cted Pred1ct1cu !ar ue 1D tbe !ield vve not ude
Recorded 10.5 6 130 0.17 0.17 0,17 56 129 1.14 37
Tewa
Predicted 33.8 19.9 51.5 U.91 0.84
I 0.76 227 292
Recarc!ecl
Huron
44 25.5 50.1 0.84 0,84
I 0.84 258 322 1,68 56

Pl'ed1oted 31.2 24.2 19 1.3 1.2 l.CJ:l 388 485 ),10 102
Recorded
1 .Bued
1!1 18 1.02 l.ll2
I 1.02 ~6 )6) ).2& 107

on data correlation ;yielde, Table 3.1

No correlation of the panel temperature diatributiODI vas attempted


1n the field.
5.2.3 Sh®k Wave. Init1al.J.1, overJre&s'Ol'es were baaed on the
M-Jroblem free air overpr'88aure OUl""'e aDd the alpha altitu:le correction
!actor (Reference 9). However, since the reaults through ·Flathead cl1d
not lhov satiai'actorr CCIIlpa.1'ison with measured values, it was decided
to use an average overpreaaure caaputed trom the H-probl• ~ the
~~rue tree overpressure curve (Reterence 10) !gr prediction on
IUbsequellt shots. This cCDprCIIIiae was adopted u atrio~ a field
expedient, 8:ld a ·more cCDprehensive investigation will be acc~llllhed
durillg the final correlation atudies. Rank!ne-Hugoniot rels,tioil.a were
used vith the standard Eniwetok atmosphere to calculate gut velocities
and denait7 relationa.

5.2.4 Gust RespoD88. ~eliei meuured on the vi.JJg resul.tiJig


.trca the puaage ot the ahoclc wave atter a nuclear detonation I!J,"e
greater than stresaes cmprt,ld b)' a l'igid bod7 ~ e.nal1s1a based on
tbt aootl,eration of the center ot gravit7. To predict tl;e increase,
WADO reccamended that a. ~c magnitics.ticm factar (l>Jolf) of l•; ·t~e
used vith the rigicl 'bod1 gust ~sis !or the B-66"B during REDWlNG •
5.3
1'be Ta:U:dit;t ot lo 5 11 1 Dlf' uss obaervad ·Wheil the ratio ot no~<'Cl··
.I Vi.li.eL to thoae ..pr.eticted :without cO»lderq ~ce ·wai.-coui.'it'ei1t- · -.. ·
.g - ~twHn. .L4 ..a.lld l, 6 .&t...tha..cr..ttical-wi:zlg--atat1on-{401l.:----. -· - -- ---- - --

5.3 SPECIAL AREAS OF CONCERN AFFEOTIRG roSIT·IOHING


In addition to the basic structural responses ~ch pt"imari~ .
determined the poilitiona ·1n the operation, a n\llllber ot specia.l il'ep, ot
coDCerll mated aZid were conaidered in the tiDal decision. Such i.tema
u the
etrect ot lw-1ield participations, engine cr1t1calnell to blast,
temperature rises in the nose radane, 8Zld data trCD airbursts were·.. co.n-
siclered. The position selections vere altered to include these special
areu, u long aa this inclusion did not cCDpraaise the atl'uctural
effects desired.
_ 5.3.1 lVticip.tion in Low-Yield Tests. The B-66 did not partici-
pate· ~oeaatiilli in the shots having )'ielda belov 50 X'l'. _These tests
ottered ~ one unique advantage: the oppartunit7 to position the air-
craft near11 d1rectl7 over the buret at time or shock arrival. This
position ma:r have produced better response data tor the instrullented
eng1ne; however, it was not representative or tree !all boDb del1ve17~

ot gust and overpre11ure


5.3.2 EJJsine Criticalness. The effects
on the Allison J-71-A-ll engines or the
B--66 w8l'e recarded and ana:qsed
in the f'ield by the Allison positioniDg representative and are sUIIIIIal'iJed
in Figures 4.16 and 4.17. These figures shw that, with the high power
settings ot a dell'V81'7 ccmdition (98 percent or larger), the engines ·
cannot be gust critical. They also shov that tbe structuralllm1tat1ons
or the aircraft, as expre11ed in overpressure lila1ts, are oonaiderab:q
more critical than the engine llm1tatioll8 eXJireaaed in the same terms.
S.3.3 Temperature Rises in the Nose Radane. Since thermal aualyisis
or Fiberglas radCIIle materials w.a in the 2.nit1al investigation stages,
no degree ot Ol'iticalness was established tor the nose z<adc:ae in ~e
calculat~OAS of Reference 8. Tvo seJU"&te t7PSI ot inf'ormation had ~n
obtained tr<D laborat017 tests b7 DAC, but neither were directly applica-
ble to the REDWING testa. .
With the aid of the REDWING data, an evaluation of the time lag or
heat conduction through the H;ypalon protective coating and resultant
effect on the allowable inputs to .t.he existing radame will be attempted
by DAC. The information obtained should be direotly applicable to &rtf
. attbaequent changes in the radame material, structure, ar protective ·
coating. The oritioalit7 of the radane has not been .tirliil1 established.
After t.b.e above at~ is e<~~~.~W, en e.tte9t vUl be ~ to·deterad:ae
radane criticality.

5.4 WEAP<liS DELIVERY HANDB>OK

The aircraft experienced a spread or cmirpresBUl'es, _temperatures,


and str.easea which should be oanplete enough to allw rev1a1Qii ot the .

.., .. .:.
~ ~ ·. . ASS FI
--------~--,.-.,- ..,....
UNCLASSIFIED
·41nitv.
work now 1n progress on the B-66 Weapona DeliYe'!!'f Hmlbooll;. Minor
th~ ~mage vas. experienced by. a few -secondary ..-tructural Qc;lllpon-ent'll, ··
~ .t'ie~Q ~A~9_g .1Dd1c.a.t.e that. ..ueh.. iteu-can:..be-rep~ed-or-protected-
· •.- --

. 5.5 'l'HERMA.L PROTECTIVE PAINT


The aircraft had a coat of white Vita-Var PV-100 f1'lf!J1" t~e entire
underside, as shown in Figure J,J, Suttioient data have been collected
to evaluate this paint under operational conditions, It was applied at
WADC under the direction of the Mater1als Laboratory and • t the re-
quired thickness criterion. It has been exposed to engine heat, engine
lubricants and tuel, ATO exhaust, and deterioration of tropical heat,
humidity, and salt air. It bas been in use for over 40 fiights of
several hours each !light. During this time, the paint maintained a
relativel:l constant absorptiVity below that ot Mil Spec Enamel, A coat
or Vita-Var B-10.3 topcoat vas applied to some lover surfaces. It vas
diff.i,cult to vash and made the aircraft harder to clean, rather than ·
easier. Tbe PV-100 is a.dverseq affected by the heat and lubricants of
the engine and is not a satisfactory protective coat in the engine area.
AJ.l other portions o! the aircraft were satistactor~ protected.

5.6 APPLICATION OF DATA TO FtlTURE MILITARY AIRCRAFT


One of the secondar,y objectives of the project vas to obtain data
that· could be used in the development or design criteria far tuture
m.ilita17 aircraft. The data collected by this project are suff'icient
for this purpose.

5.7 LABORATORY TESTING


The considerable amount of data collected from REDWING bT the B-66
should reaul t 1n greater use or laborataey tests 8lld mare s~n1f1cant
conclusions from th81D. Tbe cooling coefficient informati-on and thermal
input . rates of REDWING are applicable to such tests,

5S

· - -- - ~ ~ - - ------ - ·-·-•-M
UNCLASSIFiED
I'
. ···.l.

·r. -
;,.
~· .

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6,1 CONCLUSIONS
The objectives or the project were success~ oemp[eted and
adeq\1&te loacla were measured to accomplish the required conel.i.tion of
the B-66 Weapons Deliver,y Handbook.
The weather iDformation used in the thermal intut calculations of
Reference l l has an eftect on the abilltr to obtain good correlation of
predictions. Until methocls are devised for field collection o! all
weather aDd cloud data required in the calculations, the data lllU8t be
expected to V8'r'7 on the order of !: 20 percent.
None of the methods available led to satia.t'act0%7 gust and OYel'-
prenure predictions, and a canprCIII1.se uthod was required to obtain
satis!actaey results. In view of the higher speeds of teat aircraft in
this operation, the closure rates of the shock wave ancl the aircraft
are a critical considaraticm in the determination of position and ) ;ime
o! abock arrival.
Tile capability or the aircratt, as determined 1n Reterence 8, ia
conservative in ita gust limitations, because of the use o! a DMF of
2,0 compared to the meuured DMF of l.S. With white paint of 0.25.
absorpti,vity, the thermal limitations of the ail"Cl"att are approximately
the same as those of Reference 8. With a lOifar absorptivitr paint,
such u the Vita-Var Pl-100 used duri.Dg REDWING, the thermallllllitationa
are reduced, and the dellveey capabilitr o! the aircratt is increased,
The aircraft engines are not l1m1ti.Dg in the determination of air-
cratt-delive1"1 capabil1t7.
SeoondUJ structural items damaged during REDWING can be replaced
or ·changed to eliminate the . occurrence of such d&D.ge due to the thermal
radiation.

6.2 RECOMMENDATIONS
It is reooanended that the B-66 Weapons Delivery Handbook incor-
porate the results of REDWING in its calculatioDB to extend the delivery
ca-pabilitiel of the aircratt &Dd to modi!y the methods uaecl- to calculate
the aircraft respcnses.
SeQ~U ..t:ruct.ure camponenta subject to daDie ~CIIl thermal
exposure should be replaced b7 components capable oi' vithst&Ming values
of radiant exposure which Can be expected under the deliver;r conditions
outlined in Reference 8.
Studies or the problema ot the prediction of inputs and effects "
should be continued, am e.rrqements should be made to •uure all
56
... .
..------- ·-·-- -
- - ••• ---·---·---- ---- _ ____ p _ __ _ _ _ _ _

~CLASSIFIED

plri1cipat~on ot veapons•
known i tBIIIIJ of the calculationa far arq tuture
effects &ire~.
The B-66 aircraft should not participate in tuture testa ot the
uuclear-weapcn-deliver,y capabilities of aircraft,
Specific stuq of the teaaibillty ot 8'/rf airoratt should begin in
the design stage on future militaey atrcratt, with specific emt-buia on
the ellmination of secondary structure cCDponents which could limit the
delivery capabilities or the aircraft.
The data collecte4 by Project 5.3 should be utilized in the deter•
mination of design criteria or future military aircraft &Dd in labora•
tory studies of a.ircraf't structural responses to gust aDd thermal inputs •

S~IFIE .
.. -·····-·· -·- --···-- --- - --------- - --·

APPENDll .A.

PROJECT ORGANIZATION
,
I Projec~ ottlcer L
l I R, l/, 8r.cbllaD IWJC I
... ~.
I
PrcJ , otflOC'I
Aaal atlag Ck'pn1atlon•
Radiation Iac.
I Dcoiglu Aircraft
Project. EaglDMr
Co,, L~. J, P, BediiU' WADC
Lt. . G.E . ~~ .lllJX:
Rqclie~ Na"ri&aUoa· Co . 1/,E, 1/arlaall
Naval Wial.O&lcal
Def•-
Laball'atarlea
.ur Faroe Camllridi•
Rtltarcb Cen~r
Jl .ldWil~raUClll aad SupJI111
'1'.11. ecm.to
U11iverlit7 ~011 or R.M. Hill
SIII'Ylce Depart.n~ or:
4ll.iiOD Dh. ot G.ll.
W.1~"' ElaNlc
Dau&lea ~ ProJ.

1'011tiCDiJIC Graap
G,F, Lillll

Perf- Iut.~n\ati on Group


H• .L. Xe117C.. R.E . &.~rand

~tlnl
l
~-- R.ll. Pl'a11t1ce I
I Innall&tlcn • Maintaii&IICI
I
I
-- . St.ruc~lll'u
'I'.L. nr....l
E. F. Cook
p,s, ttuprech~
I
Strw:~lll'tl
~-
R.M. F.dllis~an
I
I Iaatnm-n\atlon Crev Chief
I E.D. St!'oag
I
I
·-
I Dau Wuct1011 Group Technician
I 1/,11, Cole
I
. ····-- ---
Dat& .LaalJ"•t. Technici an
1- -
S, L, Coeni.UI L.D. CoU M
Teclul1cian
J, L. lle1.Dsal.lu.a J,.L, Smith

Elec~riea~
)1, J , Cbriltl&ZIIICIII II. R. Tnibeo
-··· ·--
Mlchan1cal It l'llot.OC"pblc
F.B. Alba D.r. Oloeor.

•.
...

~·- -·-· ,,. . .. "'"


UNCLASSIFIED

APPENDIX B
ERRATA

Information regarding belt estilllatea ot 7ield vas utilised by


Project 5•.3 to calculate poatshot 1npu.te. Becauae racU.cmeter rehl.te
were readilf available to the project pt"iar to 7ield 88tim&tes baaed
upon tireball photograpby or radio-ohemical results, postahot predic-
tions in thia }rel 1minaey report were ccmputed !rem average values ot
time to aeco:ad IIISXi.llnm thmaal 1rrad1ance reoords tor Projecta S..l
tbrough 5.6 aircratt. These prel1mSna'7 Talues uaed by the project ud
the tiDal f'ield estimates released by Task Group 7.1 f'or the ;yields of'
the various deVices are tabulated belov.
Actual ;yielda rel-eased b7 Task Group 7.1 were not incorp.arated 1n
theoretical calculatiODJ bacauae all prelJm1pU7 report ccmputat10D8
were cce.p].ete aDd roUup operaUODI did not permit tillle f'or extenain
revia10118 attar the firm field .d ata on ;yields became available.
It · mq be noted that the d1tferenoe in )'ielda 1a not great exoept
for Teva &Dd Huron. Sizlce the·se were the last two shots UJd becaUM
onlf }rel1m1Dar1 data subject to fin&l reduct1011, anal1sill, aJld carrela-
. ticn 11 uaed in thia pre.lilllinary report, 7ield variations vUl not
invalidate the coPCluaicma and recCIIIIIlel!datione u stated 1n Chapter 6.

!C'lU.lL YIELD !STDio\m! AC!UAL Yn:t.D


(Jiale4 em U.. \o (R.IN.Md tzt ro 7.1
SlllT •ecd ll&ll:1.- IJ> tb• tarvud area)
\biiN&l !.:nduoa)

t.aoroa•• (b)(3)
Cbarok•
Zlllli
.--·--·- -·- -·· · ---··--·-·· - · w cLASSIFIED

REFERENCES •

1. LiDDell, Richard D., et. a1.; The Effects of AtCIII1c Explosions
or:a Aircraft, Volumes I through VII, MIT; J&nual"11953; Wright Air
Deve1opaer:at Oer:at.er Teclmioal Report No. 52-24/.; SECRET-RD. ·
2. Blast Etfecta on Intligbt Airora!t; November 1952; WADC;
Project 6.10 Operatior:a IVY; W"l'-638; SECRET-RD.
Thermal Ettects On a B-47B Ai:roratt 1r:a Plight; M!lrch-Mq 1954;
· WADC; Project 6.2b, Operation CASTLE; WT-926; SECRET-RD.
3. Blast aDd Thermal Effects or:a a B-.36 1r:a Plight; March-~ 1954;
WADC; Project 6,2&, Operation CASTlE; 'W'l'-925; SECRET-RD.
4. · At•o Weapor:a Effects or:a a B-50 T7Pe Aircraft 1r:a Plight; March-
June 195.3; WADC; Project 5.2, Operation UPSillT-KNOTHOLE; WT•749;
SECRET-RD.
5. Blast Ettecta on B-.36 Type .Airoratt in Flight; March-June 195.3;
WADC; Project 5•.3, Operatior:a UPSWT-JOOTHOI.E; WT-750; SECRET-RD.
6. Deatructive Loads on Aircraft 1D night.; Fel:lruar7-Mq 1955;
WADe; Project 5.1, Operation TEAPOr; ITR-1132; SECRET-RD.
7. Structural Reapor:aae ot F-84P Aircraft in Flight; February-Mq
1955; WADC; Project 5.2, Op&rat.ior:a 'l'EA.POl; I1'R•W.3; SECRET-RD.
8. Joble1 B-66B Special Weapons Deliv017 Study, Volume I ar:ad II;
6 Jul1 1955; DAC Report No. LB-21824; SECRET-RD. .
9. Alen.zider, J. R.; A MocW"ied 11al{ila11 Method for Canputation of
Overpressure and Overpressure Envelopes; Mq 1955; WADO Technical Note
WI.s.-55-13; SECRET-RD. .
10. Ledaham, F. c., aDd H. H. M. Pike; The Et'i'ect of Atmospheric
Variations on· the P.ropogation of Blast Wavea to High Altitudes, British
Ministry ot Suppl.7 Armament Research Establiahlllent Report .31/SO;
J&nual'7 1951.
U. Ch&J1W11 R. M., and M. H. Seaver; PreJimiMrf Report of the
Atteuua.tior:a ot Thermal Radiation traa Atanic ar Thermonuclear Weapous;
Nowmber 1955; Air Farce Cambridge Research Teclmical Report TN-54-25;
SECRET-RD.
12. . PositiODing. Handbook tor Operation REDWlNG; 16 March 1956;
DAC Report No. LB-22382; SECRET~RD •

....

... ',.
'··
... ~
UNCLASSIFIED
7b'fA,#jt: . .

.. DISTRIBUTION

, Military Distribution Categories 5-21 aNi 5·30

46 C<DIL8.D.diDg Ot!leer, P1catilllly Arsenal, D:Jorer 1 N,J.


A'HTI: OIIDBB·'l\:
1 Aoot. Dop, Ch1of or Bn.tr tor M111t&ey Opol'1lt1ana, 47 C_,..,dinl Officer, J'r&lll<l'ord Areenal, PhilAdelphia
D/A, WaolliUit<m 25, D. C. ~Til: Aoat . ll<ecutin 37, Pa. ATl'l! : Col, 'l'owoo Jrundol
(R&Sll) ~ COIIIIllllding Officer, A.rr1llf Medical lloooarch loboretorr,
Cll1et of Rooeorch 111111 Dovelopmont, D{A, Vaahingtoo 25, l't. lnox, r,y ,
D,C, Kl'l'!f: Special lloaj>OIIJI 111111 Air Dofonaa D1Vioion 49- 50 COIIIIllllldinl Officer, Chelllic&l Corpe Cbamlcol and Ra41o·
c.'niof ot Ordlw>ca, D/A, Waohl.ngton 25, D.C. A'rl'll: logical IA'bore:toey, AntY Cbemical Center, Md. A!l"'l!H:
CIU:7r:l-AR tech. Libr&l')'
~-6 Chief Sign&l Officer, D/A, PIIJ Divio1cin, Waollingtoo 51 C-.anding Oft!car, 'l'r&lloport&tiao li&D St&ticrn, Ft.
25, D.C, A'!'rll: SIGOP »..atie, V&.
7 'Ilia Surgooo iltll:1oral, D/A, Waeh!nitOil 25, D.C. AT'ltl: 52 Director, Technical Dac,..nto Cooter, lMme Signal
Chief, IWl D1v1oion X.'bora tory, .Selll&r, N,J.
8-9 Cl!iof Cb.omlcai Ofticor, D/A, Waahill«tao 25, D.C. '3 Director, llatervaye Erperimont St&tiao, ro Bax 631,
lD 'llle Quartermaotar Gooorel, D/A, Waohingtoo 25, D.C. Vickiburg, M1oo . A'ITN: L1b1'111'1
Am; Reaearch and Dn'elcpraent Db. 54 D:l.rector, .u.d J'orcea Inatitute ot Pathology 1 Walter
U-15 Chief of Bosineore, D/A, llaohingtoo 25, D.C. ATTN: Jaed A.rr1llf Medical CAntor, 6825 16th Street., !I.W.,
ENGNB Waoh!Dgtan 2,, D.C.
l6 Chief of 'l'ranoport&tion, M1l1te.ry Plaon!ng and Intol- 55 Director, ()parotiOIUI Research Office, Joblll llcpkinl
11gonca DiY,, llaehil~StOil 25 1 D.C. tlnivereity 1 1100 Coonecticut Ave. 1 Chevy Chale, Md..
17-19 C......,aing General, Cootinent&l ~ Colllllllld, Ft. llaahington 15, D.C.
)tcm.rt)e, va . 56- '8 CCBilODdiJI& General, Quartel'll&otor llooaorch 111111 Dovelap-
20 President, BOOl'd '#1, Bao4qurtare, Cont:lnoota! ~ mnt, CQI:IIIIUld , Quartanaater Reaaarch and Dnelop~~~nt
Camslld, rt, Sill, Okla. Cantor, !Iatick, Maoa. ATTN: CBR Liaioon 01t1cor
21 Preoidant, Board #2, Beo.dquartero, Cantinootol ~ 5!1- 67 Technical Into.,.tioo Bonica Jxtano1oo, 08k Ridge,
c"""""'d, rt. l!lla., r,y. 'renn.
22 Preeid110t, Board #3, Bea4quartaro, Cantinentol Arrt:t ·
Camand, Ft. Btllli11D6, Oa. liAVY ACTIVI'r!ES
23 Preeidoot, .Boar<! #4, llea4quartero, Continental Anq
C,_,.j, Ft. l!liao, Tu.
24 C-d!ni General, U.S. Anq Caribbean, rt. Amlodor, 68-69 Chief of !laval Oporatiaoo, D/N, llaoh~ao 25, D.C.
C.Z. A'l'!'!l: C&l. Off. ATTN: OP• 36
25-26 CcaM>lder-in~h1of, J'ar !llat CoasDd, APO 500, San 70 t'niof of Mo.al Oparationa, D/11, llaoh!Dgtoo 25, D.C.
l'rtu1cieco, Calif. ATTN: ACotS, J-3 ATrll: OP-o3ill
27-28 c"""*"d!Dg a-ra1; u.s. AXf1l1 n.ropo, APO 4o3, Mev 71 iliroctor of !laval Int.lli&onca, D/N, Waoh!Dgton 25,
York, li.Y. A1'1'!!: Ol'Ol' D!T,, Combat Dov . Br. D.C, MT1i: OP-~
~30 co_,dinl Geooral, u.s.~ !'ac1tic, A.PO 958, San 72 Chill! 1 Bureau ot Modicioe and 5ur88l')', D/11, 1/aehingtoo
J'I'11Dcioco, Calif. Ai"'ll: Clll.. Ott. 25, D.C. ATTN : Spe~ial WeapODe Da:tBD.IIe l>iv.
31"32 COllllllllldant, CO!IIIIlld and General Statr College, Ft. 73 C!Uot, Bureau of Ordnance, D/11, lla.ohinl{taa 25, D.C.
Loavenvorth, IC=. MTN : AIJ.tS(AS) 74-75 Chiet, Bu:reav. or Ship•, V/JI, 'Waebtngt.cm 25 1 l).C. A'rrll:
33 Co-.odant, 'lho Ar t illery aod Guided Mioolla School, Code 346
Ft • Sill, Oklo . 76 Chiot, Buro&u of Yarde and Doelto, D/11,
llaob.JJ~ston :!5,
34 Secreta17, :1M Aotaircrart Artilloey and Guided D.C , A!rl'll: D-44o
Miesila School , J't, Blba, Tu&a. A'l"l''f: MaJ. TI Chie:t, Bureau ot Suppllee aDd Accounts, D/N, Waah.iug-
George D. Braitogao, Dept. ot Tactics and ton 25, D.C.
Combiood kniB 78·79 Chief, Bunau or M""'""tico, D/R, Waah1ngt<m 25, D.c.
35 Couendinl General, Arlllf Medical Senieo School, 8C Chief ot Jloyal ReoO&rch, Depor-t of the ' 11&"1
Brooke Ant! MocUcal Cantor, rt. Sam I!CNoton, '!'ox. WaohiJlgton 25 , D.C, Arl'H: Coda 8U
36 Director, Special Woapaoo Dovelo-nt Ottice, 81 Co.a11dor-in~hiot, u.s. Pacific float, Pioot Foot
Beadquartero, COilARC, :rt. Blioo, - , A'l'l'!i; Of!ice, Ban J'raDciaco, C&lit.
Capt. T. 1 . Sk!Dnar . 82 CalllliOolldor-in-Chiof, IJ.B • .ltlantic lleat, u.s. Jaftl
37 co_,dant, Valtor Rood AZf13 lootituto of Roeear<b, Base, liortol.k ll, va.
llaltor Rioea Ar-r Medical Conter, Wub.ingtan 25, D.C . 8)'-86 C-..ndant, U.S. Marine Corpe, 1/aohiogtOil 25, D.C.
38 SUporintondont, u.s. IU11tary Acodolllf, Voat Point, N.Y. Am: Code A03B
Ai"'ll: Prot. of Ordnance 67 Preoidoot, u.s. Nawlllar College, 1/evport, R.I.
39 C"-'ldant, CbeJaical Co~o School, Chemical Corpe 88 Superintandont, Q.B. Jlaftl Postgraduate School,
'L'l'6ining Coasnd, :rt. McClollon 1 Ala. Mcm:tarey, ·C•llt, .
40-kl C._,dinS O&DOral, Reooorch and ic&inaoriD8 Caaand, 89 C..-nd!ns Orticar, U.S. llaftl Scb.oall COlllllllld, u.s.
Arlllf Chemical canter, Ml. A!l'l'll: lloput7 tor RV and lla\'lll Station, 'l'Naaura Iolud, San .l'rancioco, Calif.
!lao-Tadc lfttorial 90 C~ Officer, U.S. l'loot -in1Dg Center, Jlayal '
lo2-ll3 eo_,.dl.ng General, Al>ordOIID Prov1Jig Groundo, 144 . Bue, Norfolk U, Va. AT!&: Spect.al. WM.pona ScMoi
{ inDer ouvelope l Am: RD Control Ol'tieer (tor 91 Co....UD8 Ortioar, U,S. Fleet train!Dg cantor, llaYal
Director, Ball1ot1co Rou&reh Iaotot017) station, San Diogo 36, Calif. ATl'l!: (SM School)
44 C...,....din~ Oanual, 'lho EngiMar Cantor, Pt. !ol'rOir, 92 C-ing Orticor, Air DoYBlgpment Squa<lr011 5, 'IX-5,
Va. Ai'T!I; Aoat. C._,l!al!t, »>gioeer School U.S, llaYal Air Sta~iOil, llotfott Fiolc!, COll.t.
45 Co~ Officer, Ellg:iooor Rooao.roh and llonlo_.,- 93 C_,ding Officer, u.s. lfaval lllmoge Control 'l'r&ininl
loboreto!7, rt . Boboir, Va. A'l':rll: Chilf, Tocbnical Cantor, lla"Oal - · lbfla4elpbie 12, !'&. Kl'l'!f: A!C
lotolligonco J!reocn llofllllla Course


94 COIIIIIIIIlll~ Officer, U.S. lle.val Unit, Cbnl!cal Corpe. 1118-111.9 C~t, Air li'oroo Solloo1 of ATiation Moilioine 1
School, J.r-:t Chlllll1c:&l Tr&inill8 Center 1 rt, McCl.ell&n, Bal:dDl.ph Al'B I 1'lrz'
Al& . l:io-1, C~, Wrl.cht .Ur llllvelgpment Center, Vrlsht-
9' Coi!Dil4ar, u.s, lilva1 Onln&nca l.abor&tol')' 1 SUTer Pattmlcm AJ'!, o.,tan, Q, Am: IICOSI
Spr~ 19, Mal . A'1'II: EE 156-157 0~, .U:r Jo1'oe Cullri4go :Raee&rell Center, t.C
96 CoDDilC!er, U.a, lieval Ordnance l.aboretoey, Bllvar
Spr~ 19, Mal. ATTII: m
!lluooa nel4, lle4hr4, Xua. Am: ~2
15!1-l6o c - u r I .Ur J'oroo Special \leap:~~~~~ Cwter I J.:irtlAD4. ,,
9'1 C~r, U.S. llaval Ordnance l.abmltof1 1 S11Til' .&!'!, 1, 1111.. Amt Lill:ru"J
• SpriJli 19, Mal, AT'!'N: R m-162 ec-ndl:, IoGV!J AD, tlmver1 ColD. Al'l'lfl Dopertmont
98 Coaandar, u.s. Haval Ordnance Teat Station, Ift1olutrn, of Azwa&t 'lrainllll
China !Aka, C&J.1f, 163 C~r, l009tll llpooiol lle&palll Squadran, Bo&d·
99 orticer-1n-cbarge, u.s. llaval Civil llDC1neerill8 Jl<lo, quartoro, UBAJ', lluhil:cton 25, n.c.
and lval~&tioo lAb. 1 U.s, Naval Conat%ucti01l ll&t- l.61!-l.65
b lARD Corparat1111, 1700 lll1ll streot, Santa llcn1ea,
tal1CD1 Cantor, Port !Iuane•, C&l11'. A'l1.'!1: Coc!.' j !)'l Clalif. M'l!ll: lllClar ZM:rcr D1rtoicr:
100 Co-.,dinl Oft1c:&r, U.S, llanl llod1callleee&I'Cb ;Inlt. 1 lti6~:r, llooall4 A1Jo :Porce, Borlll4alo AI'!, Louioiane.
llatianal liavallled1cal Cantor 1 Botbesd& 111-, Ill!, Am: ()pentlone ~11 ortico
101 Diftatcr 1 Naval Air ~orU...tal Stoticm, Air 167 ~, l1clrth .U:r J'orco, Vootoror AJ'l!, Mon. Am:
Material Center, U.S . Naval. Bua , H>Usda]J>b1a, Opemiana Allalfole ortico '
Penn. . 168 ~r, nn:ecth .Ur Force, lfarch AJ"B, C&l1t.
102 Director, u.s. ll&val 1\asaar.c;h l.ab-to1')' 1 W..ohinlt<m A1'1'11: Operat101111 ~io otfico
25, D.C. AT'l'l!: ltto. 1Atber1ne 1!. Coos 1$ C......S.:r, Vootern llrralo_.,t Div. (AllllC) P.O. 262,
103 Director 1 '!ho llaterlal !.&boratory 1 W8V York 11&-n.l"l!llip- Illgl.ovoo4 1 Calif., Am: lllSIT, ltr. 1\, G. Weitz
;yud, BJoooklyn, N. r. 170·177 '1\oohnieal Inton.t1on Servic:& ll::tanoion, oak
J..OII CCliiiiiiB!Id~ortieer and Director, u.s. ~ El.octrontco IU.4p 1 Telm, (Surplllo) ·
Iaboratorr, San Diogo ~ 1 Calif. ·
105-106 c.-~ Otticir, u.s. ll&vallla41oloilealllllfanaa
lAboratorr, San Fraccieco 211., Calit, A1"1'11: 'llochnical
Illl'o,.,tiCII Diviaian
109-llO Co....,d1ng Officer and Director, Davl.d II. Taylor lfallol
Basin, Waah~ton 1, D.c; Am: Libft:y 178 Aoot. Secretorr of lllltanae, R11earch an4 llllnlopa:ent,
lll C-d&r, U.S, Naval .Ur llavolo~nt C1111tor, Jabzla· D/D, lluh1nston 25, D.C • .A'l'nl: Tech, Ubr&l')'
· vlllo, I'll, l79 U.S, b11111011ta Cttfir:ar, orti .. of the IJ.S, lfatlanal
ll2 C-4~ Officer, Clothing SUpp]1 ottlce, Code lJ>.O, M1l1taey 11eVNo1111tat1w, SI!AP!, APO " ' I!W York,
3r4 Av1111ue and 29th St . , Brooklyn, W.Y. ll.t.
ll3·U9 Te<:bnica1 Illl'o.,..t1on SerTico llrtanllon, Oal: 1Bo Director, Wo&pooa 1!1otua !nlll&tiCill Oroup 1 OSD, Ra
ll14go, Tenn. moo6, l'llntescm, II~ 25 1 D,C,
lBl An:od SerTicaa l><plooino Safety Board, D/D, llu1lding
All! iORCK ACTIVITn:S T•7 1 Gravall;y Point, llaahingtcm 25, D.C.
1.82 C.-act, Arlllod Porcoo Statt Collose, l!a:rtolk u,
Va. Am: Seeretoey
120 Aoot. for Atollll.c Enor1!1 1 Ho&d'l\lArtera, USA7, V&lll1.ni• 183-168 C~ General, Jiald C._..d, Arood l'orcoa Spa-
ton 25, D,C, A'l'l'N: rJ;S/O cial llo&Pano Project, PO Bal 5100, All>uquorque, II,
121 Director of Oporat1one, Hoadquorlero 1 1JSA7, Vuhington Mu:.
~. D.C. A'l'I'N: Oporot1Cile Anal,yolo 189·190 C-.ding Gel>eral 1 Jiold ca....a, Arlllod Jorceo, Special
122 Director of Plano, Hel4quartoro 1 tlSlJ' 1 Vuhingtcr: 25 1 1/0fopona ProJect, PO llca: 5100 1 All>uquerquo, R. Mex,
. D.C . A'l'l'll: ll&r Plano D1T. .l.!'r!l: 'rochll.ical ~ining Group
123 Director of 1\uaarch and Davolo_.,t, l!oadquortoro, 191•195 Cbbf, Anlod Forcea Spacial Veapona Project, llaohi.ngton
USA!', llaah1ngton 25, D.C. Ai'm: Coabat Collpo!W1to 25 1 D.C • .A'!'Til: Dot~D~ote L111r&r)' .BnlU!h
lliv. 196·202 'roehnic&l Into1'!11lti<ZD BarT1co :El<toooioo, Oak
124·125 Director of IntaUiganco, Bea4qu&rtoro, USAF, llaehing• Rldse, T....,, (Surplwl)
ton 25, D,c, Ai'm: .AFOIN·lll2
. 126 n>o Surseon Cellllral, Ba&4quartoro 1 USAJ' 1 Voahlngton ~~
D.C. A1'1'lh llio, Dot. llr., Pro. Jlod , D1v, .
127 Doputy Chief of Statt , lntalllgllllCo, Bo&dQU&rtora, U.S . A'l'CKIC illlliGI COIMISSIOII ACTin'riiS
Air l'orcea !:w'ope, APO 633 1 Xev tork, Jl . T. A.'1"'1'B:
D1Ne:torate ot Air 'l.'arsets u.s.
Atomic Enor&r c-nion, Cl.&B01t1od !foehnic&l
'Ublvy, l901. CU>W\1,\rt.iCOI lrlo,, ll••ld%13t= 2'; 1 D,C,
126 C""""'der 1 497th Roccr:no.1o...,.o Tealul1cal Sqlllllran
(Aug~~~~:nto4) 1 APO 633, Nov Yorl< 1 IJ.Y.
A'l'l'll: ltra, J, M. O'lolr1" (For I»>A)
129 C - e r 1 rar Eaat Air Forceo, APO 925, Sen """cieeo, 206-207 Lee AJ.uDo Bci111tif1e l.&'borr.tory, Report Library, 1'0
Bcot 1663 1 Lee .u.s-, K•. J6u, AT'l'll; Beloo lle4mlm
!:.>lit.
130 C-der·in-chiaf 1 Stretoslc J.ir C..-od, Ottutt Air 208-212 S&ndla Corporation, C1auitio4 DocUMIIt D1TIIIcr:,
San41a B&ae, Albuquerque, Jl', )Ia, J.'l'l'N: *rt111
li'on:o llaoe, Cla:lba, llobrooka. A1'1'11: Spaciallloapcr:s
Broncll, Inel>ector D1v. 1 lnapeetor o.neral IAleero
131 C...Wr, Tlicticel Air C..-nd, llmSler AI'!, V&. 213·215 U.iTonity of Callfo=!& lla411tion 1Aboratof1 1 PO llca:
A!l'l'll : llocuMnta Security Branch
8o8, L1w:noon 1 Calif, A1'r!l: M&:proot ldllald
l32 Comollller I Air llllfiii!Bo c:am.w~, lint m I Colo. 216 1/0fopoll Dot& Section, Technical Illl'onatloo SerTiee
l33·l34 B..ouch Directorate, Be&dquartara Air l'o:rco IJ:tonoion, Oal: 1\idp, 'l'un.
Special Voap.,. Caatar, l.lrtland Air fon:o . 217-258 Tec'lm!cal Infon:ati~m ll&rvico z.tonoioo, Oak
Be&e 1 !lev Moxico. AT'l'!l: lllut ztfocto Beuarcll R14go 1 'lelm. (SurplJlo)
l35 C........W.r, Air :Roao&rch IID4 llllnlo_.,t C - , PO
Bell l395, l!altillore, Md. Am!: ll!llln .A.!IDMOIIAL DIS'l:RII!ImOR
l36 C~r, Air ProT1ng Ground C081111Z14 1 Jclilllin, n..
Am: Ad.J ./Tech, RBPOJ't Branch 259 Cc:m&!ldar, l352 MDtiCI1 Picture Squadron, Lookout
l37·l36 Diractor, Air Un1vora1l;J Lilor&r)', xu:.oll Jon , Al&. Molmtain lAboratory, 6935 VOD<Ierla>ld .be,... ,
139-146 ·COIIIIIIo!ldar, ~iDs Training Air 1oroo 1 V&oo, Tu,
A'l'nl: Dlzector of ObltrTor Training
x.:a Az!Soloo ·1f61 C&I1tm1a
Alolatant Chief of Btett, llllrtall&t1Cil8 Bo&d·
...
J47 COIIIIIIII!Idllr, cr ... ~
. ~Air 7ozoe, llu:dolpb nol4 1 quartore, Un1ta4 Statao .Ur Force, Woahinston
Tu, A'l'l'll: 2G!I!I, llCS/0 25, D.C. A'l'l'l: ~I!-.U.

..
~ UNCLASSIFIED

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