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Advancing the Dialogue

Toward a Healthier Future

Corporate Responsibility 2008 Report

Criteria from Millennium UN Global
Global Reporting the Access to Development Compact
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Initiative Indicators Medicines Index* Goals† Principles
About Merck and this report Inside front cover
Message from the CEO 1
Message from the Board 2
Merck’s Approach to CR Reporting 3
» Materiality assessment process 3
» Stakeholder engagement 3
Economic Contribution to Society 4 EC1, SO1 MDG 4; MDG 6;
MDG 8 Target 8E
» Supporting our communities 5
Summary of Our Progress and Future Plans 6
Researching New Medicines and Vaccines to Address Unmet Needs 8 MDG 4
» R&D impact and performance 9
» Current research pipeline 10
» Expanding our research capabilities and results 10
» Intensifying our research capabilities into diseases prevalent 12 C1, C3, C4
in the developing world
» Clinical research and disclosure of results 12 PR3 Principle 10
» Future goals and priorities 14
» Fostering science education 14 EC8, EC9 MDG 2
Improving Access to Medicines, Vaccines and Health Care 16 EC8, EC9 H
» Access strategy and management 16 A1, (A2), A3

» Key considerations for our activities 17 D1, D2, E2, F1, F2,
G1, G2
» Improving access in the developing world and 19 B2, B3, E3 MDG 1; MDG 4
emerging markets
» Improving access to vaccines and immunization 22 B3, E3 MDG 4; MDG 8 Target 4
in the developing world
» Improving access to HIV/AIDS treatment and care 23 B3 MDG 4; MDG 6;
in the developing world MDG 8 Target 4
» Improving access in developed countries 25 B3, F3, F4
» Future goals and priorities for improving and accelerating 27
access to medicines, vaccines and health care globally
Ensuring Confidence in the Safety and Quality of Our Products 28 PR1, PR3
» Our commitment to product safety 28 E3
» Our commitment to product quality 30 E1, E4
» Future priorities 31
Conducting Ourselves Ethically and Transparently 32 SO2, SO3, SO4, SO8 A5 Principle 10
» Our Values and Standards 32 LA10, HR4 Principle 10
» Fostering a fair, transparent and open environment 34 Principle 10
» Ethical sales and marketing practices 34 PR3, PR6, PR7, PR9 A5 Principle 10
» Respecting and promoting human rights 36 HR3, HR5, HR6, HR7, LA4, LA10 Principles 1–5
» Future goals and priorities 37
Managing Our Environmental Footprint 38 MDG 7 Principle 8
» Improving environmental and safety compliance 38 EN23, EN28, SO8
» Addressing climate change and energy use 40 EC2, EN3, EN4, EN5, EN7, Principle 9
EN16, EN17, EN18
» Water use 42 EN8, EN10
» Emissions, effluents and waste 42 EN1, EN2, EN19, EN20, EN21, EN22
» Product stewardship 44 EN26 Principle 7, 9
» Future goals and priorities 45
Advocacy and Outreach 46 LA10
» Making a responsible contribution to public policy debates 46 SO5, SO6 B1, B2, B3, B4, B5 Principle 10
» Ensuring our policy and engagement conduct is beyond reproach 48
» Engaging with our stakeholders 49 A4
» Working in public/private partnerships to address societal challenges 49 MDG 8 Target 4
» Future goals and priorities 49
Executing the Basics 50
» Corporate governance 50 Principle 10
» Building a positive work environment 51 EC7, LA1, LA2, LA3, LA11, LA12, LA13 MDG 3 Principle 6
» Fostering safety and health in the workplace and in our communities 53 LA6, LA7, LA8, LA10, PR1
» Managing our supply chain 54 EC6, HR1, HR2, LA10 E1, E4 Principle 6, 10
Philanthropy at Merck 56
Summary of Key Performance Indicators 60
Our Medicines and Vaccines 63
Index 64
Contact Us Back cover

For more information on additional GRI disclosures and a comprehensive GRI index, go to
For more information on our ATMI reporting, go to
* A2: Merck has a long history of working to improve access to medicines and numerous related policies, but we have not yet formalized an overall access to medicines policy.
† We mention only the goals that are most closely related to our business. For more information on our contributions to the MDGs, see
At Merck our fundamental responsibility
is discovering, developing and delivering
innovative medicines and vaccines that can
make a difference in people’s lives and
create a healthier future.

We believe that fulfilling this responsibility in a sustainable

manner demands high ethical standards and a culture that
values honesty, integrity and transparency in all that we do.
In the face of the current financial crisis, Merck is more committed than ever to ensuring
that Corporate Responsibility (CR) is an integral part of the way we do business, and to
working with our stakeholders to create shared value and to help solve the tough issues
facing business and society today.

ABOUT MERCK our responsibilities in terms of global » By engaging in activities to expand

Merck & Co., Inc. is a global research- health and access to medicines, ethical access to quality health care around
driven pharmaceutical company that and sustainable business practices, the world
discovers, develops, manufactures and contribution to scientific advancement,
» By making a positive and sustain-
markets a broad range of innovative good employee relations and return-
able impact on the communities and
medicines and vaccines to address unmet ing value to shareholders. We seek to
societies where we live and work
medical needs. Merck operates as Merck maintain high ethical standards and a
Sharp & Dohme (MSD) in most coun- culture that values honesty, integrity » By meeting the needs of our
tries outside the United States. Because and transparency in all that we do. employees in a fair and just manner.
of what we do, we recognize that we Company decisions are driven by what
have special obligations to society. is right for patients.1 ABOUT THIS REPORT
This report updates Merck’s Corporate
Merck’s stated mission is to provide MERCK’S CR PRINCIPLES Responsibility 2006–2007 Report
society with superior products and Merck’s core business is to discover published in October 2008. Its primary
services by developing innovations and develop new medicines and vac- audiences are investors committed to
and solutions that improve the quality cines that make a difference in people’s socially responsible investing, financial
of life and satisfy customer needs, to lives. Our commitment to Corporate analysts, shareholders and shareholder
provide employees with meaningful Responsibility extends to how we groups, non-governmental organizations
work and advancement opportunities, achieve this goal: (NGOs) and academic experts concerned
and investors with a superior rate of with sustainability issues, and others
» By conducting our business with
return. Our Company mission and val- interested in the corporate responsibil-
high ethical standards
ues are reflected in our CR approach, ity activities and performance of Merck.
which clearly sets out how we see In response to stakeholder feedback,

This report contains “forward-looking statements” as that term is defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These
statements are based on management’s current expectations and involve risks and uncertainties, which may cause results to differ mate-
rially from those set forth in the statements. The forward-looking statements may include statements regarding product development,
product potential or financial performance. No forward-looking statement can be guaranteed and actual results may differ materially from
those projected. Merck undertakes no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new informa-
tion, future events, or otherwise. Forward-looking statements in this report should be evaluated together with the many uncertainties that
affect Merck’s business, particularly those mentioned in the risk factors and cautionary statements in Item 1A of Merck’s Form 10-K for
the year ended Dec. 31, 2008, and in any risk factors or cautionary statements contained in the Company’s periodic reports on Form 10-Q or
current reports on Form 8-K, which the Company incorporates by reference.
1 4
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this report focuses mainly on Merck’s CR sics

activities, progress and performance

with respect to specific key performance Guidelines, and our self-assessment has Cor
Res orate
indicators (KPIs). In addition, the narra- been checked by the GRI. pon
li ty
tive provides some additional informa-
tion relating to our activities up through An Executive Summary of this report
June 2009. As much as possible, we have is available in print and on our website.
guided readers to where they can go for We plan to publish our next CR report we have provided prior year data
more information, including our CR in 2010. wherever available.
website and other reports such as our
annual financial reports on Form 10-Ks.2 In this report, we define where we We welcome your feedback on
do not report metrics as follows: N/A: this report. Please contact us to tell
We have focused our CR reporting on not available; N/D: no data; N/R: not us what you think – our contact
critical, non-financial material issues reported. For most reported metrics information is on the back cover.
which we have identified through an
assessment of factors in the global busi- GRI APPLICATION LEVEL
ness environment, the pharmaceutical
sector and Merck specifically, as well as We are pleased to have achieved a reporting level B on the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) G3
Guidelines, and our self-assessment has been checked by the GRI as shown in the grid below:
feedback from external stakeholders.
We continuously strive to provide
greater detail than we have in the past C C+ B B+ A A+
on these issues, especially in terms of

our challenges, metrics and targets.




In addition, we have used several external declared

guidelines and measurement frame-
works to inform the scope of our report-
ing. These include the Global Reporting
Initiative (GRI) Guidelines,3 the Third Party
Millennium Development Goals,4 Checked

the Access to Medicines Index5 and the

UN Global Compact,6
of which Merck
became a signatory GRI
in January 2009. We Checked
are pleased to have
achieved a reporting
More information can be found on the GRI at
level B on the GRI

1 4
2 5
3 6
Message from the CEO

In tough economic times, it is tempting for a company to retreat back to

more parochial business concerns. At Merck, however, we believe that
good corporate citizenship and good governance have never been
more important. Doing the right thing – even when times are tough –
makes good business sense.
The past few years have been a period of significant transformation for Merck. We have worked
hard to transform every aspect of our business – from how we approach research and development,
to how we manufacture our products, to how we engage with our customers. And the coming
months will bring even more change, as we prepare to merge with our longtime partner,
RICHARD T. CLARK Schering-Plough. But even as we work to align and integrate these two strong companies to
Chairman, President and create a global healthcare leader, we know there are some things that will not change.
Chief Executive Officer,
Merck & Co., Inc.

First and foremost among them is our It is important that we continue to As reflected in the theme of this report,
ongoing commitment to putting patients remain true to our core values, one of Merck is committed to ongoing engage-
first. Discovering and developing novel which is to operate openly and ethically. ment with stakeholders, and to ensuring
medicines and vaccines is at the heart In this spirit we have taken significant that we are responsive to their concerns.
of who we are as a company. But we steps to improve transparency, commit- Our interactions help to ensure that our
also believe it is important to get our ting to public disclosure of our financial approach to corporate responsibility
medicines and vaccines to the people support for third-party groups and reflects both public expectations and our
who need them most. In the United for healthcare providers who speak on long-standing company values.
States, we are working with the Obama behalf of Merck or our products.
Administration and Congress to support We are proud of what we have achieved
the enactment of common-sense plans We also want to do our part to tackle thus far – but there is always room for
to reform the U.S. healthcare system. climate change. To this end, we are improvement. As a company, our corpo-
We also recently increased the income improving energy efficiency across our rate responsibility reporting and gover-
parameters for Merck’s U.S. Patient
Assistance Program to help more people
benefit from our 50-year-old program.

We also recognize that most people

business. Since 2004 we have reduced
energy demand at our research, manu-
facturing and major office sites by
28 percent, exceeding our goal of 25 per-
cent reduction. We have also made
nance structure will continue to evolve.
We look forward to continuing to
engage actively with our key stakehold-
ers to make sure we remain on the right
track. As you will see, this engagement is
worldwide still lack adequate access to significant progress toward achieving our a major theme of this year’s report.
medicines, vaccines and quality health greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction goal.
care. To help address this challenge, Reducing our energy use and our GHG I believe our long-standing commit-
we have implemented a tiered pricing emissions not only benefits the environ- ment to good corporate citizenship will
policy for our HIV medicines and cer- ment, but also benefits Merck’s bottom line. strengthen the new Merck we are striv-
tain vaccines that foster greater access to ing to build, and will provide a strong
these essential therapies. We have created In January 2009, Merck signed the foundation of shared values through
numerous programs and partnerships in United Nation’s Global Compact, the which Merck, our employees, and our
developing countries, emerging markets, world’s largest and most widely many global stakeholders can benefit.
and industrialized countries to help embraced corporate citizenship initia-
improve healthcare capacity and improve tive. Our signature signals our commit-
access to our products for all who can ment to the Compact’s ten universally
benefit, wherever they live. accepted principles in the areas of Richard T. Clark
human rights, labor, environment and Chairman, President and
anti-corruption, and expresses our intent Chief Executive Officer
to support and advance those principles
within our company and entities con- September 2009
trolled by it.
Message from the Board

Merck is a company with an inspiring track record of leadership in

corporate citizenship. Initiatives such as the Merck MECTIZAN Donation
Program and the African Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnerships, to
name just two, have set the standard for public/private partnerships in
improving access to medicines. Merck continues to implement innovative
new programs such as the ROTATEQ Access Program in Nicaragua and
the China-MSD HIV/AIDS Partnership.
The Merck Board of Directors Committee on Public Policy and Social Responsibility has reviewed
Merck’s 2008 Corporate Responsibility Report. On behalf of the Board, I am very pleased to note THOMAS E. SHENK, Ph.D.
that Merck has made progress on several key measures, including reducing our energy demand and Chair, Merck Board Committee
our greenhouse gas emissions, enhancing employee diversity, and helping to increase the number
of people with access to our medicines and vaccines. I am also glad to see the Company is instituting on Public Policy and
additional measures and pursuing more aggressive targets for the future, such as greater transparency Social Responsibility
regarding financial support to third parties.

Significantly, Merck’s corporate respon- the only U.S. company in the top seven.
sibility commitment is evident through- In early 2009 Merck was ranked No. 4
out the business, as demonstrated by on CRO Magazine’s 100 Best Corporate
its leadership in researching, develop- Citizens list. This public recognition
ing, manufacturing and marketing confirms what many of our global
the medicines and vaccines that make stakeholders already know: Merck is
such a difference to millions of people in step with the evolving demands
worldwide. Merck’s recent engagement of global business – competitive, inno-
in the United Nations Global Compact vative, and responsible.
is entirely consistent with its corporate

values and standards.

I am gratified that Merck has been Thomas E. Shenk, Ph.D.

recognized for its sustainability work. Chair,
In 2008 the Access to Medicines Index Merck Board Committee on
ranked Merck No. 3 among global Public Policy and Social Responsibility
pharmaceutical companies for promot-
ing universal access to medicines, and September 2009
Merck’s Approach to CR Reporting

We recognize that successfully managing social, ethical and

environmental issues involves everyone at Merck.
For this reason, we have established a Company-wide process for identifying the CR issues
that are most important to our business success and to our stakeholders, and for more
formally managing those issues in terms of performance and targets.

In 2008, Merck conducted a materiality IS THIS ISSUE MATERIAL AND SHOULD WE REPORT ON IT?
assessment based, in part, on standards for
sustainability reporting and discussions MERCK MERCK
with both internal and external stake- CANNOT CANNOT

holders to identify those environmental,

social and governance (ESG) issues of CAN CAN
greatest significance to multiple stake- INFLUENCE INFLUENCE

holders and to Merck’s future success.

Following a review of numerous infor- CANNOT CANNOT
mation sources, Merck’s Corporate INFLUENCE INFLUENCE
Responsibility Council – a senior-level
cross-functional Merck body responsible INFLUENCE INFLUENCE
for the Company’s CR approach –
assessed ESG issues based on three param-
eters: 1) the impact on Merck’s ability to INCRE A SING IMPACT ON MERCK’S ABILIT Y TO E XECUTE BUSINE SS STR ATEGY
achieve our business strategy; 2) the level
of concern to external stakeholders; and Issues in this box are not
currently covered by reporting
Issues in these boxes are
optional for reporting
Issues in this box are material
and the focus of reporting
3) the degree to which Merck can influ-
ence the issue. A similar process was used
to determine specific reporting issues
within each priority ESG issue area.

Based on this analysis, the following

Board of Directors Committee on Public In 2008 and 2009, we collected feed-
Policy and Social Responsibility. back from certain groups, including
investors committed to sustainable
Our materiality approach is illustrated by investing, analysts, shareholder groups,
broad issue areas were identified as pri-
the chart on this page.Topics that fell in the non-governmental organizations (NGOs),
ority ESG issues for the Company:
top right-hand quadrant for this reporting academic experts, and Merck employees,
1) Researching and developing new
year were considered to be the most mate- to inform our approach to CR and how
medicines and vaccines that address
rial for Merck at this time, to be included we measure our performance. This feed-
unmet needs
in our print report and executive summary. back helps ensure that our reporting is rel-
2) Improving access to medicines,
evant and meaningful to our readers. A list
vaccines and health care
Merck recognizes the importance of those consulted and a summary of their
3) Ensuring confidence in the safety
of issues that may not be within the comments are available on our website at
and quality of our products
Company’s immediate or complete We
4) Conducting ourselves ethically
control such as climate change, global pov- have reflected their comments where fea-
and transparently
erty and access to medicines, particularly sible and appropriate in our reporting, and
5) Managing our environmental footprint.
in the developing world. In these areas, we are committed to considering for future
we believe that we can, however, influence reports other recommendations that we
In 2009, the CR Council reaffirmed these
how progress is made in addressing these could not respond to during this reporting
five issue areas as the Company’s ongoing
issues, particularly through public policy cycle. We are also exploring mechanisms
priority ESG issues, and reaffirmed their
and advocacy or through partnerships or for more formal, ongoing engagement.
support for a systematic process to iden-
collaborations with others.
tify specific goals, targets and key perfor-
For more information on Merck’s materi-
mance indicators (KPIs) with which to
measure Merck’s performance in each STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT ality assessment and stakeholder engage-
Merck regularly interacts with a diverse ment practices, go to
area. These goals are reviewed annually
array of public and private stakeholders. cr/approach.
with Merck’s Executive Committee and
Economic Contribution to Society

Merck makes its principal economic contribution to society

through the discovery, development, manufacturing and
marketing of our products, which directly improve and maintain
the health of individuals and communities around the world,
helping them to lead more productive lives.
During 2008, we continued to grow our business with new product indications and formulations,
as well as clinical trials that demonstrate their benefits. In 2008, we advanced 31 candidates
to the next clinical development stage. As of February 15, 2009, we had 47 candidates in
Phase I–III clinical development. We remain confident that our pipeline continues to show great
potential and we continue to work hard to ensure confidence in the safety and effectiveness
of our products.
We also contribute substantial eco- activities, Merck contributes to local support government-financed pensions,
nomic and social value to the countries R&D capacity in the life sciences sector, health systems and local infrastructure.
and communities where we operate. which is critical to building national
Through our local research, manufactur- competitiveness in the 21st century. By In addition, we return value to share-
ing and sales operations, by purchasing granting licenses for our products and holders in the form of dividends and an
products and services from numerous our technical know-how to small and active stock repurchase program.
and diverse suppliers, and by investing in medium-sized companies, we contribute
community infrastructure, we gener- to their growth and to the local scientific For more information relating to the
ate skilled employment opportunities knowledge base. Through our national Company’s business, please refer to our
and market activity that directly and and local tax payments, which over the 2008 financial statement set forth in
indirectly drive income and eco- last five years (2004–2008) totaled more our Report on Form 10-K for the year

4 nomic growth. Through our research than US$8.8 billion worldwide, we help ending December 31, 2008.

GLOBAL 2008† 2007 2006 2005

Sales (US$M) 23,850.30 24,197.7 22,636.0 22,011.9

Merck’s investment in R&D programs (US$B) 4.8 4.9 4.8 3.8
Number of employees 55,200 59,800 60,000 61,000
Number of stockholders (Millions) approx. 1.2 approx. 1.2 approx. 1.2 approx. 1.2
(Including those that hold Merck stock in “street name”)
Annual cash dividend paid per share (US$) 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52
Global tax expense as reported on income statement (US$M) 1,999.4 95.3 1,787.6 2,732

* For more information, see our Annual Financial Report (10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2008 at
† Amounts from 2008 include a gain on distribution from AstraZeneca LP, a gain related to the sale of the Company’s remaining worldwide rights to Aggrastat,
the favorable impact of certain tax items, the impact of restructuring actions, additional legal defense costs and an expense for a contribution to The Merck
Company Foundation.
‡ Research activities and investments include all Merck divisions.
2008 REVENUE BY SUPPORTING OUR We contribute to our communities in
As of April 30, 2009, Merck (includ- » Direct and indirect economic contri-
ing its Banyu subsidiary in Japan) butions such as employment, training,
had a physical presence in approxi- support of local suppliers and local
mately 80 countries worldwide with R&D, and paying taxes (as above);
OTHER approximately 265 research, manufac-
$2,882.5 » Managing our community impacts –
turing, sales and administration sites. In
all of these locations, we recognize that for example, by ensuring confidence
our success depends in large part on our in environmental and safety perfor-
relationships and interactions with mance and respecting human rights;
EUROPE, $13,370.5 our local communities, including business » Addressing community needs
MIDDLE EAST and community leaders, elected officials, through philanthropy and commu-
AND AFRICA charities, fenceline neighbors, educators,
$5,773.8 nity involvement.
local media and our employees.
Underlying our community approach
We strive to have a positive impact on is our commitment to respecting
the communities in which we oper- human rights. As a signatory to the
ate, and we recognize our responsibility UN Global Compact, Merck is commit-
toward those affected directly or indi- ted to protecting and promoting fun-
rectly by our operations and activities. damental human rights not only within
our immediate workforce but within our
We rely on local communities not only broader sphere of influence, including
for our workforce but also for many of within our local communities. For more
our suppliers and for our ability to do information on our commitment to
business. Through ongoing engagement human rights, go to p. 37.
and dialogue, we work to understand
community needs and concerns, and to In addition, during the course of our
respond by addressing local challenges operations, we take great care not to
in ways that build stronger communi- cause harm to our communities, through

ties and support the sustainability of rigorous management of the safety of
our business. our processes and our environmental
footprint. For more information,
go to p. 38.


GLOBAL 2008 2007 2006 2005

Number of new products approved 1 2 5 2

Number of medicines and vaccines in pipeline (Phase I–III) 47 49 57 58
and products under regulatory review
Philanthropic investment (US$M) 821 828 826 1,039
Summary of Progress and Future Plans



» Grow our pipeline with a focus on researching and » Advanced 31 candidates to the next clinical development stage in 2008; » Continue to grow our pipeline with a focus on researching
developing first-in-class or best-in-class medicines as of February 15, 2009, had 47 candidates in Phase I–III development. and developing first-in-class or best-in-class medicines and
and vaccines. » Provided financial support to the WHO/TDR Partnership Network for vaccines in targeted areas according to our R&D agenda.
» Expand our interactions with public and private research in tropical diseases. » Through Merck BioVentures, further diversify Merck’s sci-
entities to understand and support key research » Granted the International Partnership for Microbicides (IPM) a royalty- entific portfolio with a view to creating value and improving
priorities and opportunities, including for developing free license to develop, manufacture and distribute a novel ARV com- access to novel biologics and biosimilars; we are committed
world diseases. pound for use in developing countries. to having at least five biosimilars in late-stage development
» Initiate development of a formal policy on post-trial » Granted an exclusive, royalty-free licensing agreement with Medicines in 2012, and to launching at least six of these products between
drug access in 2008. for Malaria for an investigational drug candidate for use in the develop- 2012 and 2017.
» Finalize principles for business practices involving the ing world. » Continue to expand our engagement with public and private
medical and scientific community. » Entered into collaborative agreement with DNDi to support discovery entities such as academic institutions and NGOs to understand
and development of improved treatments for neglected tropical diseases. and support research priorities and opportunities in support
» Developed a new procedure for a compassionate use program. of global public health needs.
» Finalized a set of Guiding Principles for Business Practices Involving » Deliver 25 percent of early pipeline from external sources of
the Medical and Scientific Community, and implemented guidance on science within three to five years.
interactions between MRL staff and external scientists.


» Continue to work with international groups such as the » Obtained WHO prequalification for ROTATEQ, MMRII and GARDASIL. » Continue to work with international groups to facilitate intro-
GAVI Alliance to facilitate introduction of vaccines in By the end of 2008, ROTATEQ was approved in 87 countries, 15 of duction of our rotavirus and human papillomavirus vaccines in
the world’s poorest countries. which are GAVI-eligible; GARDASIL was approved in 109 countries, the world’s poorest countries.
» Continue to investigate opportunities to reduce the 23 of which are GAVI-eligible. » Begin reporting in 2010 the number of doses shipped through
cost of our ARVs for people living in the world’s poor- » To help expand access to GARDASIL in developing world, worked out GARDASIL Access Program.
est countries and those hardest hit by the pandemic, agreement with CSL Limited to waive royalties for sales in those countries. » Achieve 82–84 percent vaccination rate for rotavirus with
including through working with external manufactur- » As of December 31, 2008, 653,867 patients in 131 countries and territories, ROTATEQ in Nicaragua by the end of 2009.
ers and suppliers to achieve incremental efficiencies. including an estimated 111,471 children, were being treated with regimens » Continue to pursue partnerships with others to improve access
» Expand our presence in emerging markets and explore containing at least one of Merck’s ARVs. to medicines and care in resource-constrained settings.
business models for all our products to reach new » Through China-MSD HIV/AIDS Partnership, expanded access to preven- » Continue to support actively health system reform worldwide to
populations. Report on developments in future reports. tion, testing, monitoring and treatment in Sichuan Province. help improve and accelerate access to medicines and vaccines.
» In connection with the MECTIZAN Donation Program, 31 percent of the » We are on track to achieve our goal of $2 billion in sales from
formerly at-risk population in the Americas is no longer at risk of contract- emerging markets by 2010, and we plan to be among the top
ing river blindness. five pharmaceutical companies in the markets we are focusing on.


» Continue to register at trial initiation all clinical trials » Posted the results of our trials on since » Continue to implement our vaccine supply manufacturing
in patients that the Company sponsors worldwide, October 2008; through December 2008, posted the results of over strategy as part of our commitment to restore Merck’s reputa-
at 290 trials on tion as a reliable global supplier of quality vaccines.
» Continue to disclose results from all registered » Of 42 inspections for Good Clinical Practices or pharmacovigilance » Continue to maintain strict product quality standards and mul-
trials of marketed products regardless of outcome conducted by regulatory agencies worldwide in 2008, none resulted in tiple supply chain safeguards to ensure the safety and supply of
at in a timely manner. critical observations and none resulted in the rejection of any clinical study our products no matter where our medicines and vaccines are
» Continue to work to enhance and integrate our sys- or regulatory filing. manufactured internally or externally.
tems to identify, measure, control and sustain quality » Established an Anti-Counterfeiting Steering Committee to oversee our » Continue to implement our corporate, proactive worldwide
excellence in our products. global strategy, and worked with other companies to strengthen efforts anti-counterfeiting strategy, focused on securing the supply
against counterfeits worldwide. chain, detecting and responding to counterfeit events, and raising
awareness of the risks of counterfeit pharmaceutical products.


» Achieve 95 percent completion rate of new ethics » In October 2008, began reporting grants over $500 made by Merck’s » Achieve our planned 2009 goals regarding ethics training;
training courses by required employee populations, Global Human Health division to U.S. organizations in support of inde- achieve a 100 percent response rate to the disclosure state-
including Know the Code, by end of 2009. pendent accredited educational programs for healthcare professionals. ment on conflicts of interest by 2010.
» Disclose over time our financial support to medical, » Endorsed U.S. Physicians Payment Sunshine Act of 2008, which would » Report on results of new program on escalation, investigation,
scientific and patient organizations globally. In 2009, have mandated disclosure of financial relationships between physicians remediation and recognition of non-compliance events in
expand reporting on grants and payments to U.S. and the pharmaceutical industry. 2009 CR Report.
organizations and begin reporting on grants made in » Began disclosing support to patient organizations in Europe, Middle » Begin disclosing in 4Q2009 all payments to U.S.-based healthcare
Europe and Canada; continue to expand disclosure into East and Africa made by Merck offices in those regions since 2008. professionals who speak on behalf of Merck or our products; in
other regions as we work to build infrastructure and » Implemented new Guiding Principles for Ethical Business Practices second half of 2009, begin reporting certain other U.S. third-party
systems necessary to allow global reporting. with the medical and scientific community. grants and payments made to patient organizations in Canada
» Disclose in 2009 all payments to physicians in the » Adopted a policy requiring a minimum six-month time period following and grants to other third-party institutions in Europe, Middle East,
United States who speak on behalf of Merck or the approval of a new product before launching DTC broadcast advertis- Africa and Canada.
our products. ing in the U.S., formalizing our historical practice. » Develop a global training program based on Merck’s Guiding
» Update our policies and practices in the U.S. » Updated our policies and practices in the U.S. to ensure compliance with Principles for Business Practices Involving the Medical and
by January 2009 to ensure compliance with the revised PhRMA Code. Scientific Community.
revised PhRMA Code on Interactions with Health » Finalize development of global labor relations guidelines and
Care Professionals. monitoring tools.
» Implement human rights risk assessment tool.


» Reduce energy intensity by 25 percent per unit area » Achieved and exceeded our goal to reduce energy demand by 25 percent » Zero significant safety or environmental events.
(MMBTU/ft2) and reduce water use by 15 percent by the from a 2004 baseline; achieved and exceeded our water-use goal of » Continue to reduce the Company’s total global greenhouse
end of 2008 from a 2004 baseline. 15 percent reduction between 2004 and 2008. gas emissions to reach 12 percent by the end of 2012 from a
» Reduce the Company’s total global greenhouse gas » Inaugurated a 1.6 megawatt ground-mounted photovoltaic energy array 2004 baseline, including offsetting emissions from new facili-
emissions by 12 percent by the end of 2012 from a at our corporate headquarters. ties currently under construction.
2004 baseline. » Adopted a corporate commitment to build all new laboratories and » Establish appropriate reduction goals in line with the global
» Zero significant safety or environmental events. offices to achieve LEED® Silver Certification or its equivalent globally. desire among nations and regions to commit to significant
» Continue to work with stakeholders on the issue » Through our membership in the PhRMA PIE Task Force, contributed to reductions through 2020 and 2050.
of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment to identify the research that supports the SMARxT Disposal Program, designed » Continue to identify opportunities for water use improvements.
additional data needs and to conduct our own envi- to provide the general public with information on proper disposal » Continue to monitor Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) and Volatile
ronmental risk assessments based upon the best of medication. Organic Compounds (VOC) emissions to ensure that we main-
available science. tain reductions gains from past initiatives.
» Continue to work with stakeholders and the scientific community
on the evolving issue of pharmaceuticals in the environment (PIE).


» Include in 2009 on our website all dollars spent glob- » Beginning in 2009, expanded disclosure of corporate political contribu- » In 2010, draft a new model code of conduct that includes provi-
ally on corporate political campaign contributions. tions to Australia and Canada, the only other countries where Merck sions of the Center for Political Accountability Model Code and
» Report externally in 2009 on adherence to ethical busi- provides such contributions. additional provisions based on policies and practices.
ness practices related to corporate political spending. » In 2008, Merck began disclosing on our website the portion of dues that » In 2010, disclose all of our memberships in U.S. state business-
» Ensure all major public/private partnerships (PPPs) major U.S.-based trade associations report to us as being used for related associations, regardless of the size of the dues.
in which we participate have clear annual perfor- advocacy and/or political activity purposes where dues are >$50,000. » Provide on our website a list of policy positions being advocated
mance requirements, where possible linked to the » In 2009, we are requiring an annual progress and evaluation report for within U.S. state legislatures.
Millennium Development Goals. By 2010, work toward all PPPs to which we provide financial support. » In 2010, report on the number of PPPs for which Merck has
reporting on percentage of PPPs that report annually provided support that report annually against program objec-
against such requirements. tives and performance requirements, including a measure of
their progress against the U.N. Millennium Development Goals
where applicable.


Employee practices
» Increase female representation at senior manager » Increased female representation in executive roles to 28 percent, and » Continue to increase female and under-represented ethnic group
level to 36 percent, and under-represented ethnic under-represented ethnic group representation on senior management representation at senior manager level in line with 2012 goals.
group representation at this level to 18 percent, by 2012. team to 15 percent. » Begin to formally track global use of our flexible work arrange-
» Raise awareness of flexible work arrangements policy, » Launched the Global Constituency Groups (GCGs) initiative, to support ments in 2009; by 2010, achieve 80 percent employee satisfaction
increase employee satisfaction with flexible work our global diversity strategy. with opportunities in this regard.
opportunities and begin tracking global use in 2009. » In 2008, Merck implemented a global flexible work arrangement policy » Reduce Company-wide and lost-time injury rates by 15 percent
» Reduce Company-wide and lost-time injury rates by and launched tools to increase access to such arrangements worldwide. in 2009 versus 2008 performance; reduce the motor vehicle acci-
15 percent each from 2007 baseline by end 2008. » Decreased lost-time injury rate by 12.5 percent while taking steps that dent rate by ten percent in 2009 versus 2008 performance.
dramatically increased reporting of injuries.

Supply chain management

» Achieve 100 percent completion of Screening Survey by » Provided all existing external manufacturers with our guidelines » Increase supplier diversity to 17 percent of total applicable
existing external suppliers of pharmaceutical interme- and expectations, as well as Pharmaceutical Industry Principles for spend in the U.S. and Puerto Rico by 2010.
diates and compounds by end of 2008. Responsible Supply Chain Management screening survey. Achieved an » Achieve 100 percent completion of Detailed Ethical Supplier
» Achieve 100 percent completion of Merck’s pre-selection 81 percent response rate. Assessment by potential suppliers by 2010.
Detailed Suppliers Ethical Assessment by potential » Performed EHS-specific evaluations of approximately 30 potential » Implement annual supplier supplemental ethics standards
suppliers of new business globally by 2010. external manufacturers. training for each procurement employee by 2010, and develop
» Develop formal mitigation plans for those items » Worked toward increasing completion of Merck’s pre-selection Detailed a Supplier Code of Conduct by 2010.
sourced externally that are critical to ensuring our Suppliers Ethical Assessment by potential suppliers of new business. » By end 2009, achieve 100 percent completion of the Screening
ability to supply finished product without interruption. » Achieved 2008 supplier diversity goal of 14 percent of total Survey by existing external manufacturers of pharmaceutical
Have plans for 20 percent, 60 percent and 100 percent applicable spend. intermediates and compounds.
of our suppliers that fit within this category for 2008, » Develop formal risk mitigation plans where required for
2009 and 2010, respectively. external manufacturers who require improvements to meet
» Expand our supplier diversity reporting in the Pharmaceutical Industry Principles for Responsible Supply
United Kingdom and Canada by 2010. Chain Management.

Researching Needed New Medicines

1 and Vaccines to Address Unmet Needs
Over the next ten years, the new developments In the context of these developments, and in
in medical technology will most likely be the interests of helping to avoid a widening of the
“therapeutic systems” consisting of individual gap in access to health care, global pharmaceutical
(e.g. geno-) typing, comprehensive informa- companies will have to demonstrate their global
tion, a quality scheme, plus the medicine. Those responsibility in facilitating the availability of
“therapeutic systems” will extend beyond the high-quality medicines by participating in the
use of medicines alone and may include life development of new medicines and vaccines for
style and dietary guidance. All this will allow patients in poorer countries. They will have to
a more patient-specific application of medi- engage more in new ways of financing innova-
cines bringing increased therapeutic efficiency tion and a new system of intellectual property
and safety. It will not yet be “personalized rights application. Their experience and capacity
medicine”, but it will come very close. Current will be needed to bring affordable high-quality
approaches to marketing will have to be replaced medicines to all people. Taking a leadership OTMAR KLOIBER
to some extent by the provision of services to role in this regard will be better than being
patients and physicians. forced into action. Secretary-General,
World Medical Association

…global pharmaceutical companies will have to

demonstrate responsibility… [with] development of new
medicines and vaccines for patients in poorer countries. »
Merck is committed to addressing medical needs through
8 scientific excellence and innovation. This is our primary
responsibility and contribution to society.
It is also the key growth driver of our business. We invested almost $5 billion annually on
R&D in 2006, 2007 and 2008.
Our research and development agenda Merck’s R&D model is designed to All Merck employees must abide by our
evolves as science advances and disease increase productivity and improve the Code of Conduct (see p. 32), which also
burdens change globally. At present, probability of success by prioritiz- applies to the way we work with exter-
our work is driven through six major ing the resources of Merck Research nal researchers, doctors and academics.
research franchises: Laboratories. Our research objectives In addition, Merck has finalized new
and strategy are reviewed and approved Guiding Principles for Business Practices
» Atherosclerosis and
annually by our Research Management Involving the Medical and Scientific
cardiovascular disease
Committee, chaired by the President, Community (see p. 35). All activities
» Bone, respiratory, immunology Merck Research Laboratories (MRL); involving the medical and scientific
and endocrine disorders we also seek input from external sci- community that are sponsored by Merck
» Diabetes and obesity entific experts to inform our decisions. should have a well-articulated purpose.
» Infectious diseases and In addition, the research strategy and Further, in November 2008 MRL
novel vaccines goals of our franchises and functional implemented a Global Research and
departments are reviewed on a regular Development procedure that describes
» Neuroscience including
basis by the Research Strategy Review the types of engagement opportunities
Alzheimer’s disease and pain
Committee, which includes input from during which MRL staff may seek input
» Oncology external scientific experts, to ensure that from external scientists to inform the
our efforts stay properly focused.
One of Merck’s great challenges – and the focus our developing expertise and ongoing focus on
of Merck Research Laboratories (MRL) – is genomics and RNA interference.
to develop and maintain a productive pipeline
that effectively uses our expertise and experi- Merck is working hard to increase productivity
ence to address many of the world’s greatest by refining research priorities, focusing on safety,
burdens of disease. MRL is targeting key areas and diversifying R&D activities. This diversifi-
such as Alzheimer’s, cancer, cardiovascular disease, cation is a result of internal as well as external
diabetes and infectious disease. MRL’s business efforts and we are pursuing external collabora-
model reflects our dedication to making scien- tions, strategic alliances and partnerships as an
tific advances that can translate into improved integral component of our R&D strategy.
health opportunities for a broad spectrum
of citizens globally. MRL continues to build on our long history of
PETER S. KIM, Ph.D. bringing novel medicines to patients, and MRL
Evolving scientific and medical knowledge offers scientists are passionate about their goal of discov-
Merck Executive Vice President, great opportunities, and we are investing in novel ering and developing innovative medicines that
and President of areas and innovative technologies that could lead address major unmet medical needs.
Merck Research Laboratories to future breakthroughs. This is demonstrated by

MRL’s business model is dedicated to making

« scientific advances that can translate into improved
health opportunities…

development of MRL scientific strategy R&D IMPACT to the approximately 11,000 people

or operations from discovery through AND PERFORMANCE behind the life-enhancing discoveries
late-stage development.This procedure Medicines discovered and developed of Merck Research Laboratories, we
provides a consistent approach that ensures by Merck scientists save and improve are among the world’s most innovative
compliance with applicable laws, regula- countless lives around the globe. Thanks institutions in the medical sciences for
tory requirements and Merck policies. producing first-in-class medicines.


GLOBAL 2008 2007 2006 2005

Merck’s investment in R&D programs (US$B)* 4.8 4.9 4.8 3.8

Number of people employed in the Company’s research activities 11,000 11,700 11,400 12,400
Number of medicines and vaccines in pipeline (Phase I–III) 47 49 57 58
and products under regulatory review
Initiated licenses for new technologies† 46 55 53 N/R
Filed U.S. patent applications 216 200 227 N/R

Number of products approved 1 2 5 2

Percentage of top 20 global burdens of illness addressed by our 53‡ 60 N/A N/R
products and pipeline (as defined by WHO and excluding accidents,
premature birth and self-inflicted injuries)

* Research activities and investments include all Merck divisions.

† Includes acquisitions, research collaborations, and preclinical and clinical compounds.
‡ The decrease in 2008 is due mainly to the changing nature of the Global Burden of Disease as defined by WHO.

Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s Disease Atherosclerosis

V950 MK-0249 MK-0524A, MK-0524B,
MK-0859 (anacetrapib)
Cancer Anemia Cancer
MK-0752, MK-1496, MK-1775, MK-2578 MK-8669 (ridaforolimus)
MK-0226, MK-4827, MK-5108,
MK-8033, V934/V935
Cardiovascular Atherosclerosis Diabetes
MK-3614 MK-1903 MK-0431C
Diabetes Cancer HPV
MK-4074 MK-0646 V503
Endrocrine Cardiovascular Migraine
MK-6913 MK-0736, MK-6621† (vernakalant [oral]) MK-0974 (telcagepant)
Infectious Disease Diabetes Ophthalmology
MK-3281 MK-0893, MK-0941, MK-8245 MK-2452 (tafluprost)
Neutropenia Infectious Disease Osteoporosis
MK-4214, MK-6302 MK-3415a, MK-7009, V419, V710 MK-0822 (odanacatib)
Pain Insomnia
MK-4409 MK-4305
Psychiatric Disease Osteoporosis
MK-8368 MK-5422
Psychiatric Disease
MK-0594, MK-5757, MK-8998
Respiratory Disease
MK-0476C, MK-0633
MK-2866 (ostarine)

* Merck’s most recent pipeline data can be found at

† An affiliate of the Company has exclusive rights outside of the United States, Canada and Mexico to vernakalant (IV) for rapid conversion of acute atrial
fibrillation to normal heart rhythm. On July 26, 2009, the Company submitted a Marketing Authorization Application to the European Medicines Agency
seeking marketing approval for vernakalant (IV) in the EU.

10 In 2008, we advanced 31 candidates to

the next clinical development stage. As
of February 15, 2009, we had 47 candi-
dates in Phase I–III development, nine
» CANCIDAS, a novel drug for the
treatment of fungal infections,
received approval for expanded use in
pediatric patients aged three months
is the number of patents we file in the
United States. In 2008, Merck filed
216 original U.S. patent applications. The
number of U.S. patents granted to Merck
of which were in Phase III. to 17 years with indicated fungal during that same period was 146. Many
infections, in July 2008. of these patents were related to com-
In 2008, Merck gained U.S. approval for pounds in various stages of development.
» GARDASIL, for the prevention of vul-
one new medicine and expanded the
var and vaginal cancers caused by HPV
use of one medicine and one vaccine: Merck’s research pipeline continues to
types 16 and 18, in September 2008.
grow as we accelerate our discovery
» EMEND for Injection, for the pre-
efforts. The chart above illustrates the
vention of chemotherapy-induced TREDAPTIVE (CORDAPTIVE in
status of our pipeline as of July 15, 2009.1
nausea and vomiting was approved by Latin America), a lipid-modifying therapy
the FDA in January 2008. EMEND for patients with mixed dyslipidemia and
for Injection provides a new option for primary hypercholesterolemia, has been
day one, as a substitute for EMEND approved in 42 countries, including the CAPABILITIES AND RESULTS
taken orally, as part of the recom- European Union, as of August 2009. It is We believe that drug development is not
mended three-day regimen. Prior currently being launched in international an effort that can be successfully driven
to the FDA decision, on January 11, markets and remains investigational in the by an individual or just one company.
2008, the European Union (EU) United States. Most cases of true innovation come
granted marketing approval for from robust collaboration amongst indi-
EMEND for Injection, known as Our dedication to basic research is a viduals with diverse backgrounds and
IVEMEND in the EU, an action critical component of our research mis- capabilities joined together by the idea
that applies to all 27 EU countries sion and overall philosophy. One measure of changing the course of human health.
as well as Norway and Iceland. of the effectiveness of our basic research MRL recognizes advancements in scien-
programs and of our innovation capacity tific knowledge external to Merck and
we are vigilant in leveraging, licensing
» Genetic Research: Genetic research examines how variations in research into the biology of animal and human stem cells for more
the system of human biomolecules – such as DNA, RNA and than a decade, because we believe that this could help identify
proteins – affect disease and an individual patient’s response to important new medicines and therapies for treating or curing
drugs. The advent of DNA sequencing methodology and other diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and cancer. Merck is opposed
advances in biomedical technology have made it practical to to the reproductive cloning of human beings.
initiate studies that attempt to understand which genetic deter-
minants cause a disease or drug response. Merck scientists have » Animal Research: To discover, develop, manufacture and market
a strong commitment to understanding how genes work and how innovative medicines and vaccines that treat and prevent illness,
they are linked to diseases and drug treatments. laboratory animal research is indispensable for scientific and
regulatory reasons. Merck is dedicated to the ethical and respon-
» Regenerative Medicines Research: Some of the most advanced sible treatment of all animals used in the development of medi-
scientific technologies in regenerative medicine involve animal or cines and vaccines.
human embryonic stem cells or stem cells developed through
somatic cell nuclear transfer. Merck has been conducting For more information go to

and acquiring new technologies and discovery pipeline. The EBR portfolio in December 2008 Merck announced
compounds that are consistent with our includes partnerships worldwide, and a new division – Merck BioVentures
R&D strategy. drug discovery programs in all six of (MBV). This division is aimed at
Merck’s franchise areas, with a goal developing biosimilar products that
The majority of our research invest- of delivering 25 percent of the early will capitalize on the upcoming patent
ment is in our in-house research but pipeline from external sources of sci- expirations of many currently-marketed
we are also committed to working ence within three to five years. More at: biologic therapeutics. It is anticipated
with strategic partners who can help that biosimilars will offer great value
us achieve our research and financial and improved access to these classes
objectives, particularly in view of an Our external alliances range from tar- of medicines.
increasingly challenging regulatory and geted acquisitions to research collabora-
commercial environment. These external tions, licensing preclinical compounds SCIENTIFIC PARTNERSHIPS
collaborations are a fundamental and and clinical compounds and technology The sharing of ideas across scientific
ongoing component of our research transactions. In 2008, Merck signed disciplines enables Merck to continue to
and development strategy. 46 external agreements to leverage build on our culture of innovation. We
innovative science that is conducted encourage our scientists to collaborate
To this end, in 2007 Merck established outside of Merck. with peers at the top private and public
our External Basic Research (EBR) research institutions and to share the
division, MRL’s newest, and virtual, As we continue to expand and diversify results of their research outside of Merck
laboratory. Focused explicitly on exter- Merck’s scientific portfolio, we anticipate through publications and participation
nal sources of science and innovation, that our treatments will include not only in professional meetings.
EBR is developing and implement-
ing a strategy to expand the scope and
size of Merck’s early pipeline through
collaborations with external partners.
Like MRL’s other research sites, EBR
medicines and vaccines derived from
chemistry, but also biological medicines, In addition, Merck collaborates with
which are large molecules produced
using living organisms. In order to
leverage our unique capabilities for
external researchers and other members
of the pharmaceutical industry by par-
ticipating in selected scientific consortia.
contributes to all stages of Merck’s biosimilar products and novel biologics, Consortia are an important mechanism IN ACTION

Merck BioVentures expects to have a well-diversified product port- regulatory as well as commercial advantages compared to working
folio across many clinical indications; we are committed to having at with mammalian cells, since it will make it easier for us to control
least five biosimilar products in late-stage development in 2012 and and assure quality. The ability to precisely characterize our proteins
to launching at least six biosimilar products between 2012 and 2017. will be important to payors, physicians and patients – providing
The Company has announced its plans to invest over $1.5 billion in added choices from the available products for a given indication.
Merck BioVentures by 2015. The experience we are gaining with bio-
similars and the proprietary technology that we continue to estab-
lish will further enhance our launch into novel biologics as well. The regulatory landscape for biosimilars is still evolving. Because
of the complexity of biologics, there exist regulatory concerns
about a simple generic-type biosimilar approval process. We under-
A critical component of Merck’s entry into biosimilars was enabled stand these concerns and, therefore, our strategy is to conduct
by the acquisition of a New Hampshire-based company named a thorough development program, including a complete preclinical
GlycoFi in 2006. Through the GlycoFi acquisition, Merck obtained a toxicology package and Phase III clinical studies for each of our
strong intellectual property position for the production of protein biosimilars, and submit Biologic License Applications to obtain
therapeutics, including monoclonal antibodies and vaccines, that approval. We will, of course, adapt our approach as new legal
are of a particular glycoform and constitute new compositions. We requirements are implemented.
believe that the yeast-based platform may provide major scientific,
Almost 30 million people worldwide are affected by Alzheimer’s
disease, and this is estimated to quadruple to 120 million by 2050.2
Because people with Alzheimer’s disease become unable to care for
themselves and require extensive assistance for numerous years,
the economic impact on health and social systems is significant and
growing. There is currently no cure for Alzheimer’s and other forms
of dementia. The few existing treatments can only improve symp-
toms or slow their progression in some people. More research is
essential to fight this disease.
In France, the Government has identified Alzheimer’s as a national
priority, launching a National Alzheimer’s Plan (2008–2012), and
establishing the Foundation for Scientific Cooperation on Alzheimer’s
Disease and Related Conditions to set up a national network of excel-
lence in Alzheimer’s research and treatment.
MSD France is a founding member of this Foundation and has com-
mitted $5 million over five years to its financing. The Company will disease progression, and will help identify other ways to make
also share research and provide advisory scientific support to the improvements in patients’ quality of life. Merck will also benefit
National Alzheimer’s Plan. from broader perspectives that can help inform our own research
We believe that this public/private initiative will foster research into agenda and plans.
novel diagnostic methods and treatments that could prevent or halt


Merck is a charter member of the Critical Path Institute’s Predictive Administration to support the qualification of seven biomarkers
Safety Testing Consortium (PSTC), and a leader in subsequently for monitoring certain specific acute drug-induced kidney injuries
setting and delivering the group’s objectives. This consortium with markedly improved performance characteristics over previ-
established five working groups to identify and evaluate safety ous measures (blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine).
biomarkers that can be used to help bridge animal toxicology stud- This submission also served to establish a standardized process
ies and early human trials. The first example of the consortium’s with regulatory authorities that paves the way for subsequent safety
success has been the data recently provided by the PSTC to the biomarker qualifications.
European Medicines Evaluation Agency and U.S. Food and Drug

by which researchers can work together Organization (WHO). More at: treatment of onchocerciasis (river blind-

12 on nonproprietary scientific challenges

that are common to all parties. For more
information, see box above.

Working with numerous partners over
many years, Merck has research pro-
grams relating to significant burdens of
illness in the developing world, includ-
ness), see p. 20. In 2009, Merck and
DNDi (Drugs for Neglected Diseases
initiative) entered into a collaborative
agreement to facilitate the discovery
and development of safe, effective, and
RESEARCH INTO DISEASES ing malaria, tuberculosis, diarrheal affordable therapies for neglected
PREVALENT IN THE disease, cervical cancer, and HIV and tropical diseases (NTDs). For more
AIDS (including for pediatric use). infor mation, see p. 20.
Overall, Merck’s R&D is closely aligned
with global needs, and addresses more
developingworld. CLINICAL RESEARCH AND
than half of the global burdens of DISCLOSURE OF RESULTS
Merck’s research has also resulted in Patient safety is our highest prior-
illness as defined by the World Health
MECTIZAN® (ivermectin) for the ity. Merck conducts clinical trials


GLOBAL 2008 2007 2006

Number of clinical trials per year registered at* 139 160 98

Phase II–V clinical trials initiated*†‡ 36 45 43
(in number of countries) (62) (54) (49)
Manuscripts of clinical trial results and related papers submitted 235 172 172
to peer-reviewed journals

* Prior year data have been adjusted since reporting last year due to a change in methodology.
† Phase V trials are conducted to determine new uses for existing products and/or broader health and economic outcomes.
‡ We have modified this KPI from last year to report clinical trials initiated vs. clinical trials conducted.
» Pediatric Formulations and Indications: Where appropriate, we are laws and regulations and Merck’s own Code of Conduct and
conducting clinical trials and seeking approval for pediatric indi- related policies. For more information go to Contributions at:
cations and age-specific formulations. For a listing of all of our
pediatric clinical trials in Phases I–IV, go to
» Contract Research Organizations: Before agreeing to work with an
» Informed Consent: Merck requires assurance that subjects and/ outside Contract Research Organization (CRO), Merck performs
or their legal representatives understand the procedures, use rigorous assessments and due diligence audits to ensure that the
and disclosure of personal health information, use of biological CRO complies with Good Clinical Practice (GCP) standards and is
samples, and risks/benefits involved in a clinical study, and that aligned with Merck’s own Code of Conduct. Merck performs peri-
their participation is voluntary. Informed consent is obtained odic audits of all existing CROs with which we do business. If we
prior to initiation of any clinical study procedures. In the case identify violations of the contract or GCP, Merck works with the
that a prospective clinical study participant cannot read the CRO on a corrective action plan. If improvements are not made
form, the consent form may be read by a patient advocate, with within a defined time period or if repeat violations occur, Merck
consent documented and witnessed. More information at: will terminate work with the CRO.
» Compassionate Use Programs: Merck has a new procedure for a
» Working with External Collaborators: Merck supports academic compassionate use program that recognizes the importance of
and community-based physicians and researchers in expanding providing access to new treatments under development to cer-
clinical and scientific knowledge and in improving the under- tain patients. Merck may conduct a compassionate use program
standing of the appropriate use of Merck products. After evaluat- under the following circumstances: the disease is life-threatening
ing requests, Merck provides the external scientific community or severely debilitating; no alternative treatments are available
with drug, funding and/or human resources, in accordance with for patients; a patient is not eligible for a clinical trial; and a
marketing authorization application is planned in the future.

worldwide; we rigorously study our Good Clinical Practices (ICH–GCP) In response to physicians’ and patients’
products, working with regulators and standards. More information on clinical requests for improved information, Merck
healthcare professionals over many years trial conduct and governance at: registers clinical trials at www.Clinical
to characterize the efficacy and safety and has been posting results of
profiles of our medicines and vaccines clinical trials at the site since October 2008.
(for more information on safety issues, Merck is committed to the timely Prior to December 2008, Merck
see p. 28). registration of clinical trial information posted results of clinical trials to
and disclosure of trial results – regard- This
Merck’s clinical trials, fundamental to less of their outcome. We believe that provides patients and physicians with
the development of innovative medi- clinical trial registries serve an important information about ongoing clinical trials
cines and vaccines, adhere to laws and function for patients and their healthcare that are open and recruiting patients
regulations for the protection of human providers to learn about and gain access and ensures that researchers who analyze,
subjects, including the International to relevant clinical trials of experimental report or publish the results of clinical

Conference on Harmonization – treatments or preventative agents. trials have timely information about



0 10 20 30 40

United States


Asia Pacific

Latin America

Central and 2006

Eastern Europe
South Africa 2008

* Phase V trials are conducted to determine new uses for existing products and/or broader health and economic outcomes.
In 2006, MISE launched an international program in the tsunami-
ravaged areas of Thailand, in conjunction with MSD Thailand, the
Kenan Institute Asia, and the Thai Ministry of Education. Known
as the Inquiry-based Science and Technology Education Program
(IN-STEP) and launched in Phang-nga with a $500,000 commitment
from Merck, the three-year initiative seeks to improve student per-
formance in science through inquiry-based learning, and to develop
a proven model for the Ministry of Education to replicate nationwide.
Since the program began, a team of MISE staff and educators
from U.S. partner school districts and organizations has worked
with local experts in Thailand to translate and adapt instructional
materials from the United States that are consistent with Thailand’s
educational reform program. To date, the initiative has trained more
than 125 Thai educators on these instructional materials. Thirty-six
of the Thai teachers who received the training have used their new
knowledge to teach workshops co-designed with IN-STEP staff.
In addition to the formal workshops, MSD Thailand has organized
employee volunteers to assist teachers in the classroom; to date,
more than 40 employees have participated.

our medicines and vaccines. Over ZETIA, with atorvastatin, the active HPV vaccine, for the new indication
290 Merck clinical trial results were ingredient in Lipitor, as another for use in males to prevent external
posted on treatment option for patients with genital lesions.
through December 2008. high cholesterol.
In addition, we are committed to pub- On June 5, 2009, Merck reported that AND PRIORITIES
lishing the results from confirmatory the preliminary results for the pivotal » Merck will continue to grow its
clinical trials in peer-reviewed journals. Phase III study of rolofylline (MK-7418) pipeline, with a focus on research-
In 2008, Merck submitted 235 manu- showed that rolofylline did not meet the ing and developing first-in-class or
scripts of clinical trial results and related primary or secondary efficacy endpoints, best-in-class medicines and vaccines
papers to such journals. and that while Merck will continue to in targeted areas according to our
analyze the data with outside experts, R&D agenda.
Merck supported the revisions to the Company will not file applications » For the longer term, we are commit-
the Pharmaceutical Research and for regulatory approval this year. ted to having at least five biosimilar
Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) products in late-stage development

14 Principles on Conduct of Clinical Trials

and Communication of Clinical
Trial Results that were adopted in
April 2009. We continually assess
the changing global requirements
and update our clinical processes and
On April 21, 2009, Merck announced
a delay in the U.S. filing of telcagepant
(MK-0974), an investigational treatment
for acute migraine. A new drug applica-
tion is no longer expected to be filed
with the FDA in 2009. A new timeline
in 2012, and to launching at least
six biosimilar products between 2012
and 2017.
» We will continue to expand our
engagement with public and private
practices to ensure the Company is will be developed as additional informa- entities such as academic institutions
compliant. For more information, tion is available. and NGOs, to understand and sup-
go to: port research priorities and oppor-
In July 2009, the FDA approved an tunities, including for developing
PROGRESS IN 2009 expanded indication for ISENTRESS, world diseases.
In 2009, we stated our intention to file our integrase inhibitor for the treat-
three new drug applications with the ment of HIV-1 infection, that includes FOSTERING
U.S. Food and Drug Administration: treatment-naïve patients. Prior to this, SCIENCE EDUCATION
in October 2007, the FDA had granted Fostering the next generation of sci-
» MK-7418, rolofylline, a potential first- ISENTRESS accelerated approval for entific leaders is a key part of Merck’s
in-class selective adenosine A1 antago- use in combination with other anti- overall commitment to science and
nist being evaluated for the treatment retroviral medicines for the treatment innovation. It is essential for the sustain-
of acute heart failure of HIV-1 infection in adult patients ability of our business to have access to
» MK-0974, telcagepant, our new, first- who have evidence of viral replication the best-trained scientific minds globally,
in-class oral calcitonin gene-related and HIV-1 strains resistant to mul- and it is essential for the economic
peptide receptor antagonist, which tiple antiretroviral agents (treatment- development and well-being of the
represents a new mechanism for the experienced patients). communities in which we operate.
treatment of migraine
We also anticipate regulatory action in Merck has a long history of promoting
» MK-0653C, a combination of 2009 on a supplemental filing submit- science education at the pre-college,
ezetimibe, the active ingredient in ted to the FDA for GARDASIL, our undergraduate, graduate and post-doctoral
2008 2007 2006 2005

Merck investment in MISE (US$M) 3.9 3.4 3.4 3.3

Student enrollment in grades pre-K–8 35,210 37,015 36,244 36,696
(NJ and PA MISE-supported school districts)

Number of participants in the Academy for Leadership 136 N/R N/R N/R
in Science Instruction

levels. We have provided long-term, sus- objectives and make a lasting difference understanding of the fundamentals of
tained support for programs that expand in education reform by committing to leadership and strong classroom science
capacity for training in biomedical and long-term partnerships focused on the instruction. With more than 140 educa-
health sciences. Our support continues specific goals of: tors participating, the Academy is now
today through activities that are driven the primary vehicle for professional
» Developing and delivering research-
through public/private partnerships with development of partnership teachers,
based professional development
local, regional and national partners; rely administrators and district staff, and this
opportunities to enhance teacher
on evidence-based approaches to learn- change will be reflected in increased
knowledge and skills;
ing; and undergo rigorous evaluation. Academy registration as the program
» Providing access to high-quality cur- continues to expand.
At the pre-college level, our key pro- riculum materials and resources;
gram is The Merck Institute for Science One of our major programs in higher
» Building communities within and
Education (MISE), established in 1993 education is our partnership with the
across school districts that are com-
as a non-profit organization dedicated United Negro College Fund (UNCF),
mitted to strengthening science
to improving science education from which established the UNCF/Merck
teaching and learning within and
kindergarten through 12th grade, and Science Initiative in 1995. This ground-
across schools and school districts;
influencing education policy. MISE has breaking program seeks to expand the
made a significant impact on the char- » Promoting local, state and national pool of world-class African-American
acter of teaching and learning science policies that support effective biomedical scientists and, in so doing,
in its partner school districts, according science education. to enhance economic competitiveness
to research performed over a 15-year in the United States. The initiative also
period first by the Consortium for In August 2008, MISE launched the provides Merck with an opportunity
Policy Research in Education (CPRE) Academy for Leadership in Science to recruit from a more diverse pool of
and subsequently by Horizon Research, Instruction, a three-year professional post-doctoral fellows in support of the
Incorporated (HRI). It has become a development program for teachers, Company’s diversity workforce goals.
model for how corporations can support principals and district administrators
the nation’s STEM (science, technology,
engineering, mathematics) education
enabling them to work as school- and
district-based teams, and deepening their

Dr. Robert L. Satcher, Jr., M.D., Ph.D., a chemical engineer who is a UNCF/Merck post-doctoral fellow in 1997. “Historically, we’ve not
investigating a range of compounds that could be used for thera- had much of a commitment in this country to encourage African-
peutics, is a prime example of how the UNCF/Merck Science American talent in the sciences. This fellowship is an important part
Initiative works to support African-American biomedical students. of the solution.”
Dr. Satcher is an orthopedic oncologist who formerly treated
The program’s dedication to mentoring fellows is critical. “Even
patients at Northwestern Medical Center in Chicago, Illinois, and
though I went to a ‘good’ school and had support at home, there
now conducts research on how bone cells respond to physical
was still the potential that I wouldn’t get it right,” Dr. Satcher says.
forces – a subject that led him to become a NASA astronaut so he
“Helping other young scientists realize their potential is key.”
could study it further.
Dr. Satcher is scheduled to be a crew member on the November 2009
“[The UNCF/Merck Science Initiative] provided me support for
Space Shuttle launch to the International Space Station.
research at a critical time in my training,” says Dr. Satcher, who was

1 Candidates shown in Phase III include specific This chart reflects the Company’s current 2 Wimo A. Economic Impact of Dementia.
products. Candidates shown in Phase I, II and research pipeline as of July 15, 2009. This 24th Conference of Alzheimer’s Disease
III include the most advanced compound with chart has been excerpted from the Company’s International, March 26, 2009.
a specific mechanism in a given therapeutic quarterly report on Form 10-Q filed with the
area. Back up candidates are not shown. SEC on August 3, 2009 and should be viewed
along with disclosures in that filing.

Improving Access to
2 Medicines, Vaccines and Health Care

The health and physical well-being of people well as type C strains that are found in indus-
around the world depends on their access to trial countries. Or a final product that has the
drugs and vaccines that can effectively prevent, shelf-life, stability or limited number of required
control and cure diseases. Unfortunately, there is doses to make it a robust, and usable product in
limited research and development investment in low-income country settings where there are few
many tropical diseases such as malaria or dengue, trained medical staff and little health infrastruc-
and therefore little prospect of new drugs being ture in rural areas. Research-based pharmaceutical
available anytime soon to treat these significant companies have a critical role to play in foster-
causes of illness and death. ing the research, development and production of
drugs and other medical products that have a very
There is also limited investment in ensuring that significant health value to the global community,
important medical breakthroughs translate into and not just U.S. or European markets. These
products that can treat different strains of disease firms have the power to literally save millions of JOY PHUMAPHI
or perform effectively in medical conditions in lives, and spur the economic and social develop-
Vice President for
Africa. This requires drug-makers, for example, ment of families and communities worldwide.
to produce meningococcal vaccines that address Human Development,
type A strains commonly found in Africa, as World Bank

Research-based pharmaceutical companies have the

power to save millions of lives, and spur the economic
and social development of communities worldwide.
As a global research-based pharmaceutical company, one of
16 our top corporate responsibility priorities is to accelerate access
to medicines, vaccines and quality health care worldwide.
We are doing this through a three-pronged strategy:
1. Discovering and developing break- 3. Promoting and participating in part- Merck maintains cross-company
through medicines and vaccines nerships with governments, multilat- accountability for our access strategy,
that address major burdens of illness eral organizations, community-based which is approved by our Executive
globally (see p. 8). organizations, other corporations Committee. Merck Research Laboratories
and NGOs to help build healthcare determines therapeutic areas in which
2. Developing long-term business capacity, expand delivery systems and to focus, taking into account three main
strategies and models tailored to the address specific health and develop- criteria: unmet medical needs and global
individual needs and circumstances ment challenges, particularly in the burdens of illness, feasibility in terms
of different countries such that our developing world (see p. 18). of available knowledge and exper-
products reach the patients who can tise, and commercial value. Merck’s
benefit from them wherever they may In addition, we seek to advance access Manufacturing Division is investing in
live, while also supporting the growth to medicines, vaccines and health care a robust, high-quality supply chain, as
of our business. We also engage in through public policy and outreach well as product formulations and packag-
philanthropic activities to support activities that address barriers and chal- ing to meet the diverse needs of all
access to medicines and vaccines as lenges to healthcare delivery. populations, including the elderly,
well (see pp. 20–21). children and developing world popula-
tions. Global Human Health, including
We take very seriously the responsibility that we have, third party for research into possible antiretroviral
as a research-based pharmaceutical company, to both (ARV) prevention strategies.
discover and make available the medicines and vaccines
that can do so much for people around the world.We We have adopted a tiered pricing approach –
also know that access is determined by many inter- one of the first in the industry – for our ARVs in order
related elements, and have taken this into account in to foster greater access to these essential therapies.
our own work and in how we work with others. Through this approach and the efforts of our partners,
approximately 650,000 patients in 131 countries and
We engage in a wide range of public/private territories are being treated with regimens containing
partnerships and other collaborations to spur at least one of Merck’s ARVs.We have now adopted
progress for new approaches for diseases that affect a similar pricing approach for our vaccines for rota-
developing and emerging market countries. This virus and for prevention of cervical cancer, and are
KENNETH C. FRAZIER includes our royalty-free licensing agreement with the only major pharmaceutical company to have
Medicines for Malaria Venture, and our recently- committed to this pricing approach for a vaccine.
Executive Vice President
announced collaboration with the Drugs for
and President, Neglected Diseases initiative to facilitate discovery Sustainable solutions have only come from draw-
Merck Global Human Health and development of safe, effective and affordable ing on the expertise of all stakeholders, and we
therapies. We also have provided a royalty-free remain committed to fulfilling our responsibili-
license for a promising microbicide to another ties, from the bench to the beneficiaries.

We engage in public/private partnerships and other

collaborations to spur progress for new approaches
« for diseases that affect developing and emerging
market countries.
Merck Vaccines and Infectious Diseases, universal access to medicines, and the Merck received WHO prequalification

sets and achieves product access indica- only U.S. pharmaceutical company in for ROTATEQ in October 2008 and for
tors and targets. Merck’s Global Public the top seven. MMR-II (Measles, Mumps, Rubella
Policy and Corporate Responsibility Virus Vaccine Live) in December 2008.
group advocates for reforms and legisla- KEY CONSIDERATIONS In May 2009, GARDASIL was the
tion with both national and international FOR OUR ACTIVITIES first cervical cancer vaccine awarded
authorities that will help expand access In developing business strategies and WHO prequalification. STOCRIN,1
to medicines and health care. The Office models to improve access, Merck CRIXIVAN and ATRIPLA,2 our treat-
of Corporate Responsibility collaborates considers a wide range of policy issues ments for HIV/AIDS, have also received
with senior divisional and regional and how best to address them, and what WHO prequalification. Merck is com-
management on alliance development, actions we can take, either directly or mitted to working with WHO for the
health policy and other issues related in partnership with others, to be most prequalification of ISENTRESS. As it
to global health partnerships and effective in achieving our goals. These is required by the prequalification pro-
access. More on our access strategy at policy issues include: cess, Merck is awaiting the inclusion of ISENTRESS in WHO’s Expression
REGISTRATION AND of Interest and will be ready to submit
Through this approach, Merck has been WHO PREQUALIFICATION the necessary documents.
able to improve access to our medicines Merck is committed to registering
and vaccines throughout the develop- our medicines and vaccines in develop- To increase the transparency of the
ing world and emerging markets. In ing countries and emerging markets in Company’s product registration status, we
June 2008 we were recognized for our parallel with developed countries to the are disclosing registration for ROTATEQ,
efforts when the newly launched Access extent permitted by local regulations; in GARDASIL and our four antiretrovirals
to Medicines Index (ATMI) ranked this connection WHO prequalification (ARVs) and updating this information
Merck No. 3 among the world’s largest is an important step in fostering access. every six months. More details at www.
pharmaceutical companies in promoting
In response to the A-H1N1 influenza outbreaks, Merck has been To help with the outbreak response in Mexico, Merck’s Mexican
in ongoing contact with public health officials and international subsidiary announced a donation of 80,000 doses of PNEUMOVAX23
organizations to determine how best to contribute to the effort to (Pulmovax in Mexico) to Birmex, the state-owned vaccine facil-
combat this potential global health threat. Since many deaths in flu ity of Mexico, for the immunization of healthcare workers in
patients are due to a secondary bacterial infection such as pneumo- affected areas.
nia, Merck also assessed its ability to meet a potential increase in
demand for PNEUMOVAX23, Merck’s pneumococcal vaccine.

RESPONSIBLE PRICING intellectual property protection in devel- EXTERNAL MANUFACTURING

Through our worldwide tiered pricing oping as well as developed countries. Merck is committed to seeking ways to
strategy, Merck is committed to making We recognize the public health flex- reduce the cost of our medicines and
our HIV medicines and vaccines more ibilities contained in the WTO TRIPS vaccines, and thus increase affordability
affordable to more people by applying a agreement. If these exceptions become and access. We work with external
differential pricing policy corresponding the rule, however, then incentives for manufacturers and suppliers to achieve
to countries’ level of development and innovation would be reduced in ways incremental efficiencies and to reduce or
burden of disease. In the least developed that could affect all countries and lead waive the royalty on vaccine doses sold
countries of the world, Merck sells our to a decline in biomedical innovation. in the developing world. In 2008, Merck
ARVs as well as two of our vaccines, reached an agreement with licensing
GARDASIL and ROTATEQ, at prices Merck supports the role of quality partner CSL Limited whereby CSL
at which we do not profit. In middle- generic medicines in healthcare systems agreed to waive Merck’s royalties for
income countries, Merck provides our around the world. While we defend our sales of GARDASIL in the developing
ARVs and vaccines at significantly intellectual property rights vigorously, world to help expand access. CSL’s deci-
reduced prices, taking into account fac- we strive to do so in a manner that does sion to waive the royalties will result in
tors such as relative level of economic not undermine access to medicines in lower prices and is an example of how
development, relative burden of disease, countries where such medicines have industry partners can work together
government commitment to treating its been manufactured and may be sold free to develop sustainable solutions for
population, and the value that Merck of intellectual property rights. vaccine access.
ARVs and vaccines have in the local
marketplace. In high-income countries, In December 2008, a shipment of PRODUCT DONATIONS
we price our products at competitive generic Losartan, the active pharmaceu- In our view, donating medicines and
prices, taking into account the value tical ingredient found in COZAAR, a vaccines is not a sustainable long-term
they provide. We believe that our pricing Merck antihypertension drug, was going solution to the global challenge of access
approach has contributed to improving through the Netherlands on its way to to medicines. However, we recognize
access to our medicines and vaccines, Brazil, and was seized on charges of pat- that millions of patients have an imme-
while also taking into account Merck’s ent infringement. The Dutch Authorities diate need for these products and cannot

need to continue to invest in research, informed Merck, and Merck sent noti- wait for solutions. For that reason,
development and production and to fications of the Dutch patent violation Merck remains committed to donating
provide an attractive return to our share- to the carrier, the manufacturer and the our products through the Merck Medical
holders. More on Merck’s worldwide importer from Brazil. In this case, Merck Outreach Program, the MECTIZAN
pricing strategy at acted within its legal rights to enforce Donation Program and through our
accessdevelopingworld. a valid patent in the Netherlands. As a U.S.-based Patient Assistance Programs.
policy matter, however, we should have We also believe that, in well-defined
PATENTS taken greater consideration of the fact circumstances involving informed
The overwhelming majority of medi- that the shipment was bound for a partnership agreements and attention
cines and vaccines considered essential country in which Merck does not have to sustainability of access, programs
by the WHO are not patented in the patent rights. We have ensured that our involving donated vaccines can help
developing world; yet very few people policies and internal procedures have accelerate access to novel vaccines and
in those countries have access to the been clarified on this point. drugs (see p. 23 for an example related
medicines they need. A complex array to vaccine access in Nicaragua). Merck
of factors create practical barriers to LICENSING is committed to conforming fully to the
access to care.3 Merck considers issuing licenses for WHO Guidelines for Drug Donations
our medicines and vaccines to further and to disclosing the U.S. wholesale
Intellectual property protection provides increase their availability. To grant such value of drug donations per year. See
a critical incentive for research-based licenses, however, we must first be cer- p. 21 for more on these programs.
pharmaceutical companies to invest in tain of both the quality of the licensee’s
the research and development of new product and the ability of the licensee to PUBLIC/PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS
medicines and vaccines. Further, policies provide uninterrupted supply. To date, A critical part of Merck’s access strat-
that support innovation, including R&D Merck has granted royalty-free licenses egy is promoting and participating in
in the life sciences sector, are key drivers for our ARV efavirenz to five South public/private partnerships (PPPs) with
for national economic competitiveness African generic manufacturers. local communities, governments, NGOs,
and social prosperity. For these reasons multilateral organizations and other
we support and advocate for effective corporations to address specific health
The Merck MECTIZAN Donation Program (MDP) is one of the most
significant initiatives undertaken by Merck to help improve access to
medicines in developing countries. Established more than 20 years
ago, the MDP is the longest-running disease-specific drug donation
program and public/private partnership of its kind in history, and is
widely regarded as one of the world’s most successful public/pri-
vate health collaborations.
Onchocerciasis, or “river blindness,” is one of the leading causes of
preventable blindness worldwide, affecting mainly rural areas in
sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. In 1987, Merck announced
that it would donate MECTIZAN, our breakthrough medicine for
the treatment of onchocerciasis, to all who needed it, for as long
as needed, to eliminate the disease as a public health problem. To
facilitate the donation and delivery of MECTIZAN, Merck established
a unique, multisectoral partnership, involving the World Health
Organization (WHO), the World Bank and UNICEF, the Task Force for
Global Health, as well as ministries of health, non-governmental of MECTIZAN for river blindness will reach 100 million treatments
development organizations and local communities. annually by 2010.

In 1998, Merck expanded the Merck MECTIZAN Donation Program In November 2007, public health officials announced that transmis-
to include the prevention of lymphatic filariasis (LF), commonly sion of river blindness had been halted in Colombia, marking the
referred to as elephantiasis, in African countries where the disease first time that the disease has been eliminated as a public health
co-exists with river blindness. problem on a country-wide basis anywhere in the world. In 2008,
it was announced that 31 percent of the formerly at-risk population
Since the program began, Merck has donated more than 2.5 billion
in the Americas is no longer at risk of contracting the disease. The
tablets of MECTIZAN for river blindness, with nearly 700 million
success of the program in Latin America means that 74,476 people
treatments approved since 1987. The program currently reaches
in 190 communities are now free of the threat of river blindness,
more than 80 million people through river blindness programs
and signals the potential for a future free of river blindness in all
in Africa, Latin America and the Middle East (Yemen) annually.
of the Americas. In a promising development toward elimination of
Additionally, 300 million treatments for lymphatic filariasis (LF)
river blindness in Africa, WHO’s department of Tropical Disease
have been approved, with nearly 90 million treatments approved in
Research is conducting studies to determine endpoints to stopping
2008 alone.
treatment with MECTIZAN in certain areas of West Africa.
To date, Merck has invested more than $35 million dollars in direct
More on the MDP, its performance and impacts at
financial support for the MECTIZAN Donation Program, in addition
to $3.9 billion worth of tablets. We estimate that Merck’s donation

and development challenges beyond around the world, including the African IMPROVING ACCESS IN THE
those which Merck can directly control.
We have five decades of experience in
developing PPPs to build healthcare
capacity and expand delivery systems.
The best known of these programs is the
Merck MECTIZAN Donation Program
Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnerships,
that are helping to prevent and treat
HIV/AIDS, other chronic condi-
tions and vaccine-preventable illnesses.
Information on specific partnership
programs can be found throughout this
Merck has an ethical responsibility –
and the ability – to help accelerate
access to our medicines and vaccines in
least developed countries where access
(see box above), the first large-scale, report and on
is most lacking. In middle-income
comprehensive global health initiative of
countries and emerging markets,
its kind. Merck has applied our experi-
we are undertaking opportunities to
ence with the MECTIZAN Donation
expand our business, while at the same
Program to programs and partnerships
time providing our medicines and


GLOBAL 2008 2007 2006 2005

Number of Merck products for which not-for-profit prices are 6 6 2 2

offered to least developed countries
Millions of treatments approved for river blindness through the 174.2 128 118 114
MECTIZAN Donation Program (at three tablets per treatment)
Product donations (US$M)*† 766 766 768 979
(% in the developing world) (77) (79) (58) (45)

* We value our product donations based on the U.S. wholesale price. Decrease in product donations is due in large part to decline in patient enrollment in our
corporate U.S. Patient Assistance Program attributed in part to an increasing number of patients with prescription drug coverage (including through the
Medicare Prescription Drug Program, which began in January 1, 2006).
† Includes Merck Medical Outreach Program (including ACHAP), MECTIZAN Donation Program and Merck U.S. Patient Assistance Program.
Emerging markets will continue to provide significant growth Korea, Russia, Turkey, Poland and Brazil. Merck is committed
opportunities for Merck. We are on track to achieve our goal of to creating and leveraging business opportunities in an innova-
$2 billion in sales from emerging markets by 2010, and we are tive, responsible and sustainable manner that will drive revenue
determined to be among the top five pharmaceutical companies growth in emerging markets.
in the markets we are focusing on, which include China, India,

vaccines to new patients in a fair and In 2008, Merck began supporting partnerships in infectious disease areas
responsible manner. Mothers2Mothers (m2m), an orga- that enable innovation in diseases of
nization that addresses prevention of the developing world.
HEALTHCARE CAPACITY-BUILDING mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT)
Merck recognizes that human resource by employing mothers living with HIV In January 2008, Merck and other phar-
capability-building is a major factor (‘Mentor Mothers’) as peer educa- maceutical companies agreed to provide
in addressing global health challenges. tors and professional members of the financial support for the WHO/TDR
For this reason, we are engaged in a healthcare team, in public health facili- Partnership Network (Special Program
number of initiatives to address health- ties in Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Rwanda, for Research and Training in Tropical
care capacity-building in the developing South Africa, Swaziland and Zambia. By Diseases (TDR)), an independent global
world, focusing specifically on health- the end of 2008, m2m had expanded to program of scientific collaboration.
care training. For example: a total of almost 500 sites across Africa, Potential collaboration involves industry
employing 1,400 women living with grants to scale up TDR’s network
In 2009, with support from The Merck HIV/AIDS as mentors and reaching infrastructure for (1) maintaining capaci-
Company Foundation, the Earth more than one million people. ties for drug testing in cell and animal
Institute at Columbia University models; (2) maintaining its database
launched a community health worker In addition, since 2003 Merck has of drug targets and information on
training program to strengthen com- helped increase the capacity of national known “drug-ability” of the targets; and
munity health services for over immunization programs through the (3) evaluation and feedback to collabo-
400,000 people in ten African coun- Merck Vaccine Network – Africa rating institutions.
tries as part of the Millennium Villages (see p. 23). For more on Merck’s health-
project ( care capacity-building activities in the In 2009, Merck and the Drugs for
The initiative aims to advance the developing world, go to www.merck. Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi)
development of a professional cadre of com/cr/healthcarecapacity. entered into a collaborative agreement
approximately 800 community health to support the discovery and develop-
workers to fill a critical gap in primary DEVELOPING WORLD ment of improved treatments for a wide
healthcare provision for rural communi- RESEARCH INITIATIVES range of neglected tropical diseases
ties throughout Africa. Merck has a long history of both in- (NTDs). Merck will contribute small
house research and external research molecule assets and related intellectual


One of the ways in which Merck measures its access performance » Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases (Goal 6)
is in relation to progress on the UN Millennium Development
» For more than 20 years, Merck has been at the forefront of the
Goals (MDGs). We believe that the private sector, including the
effort to respond to the HIV and AIDS pandemic, discovering
research-based pharmaceutical industry, has an important
and developing innovative treatments for the disease.
role to play in contributing to the achievement of the MDGs, par-
ticularly those focused on health. Listed below are just some » Since March 2001, Merck has had in place a differential pric-
of Merck’s contributions with regard to the healthcare-related ing policy whereby infected people in those countries hard-
MDGs. More at: est hit by the HIV and AIDS pandemic and least able to afford
treatment can obtain Merck ARVs at prices at which Merck
» Reducing Childhood Mortality by 2015 (Goal 4)
makes no profit.
» Merck has developed and manufactured pediatric vaccines
» Through programs like the African Comprehensive HIV/AIDS
to help protect children from many of the most common and
Partnerships and our work in China and elsewhere, Merck has
serious childhood diseases including chickenpox, measles,
helped to establish trailblazing programs to address HIV and
mumps, rubella, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis
AIDS in countries around the world.
A and B, rotavirus and human Papillomavirus (HPV).
» Developing Public/Private Development Partnerships to Improve
» We participate in numerous public/private partnerships
Access to Medicines in Developing Countries (Goal 8, Target 4)
focused on improving childhood mortality and building capac-
ity in immunization services to prevent childhood diseases, » Merck has long been a pioneer in developing public/private
such as the GAVI Alliance, the Merck Vaccine Network – Africa, partnerships to foster access to medicines and vaccines in
and the ROTATEQ Access Partnership. developing countries around the world. A prime example is
the Merck MECTIZAN Donation Program, which is widely
regarded as one of the world’s most successful public/
private partnerships.
property via a non-exclusive, royalty- countries to help protect women from and health care in the developing world,
free license to DNDi to conduct early HIV. The compound is the fourth we Merck is engaged in a number of high-
development programs for drug candi- have granted to IPM since 2005. level fora, including The Medicines
dates for the treatment of NTDs, with Transparency Alliance (MeTA). Estab-
the primary goal of manufacture and For more on Merck’s research efforts lished by the U.K. Department for
distribution of drug therapies at low cost in relation to developing world International Development in 2008, the
to the public sector in resource-poor needs, go to aim of MeTA is to build transparency
countries. Merck and DNDi will share cr/researchpriorities. and accountability around the selection,
joint intellectual property on drug can- procurement, sale and distribution of
didates generated through early develop- RESPONDING TO IMMEDIATE NEEDS essential medicines. Merck also served as
ment, and Merck will retain the option To meet humanitarian assistance needs a member of the Global Fund Technical
to undertake late clinical development in the developing world and to support Working Group (TWG) on In-Kind
and registration of drug candidates. disaster relief and emergency situa- Donations, which was commissioned by
tions worldwide, the Merck Medical the Global Fund on HIV/AIDS, TB and
In March 2009, Merck and Medicines Outreach Program (MMOP) is a critical Malaria to examine the potential advan-
for Malaria Venture (MMV), a not-for- vehicle through which Merck helps tages and concerns associated with the
profit virtual research and development expand access to medicines and vac- Global Fund’s acceptance of donations
organization dedicated to reducing the cines. The scope of the MMOP varies of in-kind goods.
burden of malaria, announced a licens- from year to year and is influenced by
ing agreement for an investigational changing medical needs in develop- To contribute to the debate on research
drug candidate for the treatment of ing countries, the quantity of Merck in neglected tropical diseases and other
malaria in the developing world. Merck, medicines available for donation, and the diseases prevalent in the developing
whose researchers discovered the can- random nature of natural and man-made world, Merck has participated in numerous
didate, has granted MMV an exclusive, disasters. In conducting the MMOP, discussions, including the 2008 Infectious
royalty-free license to pursue develop- Merck adheres to the World Health Diseases Summit in Washington, D.C.,
ment of the investigational candidate Organization’s (WHO) Guidelines for which focused on leveraging private-
for the treatment of malaria in malaria- Drug Donations. sector skills for health system development
endemic countries. Merck retains the and capacity-building; the 2008 Partnering
option to become MMV’s development In 2008, Merck donated $43.4 mil- for Global Health forum, organized by
partner upon completion of the first lion in market value of medicines Bio Ventures for Global Health and the
Phase II clinical trial of the candidate; and vaccines through well-established Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO)
at the same time Merck has committed partnerships to help patients throughout and sponsored by the Bill & Melinda
not to profit from its sale in malaria- the developing world. These dona- Gates Foundation; and the Global
endemic countries. tions supported sustained chronic-care Ministerial Forum on Research for
health programs in Central Asia; enabled Health – Mali in November 2008.
In addition to Merck’s own research immunization programs in Central
efforts in HIV/AIDS, we have entered and Southeast Asia, the Caribbean and Merck has been a founding partner and
into partnerships with other researchers Africa; provided disaster assistance in active participant in several industry
and scientific organizations to help Myanmar, India, Honduras and the and multi-stakeholder efforts to promote
accelerate the search for treatments U.S.; and reached many thousands policies to improve access to medicines
and possible cures. Most recently, in
March 2008, reflecting the Company’s
ongoing commitment to finding ways
to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS, Merck
granted the International Partnership
more worldwide through the ongoing
medical programs of our partner private
voluntary organizations. More on
and vaccines in the developing world.
For more information, go to www.merck.


bearing, non-exclusive license to ON ACCESS TO MEDICINES MARKET COUNTRIES
develop, manufacture and distribute a IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD » We are on track to achieve our goal of
novel ARV compound (L’644) for use To inform the public policy discourse $2 billion in sales from emerging mar-
as a vaginal microbicide in developing related to access to medicines, vaccines kets by 2010, and we plan to be among


GLOBAL 2008 2007 2006 2005

Number of countries and territories reached by the 115 104 103 98

Merck Medical Outreach Program
Total value of product donations (US$M)* 43.4† 125‡ 46 54
Number of disaster relief efforts assisted 5 6 2 4
Total value of disaster relief contributions (product) (US$M)* 0.872 3.3 2.6 12.2§

* We value our product donations based on the U.S. wholesale price.

† Figure includes the value of donations to the African Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnership (ACHAP).
‡ 2007 was characterized by a large increase in requests from our PVO partners, as well as increased availability of pharmaceuticals and vaccines for their
ongoing humanitarian programs and disaster relief efforts.
§ 2005 was unprecedented in terms of disaster relief and included efforts in the wake of the tsunami that struck Southeast Asia, hurricanes Katrina and Rita,
a major earthquake in Pakistan and floods in Guatemala.
the top five pharmaceutical companies immunization programs are particularly epidemiology from studies conducted
in the markets we are focusing on. critical to the health and economies in 22 countries and in more than
of developing countries – but they are 80,000 infants and children with health
» In 2009, we plan to expand our health
difficult to deliver. Merck continues to authorities, governments, NGOs and
capacity-building portfolio to include
make progress in our mission of prevent- physicians around the world.
new projects and partnerships focused
ing disease and saving lives by bringing
on healthcare worker training in the
forward innovative vaccines, working Also in 2006, Merck introduced
developing world.
with partners to make them accessible to GARDASIL, a vaccine to prevent cervi-
» We will continue our interaction with those who need them around the world, cal, vulvar and vaginal cancers; precan-
external stakeholders to understand and helping to build healthcare capacity cerous or dysplastic lesions; and genital
key research priorities and opportuni- in developing countries. warts caused by the human papilloma-
ties, and to support those with relevant virus (HPV). Cervical cancer is the
expertise and resources where possible. In 2006, Merck introduced ROTATEQ, second most common cause of can-
a vaccine against rotavirus, a disease cer death in women worldwide,
IMPROVING ACCESS whose effects kill nearly 600,000 chil- and greater than 80 percent of these
TO VACCINES dren each year, mainly in the develop- deaths are in the developing world.
AND IMMUNIZATION ing world. By the end of 2008, By the end of 2008, GARDASIL
ROTATEQ was approved in 87 coun- was approved in 109 countries, many
IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD tries, 15 of which are GAVI-eligible under fast-track or expedited review,
Because of gaps in the healthcare infra-
countries. Merck is sharing clinical data of which 23 are GAVI-eligible.
structure and workforce of the develop-
on ROTATEQ and rotavirus disease
ing world, preventive measures such as


GLOBAL 2008 2007 2006 2005

Number of countries where Merck has committed to no-profit 72 72 N/A N/A

prices for ROTATEQ and GARDASIL
Number of low- and middle-income countries using Merck’s 16 11 N/R N/R
vaccines in their public sectors
Number of vaccines approved, registered in number of countries 11 vaccines in 11 vaccines in N/R N/R
114 countries >100 countries
» Number of doses sold worldwide of ROTATEQ, GARDASIL and MMRII 55.9M 46M N/R N/R

» In high human development index (HDI) countries 52.6M 44M N/R N/R

» In medium HDI countries 3.3M 1.6M N/R N/R

» In low HDI countries 43,000 0 N/R N/R

22 » In GAVI countries*

» Number of new country registrations of GARDASIL and

ROTATEQ gobally† (and cumulatively to date)

» In high HDI countries










» In medium HDI countries 11 28 12 0

(51) (40) (12) (0)

» In low HDI countries 1 11 5 0

(17) (16) (5) (0)

» In GAVI countries* 8 21 9 0
(38) (30) (9) (0)

» Partnership data:

» Merck investment in MVN–A (US$) 800,000 1M 400,000 400,000

» Number of healthcare professionals trained through MVN–A 142 97 103 89

» ROTATEQ Access Program (Nicaragua):
» Total doses of vaccines delivered as 1st, 2nd or 3rd dose 329,560 291,797 20,325 N/A
» Total doses of ROTATEQ delivered as 3rd dose (fully-vaccinated child) 106,700 87,611 0 N/A
» Vaccine coverage (% receiving 3rd dose of ROTATEQ) among 81 80 0 N/A
Nicaraguan infants

* GAVI list includes 72 countries that are eligible for funding; this includes countries that are classified as low HDI as well as some countries that are classified
as medium HDI. Fifteen UN member countries are not included in the Human Development Index due to lack of data.
† Prior year data have been adjusted due to a change in methodology.
‡ As of 12/31/08.
Each year rotavirus kills more than 600,000 children under five, rotavirus vaccination that are among the highest in the world. The
mostly in the developing world. In 2006, Merck and the Ministry of Ministry of Health reports that approximately 81 percent of eligible
Health in Nicaragua announced a new public/private partnership at infants in Nicaragua were vaccinated with ROTATEQ in 2008 and
the Clinton Global Initiative through which all eligible infants born that winter hospitalizations for diarrhea and dehydration have been
in Nicaragua in a three-year period would receive free doses of considerably lower than in the past. By the end of 2009, the govern-
ROTATEQ, Merck’s vaccine to help prevent rotavirus. Merck is also ment hopes to achieve an 82–84 percent vaccination rate.
providing technical assistance for the duration of the program, and
In addition to helping Nicaragua protect infants and young children
is working with the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health to strengthen
from rotavirus, this program is adding to the evidence base support-
Nicaragua’s national rotavirus disease surveillance network and
ing introduction of routine rotavirus vaccination in resource-poor
assess the public health benefit resulting from the early adoption
countries, and has helped to inform access decisions in other coun-
and use of a rotavirus vaccine.
tries. More at:
As of April 2009, Merck has provided nearly one million free doses
of ROTATEQ to Nicaragua, and the country has achieved rates of

PARTNERSHIPS TO INCREASE immunization models in resource-poor FUTURE GOALS AND

ACCESS TO VACCINES and other countries. In 2008, more PRIORITIES FOR VACCINES
GAVI ALLIANCE: Merck is a founding than 195,000 doses of GARDASIL were AND IMMUNIZATION
partner in the GAVI Alliance, a public/ approved for donation; the first ship- » As we move towards 2010, Merck
private partnership committed to ments of donated GARDASIL were is looking forward to working with
saving children’s lives and protecting sent to Bolivia, Cambodia and Lesotho international groups such as the GAVI
people’s health by increasing access during the first half of 2009. For more Alliance, WHO, PATH, UNICEF, the
to immunization in poor countries. information, go to Pan-American Health Organization
More at: cr/accessgardasil. (PAHO) and others to facilitate intro-
duction of our rotavirus and human
ROTATEQ ACCESS PARTNERSHIP: Through MERCK VACCINE NETWORK–AFRICA papillomavirus vaccines in the world’s
this program launched in 2006, Merck (MVN–A): As part of our commitment poorest countries.
introduced ROTATEQ in Nicaragua to the GAVI Alliance, in 2003 Merck
» Merck will begin reporting in 2010 the
and enabled the country to establish initiated the Merck Vaccine Network–
number of doses shipped through
rapidly a national rotavirus vaccination Africa (MVN–A), a multi-year phil-
the GARDASIL Access Program.
program to help protect infants from anthropic initiative to help increase
this potentially serious disease. More at: the capacity of national immunization » The ROTATEQ Access Partnership programs in Africa by supporting aca- aims to achieve an 82–84 percent
demic partnerships in the development vaccination rate in Nicaragua by the
GARDASIL ACCESS PROGRAM: of sustainable immunization training end of 2009.
In 2007, Merck made a commit- programs. Since 2003, more than

ment to donate at least three million 510 immunization managers in Kenya, IMPROVING ACCESS TO
doses of GARDASIL, Merck’s cervical Mali, Uganda and Zambia have com- HIV/AIDS TREATMENT
cancer vaccine, to organizations and pleted MVN–A training and returned
institutions in developing countries. to their medical facilities to share their
The GARDASIL Access Program expertise and knowledge with col-
For more than 20 years, Merck has sought
enables applicants from eligible lowest- leagues. For more information, go to
to make a difference in the fight against
income countries to gain operational
HIV/AIDS, discovering and develop-
experience in the design and implemen-
ing innovative treatments for the disease.
tation of HPV vaccination projects,
Today we market four ARVs: CRIXIVAN,
with the goal of supporting the develop-
ment of successful child and adolescent
Since our HIV products first reached the


GLOBAL 2008 2007 2006

Number of patients on Merck ARV therapy – all formulations, all products 653,867* 763,118 701,391
(Percentage in developing world) (76) (91) (93)
Percentage of total patients on Merck ARVs estimated to be children taking 17 15 19
pediatric formulations
Percentage of total patients using Merck ARVs at prices which Merck does not profit 76 82 74
Percentage of total patients using Merck ARVs at significantly discounted prices 9 8 18

Number of countries and territories in which patients are on at least one formulation of 131 135 125
Merck’s ARVs

* Although the 2008 figure represents a decrease to the number of patients on Merck ARVs, it is important to recognize that the number of patients in
developing countries treated with generic ARVs – including those through cooperative efforts with AAI companies – has increased significantly.
In 2005, Merck and the Government of China established the first
large-scale, national comprehensive public/private partnership,
known as the China-MSD HIV/AIDS Partnership (C-MAP), to address
HIV/AIDS prevention, patient care, treatment and support. In sup-
port of China’s Action Plan for Reducing & Preventing the spread
of HIV/AIDS (2006–2010), the partners introduced the project in
Liangshan Prefecture, Sichuan Province, with the aim of developing
a comprehensive model that could be replicated in other provinces.
The Merck Company Foundation has committed $30 million to
support the partnership over five years; the Government of China,
through the leadership of the Ministry of Health, is providing staff,
facilities and equipment. The project is focused on six strategies:
» Raising awareness and reducing discrimination among target
populations through training and education
» Deploying comprehensive, integrated risk-reduction approaches
to reduce HIV transmission among high-risk populations populations, more than 45,000 at-risk individuals, including injec-
tion drug users, commercial sex workers and STD clinic patients
» Establishing a service network to provide consecutive treatment,
have undergone targeted HIV prevention interventions to encourage
care and support to people living with HIV/AIDS
treatment, prevention, HIV testing and counseling through peer
» Providing support to orphans and families affected by HIV to education initiatives. To increase the diagnosis of people living with
alleviate negative social and economic impacts HIV/AIDS and to provide timely counseling and referral services,
» Building capacity of healthcare workers and organizations and C-MAP supported the efforts of Liangshan’s Disease Control Center
developing new anti-HIV strategies and techniques to establish 82 provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC)
sites in 12 counties along with 22 testing and counseling sites for
» Strengthening HIV surveillance, monitoring and evaluation pregnant women in four counties for the prevention of mother-to-
systems and data management and analysis to track program child transmission (PMTCT); nearly 96,000 people, including more
implementation, assess program outcomes, and identify and than 17,000 pregnant women, have received HIV testing/counseling
apply best practices in a timely manner. services through PMTCT sites.
In 2008, C-MAP expanded to cover 62 counties/districts targeting In the first half of 2009, C-MAP continues to implement its 2008 Work
21 million out of 87.5 million total population in Sichuan Province. Plan, which was significantly delayed by the Sichuan earthquake
From 2007 through 2008, C-MAP launched 82 initiatives in sup- that occurred in 2008. In 2009 and 2010, the program will continue to
port of its six core strategies. Through a variety of HIV educational ensure resources are focused in areas of greatest need, and provide
programs, nearly two million people received up-to-date HIV infor- support to solve capacity and manpower issues at local levels.
mation and training. To reduce the infection rate among high-risk

market in 1996, we have worked to expand versus developed counties). As of formulations for its ARVs. Of those
access to them both directly and in partner- December 31, 2008, 653,867 patients being treated with Merck ARVs, as of
ship with others, particularly for patients in in 131 countries and territories were end of year 2008, there were an esti-
countries that are the poorest and hardest being treated with regimens contain- mated 111,471 children using pediatric
hit by the pandemic. ing at least one of Merck’s ARVs. Three formulations, representing 17 percent
out of four (76 percent) – or an esti- of all patients on Merck ARVs. We are
Merck has had an intensive broad-based mated 498,845 patients – obtained these currently engaged in a collaboration
HIV/AIDS clinical research program ARVs in the more than 80 countries in with the National Institute of Allergy
since 1985 that has sought to address which we sell them at a price at which and Infectious Diseases and others on
both treatment and prevention. In Merck does not profit. An additional a study of ISENTRESS in children
addition to Merck’s active research and nine percent received Merck ARVs and adolescents. We are also working
development programs focusing on in countries where they are offered at in partnership with the U.S. President’s
novel ARV drugs, Merck has made a significantly discounted prices. Nine out Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief
significant investment in HIV vaccine of ten patients using Merck ARVs (PEPFAR) Partnership for Pediatric
development. Beyond our own research live in developing countries in Africa, AIDS Treatment to identify scientific
efforts, we have entered into partner- Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean and technical solutions to improve access
ships with other researchers and scien- where the pandemic is having its most to ARV treatment for children living
tific organizations to help accelerate the devastating impact. with HIV/AIDS in resource-limited set-
search for new treatments and innova- tings. For more information on pediatric
tive prevention strategies. For details on Access to affordable HIV diagnostics formulations for our ARVs, see
Merck’s long history of groundbreaking and treatment for children is an urgent
research in this area, go to www.merck. global health priority. According to
com/cr/accesshivaids. UNAIDS, there are approximately PARTNERSHIPS TO IMPROVE
2.1 million children under the age of ACCESS TO ARVS
Merck believes a relevant measure of 15 living with HIV worldwide. As part The most important factors for improv-
the success of our ARV access strategy of the Company’s ongoing commit- ing access to ARVs in the long term are
is the number of patients treated, and ment to the fight against HIV/AIDS, strengthening healthcare infrastructure,
where they are treated (developing Merck has developed certain pediatric ensuring adequate financing for health,
Health literacy means having the skills to make decisions that are supported by health insurers, MSD Switzerland initiated the “Health
good for one’s health.4 For pharmaceutical companies such as Literacy Alliance” in 2006, which advocates for health literacy in
Merck, improved health literacy contributes to better public under- health policy and among the general public.
standing of disease prevention and management, and to building
These activities have raised awareness of the importance of health
stronger, more sustainable health systems able to support contin-
literacy among the public and other stakeholders, and helped
ued healthcare innovation.
ensure the issue was included in draft preventative health legisla-
MSD Switzerland has been working with universities and others tion in 2008.5 Health literacy has also been designated an objective
to support programs to raise health literacy levels in the country. of the Swiss e-health strategy.6 These two important developments
In 2006, MSD sponsored a Swiss Health Literacy Survey which pro- are beginning to provide a legal and institutional framework for
vided the first comprehensive picture of health literacy challenges improving health literacy in the future.
in the country. With Health Promotion Switzerland, a foundation

and helping to build local healthcare CRIXIVAN to Botswana’s national helping to expand the Global Fund’s
capacity through training and support. ARV treatment program for the part- engagement with the private sector
Public/private partnerships have a criti- nership’s duration. In November 2008, through co-investment, involvement
cal role to play in this process, drawing Merck expanded its donation to include in country coordinating mechanisms,
on the complementary expertise of ATRIPLA and ISENTRESS. ACHAP policy development, resource mobi-
all stakeholders – governments, inter- has made a significant contribution to lization and advocacy. We also engage
national agencies, community organiza- key aspects of Botswana’s response to the with stakeholders at scientific and
tions, donors, the private sector, NGOs, HIV/AIDS epidemic and has served as policy events, such as the second Global
patients and others – to identify the a catalyst for the provision of urgently Experts Summit held in Vancouver in
most promising and efficient ways to needed infrastructure, equipment, human February 2009, which aimed to develop
address the impact of HIV/AIDS in resources, training and program support expert consensus on the research needed
a variety of resource-scarce settings. for the Botswana ARV program. The ini- to optimize the individual and societal
Merck is engaged in a number of part- tiative has dramatically reduced mother- benefits of the public health approach to
nerships worldwide, including: to-child transmission and reduced new delivering ARV therapy.
infections among children by 80 percent,
Merck is a founding member of the supply safety. As of April 30, 2009, more RELATING TO HIV/AIDS
AAI, a partnership between UNAIDS, than 126,000 patients were receiving » Merck remains committed to contin-
the WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, the ARV treatment; this is approximately ued R&D investment in new treat-
World Bank and nine research-based 84 percent of the treatment-eligible ments for HIV.
pharmaceutical companies to broaden population, significantly up from less
» We will continue to engage in creative
access while ensuring rational, safe and than five percent when the program
partnerships that address the full range
effective use of medicines for HIV/ began and the highest coverage rate
of factors affecting access to medi-

AIDS. As of September 30, 2008, some in Africa.
cines and the impact of HIV/AIDS in
773,803 patients in developing countries
resource-constrained settings.
were estimated to be taking one or more CHINA-MSD HIV/AIDS PARTNERSHIP
medicines supplied at preferential prices (C-MAP): In 2005, Merck and the
by an AAI company. Although this fig- Government of China established a IMPROVING ACCESS IN
ure is lower than in 2007, it is important large-scale, comprehensive public/ DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
to recognize that the number of patients private partnership to address HIV/AIDS Even in industrialized countries, access
in developing countries treated with prevention, patient care, treatment to medicines can be hindered by lack
generic ARVs – including those through and support (see p. 24). of insurance coverage, bureaucratic
cooperative efforts with AAI com- reimbursement and pricing approval
panies – has increased significantly. A comprehensive summary of Merck’s processes, and government policies that
HIV/AIDS partnerships and programs seek to cut costs but can often limit
AFRICAN COMPREHENSIVE HIV/AIDS can be found at patient and physician choice. We believe
PARTNERSHIPS (ACHAP): In 2000, the hivaidspartnerships. increased access can be achieved through
Government of Botswana, The Merck a strategy that combines pricing our
Company Foundation/Merck & Co., STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT AND products responsibly, and, where neces-
Inc., and the Bill & Melinda Gates PUBLIC POLICY ACTIVITIES sary, donating our products to those
Foundation established ACHAP to sup- Merck maintains an active dialogue who lack healthcare coverage; advocat-
port and enhance Botswana’s response with various stakeholders involved in ing for healthcare reforms that will allow
to the HIV/AIDS epidemic through HIV/AIDS public policy and outreach, citizens greater access to treatment and
a comprehensive approach to HIV/ including NGOs, patient groups, and care; and promoting and participating
AIDS prevention, treatment, care, sup- scientific leaders, through specialized in public/private partnerships to address
port and impact mitigation. Since 2001, advisory boards, targeted feedback chronic and infectious disease and other
The Merck Company Foundation and meetings, and through participation in complex health challenges.
the Gates Foundation have committed various public policy fora and initia-
US$106.5 million to the partnership. tives. As a member of the Private Sector PUBLIC POLICY AND ADVOCACY
In addition, Merck agreed to donate Delegation of the Global Fund since Merck is an active and responsible
its ARV medicines STOCRIN and 2002, Merck has been instrumental in participant in the public dialogue
2008 2007 2006 2005

Number of patients utilizing Merck’s Patient Assistance Program (PAP) 250,285 350,000 540,240 730,000
Number of prescriptions filled under Merck’s PAP (Millions) 1.5 >1.6 >3.4 6.9
Total value of Merck medicines dispensed under Merck’s PAP† (US$M) 174 116.5 326 542
Number of patients enrolled in Merck Prescription Discount Program 6,952 12,334 28,946 82,742

Number of enquiries to Merck’s call center about PAP/discount program 347,557 328,724 526,640 1,025,659

* Decrease in numbers due in part to an increasing number of patients with prescription drug coverage, including Medicare Prescription Drug Program.
† Totals include the Merck Vaccine Patient Assistance Program and are based on the U.S. wholesale price.

on healthcare reform, advocating for promote efficiency and enhance the adult vaccines free of charge to unin-
improving access to medicines, vac- quality of care. To learn more about sured adults age 19 or older who cannot
cines and quality health care, includ- Merck’s advocacy efforts on U.S. health- afford their vaccines.
ing reforms that support our ability to care reform, go to
continue to research and develop new healthcarereform. Merck experienced a 19 percent decline
innovative products, and to promote in patient enrollment in our corporate
access to medicines and quality care. PHILANTHROPIC INITIATIVES U.S. Patient Assistance Program (PAP)
IN THE U.S. from 2007 to 2008; this compares to
In countries with social healthcare sys- While donating medicines and vaccines a 35 percent decrease from the previ-
tems, including most European coun- is not a sustainable solution to the access ous year. Total prescriptions declined
tries and Canada, we understand the challenge in the United States, Merck by 12 percent in 2008, while total value
pressures on governments to improve has several programs which make our of products provided through Merck’s
public health while effectively manag- products available to those who cur- Patient Assistance Programs decreased by
ing limited healthcare resources. In these rently cannot afford them. five percent. The decline is attributed in
countries, we advocate for healthcare part to an increasing number of patients
policies that address the interdependent Through our U.S. Patient Assistance with prescription drug coverage (includ-
goals of ensuring rapid access to new Programs, which began more than ing through the Medicare Prescription
medicines and vaccines for patients who 50 years ago, Merck has provided more Drug Program, which began January 1,
need them, using limited healthcare than 27 million free prescriptions and 2006). Another contributing factor to
resources most efficiently, and support- vaccines, representing a total value usage decline was the removal of one
ing continued innovation and devel- (Wholesale Acquisition Cost) of more Merck product – FOSAMAX – from the
opment of important new treatments. than $1.9 billion over the past seven years. product list in mid-2008 (six months after
More on healthcare reform on p. 47. Effective March 1, 2009, Merck increased patent expiry) once patients had broad
the income limit to the Merck Patient access to lower-cost generic equivalents.

26 In the U.S., Merck advocates for health

system reform that relies on market-
based competition to improve quality,
control costs and continue to encour-
age the innovation that has made the
Assistance Program to enable more
people in need to receive Merck medi- The Merck Prescription Discount
cines for free. Patients now may qualify Program, launched in 2005, is avail-
for the program if their household able to the uninsured regardless of age
income is $43,320 or less for individuals, or income, and offers easy access to
U.S. system deliver some of the best and $58,280 or less for couples or $88,200 or discounts of at least 15 percent on many
most effective health advances and care less for a family of four (previous income Merck medicines.
in the world. We feel reforms should limits were $21,660, $29,140, $44,100,
address not only the issue of cover- respectively). The Merck Vaccine Patient Merck also participates in the Partnership
age but also the need to improve value, Assistance Program provides Merck’s for Prescription Assistance (PPA), the


For more than 100 years, Merck has provided unbiased and inde- is unlimited. The Merck Manual on the web is updated to ensure that
pendently reviewed health information resources to the public the information is as current as possible.
and to healthcare professionals, both directly and through non-
From 2001 through 2008, Merck partnered with the International
profit operations established as independent enterprises. In 1899,
Council of Nurses (ICN) and Elsevier Science, the leading publisher
Merck published the first edition of The Merck Manual, a 192-page
of scientific reference textbooks, to help nurses working in remote
resource book designed to aid physicians and pharmacists. Now in
areas of developing countries gain access to critical quality health-
its 18th edition, The Merck Manual has been translated into 17 lan-
care information. The ICN/Merck Mobile Library Program provided
guages. In 1997, Merck created The Merck Manual – Home Edition to
traveling libraries of health education and reference materials,
provide the benefits of The Merck Manual for the general public. In its
including donated copies of The Merck Manual – Home Edition, in
second edition, more than three million copies have been sold and
African countries. In addition to the ICN/Merck Mobile Library proj-
translated into 14 languages. As part of our commitment to ensur-
ect, Merck has donated 60,000 copies of The Merck Manual to NGOs
ing that all who need and want medical information can obtain it,
for distribution to physicians, nurses and community health workers
Merck provides the content of these and other specialized Merck
throughout Africa.
Manuals on the web for free. Registration is not required, and use
2008 2007 2006

Merck Company Foundation investment in MCAN (US$M) 4.9 4.7 4.6

Subset of children enrolled in cross-site evaluation for clinical outcome across sites 849 63 N/A
Number of children/families who received asthma education through MCAN 1,670 1,144 1,036
Number of healthcare providers who received asthma education through MCAN 308 146 127

Number of community-based events 135 306 112

pharmaceutical industry initiative that asthma healthcare services for children; system reform worldwide to help
brings together America’s pharmaceuti- enhance knowledge about asthma among improve and accelerate access to
cal companies, as well as doctors, patient affected individuals and the general medicines and vaccines.
advocacy organizations and civic groups public; foster asthma-friendly schools and
» IMMUNIZATION: To inform and enable
to help low-income, uninsured patients communities; promote asthma-safe home
customer decisions, we will continue
get free or nearly free brand-name environments; and reduce disparities in
to work with partners to demonstrate
medicines. To date, the PPA has helped childhood asthma outcomes. MCAN
the benefits using our newest vaccines
more than five million patients. More at: supports childhood asthma programs
and to assess immunization program in New York, Los Angeles, Chicago,
effectiveness. Merck believes that out-
Philadelphia and San Juan, Puerto Rico.
comes data from ongoing demonstra-
PUBLIC/PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS The number of children and families
tion projects will continue to show the
IN THE U.S. receiving direct support through MCAN
public health and economic impact of
To complement our donation efforts, is growing steadily. At the same time, the
our vaccines, as well as our medicines.
Merck works in partnership with number of healthcare providers who have
governments, multilateral organizations, received asthma education through the » INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: Merck will
community-based organizations, other program has almost tripled in the last continue to advocate at the national
corporations and NGOs to address three years. For more on MCAN’s activi- and international level for strong intel-
specific health challenges beyond those ties, go to lectual property protection in develop-
over which Merck has immediate and ing and developed country markets,
direct control. THE MERCK ALLIANCE TO REDUCE coupled with growth in our efforts
DISPARITIES IN DIABETES: To address to expand our supply chain through
THE MERCK CHILDHOOD ASTHMA the growing problem of healthcare qualified local business partners as a
NETWORK (MCAN): Established in 2005, disparities in the context of type 2 way to ensure affordable and high-
the Merck Childhood Asthma Network, diabetes in the United States among quality supplies to all of our customers.
Inc., (MCAN), is a non-profit, 501(c)(3) minority, low-income and underserved
» HEALTHCARE CAPACITY: Lack of skilled
organization established to address adult populations, The Merck Company
healthcare professionals will continue
the complex and growing problem of
pediatric asthma in the United States.
Funded by The Merck Company
Foundation, the mission of MCAN is
to support and advance evidence-based
programs that improve the quality of
Foundation launched The Alliance to
Reduce Disparities in Diabetes with
a commitment of $15 million through
2013. More on p. 58.


to limit countries’ ability to diag-
nose and treat disease and provide
ongoing care to citizens. Merck will
continue to work through partner-
ships to help strengthen healthcare
capacity worldwide.
life for children with asthma and their PRIORITIES RELATING TO
families and to reduce, through dis- IMPROVING ACCESS TO » PARTNERSHIPS: We will continue to
semination of effective interventions, pursue public/private partnerships
the burden of the disease on them and
(PPPs) and other collaborations to
society. MCAN supports competi- HEALTH CARE GLOBALLY improve access to medicines and care
tive, peer-reviewed childhood asthma Merck is focused on addressing the fol- in resource-constrained settings; in this
translational research specifically focused lowing priorities: connection, we will ensure all of our
on the adoption of evidence-based » HEALTHCARE REFORM: We will access PPPs have stated targets and effec-
treatment and prevention models that continue to support actively health tiveness measures by the end of 2010.
will improve access to and quality of

1 STOCRIN (efavirenz) is marketed by Bristol- 2 ATRIPLA is marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb Vol 3. San Diego: Academic Press; 2008.
Meyers Squibb under the tradename SUSTIVA and Gilead in the United States, Canada and pp. 204–211.
in the United States, Canada and six European Europe. Merck and Gilead are working to
5 Federal Office of Public Health, Draft law
countries (France, Republic of Ireland, register and distribute ATRIPLA in 106 develop-
on Prevention and Health Promotion, at
Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom). ing countries around the world.
It is commercialized by Merck through its
3 Attaran A. How Do Patents and Economic spolitik/00388/01811/01843/index.
affiliate MSD in all other countries within the
Policies Affect Access to Essential Medicines html?lang=de.
European Union and many countries outside
in Developing Countries? Health Affairs 2004;
the United States. 6 Federal Office of Public Health, eHealth
Strategy, at
4 Kickbusch I and Maag D. Health Literacy. In: krankenversicherung/04108/index.html?
Kris Heggenhougen and Stella Quah, editors lang=de.
International Encyclopedia of Public Health,

Ensuring Confidence in the

3 Safety and Quality of Our Products

A current global challenge to the quality and Trust in medicines and medicines information is critical
safety of medicines is the proliferation of coun- to ensuring patients can benefit from prescribed treat-
terfeits. Appropriate regulations and enforcement ments. Research by the National Health Council has
mechanisms are needed to prevent counterfeit revealed that, while many patients are willing to accept
medicines reaching patients. However, given that a certain amount of risk, the main reason why people
this cannot currently be guaranteed, the risks of do not adhere to prescribed treatments is the fear of
counterfeits should be communicated to patients adverse side effects. Additionally, the International
and the public. Patients should be encouraged to Alliance of Patients’ Organizations (IAPO) has
buy medicines from trusted sources and to report found that patients worldwide believe strongly in
any suspect medicines. Pharmaceutical companies their basic right to participate in decisions about their
can play a valuable role in raising awareness of the health care, and to have full information about diag-
issue and working with patient groups, regulators noses and treatments to make the best decisions.
and others to communicate risks and develop MYRL WEINBERG
strategies to address the problem, including set- A collaborative effort of patient advocacy orga-
President, National Health Council, and
ting appropriate regulations. nizations and private industry on these issues can
improve trust and increase adherence, making for Board Chairman, International Alliance
a healthier population. of Patients’ Organizations (IAPO)

Trust in medicines and medicines information is

critical to ensuring patients can benefit from
prescribed treatments.
Nothing is more important to Merck than the quality and safety
28 of our medicines and vaccines.
before they are marketed. Our clinical
trials conduct adheres to International
Through December 2008, we have
posted the results of over 290 trials on
Although medicines and vaccines have Conference of Harmonization – Good We register
many benefits, they are also associated Clinical Practice (ICH–GCP) and our clinical trials on
with the risk of certain side effects. our clinical trials are regularly inspected and have been posting the results of our
All medicines are associated with side and audited. Merck conducts indepen- trials on this site since October 2008.
effects, but not everyone will experi- dent, periodic audits of the processes, More on p. 13.
ence them. This is why pharmaceutical computerized systems, technology and
manufacturers make relevant risk infor- collaborative partners supporting Merck POST-MARKETING STUDIES
mation about their products available, clinical development. In 2008, there Merck continues to research the
enabling physicians to evaluate the risks were 42 audits to assess compliance with effectiveness and safety profiles of our
as well as the benefits of any treatment Good Clinical Practices (GCP) and products on an ongoing basis. When
in the context of their clinical judgment pharmacovigilance (PV) regulations appropriate, or as required by regulatory
and discuss them with their patients. and guidelines, conducted by regulatory authorities, we conduct several types of
Through this process, physicians and agencies, of Merck or clinical trial studies after approval, including epide-
patients can determine whether a given investigators. None resulted in critical miology studies to understand the types
medicine is right for them. observations and none resulted in of patients utilizing our products as well
the rejection of any clinical study or as examine the effectiveness and safety
CLINICAL TRIALS regulatory filing. profiles of many of our marketed prod-
In accordance with comprehensive ucts as they are used in clinical practice
regulations and our own research poli- in several population-based healthcare
cies, we test our products extensively systems. In 2008, we had eight ongoing
Merck is committed to providing the global commu- to counterfeit activity, raise public and stakeholder
nity with quality products and a reliable supply of safe awareness of the risks posed by counterfeits and
and effective medicines and vaccines.We maintain strict deliver effective advocacy to increase enforcement
product quality standards in our manufacturing opera- and shape key regulatory requirements.
tions consistent with current Good Manufacturing
Practices, and we maintain redundant supply chain To further combat the growing counterfeiting issue,
safeguards to ensure the safety of our products no we work with governments, regulatory agencies,
matter where they are manufactured in the world. enforcement agencies, other pharmaceutical manu-
facturers, wholesalers, distributors, consumer groups
We agree that counterfeit pharmaceutical products and related organizations.We fully support increased
constitute a serious and growing threat to public enforcement of existing anti-counterfeiting laws
health. Industry, governments, regulators and enforce- and the adoption of new laws and regulations to
WILLIE A. DEESE ment agencies need to partner together to combat further combat counterfeiting and to strengthen
this problem. No one group can effectively com- current enforcement and available penalties, to
Executive Vice President
bat this problem alone. As a result, Merck has in place minimize opportunities for counterfeit products
and President, a company-wide strategy to ensure the security of to enter the supply chain, and stakeholder efforts to
Merck Manufacturing Division our supply chains, deter, rapidly detect and respond achieve greater public awareness.

Merck is committed to providing the global community

« with quality products and a reliable supply of safe and
effective medicines and vaccines.

postmarketing epidemiology studies to SAFETY INITIATIVES Complementary to this is our work

evaluate safety. In late 2007, Merck’s senior leadership with the Observational Medical
launched the SafetyMatters initiative Outcomes Pilot (OMOP), a partner-
ADVERSE EVENT REPORTING (AER) to investigate potential enhance- ship between The Foundation for the
After a product has been approved and ments to our already robust approach National Institutes of Health, the FDA
is being prescribed to patients, manufac- for identifying and evaluating health and PhRMA to explore the applica-
turers are required to report to regula- outcomes of interest (HOIs) in con- tion of large claims and electronic health
tory authorities adverse experiences they nection with our marketed products. record databases to assist in the evaluation
learn about from any source. We ensure The goal of SafetyMatters is to explore of the benefit/risk profiles of marketed
adverse event information is entered and implement appropriate use of medicines, and so improve drug safety
into our global AER database and is emerging technologies and methods for monitoring. More at:
submitted to regulatory authorities in a HOI identification and evaluation, and
timely manner and in accordance with thereby further enhance post-licensure PRODUCT LABELING AND
country-specific regulations. Merck has monitoring and evaluation of our PRODUCT INFORMATION
an extensive program in place to process marketed products. Ongoing oversight and monitoring of
and assess adverse experience reports. our product labels and information are a
More at: major focus of our safety efforts.To inform
treatment choices and address safety


GLOBAL 2008 2007 2006

Number of GCP/PV audits by regulatory agencies of Merck or clinical trial investigators 42 35 36

Number of post-marketing epidemiology studies to examine safety (ongoing) 8 8 N/A
Confusion about medicines can lead to their inappropriate use, possible alternatives and where to go for further information.
which is potentially dangerous to patients and costly for health Supporters of the initiative included the UK Department of Health,
systems.1 Studies have shown that encouraging patients to ask a wide range of patient, National Health Service, academic and
questions about their medicines and improving patient/doctor com- professional organizations and the pharmaceutical industry.
munication helps patients to use their medicines more effectively.2
After six years of operation, the organizers and MSD believe that
In 2003, MSD UK helped to establish Ask About Medicines, a unique sustainable changes have been made to patient involvement policy
public/private partnership between stakeholders with an interest and practice. Having achieved its objectives, the initiative was dis-
in the effective use of medicines aimed to encourage UK patients to solved in March 2009. However, the Ask About Medicines website
ask specific questions about the medicines they are taking, about and related resources are still available at

questions, we believe in the importance Since the introduction of SINGULAIR Over the past few years, Merck has
of providing physicians and patients with in 1998, the Company has updated the experienced a number of challenges in
communications about our products, post-marketing section of the prescrib- manufacturing that have prevented us
their benefits and risks. By providing ing information to communicate a from being able to meet global demand
appropriate information about our prod- range of adverse events reported with for a number of our vaccines. We are
ucts, and working with patient organiza- post-marketing use of the drug, includ- working to correct these issues and to
tions and other stakeholders, we want to ing neuropsychiatric events. Merck regain our position as a reliable vac-
encourage better adherence to treatment will continue to work with the FDA cine manufacturer and supplier. In the
and foster improved public health. to revise the prescribing information past three years, Merck has invested
for SINGULAIR in the United States. over $1 billion in new manufacturing
U.S.-Based Resources on the Safety Merck is confident in the efficacy and resources to ensure that we have the
and Effectiveness of Medicines and safety of SINGULAIR, which has been long-term supply capabilities to meet
Treatments include: prescribed to tens of millions of patients public health needs around the world.
with asthma and allergic rhinitis since More at:
» U.S. Federal Drug Administration
its approval.4
(FDA) Drug Index:
In early 2008, the FDA inspected
OUR COMMITMENT TO Merck’s West Point vaccines and bio-
» The Physicians’ Desk Reference web PRODUCT QUALITY logics manufacturing facility. At the
site: Merck is committed to providing the conclusion of the inspection, the FDA
global community with quality products issued a report containing 49 observa-
» Merck’s products website:
and a reliable supply of safe and effective tions from their visit. Subsequently
medicines and vaccines. We maintain Merck received a Warning Letter from
strict product quality standards and mul- the FDA dated April 2008.
If you live outside the U.S., please see
local regulatory agency web sites for tiple supply chain safeguards to ensure
the safety and supply of our products Merck took the observations and the
safety information about medicines
no matter where our medicines and Warning Letter very seriously and
prescribed in your country.
vaccines are manufactured in the world. committed to addressing all concerns


During 2008, post-marketing reports of
adverse events drew interest from the
media on the safety of GARDASIL, our
More at:

All manufacturing facilities that Merck

owns, operates and contracts with
and any company from which we
to the Agency’s satisfaction. Importantly,
the issuance of the Warning Letter
did not affect any available product or
Merck’s ability to continue to supply
our vaccines.
vaccine to help prevent cervical cancer. purchase formulated pharmaceuticals,
active ingredients and sterile prod- In July 2008, Merck received a letter
Merck continues to evaluate all safety
ucts, must comply with current Good from the FDA closing out its inspection
data in the context of its own post-
Manufacturing Practices. Furthermore, of the West Point facility. Following sub-
marketing adverse experience database
all formulated products, and the active sequent inspections by the Agency, we
as well as its ongoing clinical trial data-
pharmaceutical ingredients they contain, continue to work with the Agency in
base and provides post-marketing reports
that are marketed by Merck in the U.S. a cooperative manner to ensure that
to regulatory authorities worldwide. In
are produced in FDA-approved facilities, we have robust processes and procedures
December 2008, after an updated review
including facilities owned and operated in place to produce vaccines and sterile
of all available safety data, the CDC
by our suppliers. More on p. 54. products to the highest standards.
reinforced their continued recommenda-
tion for vaccination with GARDASIL.3
In 2008, Merck had no product recalls
in the United States.


2008 2007 2006 2005

Number of product recalls in the United States 0 2 0 1

As part of our corporate anti-counterfeiting efforts, Merck main- packaging, and, if possible, determine the common origin of coun-
tains an advanced forensic laboratory that provides detailed terfeit materials. Reports detailing these findings are shared with
analyses of suspected counterfeit products. Using a wide array of regulatory and/or law enforcement agencies, and may be used to
analytical tools, the forensic scientists use physical and chemi- support enforcement actions, legal proceedings, and other internal
cal characterization methods to identify counterfeit products and and external actions.

STEPPING UP THE FIGHT Committee to oversee our global laws and enforcement programs, includ-
AGAINST COUNTERFEITS anti-counterfeiting strategy and ensure ing increased criminal and civil penal-
Counterfeit pharmaceutical products that our anti-counterfeiting goals ties for counterfeiters. In addition, we
are a growing global problem and a seri- are reached. support the efforts of organizations such
ous threat to public health. For Merck, as the Partnership for Safe Medicines
maintaining patient safety and protect- Merck has in place strict policies and to educate the public about the risks
ing our reputation are paramount, and procedures designed to keep our drug of counterfeit medicines. For details on
are the principal goals underlying our distribution system safe and secure, these efforts, go to
corporate anti-counterfeiting strategy. and to minimize any opportunity for anticounterfeiting.
counterfeit products to enter the supply
To achieve these goals, we work with chain. In the United States, we require FUTURE PRIORITIES
government agencies, pharmaceutical customers to purchase our products » We continue to implement our vac-
manufacturers, wholesalers, distributors, directly from Merck or a Merck autho- cine supply manufacturing strategy
consumer groups and related organiza- rized distributor. In addition, we publish as part of our commitment to restore
tions in the global fight against pharma- the names of authorized distributors Merck’s reputation as a reliable global
ceutical product counterfeits. on Merck’s website, and we audit our supplier of quality vaccines.
distributors to ensure compliance with
Merck maintains a comprehensive Merck’s policies and procedures. In the » We continue to maintain strict
worldwide anti-counterfeiting program European Union, Merck works with product quality standards and multiple
that has three goals: (1) secure the sup- law enforcement agencies to detect and supply chain safeguards to ensure the
ply chains, (2) rapidly deter, detect respond to counterfeit products, includ- safety and supply of our products no
and respond to counterfeit activity, and ing importation or trans-shipment of matter whether our medicines and
(3) raise public and stakeholder aware- counterfeit pharmaceuticals through the vaccines are manufactured internally
ness of the risks posed by counter- European Union. In a number of or externally.
feits, and deliver effective advocacy to developing countries, Merck has pro- » We will continue to implement our
increase enforcement and shape key vided training to Customs officials, in corporate, proactive worldwide anti-
regulatory requirements. In further- conjunction with the Pharmaceutical counterfeit strategy, focused on secur-
ance of the work that Merck has Security Institute. ing the supply chain, detecting and
done in combating counterfeits and responding to counterfeit events,
recognizing the growing nature of Merck also supports and advocates for and raising awareness of the risks of
the counterfeit problem, in 2008, increased enforcement of existing anti- counterfeit pharmaceutical products.

Merck’s Executive Committee estab- counterfeiting laws and the adoption
lished an Anti-Counterfeiting Steering of public policies to strengthen existing


GLOBAL 2008 2007 2006 2005

Number of investigations of suspected counterfeit Merck product 45 102 73 51

Number of substantiated cases of counterfeit Merck product 29 72 54 46

1 Department of Health. Better information, better choices, better health: putting information at the centre of health. DOH, London, 2004.
2 Nielsen-Bohlman N, Panzer AM, Kingdig, DA Eds. Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.
National Academies Press, Washington, 2004.
3 www/ and

Conducting Ourselves
4 Ethically and Transparently

Pharmaceutical companies that have built robust Finally, as the United States government re-opens
business ethics and compliance programs, like the issue of healthcare reform, companies must
Merck, must now do more to evaluate the beef up transparency of specific corporate and
effectiveness of their systems. In other words, once trade associations’ lobbying positions. Such sun-
policies are written and employees are trained, shine may defuse allegations of hidden backroom
how do companies determine if anonymous dealings, or undue corporate influence, which has
employee hotlines, or stronger rules for marketing tarnished what was once a “good guy” industry.
drugs to doctors, are achieving their desired ends?

Companies must also look further up and down

their supply chains to combat entrenched business
problems like bribery and corruption, drug coun-
terfeiting and quality problems in drug inputs. ELIZABETH E. McGEVERAN
Senior Vice President,
Governance & Sustainable Investment,
F&C Management Ltd.

Pharmaceutical companies must do more to evaluate

the effectiveness of their business ethics and
compliance programs…
We believe that behaving ethically is not only the right thing to

32 do; it has many advantages for us and helps promote a good

global business climate. A reputation for ethical working
practices not only helps to attract, motivate and retain talented
individuals, but it also means that policymakers and other
stakeholders are more likely to listen to what we have to say.
For Merck, as a highly regulated pharmaceutical company, ethical working practices
without cutting corners help to ensure our regulatory compliance with laws and regulations
and help result in significant contributions to medicine, patients and society.
OUR VALUES applies one standard of conduct to all been designed to deter wrongdoing and
AND STANDARDS employees worldwide and is available in to foster:
Ethics and integrity are underscored 27 languages. Ethical business practices
» Honest and ethical conduct, includ-
in the Company’s code of business are a key measure in annual perfor-
ing the ethical handling of actual or
conduct, Our Values and Standards, first mance evaluations of all of our employ-
potential conflicts of interest between
developed and distributed to Merck ees globally.
personal and professional relationships;
employees in 1999, and updated in 2002
and 2004. Our Code of Conduct Merck’s Code of Conduct (available at » The protection of our confidential has and proprietary information and that
of our customers and vendors;
Conducting ourselves ethically is a core value ensure that events are escalated to the appropriate
across the whole of Merck. We work hard not place within the Company, are properly investi-
only to inform our employees about what consti- gated, and that the appropriate disciplinary action
tutes ethical behavior, but also to hold ourselves is taken, up to and including dismissal, when nec-
accountable for ensuring those ethical business essary. These guidelines also contemplate various
practices are implemented. types of positive recognition for those employees
who bring issues and concerns to the Company’s
We are committed to scrutinizing, reporting and attention so that they can be addressed.
where necessary improving our ethics performance
on issues of particular concern to our stakeholders. These efforts are not only in the interests of the
patients and health professionals who rely on our
We have recently established comprehensive, global products, but also underpin the sustainability of
JACQUELINE BREVARD guidelines for escalation, investigation, remediation our business. For this reason, we work to ensure
and recognition of non-compliance events, and that our evolving ethics programs cut across
Vice President, Chief Ethics and
have implemented them across our different divi- cultures and mores, to drive standards higher and
Compliance Officer, sions and regions. Through these efforts, we can ultimately to uphold the most fundamental rights
Merck & Co., Inc. evaluate the effectiveness of our systems and help of people everywhere.

We are committed to scrutinizing, reporting and

« where necessary improving our ethics performance
on issues of particular concern to stakeholders.

» Compliance with Company policies, To date, 90 percent of Merck employees interest is high and we anticipate that we
applicable governmental laws, rules have completed Know the Code training, will reach 100 percent in 2009.
and regulatory requirements;
» Prompt internal reporting of viola-
tions of the Code;
» Accountability for adherence to the
and we anticipate this will increase to
95 percent by the end of 2009. In 2008,
we rolled out new and updated courses
on anti-corruption and bribery, and
financial stewardship. In 2009, we are
Like integrity of product, integrity of
performance is a Merck standard
wherever we do business, and ignorance
values and standards set forth in implementing new and updated courses of that standard is never an accept-
the Code. on the importance of raising concerns able excuse for improper behavior. We
within the Company, conflict of inter- make it clear that no act of impropriety
Merck’s Office of Ethics develops and est, global trade compliance and safe advances the interest of the Company
oversees global initiatives designed to harbor privacy. and no act of impropriety will
deter illegal, unethical and improper be tolerated.
behavior related to the Company’s An important component of Merck’s
business, and has implemented several corporate compliance program is our In 2008 we established comprehensive,
mechanisms to help ensure the highest annual compliance review, which global guidelines for escalation, inves-
standards of ethics and integrity across includes an annual conflict of inter- tigation, remediation and recognition
our business. In 2007, it launched a est certification and disclosure process, of non-compliance events, and imple-
global compliance online training series and compliance with key corporate mented them across our different divi-
to provide employees with tools and policies. All directors, officers, managers sions and regions. These guidelines will
resources for making responsible busi- and other selected Company employees help ensure the appropriate disciplinary
ness decisions. All employees worldwide must certify in writing the absence or action is taken, up to and including
are required to complete Know the Code, existence of actual or potential conflicts dismissal, when necessary.
the first course of this series; new of interest under this Conflict of Interest
employees undergo this training within Policy. Our annual response rate to the
30 days of joining Merck. disclosure statement on conflicts of
HELPING OUR EMPLOYEES that policymakers and other stakeholders standards and transparent business prac-
DO THE RIGHT THING are more likely to listen to what we have tices. By working across industries and
Our employees worldwide understand to say. For Merck as a highly regulated continents to promote ethical behav-
that they should bring to the attention pharmaceutical company, ethical work- ior, we believe this initiative can help
of management workplace issues of any ing practices without cutting corners limit corruption, encourage fair and
type including potential violations of result in real contributions to science, open competition, and lead to a better
law, Company policy or the Company’s and they enhance our regulatory com- business environment.
Code of Conduct. Merck strives to pro- pliance. All of this together helps to pro-
vide a work environment that encour- mote a good climate for global business. ETHICAL SALES AND
ages employees to communicate openly MARKETING PRACTICES
with management, without fear of Merck’s commitment to ethics extends In providing the best possible care to
retaliation or retribution. beyond the Company’s boundaries. their patients, doctors use information
We actively promote the develop- from pharmaceutical companies and
Over and above this, the Office of Ethics ment of codes and standards for ethical other sources to help inform prescribing
provides several channels for Merck and transparent business practices that decisions. Accordingly, Merck believes
employees worldwide to raise ethi- can help limit corruption, ensure fair it is important to maintain informa-
cal questions or concerns.This includes and open competition and encour- tive, ethical and professional relation-
the Merck AdviceLine, a telephone line age a better business environment, all ships between healthcare providers and
available to employees around the world of which are essential to economic pharmaceutical companies. We recognize
24 hours a day, seven days a week, staffed growth and improved standards of living. that both our reputation for integrity
by an independent organization, which Merck also seeks to make a difference and the trust our stakeholders place in
allows employees to remain anonymous in in the global business environment by us depend on our ethical practices. Our
accordance with applicable legal standards supporting Transparency International interactions with healthcare providers,
for employee-based hotlines, and to com- and other organizations that work to other customers and consumers are gov-
municate in their local language to ensure eliminate corruption, promote transpar- erned by laws and regulations, as well as
accuracy of reported information. Calls ency and foster the principles outlined our long-standing global code of ethical
to the Merck AdviceLine have almost in the Organization for Economic conduct and guidance that is enforced
doubled since 2006, due in part to greater Cooperation and Development (OECD) through our global business practices
awareness of the AdviceLine as a result of Conventions against Corruption and compliance program.
increased employee communications. and Bribery.
In addition, the Merck Ombudsman In an effort to combat global corrup- HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS
Program offers a “safe haven” for tion, the World Economic Forum The changing healthcare environment
U.S.-based employees to express work- Partnering Against Corruption Initiative demands that Merck changes the way
related issues without fear of retaliation.(PACI) was formally launched by CEOs it interacts with physicians globally. In
The number of calls to the Office of from the Engineering & Construction, 2008, we implemented a more customer-
Ethics/Ombudsman has declined since Energy and Metals and Mining indus- centric selling model that is designed
2005, possibly reflecting strengthened tries in January 2004. Prior to the 2008 to provide a competitive advantage, help
performance management processes, as annual meeting in Davos, Merck joined build trust with customers, and improve
well as a reduction in employee numbers a global community of 138 companies

patient outcomes. The strategy employs
as part of our restructuring program. from various industries and regions new technologies and moves away from
of the world that have committed to the traditional frequency-based sales
FOSTERING A FAIR, TRANSPARENT strengthening efforts to counter cor- and marketing approach.
AND OPEN ENVIRONMENT ruption and bribery through the PACI
We believe that behaving ethically has by signing a statement supporting the In June 2008, Merck implemented
many advantages for our business. A rep- PACI Principles for Countering Bribery. new Guiding Principles for Ethical
utation for ethical working practices not Signing on to the PACI Principles is Business Practices with the Medical and
only helps to attract, motivate and retain a natural extension of Merck’s long- Scientific Community (see box next
talented individuals but it also means standing commitment to high ethical page), which are aligned with national


GLOBAL 2008 2007 2006 2005*

Percentage of required employees who took Know the Code training 90 90 N/A N/A†
Percentage of response to disclosure statement on conflicts of interest 99.9 97 95 93
Number of calls to the Merck AdviceLine 151 149 77 80
Number of calls to Office of Ethics/Ombudsman 583 600 597 770
Percentage of substantiated (including alternative findings) allegations 10.9 9.5 8.3 10.2
to concerns/issues raised in connection with our Code of Conduct through
AdviceLine or Office of Ethics/Ombudsman‡

* 2005 noted as baseline.

† Know the Code was first implemented globally in 2007.
‡ When Merck substantiates allegations of ethical misconduct, it imposes a variety of disciplinary actions on those responsible for the misconduct,
such as dismissal from the Company, issuance of final written warning letters and financial penalties.
1. Focus interactions with the medical and scientific community on 6. Ensure that decision-making regarding activities associated with
business and scientific objectives that support the Company’s grants, payments for services to the medical and scientific com-
mission of putting patients first. munity, and the generation and reporting of clinical information
is free of any inappropriate commercial or other influences.
2. For Company-sponsored or supported activities, comply with all
applicable laws, regulations and industry or professional codes 7. Apply good business judgment to all communications and docu-
of conduct of both the host country and the resident country of mentation involving our interaction with the medical and scien-
individual participants or organizations. tific community, and ensure proper implementation of activities.
3. Compensate for services at fair market value, purchasing only those 8. Conduct activities and interactions with the medical and scien-
services that are required to address the business need at hand. tific community in a manner that protects our intellectual prop-
erty and respects that of others.
4. Ensure that offering something of value to members of the
medical and scientific community does not have the appear- 9. Ensure that all communications shared with the medical and
ance or the intent of influencing regulatory, formulary pricing or scientific community are based on accurate and balanced scien-
reimbursement decisions or inducing or rewarding the referral, tific information.
recommendation, utilization or prescribing of Merck products.
10. Ensure that selection of experts from the medical and scientific
5. Maintain a business-like atmosphere for all interactions with community is based on their areas of expertise, experience
the medical and scientific community, avoiding lavishness or and other appropriate, objective criteria aligned with the stated
extravagance, as well as the appearance of such. purposes of the activity.

regulations worldwide, industry codes pursue external verification. More at: PROMOTIONAL AND
and the World Health Organization’s EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS FOR
Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug with_healthcare_professionals. HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS
Promotion. The new Merck Guiding The basis of our interactions with
Principles serve as a bridge between Merck is committed to the highest healthcare professionals is to provide
country laws, regulations, industry ethical sales and marketing standards truthful, balanced and non-misleading
guidelines, and the Company’s Values wherever it operates. We have developed information. Accordingly, the review
and Standards, and are intended to enable a process to assess risks associated with and approval of global promotional and
interactions with the medical and scien- sales and marketing-related business educational materials for healthcare
tific community that comply with our practices and processes, benchmarked practitioners follows a comprehen-
ethical and legal obligations and improve to industry best practices. It has been sive and strict process as specified in
human health. implemented so far in 29 countries International Medical Media Standards
around the world. By the end of 2009, it (IMMS) guidance. At Merck all such
Merck has also actively supported the will cover all major country operations. materials are reviewed and approved by
strengthening of related industry stan- medical and legal personnel, captured in
dards. In 2008, in his role as Chairman
of PhRMA, Merck Chairman, President
and CEO Richard T. Clark worked
with other PhRMA member com-
panies to revise the PhRMA Code
on Interactions with Health Care
In 2008, Merck reached civil settle-
ments with Federal and State authorities
to resolve long-standing investigations
related to disputes over the proper
calculation of Medicaid rebates as
well as certain past sales and market-
a global database, and assigned a unique
identifying number and expiration date
to facilitate usage monitoring.

Merck developed two new training

programs in 2008 relating to interac-
Professionals to respond substantively ing activities that ended in 2001. As tions with healthcare professionals. All
to stakeholder concerns regarding the required by the Corporate Integrity regional and country medical person-
industry’s sales and marketing practices Agreement (CIA), on May 15, 2009, nel involved in the review and approval
in the United States. In 2009, Merck Merck submitted its first Annual Report of promotional/educational material
updated our own sales and market- to the U.S. Department of Health and receive comprehensive training that
ing policies and practices in compli- Human Services Office of Inspector focuses on Corporate policies, IMMS,
ance with the revised PhRMA Code. General (HHS-OIG). For additional the medical reviewer role, and required
We completed self-certification of our details, please see our Form 10-K for database functionalities.
compliance policies and procedures years ending December 31, 2007 and
in early 2009, and we also plan to December 31, 2008.


2008 2007 2006 2005

Number of warning letters or untitled letters from DDMAC* or APLB† 0 N/R N/R N/R

* DDMAC – U.S. FDA Division of Drug Marketing, Advertising and Communication.

† APLB – Advertising and Promotional Labeling Branch (“APLB”) of the FDA Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research.
REGARDING FINANCIAL SUPPORT voluntarily to the FDA for their review Merck is committed to upholding
In some cases, Merck provides grants to and comment prior to running any human rights both within our work-
organizations for professional education DTC campaign in the United States. place and within our broader sphere of
initiatives, including accredited continu- influence. Merck’s human rights sphere
ing medical education (CME). As part In 2008, Merck began to include in of influence includes:
of our broader policy of increased trans- all new Merck DTC print and tele-
parency regarding support of third-party vision advertisements, information OUR EMPLOYEES: We respect the
groups, in October 2008, Merck began on Merck’s Patient Assistance Programs human rights of our employees as
reporting grants over $500 provided by along with a toll-free phone number established in the ILO’s Declaration of
the Company’s Global Human Health for more information. To formalize Fundamental Principles and Rights at
division to U.S. organizations in support our historical practice of informing Work. We have systems in place to
of independent accredited educational healthcare professionals about our report incidents of discrimination and
programs for healthcare professionals. products before we advertise them to procedures for follow-up action,
In 2009, we have expanded this disclo- the consumer, we also adopted a policy and regularly monitor and report on
sure to include other types of grants. requiring a minimum six-month time any operations where we might find
period following the approval of a new significant risk for child labor or forced
While disclosure of supported patient product before launching DTC broad- compulsory labor. To date, we have not
organizations became mandatory in cast advertising in the United States. In identified any significant risks.
Europe in March 2009, Merck has addition, Merck carries out comprehen-
voluntarily disclosed support to patient sive programs to educate physicians and In 2008, Merck appointed a new Senior
organizations in Europe, Middle East other prescribers about a new product Director, Global Labor Relations, who
and Africa made by Merck offices in before commencing product-specific has overall responsibility for develop-
those regions since 2008. In addition, DTC broadcast advertising. More on ing our labor policy and management
in the second half of 2009, Merck plans our DTC policies and practices at: compliance system globally. We also
to begin reporting payments made to began a process to establish global labor
patient organizations by Merck opera- guidelines and monitoring tools to
tions in Canada from 2009 onward. Also RESPECTING AND ensure consistency worldwide; at the
in 2009, Merck operations in Europe, PROMOTING HUMAN RIGHTS time of this writing, we were on track
Middle East, Africa and Canada plan to Merck is committed to respecting human for approval and implementation by
begin disclosing grants to other third- rights, as recognized by the United Nations the end of 2009.
party institutions made beginning in Global Compact and as defined in the
January 2009. United Nations Universal Declaration SUPPLIERS, DIRECT BUSINESS
of Human Rights and its subsequent PARTNERS AND OTHER THIRD-
Merck also supports broader disclosure changes, the International Covenant on PARTY REPRESENTATIVES: Merck
of financial relationships between physi- Economic Social and Cultural Rights, has implemented a Detailed Supplier
cians and the pharmaceutical industry. the International Covenant on Civil and Ethical Assessment tool, which lays
In 2008, Merck endorsed the Physicians Political Rights, the OECD Guidelines out the Company’s detailed ethical
Payment Sunshine Act, mandating for Multinational Enterprises and requirements of suppliers across a wide
disclosure of these financial relationships. the core labor standards set out by the range of regulatory, legal and ethical

36 In the absence of a legislative require-

ment, we plan to voluntarily disclose
in the fourth quarter of 2009 all pay-
ments to U.S.-based healthcare profes-
sionals who speak on behalf of Merck
International Labor Organization (ILO).

Respect for human rights is embed-

ded in the Company’s code of business
conduct, Our Values and Standards. We do
compliance topics, including labor and
employment practices. Merck is also
one of the founding members of the
Pharmaceutical Supply Chain Initiative
designed to help ensure that working
or our products. For more information not tolerate human rights abuses in our conditions in the pharmaceutical sup-
on Merck’s transparency initiatives, workplace or commercial operations, ply chain are safe and that workers
go to p. 48. or by our suppliers or business partners, are treated with respect and dignity.
and are committed to complying with More on p. 54.
INFORMING PATIENT CHOICES national and international human rights
Merck strives to enable consumers to laws and treaties. Further, we believe we COMMUNITIES: We strive to serve as
achieve better health outcomes by have a responsibility to go beyond essen- a positive influence in the communi-
delivering accurate, relevant information tial legal requirements and to support ties in which we operate, and to respect
on disease prevention, identification and the promotion and protection of human human rights both in these communities
treatment in an understandable manner. rights through positive measures, includ- and on a global basis. As a global cor-
To remain true to this goal, Merck ing public/private partnerships that porate citizen, we go beyond the essen-
adheres to the letter and spirit of FDA address critical global health challenges. tial legal requirements to work with
regulations and guidelines governing partners including governments and
direct-to-consumer (DTC) promotion, other stakeholders to support human
ensures all PhRMA guidelines are met rights – through offering medicines and
or exceeded, and follows a comprehen- vaccines that can help save and improve
sive set of internal policies and practices lives, through public policy advocacy
when engaging in DTC advertising. with governments to ensure they
Merck has a long-standing policy to live up to their international human
rights obligations, and through public/
private partnerships.
Much attention has been given to the role of pharmaceutical compa- » Safeguarding the health, safety and privacy of patients involved in
nies in ensuring the realization of health as a universal human right, our clinical trials
as recognized in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human
Beyond these efforts we also have the ability – and we believe the
Rights (UDHR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social
responsibility – to take positive steps to support the right to health and
and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). Governments, in their role of protect-
effect positive change. These steps include policies and actions around
ing human rights, have the primary responsibility for managing a
product registration, pricing, patenting and partnerships, as well
health system that ensures the health of those living within their
as public policy advocacy, that seek to strengthen healthcare capac-
borders, a role that is recognized in the UDHR and the treaties that
ity and address deep-rooted and multi-faceted barriers to access in
follow from it.
ways that are aligned with our business mission and core capabilities.
The role of the pharmaceutical industry in respecting and promoting
Others have roles and responsibilities too. Industrialized countries,
this human right is a complex – and controversial – one. We believe
where most research in life sciences takes place, must continue to
that at a basic level we play an important role in supporting this right
foster innovation by funding basic research and supporting related
through our core activity of discovering, developing and delivering
institutions, and by recognizing the value of innovative medicines and
medicines and vaccines to address unmet medical needs. We also
vaccines. Developing countries must continue to make health care
recognize our ethical duty to support governments in their efforts
a budget priority, remove taxes and import duties on medicines that
to respect the right to health by “doing no harm.” We do this in a
unnecessarily raise the price of medications, and seek to limit product
number of ways, including by:
diversion to richer countries by price arbitragers. Emerging or middle-
» Monitoring and reporting on the safety of our products income countries should do the same and also recognize that they can
and should pay more for medicines than the poorest countries, rather
» Providing healthcare providers and consumers with important
than take actions that remove incentives for innovation.
information on the benefits and side effects of our products

UPHOLDING DIGNITY AND RESPECT discussions with stakeholders to gain properly and thoroughly investigated.
Merck believes in the fundamental agreement on the appropriate role of We also will ensure that the appro-
dignity of every human being and in business in promoting and protecting priate disciplinary action is taken,
respecting individual rights in all of human rights, particularly the right to up to and including dismissal, when
our operations. the enjoyment of the highest attainable necessary. We plan to report on the
standard of health. We are supporting first results of this new program in
» We condemn the use of forced labor
The World Justice Project, a multina- our 2009 report.
and exploitative child labor and
tional, multidisciplinary initiative to
expect the same of our suppliers. » We plan to develop a global train-
strengthen the rule of law worldwide
ing program based on Merck’s
» We respect employees’ lawful freedom and raise awareness of the connection
Guiding Principles for Business
of association. between the rule of law and the essen-
Practices Involving the Medical and
tials of people’s daily lives. We also sup-
» We compensate our employees fairly Scientific Community.
port the process initiated by the United
to ensure that basic needs are met
Nations to evaluate this issue and, spe- » We will voluntarily disclose in the
and provide our employees with the
cifically, the ongoing work of Professor fourth quarter of 2009 all payments
opportunity to improve their skills

John Ruggie, the Special Representative to U.S.-based healthcare professionals
and capabilities.
of the U.N. Secretary-General, on busi- who speak on behalf of Merck or
» We do not discriminate at any level of ness and human rights, to seek clarity our products, even in the absence of
the organization on the basis of race, around human rights and the role of busi- legislation requiring us to do so.
gender, age, ethnicity, national origin, ness. In addition, we are working with
» By the end of 2009, we plan to
sexual orientation, marital status, dis- the Danish Institute for Human Rights
formalize a Global Labor Relations
ability, genetics or religious beliefs. and a number of other pharmaceutical
Strategy, which will include global
companies to develop a sector-specific
» We provide a safe and healthy labor guidelines and principles,
human rights risk assessment tool. We
work environment. and monitoring tools to ensure
continue to work with academic experts
consistency worldwide. We will also
» We respect individuals’ right to and other key stakeholders to help in
establish labor relations advisory
privacy in accordance with legal and better defining the role of business – and
boards for every region globally to
ethical standards. specifically the pharmaceutical industry –
assist the Labor Relations Center of
in supporting the right to health.
Excellence with a variety of labor
relations activities, including adher-
Business has an important role to play FUTURE GOALS ence and monitoring of our corporate
in promoting and respecting the AND PRIORITIES Values and Standards and global Labor
advancement of fundamental human » In accordance with Merck’s recently Relations Guidelines and Principles.
rights, while not supplanting the pri- established comprehensive, global
mary obligations of governments to guidelines for escalation, investigation, » Using the Danish Institute for Human
protect the human rights of all people remediation and recognition of non- Rights pharmaceutical sector risk
within their borders and as mem- compliance events, we will ensure that assessment tool, we intend to perform
bers of the international community. events are escalated to the appropri- a human rights risk assessment analysis
Merck supports meaningful efforts and ate place within the Company, and at the headquarters level.

Managing Our
5 Environmental Footprint

As a global pharmaceutical company, Merck resulting from a changing climate, which could
can play a leadership role in achieving a healthy also offer growth opportunities.
society and planet.
In addressing the water challenge, we encourage
In addressing the climate challenge, we encour- the industry to help pioneer new technolo-
age pharmaceutical companies such as Merck gies and actions that will galvanize workable
to reduce the lifecycle impact of their products and effective solutions to both water scarcity and
and corporate supply chains as well as reducing water-quality issues. Newly available tools can
their direct and indirect operational footprint. help companies analyze where the best opportu-
We encourage companies to help build markets nities are for saving water and reducing pollution.
for green power by procuring electricity from
renewable sources, taking measures to reduce Merck’s size and capacity allows it to make a
use of carbon-intensive transportation fuels, positive contribution to society through ELIZABETH COOK
and offsetting residual emissions using high- ambitious leadership while at the same time
Vice President for Institutional
quality carbon offsets. Further, companies must offering product solutions that improve the
help humanity prepare for new disease patterns quality of life around the world. Strategy and Development,
World Resources Institute

…we encourage pharmaceutical companies to reduce

the lifecycle impact of products and supply chains, as
well as reduce their operational footprint.

38 Merck published its first environmental report and publicly

announced our first environmental improvement goals in 1990
and we have been reporting on our progress since 1993.
We assess the environmental footprint of our operations across a broad set of measures,
including energy and water use, greenhouse gas (GHG) and pollutant emissions to air and
water, and waste generation and recycling rates.
The data featured in this section focus Because pharmaceutical synthesis is of steam, are the largest sources of
on the direct footprint from our internal complex and requires multiple solvent our carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions.
activities, which is primarily associated changes and rigorous cleaning, sol- None of our products contain or use
with our research and manufacturing vent emissions and spent solvent wastes ozone-depleting substances. More
operations. However, we are also work- have a large impact on our direct envi- on our environmental approach and
ing to understand the environmental ronmental footprint. Some of our newer management at:
footprint of our supply chain. For the products are being developed using cr/environment.
past several years, we have included indi- biological processes that require signifi-
rect footprint information on emissions cant amounts of very pure water. IMPROVING ENVIRONMENTAL
of greenhouse gases associated with Our most significant use of water is AND SAFETY COMPLIANCE
the generation of energy we purchase. non-contact cooling for manufactur- At Merck, protecting the health and
During 2008, we began to evaluate ing. Because of its importance to both well-being of our employees and the
our indirect environmental footprint manufacturing and human health, water public, protecting and preserving
related to employee travel. is an emerging focus area for our efforts. the environment, ensuring the safety
Utilities, including the production of our employees and those who live in
Global human health cannot be achieved with- greenhouse gas emissions. We are mobilizing
out a healthy environment. Merck took an early our strength in science and innovation by using
step in the 1990s by setting goals and dramatically Green Chemistry to design safer and more effi-
reducing our toxic emissions. Today it isn’t cient processes. We also seek to re-use and recycle,
just toxics, but our changing climate and access both in our purchased materials and wastes, and
to water resources that represent risks to to select partners who share our values, such as
human health. renewable energy providers. Finally, we are cur-
rently looking at how and where we use water
Merck recognizes that the manufacture and sale so that we can prioritize our efforts in locations
of our products and other aspects of our supply where water resources are most vulnerable.
chain have environmental impacts within and
outside of our fenceline. We focus on conserva- At Merck, we believe that protection of the
KAREN KLIMAS tion, reducing the consumption of energy, water, environment and conservation of our natural
solvents, and packaging components in our oper- resources are a part of delivering on our
Vice President,
ations and have taken proactive steps to reduce mission of improving global human health.
Global Safety and Environment,
Merck & Co., Inc.

…protection of the environment and conservation

« of our natural resources are part of our mission of
improving global human health.

the vicinity of our facilities and being interpretation by the Pennsylvania Merck received seven safety notices of
in full compliance with the law are of Department of Environmental Protection violation in 2008, an increase from the
fundamental importance to the way (DEP) that resulted in reporting of a three that were reported in 2007 and
we operate. Our mission and values are number of events that were not previ- similar to the eight reported for 2006.
articulated by Merck’s corporate safety ously required to be reported, such as Over the past three years, approximately
and environmental (S&E) policies. In spills of chilled water. Overall, approxi- 40 percent of the safety notices of viola-
addition to compliance with all appli- mately 70 percent of the spills reported in tion received were from governmental
cable country, regional and local safety 2008 were either spills of cooling water, safety inspections and 40 percent were fire
and environmental laws, we strive for or spills that were contained and cleaned department inspections. There were no
S&E performance that is among the best up or directed to wastewater treatment. safety-related fines paid in 2008. More at:
in the pharmaceutical industry.
Merck experienced seven water permit
In 2008, Merck received 176 inspections exceedances in 2008, one more than in Merck received nine notices of violation
by EHS regulatory agencies around 2007. Approximately 42 percent of the (NOVs) for environmental matters in
the world. This represents a 33 percent water events were related to pH, and 2008, four less than in 2007. During the
increase in environmental inspections metals and organic exceedances each past three years, 63 percent of these NOVs
and an 83 percent increase in safety accounted for 29 percent of the events. have been associated with air emissions,
inspections in 2008 over 2007. While Merck also experienced 23 air permit 25 percent with water and 12 percent with
the data set is limited, it is possible that exceedances, a decrease of five from waste. Merck paid $1,579,600 in fines
higher inspection frequencies may con- 2007. Fifty-six percent of the air events associated with environmental violations
tinue in future years. were related to exceedances of an emis- in 2008, which reflects a significant
sion limit during stack testing or routine environmental settlement paid in early
Twenty-three spills were reported by monitoring and 26 percent were related 2008 associated with three NOVs that
Merck sites worldwide in 2008 versus to temperature deviations. resulted from three spills at one site
26 in 2007. Fifty percent of these spills in 2006. More at:
are related to a modified regulatory cr/community.
GLOBAL 2008 2007 2006 2005

Regulatory inspections
» Environmental inspections 101 76 88 N/D
» Safety inspections 75 41 65 N/D
Environmental events
» Reportable spills and releases 23 26* 4 4
» Water permit exceedances 7 6 5 3
» Air permit exceedances 23 28 19 25
Notices of Violations (NOVs)/Citations
» Environmental 9 13 11 N/D
» Safety 7 3 8 N/D
» Environmental fines paid (US$) 1,579,600† 31,515 10,652 281,025
(Number of fines) (7) (6) (3) (4)
» Safety fines paid (US$) 0 1,500 1,975 1,000
(Number of fines) (1) (2) (2)

N/D – No data available.

* The increase in number of reportable spills is due primarily to a modified Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection interpretation in late 2006
that resulted in reporting of spills, such as chilled water spills into storm water drains, that were not previously required to be reported.
† Reflects a significant environmental settlement ($1,575,000) paid in early 2008 associated with three spills that occurred in 2006.

For additional information on environ- stimulates the development and broad

mental and safety performance, go to use of energy-efficient technologies and
ENERGY DEMAND INTENSITY avoids unnecessary economic disrup-
tions and the inefficiencies of disparate
ADDRESSING local, state or regional requirements. We
are working on establishing a long-term 0.8
Merck has adopted responsible policies goal for reductions in GHG emissions 0.7
and practices to reduce our energy in line with the global desire among
nations and regions to commit to mak- 0.6
demand and greenhouse gas (GHG)
emissions. We believe that taking early ing significant reductions through 2020 0.5
action to understand how we use energy and 2050. More at:
cr/climatechange. 0.4

and to reduce our GHG emissions will
also help to minimize the impact on 0.3
Merck of anticipated regulatory require- REDUCING ENERGY DEMAND
Since 1994, Merck has had a formal 0.2
ments associated with climate change.
energy policy. By implementing best 0.1
Merck recognizes that although practices for reducing energy use across
the Company, we have made signifi- 0.0
voluntary programs to reduce GHG
cant progress in enhancing our energy 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
emissions can be effective, national and
even multinational frameworks will efficiency. In early 2005, Merck adopted 2008 Goal
be required to address climate change. a cor porate goal to reduce our demand-
Merck supports a global approach that based energy intensity by 25 percent


» U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ENERGY STAR: greenhouse gas emissions. Merck’s goal is to achieve 12 percent
This partnership provides a broad energy management strategy absolute reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a
that serves as a useful framework in measuring our current baseline of 2004 through 2012. More at:
energy performance, setting goals, tracking savings and reward-
» Business Roundtable Climate RESOLVE (Responsible
ing improvements. Recently, the EPA recognized Merck with its
Environmental Steps, Opportunities to Lead by Voluntary
2009 ENERGY STAR Sustained Excellence Award. An ENERGY
Efforts): This initiative seeks to have every company in every
STAR partner since 2004, Merck has been recognized by the EPA
sector of the U.S. economy undertake voluntary actions to
for four consecutive years – twice as Partner of the Year and twice
control GHG emissions and improve GHG intensity. More at:
for Sustained Excellence. More at:
» U.S. EPA Climate Leaders: Member companies of this industry-
» Carbon Disclosure Project: Merck has reported its greenhouse
government partnership program develop comprehensive climate
gas emissions since 2005 to the Carbon Disclosure Project and
change strategies and commit to reducing their impact on the global
participates in workshops and seminars sponsored by the CDP.
environment by completing a corporate-wide inventory of their
More at:
GLOBAL 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004*

Total energy supply (Million BTUs x 106) 12.8 15.2 15.5 17.5 18.5
Energy demand intensity† (Million BTU/sq ft) 0.47 0.52 0.54 0.61 0.65

Energy source (% of total)
» Purchased electricity 36 29 29 28 28
» Natural gas 38 52 53 54 56
» Fuel oil 3 3 2 3 3
» Coal 0 0 0 0 0
» Fleet fuel 23 17 16 15 13
Total GHG emissions (as CO2 eq) (Million metric tons) 1.18 1.38§ 1.38§ 1.47§ 1.51§
Total GHG emissions (as CO2 eq) baseline adjusted 1.18 1.29 1.29 1.36 1.36
for sale of facilities.¶ (Million metric tons)

* 2004 noted as baseline.

† The difference between demand energy and supply energy is losses in energy production at Merck facilities.
‡ Previously reported data have been modified to reflect the energy distribution with fleet fuel included and to reflect a change in calculation methodology.
§ Previously reported data have been modified to reflect the contribution of additional GHG compounds.
¶ In accordance with U.S. EPA Climate Leaders protocol, GHG generation baseline data have been adjusted to remove facilities that have been sold.

per unit area (measured in millions February 2008, we announced our goal However, approximately 50,000 metric
of BTUs [MMBtu/ft2]) by the end of to reduce GHG emissions1 from the tons of this reduction is from a facil-
2008, from a baseline year of 2004. Company’s global facilities and auto- ity that has been closed but not yet
We have achieved and exceeded the mobiles by 12 percent by the end of sold. If this facility were removed from
goal, reducing our energy demand 2012 from the baseline year of 2004. the baseline, Merck’s net GHG emis-
by 28 percent. In 2008, our Energy Merck’s GHG targets, accepted by the sion reduction would be 9.6 percent
Center of Excellence (COE) developed EPA Climate Leaders program, are based from the corrected 2004 baseline. We
efficiency metrics for all major systems on an absolute reduction of 1.5 percent are committed to meeting our goal
at Merck that demand energy and we per year for eight years. of a 12 percent reduction by 2012,
are using these metrics to drive even even though new facilities currently
better performance. Merck tracks four greenhouse gases: under construction will add to Merck’s
carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane, nitrous total emissions.
Specific energy efficiency projects oxide and hydrofluorocarbons. The vast
included the installation of variable speed majority of our GHG emissions are TRACKING OUR TRAVEL-RELATED
drives, re-commissioning of production,
research and office buildings, and the use
of free cooling and heat recovery from
recirculating water systems.

associated with CO2. Perfluorocarbons
(PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 )
are not tracked because they are typi-
cally not used at Merck facilities.

Based on 2008 results, Merck’s net

The GHG emissions associated with our
vehicle fleet are part of our GHG goal
and 2004 emission reduction baseline. In
2008, Merck also began to track direct
GHG emissions associated with the
GAS EMISSIONS reduction in GHG emissions was Merck air fleet. These emissions, which
Since 2005, Merck has been reporting 180,400 metric tons or 13.2 percent totaled 4,150 metric tons, were not
our GHG emissions annually through from a 2004 baseline that has been included in our original GHG emissions
the Carbon Disclosure Project. In adjusted for sites that have been sold.


In April 2009, Merck inaugurated a 1.6 megawatt ground-mounted
photovoltaic energy array at our corporate headquarters in
Whitehouse Station, New Jersey. Spread out over 7.5 acres, it is one
of the largest ground-mounted solar power tracking systems built
in a corporate setting. Nearly 7,000 moving solar panels are track-
ing the sun to generate 2.5 million kilowatt hours of energy per year.
As a Member of the U.S. EPA Climate Leaders, Merck is committed
to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A solar project of this
size will avoid the emissions of more than 1,200 tons of carbon
dioxide annually, which is about the same as taking 200 cars off
the road per year.2
GLOBAL 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 (baseline)

Total water usage (Billion gallons) 5.6 8.8 9.6 10.1 11.7
(Percent reduction v. prior year) (36) (8.3) (5) (13.6)
» Purchased water (Billion gallons) 1.3 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.9
» Pumped water, surface and ground (Billion gallons) 4.3 7.2 8.0 8.3 9.7

goals and are small in comparison to Approximately 77 percent of the total awareness and green chemistry expertise
overall GHG emissions. water we use is supplied from surface among our process development chemists
and ground water. Much of the water to help them develop more sustainable
We have also begun to gather the use at Merck is for utility systems in ways to synthesize our products.
emissions associated with business our manufacturing plants, more specifi-
travel and have estimated data for the cally to produce active pharmaceutical Solvents play a key role in the synthesis
years 2006 through 2008 that will be ingredients that require large volumes of pharmaceutical compounds. In 2008,
used to develop information about of cooling water. In 2008, approximately almost 40 million kilograms of solvent
environmentally smarter travel options 50 percent of the water we used globally were used in Merck’s production and
for employees. was for once-through non-contact cleaning processes. As a result of their
cooling, where water is pumped into importance to our pharmaceutical
WATER USE the plant, circulated through heat manufacturing process, we have active
In recent years, a combination of indus- exchange piping to cool processes and programs to reuse and recycle our used
trialization, urbanization and increasing then discharged at a higher temperature. solvents, as well as to find other benefi-
population growth have put pressure The vast majority of the once-through cial uses when reuse and recycling are
on the availability and quality of fresh cooling water (98 percent) was used at not practical.
water supplies. This has led to increasing facilities where there are ample sup-
concern and efforts to ensure efficient plies of ground water. To reduce water Reuse of solvents on-site in our processes
and sustainable use of water resources. consumption, many Merck facilities lowers our process costs by reducing
Because clean water is critical to both employ water reuse and recovery strate- the amount of new solvent we need to
human health and the environment as gies. During 2008, 1.8 billion gallons purchase and also decreases the amount
well as to our business, we are taking of water were recycled or reused by of waste solvents we need to transport
steps to improve our overall water Merck facilities. off-site for treatment. In 2008, more than
use efficiency and to understand our one-third of the solvents we used for
water footprint. We achieved our goal of reducing water manufacturing were recovered solvents.
use by 15 percent between 2004 and
Merck’s strategy for improving our 2008. In 2008, we used 6.1 billion gallons WASTE
water use efficiency includes reducing of water less than in 2004: a 52 per- In 2008, Merck managed almost
our overall demand for water, control- cent reduction. The closure and sale of 74,000 metric tons of wastes from

ling our water discharges and under- two water intensive facilities accounted our operations. Of this, 46,800 metric
standing the water-related challenges in for 59 percent of our total reduction. tons were wastes that require special
the regions where we operate. Water use reductions at the rest of our handling, including but not limited to
facilities, since including new sites that hazardous, infectious and other special
have been added, were 21.4 percent. wastes hereafter referred to as hazard-
ous. Merck’s generation of these wastes
WATER USE PERFORMANCE For details on Merck’s initiatives decreased 23 percent from 2005 to 2008.
INDICATORS worldwide to reduce water use, go to Increases in solvent recovery and reduc- tions in on-site production volumes are
among the most significant contributing
12 EMISSIONS, EFFLUENTS factors to this reduction.
Our strategy for minimizing our envi- The primary component of our hazard-
ronmental footprint focuses on reducing ous wastes is solvent from our manufac-
our demand for hazardous materials, turing operations. Of the hazardous waste
preventing the generation of waste, and we generate, 29 percent is recovered
reusing or recycling materials. off-site and reused either by Merck or by
other industries. Another 26 percent is
Reducing emissions and wastes of all burned as a source of energy in industrial
types begins with the original design furnaces or to generate power.
of our pharmaceutical manufacturing
processes and continues through instal- Most of the remaining waste is product
0 or research waste that is not recyclable.
lation. Our “green chemistry” program
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Of the total hazardous waste gener-
helps us design our new processes to
Purchased use more benign chemicals and reduce ated, 39 percent is incinerated and less
our generation of waste and our con- than three percent of our hazardous
sumption of energy, water and other waste, none of which is liquid, is sent
2008 Goal to landfills.
resources. We have been building
GLOBAL 2008 2007 2006 2005

Manufacturing solvent use (Metric tons)* 39,000 N/D N/D N/D

» Fresh solvents*,† 25,000 ~30,000 N/D N/D
» Recovered solvents 14,000 N/D N/D N/D
Air pollutant emissions by type (Metric tons)
» Ozone-depleting substances (ODS) 1.2 1.4‡ N/D N/D
» Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) 297 318§ 322§ 471§
» Sulfur Oxides (SOX) 50 58 67§ 84
» Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) 353 401‡ 427 411
TRI emissions (Metric tons to air and water) 196 270 242 163
» TRI emissions to air 72 97 123 104
» TRI emissions to water 124 173 119 59

Waste generated (Metric tons)

» Hazardous waste generated 46,800 54,000 62,300 60,900
» % Hazardous waste recycled 29 23 29 37
» % Other beneficial reuse 26 32 32 18
» Non-hazardous waste generated 27,000 32,000§,¶ N/D N/D
» % Non-hazardous waste recycled 46 42§,¶ N/D N/D

* Data includes purchases of solvents in bulk (tank truck/railcar) and large packages (drums, Fisher Paks).
† Data should be considered an estimate.
‡ Data unavailable for a site sold at the end of 2007.
§ Prior year data have been modified to reflect corrections identified after publication of previous report.
¶ 2007 was the first year we collected non-hazardous waste generation and recycling data. Data should be considered an estimate.

Merck has had a global waste manage- treatment of air emissions and solid waste The largest source of air emissions from
ment services vendor approval program incinerators. These combustion processes our manufacturing processes is solvent
since the late 1980s to ensure that the also result in emissions of nitrogen use, which is the primary component of
wastes we send offsite are managed in an oxides (NOX) and sometimes sulfur oxides both emissions to air of volatile organic
environmentally responsible manner. (SOX), depending on the fuels used. compounds (VOC) and Toxic Release
Emissions of NOX and SOX from Merck Inventory (TRI) compounds. Emissions
In 2007, we began to track our genera- facilities continued to trend downward, involving both of these parameters contin-
tion of non-hazardous waste. Based on with a seven percent reduction in NOX ued to decrease between 2006 and 2008.
the first two years of data, on average
we recycle approximately 44 percent of
the 27,000 to 32,000 metric tons of non-
hazardous wastes we generated annually.
from 2006 through 2008 and a 24 per-
cent decrease in SOX during the same
period. Energy conservation measures,
production variability and the closure
or sale of sites all contributed to the
Although our solvent emissions vary year
to year due to the nature of our business
and variability in the amount of solvents
required for different products, a large por-
tion of the decreases in air emissions were
AIR EMISSIONS decreases. The use of cleaner fuels further due to the closure of two Merck sites. It
The largest source of air emissions at our contributed to declines in SOX during is noteworthy that since 1996, Merck has
sites is CO2 from the production and that period. maintained its 90 percent reduction in
use of energy, and from other combustion TRI emissions from 1987 levels, despite
processes such as thermal oxidizers for Company growth.


» Facility design: In 2008, Merck adopted a corporate commitment efficient way to post low- and medium-value supplies and equip-
to build all new laboratories and offices to achieve a LEED® Silver ment to seek other departments that can make use of them.
Certification or its equivalent globally. Five years after its launch, thousands of transactions have
been documented – saving money, avoiding waste, reducing
» Packaging components: We are consolidating the number of
upstream manufacturing impacts and reinforcing an employee
unique product package images worldwide which will reduce
ownership culture.
packaging discards and packaging line waste.
» Verizon Hopeline Partnership: Our U.S. facilities and field sales
» Office Supplies: Merck’s Corporate headquarters is using
staff actively participate in this program that benefits victims
46 percent less copy paper per employee now than in 2001. The
of domestic abuse. In the last three years, more than 31,000 cell
reduction is the result of employee awareness campaigns and
phones, from both business and personal use, have been
implementation of a global program that moved employees from
donated for reuse or recycling. Recycling cell phones allows
personal printers to network duplexing printers.
the recovery of important precious metals and keeps waste
» Surplus Exchange: On Earth Day 2004, Merck launched a out of landfills.
user-driven on-line program to provide employees with an
In 2007, we began tracking emissions of projects to ensure aggressive and appro- the use of raw materials, the generation
ozone-depleting compounds. Our cur- priate cleanup actions where Merck of both hazardous and non-hazardous
rent emissions, which are primarily due bears responsibility. waste, and reduce the use of energy and
to minor leaks from temperature control water in pharmaceutical production. In
systems, are small compared to other Expenditures for remediation and envi- addition, Merck has begun tracking new
emissions from our sites. Nevertheless, ronmental liabilities, including formerly measurements of process efficiency that
we will continue to monitor them for owned and operated sites, were $19.5 mil- will be used in process selection and
improvement opportunities. lion in 2007 and $34.5 million in 2008. drive continuous improvement.
The increase in 2008 was primarily due
WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS to execution of a guaranteed remedia- Merck is a founding member of the
All of Merck’s process wastewater is tion program (GRiP®) with an envi- ACS GCI Pharmaceutical Roundtable,
treated prior to discharge. Merck oper- ronmental consultant to complete the a collaborative partnership between
ates our own biological wastewater ongoing remediation project at one the American Chemical Society’s
treatment plants at four of our produc- of our former manufacturing sites. In Green Chemistry Institute® and
tion facilities; the remainder of our addition, Merck currently is a poten- member pharmaceutical companies,
production facilities wastewater is tially responsible party at 18 multi-party and has received several awards in the
treated by local municipal facilities. Superfund sites in the United States. United States and the European Union
In 2008, two Superfund claims were for its green chemistry efforts.
TRI emissions to water reflect a reduc- successfully resolved as de minimis settle-
tion in 2008 versus 2007, due primarily ments. These amounts do not consider ENVIRONMENTAL
to the sale and/or closure of two major potential recoveries from other parties. RISK ASSESSMENTS
manufacturing facilities, as well as In many countries around the world, an
lower manufacturing volumes at certain PRODUCT STEWARDSHIP Environmental Risk Assessment must be
facilities. In addition, we are currently Merck is committed to understanding conducted and submitted to regulatory
installing technology that will reduce and managing the environmental authorities as part of either the official
the discharges of nitrates at one facility impacts of our products from discovery marketing approval or the new substance
that accounted for the majority of the through manufacturing, patient use and notification processes. To carry out these
increases in 2006 and 2007. disposal. This commitment starts early in assessments, Merck puts our medicines
the drug development process and con- through a battery of environmental
During 2008, we began to track charac- tinues throughout the product lifecycle. fate and effects tests that are appropri-
teristics of the wastewater discharged by ate for evaluating potential environ-
our facilities, including chemical oxygen Merck scientists use green chemistry mental impacts from pharmaceutical
demand, suspended solids, ammonia, principles to reduce the environmental residues in the environment. All tests
and phosphorous. footprint of our manufacturing pro- are performed in independent research
cesses. We also conduct environmental laboratories officially accredited to
As part of the drug discovery and devel- risk assessments on our products to perform regulatory testing, and are car-
opment process, Merck assesses the evaluate and mitigate any potential for ried out following protocols issued by
potential environmental and human environmental impacts due to discharges the OECD and in full compliance with
health effects of our products. Since the from our pilot plant and manufacturing Good Laboratory Practice regulations.
early 1990s Merck has used that infor- facilities as well as to evaluate potential Environmental risk assessments carried

44 mation to establish compound-specific

criteria and procedures to assure that
our factory discharges do not contain
residual products that present a risk to
human health or the environment. For
impacts resulting from normal patient
use. In addition, we strive to reduce
the amount of packaging material and
waste associated with our products
and to ensure that our suppliers also
out to date indicate that our products do
not pose an unacceptable risk to human
health or the environment.

Merck scientists also are collaborating

more on our efforts on pharmaceuticals have responsible practices. More at: with other pharmaceutical companies,
in the environment, go to p. 45. governmental agencies and universi-
ties to foster greater awareness and use
ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION USING GREEN CHEMISTRY of the scientific methods used to assess
Management practices for emissions, Merck applies green chemistry in both the potential impacts of pharmaceuti-
effluents and wastes have evolved our research activities and our manu- cals in the environment and to increase
significantly in the past 30 years. With facturing operations. In research, Merck the understanding of such impacts. In
research and manufacturing operations scientists designed micro-column Sweden, Merck participated in establish-
dating back more than 100 years, some chromatography to avoid the creation ing an environmental classification
facilities were operated during times of thousands of gallons of solvent waste system for pharmaceuticals, and vol-
when regulations and the understand- and published their work in the scien- untarily provides environmental risk
ing of good environmental practices tific literature where it is available to data on our products (see
were not at the level that they are today. researchers in other companies. In man- In Canada, Merck scientists are work-
As a result, Merck has responsibility for ufacturing, Merck scientists and process ing with governmental agency and
remediation of these historical envi- engineers have introduced chemistry university scientists to develop envi-
ronmental concerns and has established innovations that significantly reduce ronmental assessment regulations aimed
at addressing risks to the environment NANOTECHNOLOGY » We continue to look for ways to
and to human health posed by products Merck is actively pursuing nanotech- reduce our energy demand, including
regulated under the Canadian Food and nology both through internal research through the increased use of renew-
Drug Act. and external collaborations, because we able energy technologies.
are always looking for better ways to
» We aim to reduce our total global
PHARMACEUTICALS IN improve patient care as well as protect
GHG emissions by 12 percent by
THE ENVIRONMENT (PIE) the environment and the health and
the end of 2012, using 2004 as the
Merck participates in many stakeholder safety of our employees. The testing
baseline year.
collaborations aimed at developing and required for all drugs will ensure that
implementing a science-based approach nano-based pharmaceuticals are safe and » We are working on establishing
to evaluating and setting policy related to effective for patient use. Based on our appropriate GHG reduction goals
pharmaceuticals in the environment. In current knowledge of nanoparticles, our for the longer term that are in line
addition, through our association with existing methods for assessing risks to with the global desire among nations
the Graham Environmental Sustainability workers and the environment are valid and regions to commit to significant
Institute, Merck is collaborating with and our existing controls are well-suited reductions through 2020 and 2050.
researchers at the University of Michigan for controlling employee exposures
» Merck will continue to seek new
and PhRMA to assess the environmental to nanomaterials.
sources of GHG data in certain ele-
footprints associated with methods of
ments of our supply chain, including
disposal of unused medicines. Merck is One of Merck’s products, EMEND,
the amount of renewable energy we
also a sponsor of the Water Environment uses a nanoscale milling approach to
purchase, and will investigate our
Research Foundation (WERF), where make the granules very small so they are
ability to track emissions related to
the significance of trace constituents of more easily absorbed in the digestive
materials shipments.
consumer products, including pharma- tract. Merck also packages a new class of
ceuticals in the environment, has been experimental drugs (siRNAs) by coat- » Although we have achieved our water
identified as a critical knowledge area and ing them with lipids (fats) for efficient use reduction goal, Merck continues
is the subject of numerous research proj- delivery to the inside of cells where they to place high priority on optimizing
ects, including research on new waste- are active. our use of water. During 2009, we
water treatment technologies to improve will continue to map our water use
the removal of trace amounts of pharma- For more on Merck’s product steward- and create profiles of water avail-
ceuticals from wastewater discharges. ship initiatives, go to ability and risks at our facilities around
cr/productstewardship. the world, and use that information
Although the primary source of to identify opportunities for water use
pharmaceuticals in the environment is FUTURE GOALS improvements that optimize environ-
patient use and excretion, given that AND PRIORITIES mental benefit and business value.
flushing of unused medicines contrib- » We continue to strive for full » We will continue to monitor TRI
utes to the trace concentrations detected compliance with applicable laws and VOC emissions to ensure that
in the environment, proper disposal is and regulations. we maintain reductions obtained
also an important aspect of addressing
» Our major goal is to have zero signifi- from past initiatives.
the issue. Merck, through its member-
ship in the PhRMA PIE Task Force, has cant safety or environmental events. » Merck will continue to work with
worked to develop and implement the
SMARxT Disposal Program, designed
to provide the general public with infor-
mation on proper disposal of medicines.
» We continue to enhance our
audit, self-assessment and inspec-
tion programs.
» We continue to enhance safety &
stakeholders and the scientific com-
munity on the evolving issue of
pharmaceuticals in the environment
(PIE) to identify additional data needs
on the transport, fate and effects of
To view Merck’s policy on PIE, go to environmental (S&E) training for PIE and to conduct our own envi- S&E professionals, operations man- ronmental risk assessments based
PUBLIC_statement.pdf. agers and employees. upon the best available science.

Advocacy and Outreach

As corporate political disclosure gains broad To make this disclosure more useful, companies
acceptance, the challenge for companies is to need to take a further step and ask associations
bring accountability to political spending by about the purpose, the recipients and the benefi-
their trade associations. Underwritten by their ciaries of their political expenditures. Companies
corporate members, associations are major politi- should include this information as a normal part of
cal players. A large share of corporate political their political disclosure. This would help compa-
spending is in fact done through associations. nies in evaluating the risks and benefits of their
However, the absence of disclosure of payments trade association participation. It would further
to or spending by associations on political activity enable companies to identify any conflicts between
means that much of this activity remains hid- their values and public policy objectives and those
den, even to their members. This secrecy is being of organizations that they support. Robust disclo-
peeled back as a growing number of companies, sure and accountability are critical for determining
including Merck, disclose their payments used for whether a company’s resources are being used to BRUCE F. FREED
political purposes. achieve political goals which the company may not
President, Center for
share and may even oppose.
Political Accountability

…one challenge for companies is to bring greater

accountability to their public policy advocacy efforts
and political spending…
A major element of our Corporate Responsibility approach and
46 practices is our public policy advocacy work and our outreach
to stakeholders.
Merck informs and advocates for public policies that foster research into innovative medicines
and improve access to medicines, vaccines and health care. While our positions support
the sustainability of our business, we believe they also are beneficial to society as a whole.
MAKING A RESPONSIBLE innovative products in the European Health Innovation in Canada to support
CONTRIBUTION TO Union, Asia Pacific and Latin America. the local life sciences sector.
In Europe, we have contributed posi-
tively to an active public dialogue on BIOSIMILARS
During 2008 and more recently, Merck
how governments can improve public Merck supports an abbreviated regula-
has been contributing to numerous pol-
health while efficiently managing lim- tory pathway for approval of biosimilars,
icy debates worldwide. Below are a few
ited healthcare resources. See p. 26 for to assure patient safety and preserve
noteworthy examples. Merck positions
more details. incentives for continued biologics
on many of these issues can be found at:
innovation. The cost savings that could
PROMOTING INNOVATION be realized by competing biosimilar
Merck supports policy initiatives that products may provide additional resources
foster an environment conducive to the to fund research, development, and pay-
We have consistently promoted health-
development of a robust life-sciences ment of new innovative products. We
care reform in the U.S. and abroad,
sector. Merck Frosst is partnering with have supported the adoption of regula-
including initiatives to address pricing
the Centre for the Advancement of tory guidelines for biosimilar products
and reimbursement conditions for
in numerous markets including the U.S.,
Merck recognizes it is our responsibility to work discussions of major trade associations of which
with policymakers and other stakeholders to we are members to ensure that any conflicts with
explain our views ethically and transparently. our policy positions or values are identified and
Our public policy and engagement practices are addressed. In 2008, we began to disclose the por-
governed by numerous regulations worldwide tion of dues that major U.S.-based trade associa-
as well as Merck’s own Code of Conduct. We tions report to us as being used for advocacy
adhere to the Center for Political Accountability’s and/or political activity purposes, where dues are
Model Code on political contributions and are greater than $50,000. Because we recognize the
proud to say that we are in compliance with all concerns of stakeholders regarding potential trade
major provisions of the Code’s eleven principles. association activity, we will continue to look for
efficient ways in which greater transparency can
We also understand that accountability with be achieved with respect to the policy positions
GERALYN S. RITTER respect to the actions of our trade associations is and activities of the trade associations we support.
critical. We take a very active part in the strategy
Vice President, Global Public Policy
and Corporate Responsibility,
Merck & Co., Inc.

Because we recognize stakeholder concerns regarding

« potential trade association activity, we will continue to
look for efficient ways to achieve transparency.

Japan, Australia, Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia worldwide. In 2008, our educational Pharmaceuticals Act in the U.S. and the

and Mexico. efforts have focused on preventing draft E.U. directive on counterfeiting
issuance of compulsory licenses and (see p. 31).
REGULATORY REFORM strengthening data protection.
Merck supported systemic changes TRADE AGREEMENTS
to improve the quality and timing of ANTI-COUNTERFEITING We have advanced increasing access to
regulatory review in Japan. In this way, We are working with numerous orga- innovative medicines in many coun-
we aspire to increase access to needed, nizations to raise awareness about the tries by supporting bilateral and multi-
new medicines. serious public health risks posed by lateral trade agreements that promote
counterfeit medicines, and to promote more open and transparent markets. For
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY regulatory changes that will enhance example, Merck supported U.S. free trade
PROTECTION public safety. Merck supports efforts agreements with a significant number
Merck continues to defend strong to strengthen anti-counterfeiting laws, of countries and regions, such as Chile
intellectual property protections including the Safeguarding America’s and Central America.


Merck supports healthcare system reform in the U.S. that incentives for unlimited healthcare spending. Furthermore, we
will ensure affordable access to healthcare coverage for all believe all individuals should be required to purchase health
Americans. Without coverage, millions of Americans are denied insurance, every employer should provide insurance or pay into a
access to needed health care, including prescription medicines fund, and the government should provide subsidies or insurance
and other basic services. We believe reforms should rely on for those who cannot afford it. Merck supports promoting greater
market-based competition to improve quality, control costs, efficiency and enhanced quality of care in the healthcare system
and continue to encourage the innovation that has made the U.S. through increased research and public dissemination of cost and
system so unique. Merck also supports proposals to reduce quality information, including increased price transparency at the
health spending by increasing competition around health out- point of service, as well as enhanced use of health information
comes for patients, and by changing the tax code to remove the technology – such as electronic personal health records.
In April 2009, Merck Chairman Richard T. Clark completed a » Strengthening the PhRMA Guiding Principles on Direct to
one-year term as Chairman of the Board of Directors of PhRMA. Consumer Advertising about Prescription Medicines. More at:
During this period, PhRMA adopted several important policies to
increase transparency and strengthen the industry’s marketing
» Updating PhRMA’s Principles on Conduct of Clinical Trials and
and research standards, including:
Communications of Clinical Trial Results. More at: www.phrma.
» Revising the PhRMA Code of Interactions with Health Care org/clinical_trials.
Professionals to ensure that industry marketing practices com-
ply with the highest ethical standards. More on p. 35.

TRANSPARENCY corporate funds for political purposes. responsibility – discovering and devel-
Merck supports the creation of a uni- The Merck Board of Directors oping medicines and vaccines that make
form, U.S. national program for disclos- recognizes that the use of Company a difference in people’s lives and create a
ing certain financial relations between resources in the political process is an healthier future.
industry and physicians. In 2008, we important issue for shareholders. We
supported legislation that would have closely monitor our contributions to That is why we have begun to disclose
mandated such a system. In this spirit, political candidates and seek approval payment and grant information in a
we have begun to disclose payments to by the Company’s General Counsel number of areas across our business in
third parties. in the U.S., and report our spending the following areas:
regularly to the Board.
AND ENGAGEMENT CONDUCT We perform periodic audits to assess PATIENT ORGANIZATIONS: Starting in
and enforce compliance with Company October 2008, Merck began report-
policies, and Merck employees above ing grants over $500 provided by the
Our public policy and engagement
a certain level of responsibility are Company’s Global Human Health
practices are governed by numerous
required to certify annually their adher- division to U.S. organizations in
regulations worldwide and by Merck’s
ence to such policies. We are extending support of independent accredited
Code of Conduct (see p. 32). We also
certification in 2009 to require indi- educational programs for health-
adhere to the Center for Political
viduals involved in corporate political care professionals. In 2009, we have
Accountability’s (CPA) Model Code on
contributions in the U.S. to certify as expanded this disclosure to include
political contributions (www.political
to their knowledge of and adherence to other types of grants, including We have engaged
the CPA Model Code, in addition to the grants to patient organizations and
with the CPA since 2007 to inform
other required Company certifications. other groups by Merck operations
discussions on best practices related
in Europe, Middle East, Africa and
to spending for political activities. In
MERCK TRANSPARENCY Canada. More on p. 36.
2008 we believe we were compliant
in all material respects with all major
provisions of the guidelines. There
Merck believes that the best way to March 2009, Merck began reporting

were no reports of possible viola-
address the concerns, risks and questions all philanthropic grants made through
tions of state law related to corporate
facing our business and to build a foun- the Office of Corporate Philanthropy
political contributions.
dation of trust is to be more transparent and The Merck Company Foundation.
about the way we operate. By doing this, Merck will update this list annually
Additionally, we have long-standing
we are confident that we will continue providing a full 2009 report in the
policies governing the use of any
to succeed in our most fundamental first quarter of 2010.


2008 2007 2006 2005

Corporate political contributions (U.S., CAN, AUS) (US$)* U.S.: 597,775 470,625 611,975 337,140
AUS: 5,040 19,195 20,292 12,137
CAN: 30,965 58,396 45,765 46,700

Portion of dues that the major U.S.-based trade associations 6.8 paid to 6.9 paid to N/A N/A
report to us as being used for advocacy and/or political activities 8 groups 8 groups
in the U.S. where dues are >$50,000† (US$M)

Compliance with political contribution evaluation criteria used All 11 10 out of 11 N/A N/A
by the Center for Political Accountability principles principles

* Totals reflect corporate contributions; employee contributions through the Merck PAC are not included. Political contributions in the United States, which
are for state candidates, are always much greater in even-numbered calendar years, because that is when the overwhelming number of states hold their
elections for state legislatures and governors.
† Because the U.S. tax law that requires this reporting does not apply outside the United States, trade associations that are not subject to this do not provide break-
outs of lobbying expenditures from membership dues. Thus, at this time, Merck is unable to report these data for such lobbying expenses in other countries.
» PAYMENTS TO U.S.-BASED HEALTH- All Merck employees are required to For details on how we work with
CARE PROFESSIONALS: We sup- adhere to the Company’s high standards specific stakeholder groups to address
port broader disclosure of financial and act with integrity when interacting their expectations and concerns, go to
relationships between physicians with government agents or engaging
and the pharmaceutical industry. In in any conduct related to governmen-
2008, Merck endorsed the Physicians tal healthcare programs. This includes WORKING IN PUBLIC/PRIVATE
Payment Sunshine Act, mandating dis- ensuring that all information provided PARTNERSHIPS TO ADDRESS
closure of these financial relationships. to governmental entities is complete and SOCIETAL CHALLENGES
But even in the absence of a legislative accurate to the best of the employee’s Merck recognizes that leveraging the
requirement, we plan to voluntarily knowledge and belief. Our Code of expertise of all stakeholders can make a
disclose in the fourth quarter of 2009 Conduct also makes clear that no illegal sustainable difference in addressing key
all payments to U.S.-based healthcare payments of any kind are to be offered societal challenges. We have decades of
professionals who speak on behalf of or made, under any circumstances, to experience in developing public/private
Merck or our products. government or political party officials partnerships (PPPs) and have pio-
or candidates of any nation. neered far-reaching programs focused
» CORPORATE POLITICAL CONTRIBU- on improving global health, on health
TIONS: To improve access to informa- In addition to our own advocacy efforts, and science education, environmental
tion about Merck’s corporate political we are members of numerous industry protection and ethical business practices.
contributions in the United States, and trade groups. We work with them Our activities range from small col-
Merck annually posts the Company’s because they represent the pharmaceuti- laborations to global multi-stakeholder
contributions categorized by state, cal industry and business community initiatives; among these are the Merck
candidate and amount. Merck also and because they are important in MECTIZAN Donation Program, the
discloses any contributions to com- reaching consensus on policy issues. African Comprehensive HIV/AIDS
mittees known as 527 organizations. At times we may not share the views Partnerships, and the ROTATEQ
Beginning in 2009, we have expanded of our peers or associations, in which Access Partnership. These and many
this list to include corporate contribu- case our Company representatives will other of Merck’s numerous and varied
tions in Australia and Canada, the only ensure we voice our questions or con- public/private partnership efforts
other two countries where Merck cerns, or even recuse themselves from are discussed in detail throughout this
provides corporate contributions to specific activities. For a list of the major report and on our website.
candidates or political parties. associations we work with, go to: In 2009, we are requiring an annual
» MERCK POLITICAL ACTION COMMITTEE trade_association_membership/ progress and evaluation report for all
CONTRIBUTIONS: Merck provides an home.html. public/private partnerships to which
opportunity for eligible employees to we provide financial support.
participate in the political process by ENGAGING WITH
joining a nonpartisan political action OUR STAKEHOLDERS FUTURE GOALS
committee (PAC) that allows them Merck’s interactions with various stake- AND PRIORITIES
to pool their financial resources to holders are fundamental to our under- » In 2010, Merck plans to draft a new
support federal and state candidates. standing of – and response to – society’s model code of conduct for corporate
Except for administrative expenses,

expectations of our Company across political spending that includes both
the Merck Employees Political Action many dimensions of our global activities. the provisions of the CPA Model
Committee (Merck PAC) is comprised Throughout our operations, the process Code and additional provisions based
completely of funds voluntarily con- of dialogue and engagement informs and on internal policies and practices.
tributed by eligible Merck employees. guides our business strategy and decision
Merck publicly discloses all PAC making processes, and enhances the pub- » In 2010, we plan to disclose all of our
contributions in reports filed with the lic’s understanding of our business. memberships in U.S. state business-
Federal Election Commission. More at:
related associations, regardless of the By actively engaging with our stakehold- size of the dues.
ers, taking responsible actions and main-
» DUES TO MAJOR U.S.-BASED TRADE taining our commitments, we believe we » In 2010, Merck plans to publish on
ASSOCIATIONS: In 2008, Merck began can build trust and support. Over time our website a list of policy positions
to disclose the portion of dues that this can reduce financial and other enter- being advocated within state legisla-
major U.S.-based trade associations prise risks and costs. We engage stake- tures in the U.S.
report to us as being used for advo- holders through financial and technical
cacy and/or political activities where support, and through dialogue to inform » In 2010, we plan to report on the
dues are >$50,000. debates constructively and to foster prog- number of PPPs for which Merck
ress toward solutions that benefit society has provided support and that report
More information on Merck’s dis- more broadly. We also have a long history annually against program objec-
closures of grants and payments at: of collaboration with patient groups tives and performance require- and health-related charities in areas that ments, including a measure of their
are relevant to our business. As part progress against the United Nations
of our efforts to increase transparency in Millennium Development Goals
our support of independent third parties, where applicable.
Merck has begun to disclose our support
of third-party organizations and indi-
vidual healthcare providers.
Executing the Basics

Merck’s Corporate Responsibility reporting is focused

on priority environmental, social and governance issues
in accordance with our materiality assessment.
However, in addition to these issues, there exist a number of other topics which are
of importance to our business and to our key stakeholders.
CORPORATE GOVERNANCE BOARD INDEPENDENCE complex and inter-related consider-
Issues of concern to our stakeholders AND PERFORMANCE ations that are used to set compensa-
are very often issues of concern to our A desire for complete independence of tion levels; the confidential nature of
shareholders. For this reason Merck the Merck Board has been expressed some information about the Company’s
corporate governance concerns both by some shareholders. Our policy is strategies and performance that is used
the Company’s relationship to our that the Merck Board should consist to assess executive performance and set
shareholders, and also how we respond of a substantial majority of indepen- compensation; and the availability of
on key social issues. Our corporate gov- dent directors in accordance with the other means for shareholders to express
ernance objective is to balance fiduciary standard for independence set forth in their opinions on the Company’s execu-
duty and accountability to generate our Policies of the Board. Currently, tive compensation strategy. For further
long-term shareholder value, while also all directors other than the CEO are details, see pp. 73–74 of the Company’s
considering in a transparent manner the considered to be independent. In 2007, 2009 Proxy Statement.
feedback from other stakeholders. For Dr. Samuel Thier was appointed Lead
details on various aspects of our cor- Director to provide independent CR GOVERNANCE AND
porate governance, go to www.merck. leadership to the Board. For additional PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
com/cr/corporategovernance. details on the responsibilities of the
In 2009, Merck’s governance of
Company’s Lead Director, see p. 14 of
Corporate Responsibility (CR) has
KEY CORPORATE Merck’s 2009 Proxy Statement. continued to develop, with the goal of
GOVERNANCE ISSUES improving integration of CR-related

50 Merck supports productive dialogue and As a way of voicing their views on per- In 2007–2008, we established a formal
engagement with our shareholders, and has formance, some shareholders have asked CR governance function and process – a
a long-recognized track record of construc- for the ability to provide a non-binding new Office of Corporate Responsibility
tive interaction through ongoing discus- vote on executive compensation. Merck and a senior-level, cross-functional CR
sions and periodic meetings on key issues. believes this is unnecessary and not in Council responsible for the Company’s
the best interests of the Company and its CR approach. We defined our priority
shareholders, in view of the numerous ESG issues and developed metrics to


PERFORMANCE INDICATORS 2008 2007 2006 2005

Number of independent directors on the Merck Board 13 12 11 11

(%) (93) (92) (92) (92)
Separate Chairman of the Board and CEO* No No N/A N/A
Lead Independent Director Yes Yes No No
Independent Audit Committee Yes Yes Yes Yes

Independent Compensation Committee Yes Yes Yes Yes

Independent Committee on Public Policy and Social Responsibility Yes Yes Yes Yes

Number of Board meetings held or scheduled† 13 13 8 11

* There was no Chairman of the Board in 2005–2007.

† Meetings were held in person and via telephone.
measure the Company’s performance them to stay. Components of our work In many countries, we offer health
and progress in numerous areas (see p. 3). environment include numerous oppor- insurance, life and injury insurance,
Under this new process, Merck’s tunities for employee development and disability insurance, retirement income
Executive Committee reviews Merck’s professional growth, competitive com- benefits and insurance for business
CR approach and related performance pensation and benefits, our focus on travel. At certain Merck sites, employ-
and approves our CR report. Merck’s health and safety, and our approach to ees can see a healthcare professional
Board of Directors Committee on diversity and inclusion. on-site for such services as immuniza-
Public Policy and Social Responsibility tions and health screenings. Worldwide,
is responsible for advising the Board COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS Merck offers retirement benefits that
of Directors and management on Overall compensation at Merck is directly are competitive with our peers and
Company policies and practices pertain- dependent on our corporate perfor- general industry.
ing to our CR responsibilities; other mance, as well as on specific internal
Board committees oversee specific issues metrics related to the performance DIVERSITY AND INCLUSION
such as corporate governance, audit and of an individual employee and their We believe that our human and organi-
compliance, and executive compensa- functional group. Employees at all levels zational differences, when managed suc-
tion. More on our CR governance at: have objectives against which they are cessfully, will make us a more innovative,
www. assessed by their supervisor. agile and profitable company. In 2007,
Merck initiated a new global diversity
BUILDING A POSITIVE In 2008, Merck paid a total of strategy, under which the performance
WORK ENVIRONMENT US$5.03 billion in payroll expenses, and compensation of our managers and
A positive work environment is essen- excluding benefits. Merck’s global leaders now is linked to measures related
tial to allow our employees to achieve compensation and reward program also to fostering diversity and inclusion. As
their potential. It also helps attract new includes an incentive plan of cash awards part of this strategy, in 2008, through an
employees to Merck and motivates based on performance. innovative approach to diversity, Merck


2008 2007 2006 2005

Total compensation paid to employees/payroll excluding benefits (US$B) 5.03 5.56 5.14 4.84

Women in workforce (globally) (%)

Women on the Board (%)
Women in executive roles (U.S.)† (%)
Women on Senior Management Team (U.S.) (%)
Women in workforce (U.S.) (%) 50 49 50 50
Women in management roles (U.S.) (%) 42 41 41 38
Under-represented ethnic groups on the Board (%) 14 17 17 17
Under-represented ethnic groups in executive roles (U.S.)† (%) 11 11 12 12
Under-represented ethnic groups on Senior Management Team (U.S.) (%) 15 14 15 14
Under-represented ethnic groups in workforce (U.S.) (%) 23 20 20 21
Under-represented ethnic groups in management roles (U.S.) (%) 20 20 19 18
Employee response rate to Merck Culture Assessment Survey (%) 65 72 77 N/A‡
Number of position eliminations through Merck’s restructuring program 5,800 2,400 3,700 1,110
Overall turnover rate§ 17.6 10.7 11.9 10.6
Overall voluntary turnover rate 8.1 6.6 7.1 7.1
Involuntary termination rate 9.8 4.1 4.8 3.5

* All data pertains to representation in Merck’s workforce.

† Executives refer to the level of vice president.
‡ Survey not conducted prior to 2006.
§ Overall turnover includes all types of turnover; overall voluntary turnover excludes any involuntary terminations for performance or restructuring.
Merck is committed to fostering and promoting employee health;
first, because health is a key ingredient for optimal workforce per-
formance; second, because Merck’s business is health, we believe
we must lead by example; and finally, because a constructive
approach to employee health helps to recruit and retain top talent.
In this spirit, MSD Singapore has demonstrated a firm commit-
ment to help their employees lead healthy and vibrant lives through
innovative health promotion programs that have gained national
recognition. In 2008, MSD earned the platinum (highest honor) level
Singapore HEALTH (Helping Employees Achieve Life-Time Health)
Award, presented by the Health Promotion Board to give national
recognition to organizations with commendable Workplace Health
Promotion (WHP) programs. In previous years, MSD has also
earned two silver and three gold-level awards.
MSD Singapore takes a holistic approach to health promotion, with
a wellness program that encourages healthy eating habits, promotes MSD Singapore feels they have a competitive edge on other com-
physical fitness, and provides voluntary educational workshops panies as a caring employer that values employees’ health and
to increase health literacy. In addition, MSD consciously targets well-being. It has put in place metrics to gauge the success of its
employees’ individual health needs by making available occupa- employee health initiatives in terms of increased productivity,
tional health staff who work with employees and their doctors cost savings, and reduced employee illness.
to manage health issues such as cholesterol levels, smoking
cessation, and others.

launched the Global Constituency ENGAGING WITH OUR EMPLOYEES eliminated approximately 5,800 posi-
Groups (GCGs). The goals of the GCGs To keep in touch with employee tions in connection with both the 2008
align with Merck business priorities and perspectives about our culture, Merck restructuring program and its previously
support our corporate strategy (Plan to conducts an annual Culture Assessment announced 2005 restructuring program.
Win). There are ten distinct GCG teams that measures Merck’s progress toward In implementing these difficult but
including: Women; Men; Generational; becoming a high-performance orga- necessary actions, Merck is committed
Hispanic; Black; Asia Pacific; Native nization. This includes questions on to treating employees with fairness and
Indigenous; Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, such topics as teamwork, capability respect. For more information, go to
Transgender (LGBT); Differently Abled; development, customer focus, ability to
and Interfaith. The participants of the create change, strategic direction and
GCGs develop and support the strategic intent. In direct response to employee POSITIVE WORK ENVIRONMENT
initiatives that drive Company-wide feedback from our 2008 survey, the FUTURE GOALS AND PRIORITIES
culture change that builds upon the goal Company is including certain areas as » We want to score at or above the
of global interdependence and col- specific measures on our 2009 internal 75th percentile in each dimension of

52 laboration, and will further enhance our

efforts to become a high-performance
organization that effectively leverages
the full breadth and depth of our diverse
global talent.
company performance scorecard. We
also have continued to reinforce our
leadership standards by holding leaders
and employees accountable for desired
behaviors, such as championing change,
understanding our customers’ needs, and
our annual Culture Assessment by 2011.
» We will strive to increase by 2010
the percentage of employees who say
they are satisfied with the opportu-
nity to work flexibly to 80 percent,
and increase overall engagement of
WORK-LIFE EFFECTIVENESS, delivering value to our customers.
employees by ten percent. We will
begin formally tracking global use of
Merck implemented flexible work MERCK’S RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM
our flexible work arrangements in
arrangements in the United States more On October 22, 2008, Merck outlined
2009 and are committed to reporting
than ten years ago with the intention the next steps in the Company’s ongoing
this information in future reports.
that they be used as a business tool and efforts to reduce its cost structure,
strategy to create a work environment in increase efficiency and enhance competi- » By 2012, we plan to increase global
which employees could simultaneously tiveness as part of our overall strategy to female representation at the senior
achieve business objectives and main- regain an industry leadership position. As manager level (typically within two
tain work-life effectiveness. In 2008, part of the 2008 restructuring program, reporting levels of our CEO) to
we implemented a global flexible work Merck expects to eliminate approxi- 36 percent, and in the United States,
arrangement policy and launched tools mately 7,200 positions – 6,800 active to increase under-represented ethnic
to increase access to such arrangements employees and 400 vacancies – across all group representation at the senior
worldwide. As flexible work arrange- areas of the Company worldwide by the manager level to 18 percent.
ments grow to being used as a strategic end of 2011. During 2008, the Company
business tool, we believe we will experi-
ence increased productivity and inno-
vation as well as enhanced employee
engagement. More at:
FOSTERING SAFETY AND In early 2009, Merck responded to the injury rate and a 23.6 percent improve-
HEALTH IN THE WORKPLACE outbreak of the Influenza A (H1N1 ment in the lost-time rate. The decrease
“swine flu”) virus by mobilizing a in 2008 lost-time injury rate is primarily
cross-functional team to develop and attributable to a 30 percent reduction
Merck provides employees with a wide
deliver to Merck managers and EHS in injuries associated with motor
variety of health programs in alignment
professionals, key documents and sup- vehicle accidents.
with the highest standards of medical
port for global employee health and
care and regulatory requirements to
safety guidance, and specific response Preventing motor vehicle accidents is a
enhance their health and well-being.
recommendations. For more on Merck’s key focus area of our global employee
We are also committed to providing a
contributions to pandemic preparedness, safety efforts. In 2008, we reduced
safe working environment through tak-
see p. 18. the frequency of work-related vehicle
ing preventive actions as well as closely
Accidents per Million Miles (APMM)
tracking accidents, injuries or illnesses so
FOSTERING EMPLOYEE SAFETY by 25 percent.The reduction in vehicle-
that we can address problems promptly
Merck strives to eliminate work-related related injuries was the primary con-
and work toward eliminating occupa-
injuries and illnesses from our operations tributor to the 12.5 percent reduction
tional injuries and illnesses.
globally through full compliance with all in overall lost-time injury rate for the
applicable country and local safety laws Company. Employee days away from
In 2007, for U.S.-based employees,
and regulations and implementation of work as a result of vehicle accidents were
Merck introduced Health Matters to raise
additional beyond-compliance programs. similarly reduced.
awareness of health issues and motivate
We have established numerous corporate
employees to manage and improve their
safety policies, procedures, guidelines Our 2008 capital project construction-
health and well-being. To date, about
and standards to aid our operations in related recordable injury rate (RIR) of
15 percent of U.S. employees have com-
achieving these goals. 1.05 and our Days Away Restricted and
pleted confidential health assessments,
Transferred (DART) rate of 0.15 are in
and more than 75 percent of those
In 2008, our workplace injury and line with performance in 2005 and 2006
contacted by a coach have opted to
illness rates decreased from 2007. and represent a 27 percent and a 61 per-
work on a health goal utilizing a lifestyle
The recordable injury rate decreased cent reduction from the 2007 recordable
coaching program.
1.8 percent while the lost-time injury injury and DART rates, respectively.
rate decreased 12.5 percent. Our total Institutionalization of a behavioral
In March 2009, Merck launched a
recordable injury rate is down 9.1 per- “safety observation” program on our
voluntary disease management program
cent and our lost-time injury rate is construction projects in 2007 and 2008
that offers confidential professional
down 4.5 percent from the end of 2005. are one of the main reasons for the
support for ongoing treatment and
Over this same time period, we also recent performance improvements.
care for most U.S. employees and their
undertook actions that dramatically
dependents with specific significant
increased reporting of injuries, particu- For a full account of Merck’s employee
medical conditions. The goal is to help
larly from our international operations. safety programs and achievements, go to
an individual achieve optimal health by
Overall improvements from 2003 show
providing evidence-based medical infor-
a 40 percent reduction in the recordable
mation and self-care guidance.


2008 2007 2006 2005 53
Reportable injury rate (RIR) 1.10 1.12 1.11 1.21
» RIR change (%) –1.8 0.9 –8.3 –25.8
Lost-time incident rate (LTIR) 0.42 0.48 0.43 0.44
» LTIR change (%) –12.5 11.6 –2.3 –13.7
Fatalities 1 1 0 0
Motor Vehicle Safety
» Accidents Per Million Miles (APMM) 7.03§ 9.64 9.92 10.40
Capital Projects Construction Safety *,†
» RIR 1.05 1.45 0.92 1.12
» DART‡/LTIR 0.15‡ 0.39‡ 0.07‡ 0.15
» Fatalities 0 0 0 1
Number of U.S. employees who belong to a Merck fitness center 2,728 3,051 2,757 2,952

Number of U.S. employees who completed the Health Matters 2,140 1,877 N/A N/A
health assessment¶

* LTIR/RIR: Calculated per OSHA methodology.

† Primarily reflects capital projects over $100,000 managed by our global engineering group.
‡ DART: Days Away, Reassignment or Transferred calculated per Construction Users Round Table methodology.
§ Change made in definition of accidents to include only business-related accidents.
¶ Health Matters not launched until 2007. This metric has been made more specific since reporting last year; prior year data have been adjusted accordingly.
SAFETY AND HEALTH counterfeits can enter the legitimate Merck is committed to providing the
FUTURE GOALS AND PRIORITIES supply chain or that legitimate products global community with quality products
» Our overarching safety goal is will be diverted, and thereby ensuring and a reliable supply of safe and effective
zero fatalities. that patients and healthcare professionals medicines and vaccines. We maintain
can trust that the Merck products they strict product quality standards and mul-
» In 2009, Merck will build upon the
take and prescribe are genuine. More on tiple supply chain safeguards to ensure
success of our recent motor vehicle
our anti-counterfeiting efforts on p. 31. the safety and supply of our products
safety initiatives, and strive to reduce
no matter where our medicines and
the motor vehicle accident rate
EXTERNAL MANUFACTURERS vaccines are manufactured in the
(percentage of vehicles involved in
OF OUR PRODUCTS world. For more information, go to
accidents) by ten percent in 2009
Our mission is to provide the global
versus 2008 performance.
community with a reliable supply of safe
» Another key target is to reduce and effective medicines and vaccines. PROMOTING RESPONSIBLE
Company-wide recordable and lost- Accordingly, we work hard to protect ENVIRONMENTAL, LABOR AND
time injury rates by 15 percent each the integrity of our internal and exter- HUMAN RIGHTS STANDARDS IN OUR
in 2009 versus 2008 performance. nal manufacturing network. EXTERNAL MANUFACTURERS
In 2006, Merck was one of the five
MANAGING OUR Merck’s supply strategy combines the initial companies to support publicly the
SUPPLY CHAIN best skills and talents of our internal Pharmaceutical Industry Principles for
Merck purchases goods and services, manufacturing organization with those Responsible Supply Chain Management,
ranging from office furniture to waste of external manufacturers who pro- which outline industry, including
treatment and disposal services to vide us with specialized skills and/or Merck’s, expectations for suppliers’
active pharmaceutical ingredients used expertise and types of manufacturing operations with regard to labor, health
in manufacturing our products, from services. The factors Merck evaluates and safety, environment, ethics and man-
hundreds of suppliers around the world; when deciding to source internally or agement systems. All Merck suppliers
we also work with numerous licensees externally include capacity, technical are expected to understand and comply
worldwide to market and distribute our capabilities, core competencies, company with these principles.
products. In conducting our business, we priorities and cost. Once we have made
follow a global sourcing and relationship a decision to use an external manufac- New potential external manufacturers
management strategy for materials and turer, we then select the most appropri- of active pharmaceutical ingredients and
services worldwide, with a special focus ate manufacturer based on its ability to finished products are screened prior to
on the top suppliers of critical goods meet our business requirements with selection for any major safety, envi-
and services. We maintain strict qual- respect to supply, quality, service, cost ronmental or human rights issues, in
ity, environmental, ethical, health and and innovation, regardless of geography. addition to other business requirements
safety, and labor standards in our own In addition to the above criteria, Merck such as quality, supply and technical
operations – and we insist on responsible is committed to business relationships competence. Through 2008, Merck has
standards from our external manufac- with suppliers that share the Company’s performed EHS-specific evaluations
turers and licensees. dedication to conducting business in of approximately 30 potential exter-
a legal and ethical manner that is both nal manufacturers. As a result of these
protective of the safety of our suppliers’ evaluations, certain potential manufac-

We recognize our responsibility to
influence our suppliers and licens- workers and surrounding communities turers were deemed to be unacceptable
ees to respect human rights standards and the environment. due to environmental, health or safety
defined in the Universal Declaration of (EHS) issues.
Human Rights of the United Nations In recent years, we have concentrated
and the core labor standards set out by our internal manufacturing capabilities In 2007, we provided all of our exist-
the International Labor Organization. on core competencies and leveraged ing external manufacturers with our
Beginning in 2007, Merck’s Global external capabilities. This focus has, and guidelines, a statement of Merck’s
Procurement department introduced will continue to, shift some operations expectation that each supplier strive
a new Detailed Supplier Ethical historically conducted internally to our for continuous improvement, as well as
Assessment questionnaire for suppliers of external suppliers. We currently project the screening survey. We have received
new products and services globally. This that external manufacturers will eventu- completed surveys from approximately
assessment tool is used to help identify ally provide up to 35 percent of Merck’s 81 percent of them as of year end 2008
any significant ethical or human rights manufacturing volume. and are following up actively with the
concerns and is based on the ethics remaining companies. Starting in 2009,
parameters set forth in Merck’s Code of In this regard, external suppliers are we will begin to inspect existing sup-
Conduct known as Our Values & Standards. those external to Merck, not necessarily pliers, starting with the highest risk
If responses to the questionnaire raise external to the U.S. In fact, many of suppliers, to assess conformance with the
concerns, Merck will investigate further our external suppliers are located in the Pharmaceutical Industry Principles for
and may determine not to do business U.S. or are U.S. entities with manu- Responsible Supply Chain Management.
with the potential supplier. More at: facturing operations outside the U.S. In 2008, approximately 42 percent of When concerns arise from either sup-
Merck’s external manufacturing was plier survey responses or on-site inspec-
Our approach to supply chain manage- spent on external manufacturing opera- tions, Merck works with the supplier
ment aims to ensure the integrity of the tions conducted in the U.S. to understand the issue, establish an
supply chain, minimizing the risk that improvement plan, and offer technical
2008 2007 2006 2005

Completed Screening Surveys* received from existing external 81 54 N/A N/A

manufacturers (%)
Spending on diverse suppliers (%) 14 12 8 5
Merck procurement employees who have been trained in 100 100 100 0
supplier diversity (%)

* Survey first implemented in 2007.

support if necessary to enable the sup- (LGBT) enterprises. We believe that in the program: Research, Information
plier to achieve the desired outcome. working with qualified suppliers from Technology, Construction, Professional
If an existing supplier does not show diverse segments of the business com- Services, Marketing, Direct Materials
improvement over a defined period munity supports our business objec- and Site Services.
of time, Merck may seek alternative tives and economic development in the
suppliers or discontinue work with the diverse communities that we serve. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
In 2008, Merck expanded its supplier » We plan to increase supplier diversity
ENSURING CONTINUITY OF SUPPLY diversity program to the United Kingdom to 17 percent of total applicable spend
AMONG EXTERNAL MANUFACTURERS and Canada, where Merck is a char- in the U.S, and Puerto Rico by 2010.
Millions of people worldwide depend ter member of the Minority Supplier
» We plan to achieve 100 percent
on our medicines and vaccines every Development U.K. and a national
completion of pre-selection Detailed
day, many of which need to be avail- member of the Canadian Aboriginal
Suppliers Ethical Assessment by
able without interruption. To minimize Minority Supplier Council. Plans for
potential suppliers of new business
disruptions in the supply chain of raw further expansion to other countries are
globally by 2010.
materials, key intermediates, active underway. In addition, in 2008, we made
pharmaceutical ingredients or finished a supplier diversity commitment to reach » We plan to implement annual supplier
products, Merck manages its manufac- 14 percent of total applicable spend in supplemental ethics standards train-
turing network by assigning relationship the U.S. and Puerto Rico, and to increase ing for each procurement employee
managers to monitor supplier perfor- that number to 17 percent by 2010. by 2010, and develop a Supplier Code
mance, measuring supplier performance of Conduct by 2010.
against specific quality, supply, service, Our supplier diversity program also
» We plan to achieve 100 percent
cost and innovation metrics, and put- seeks to support the development of
completion of the EHS and human
ting in place plans to manage inventory qualified, diverse suppliers through
rights Screening Survey by existing
and capacity. a number of programs and external
external manufacturers of pharma-
efforts. In addition to providing coach-
ceutical intermediates and compounds
FOSTERING SUPPLIER DIVERSITY ing and feedback on performance, in
by end of 2009.

Merck is committed to diversity both in 2008, Merck launched Phase II of our
our workforce and among our suppli- Supplier Diversity Mentor/Champion » We plan to develop formal risk
ers. We cast the widest net in our search Program, through which we conduct mitigation plans, where required,
for talent, seeking qualified suppliers, supplier assessments and create joint for external manufacturers who
large and small, from all segments of development plans with the qualified, require improvements to conform
the business community. These include diverse suppliers that focus on increas- with the Pharmaceutical Industry
minority-, women-, veteran-, service ing supplier growth, competitiveness and Principles for Responsible Supply
disabled-veteran, HUBZone small sustainability. Suppliers in the follow- Chain Management.
and gay- and lesbian-owned business ing categories are currently enrolled
Philanthropy at Merck

Philanthropy is a major element of Merck’s commitment to

corporate citizenship. Through our philanthropic programs we
have the ability to make a positive impact on healthcare access
and capacity-building, science education and quality of life
issues facing the world’s communities.
We believe that making charitable contributions to improve global health is one of the most
responsible and important ways we can actively engage in finding solutions to global problems.
Merck’s philanthropic investments and Four strategic areas guide Merck’s Encourage environments that fos-
program portfolio are guided by several Corporate Giving strategy: ter and support innovation. Key
key principles. We seek to: initiatives include:
Increase access to health care for
» Address critical social issues and needs underserved populations through » Program on Pharmaceutical
that matter to Merck’s business and strategic partnerships and capacity- Policy Issues
our stakeholders; building. Key initiatives include:
» Regional Strategic Grants Program
» Collaborate effectively with key » Merck MECTIZAN
» Ethics Resource Centers
partners for optimal impact and suc- Donation Program
cess in changing outcomes around Identify and initiate community proj-
» Merck Medical Outreach Program
these issues; ects that address critical quality of life
» Merck Childhood Asthma Network issues. Key initiatives include:
» Measure and report our progress in
meeting these critical needs; » The Alliance to Reduce Disparities » Rx to Fight Hunger
in Diabetes
» Leverage not only cash and prod- » Neighbor of Choice
uct donations, but also knowledge » The African Comprehensive HIV/
» Champions for the Environment
and technical expertise across AIDS Partnerships

56 our Company.

We recognize that our customers, com-

munities, neighbors and investors have
an interest in how we conduct our-
selves and how we support our com-
» China-MSD HIV/AIDS Partnership

» The Merck Vaccine Network–Africa

» The GARDASIL Access Program

» Disaster Relief

» Partnership for Giving

» Global Volunteering

» Dollars for Doers

Develop a world-class pool of scien-
mitment to society. Our philanthropy
tists through strengthening educational More detailed information on each
must also reflect efficient, responsible
opportunities. Key initiatives include: of these programs can be found at
and ethical judgment and behavior.
To this end, the Merck Philanthropy » The Merck Institute for
Advisory Council (MPAC), the Merck Science Education
This strategy is managed through
Executive Committee and the Board of
» The UNCF/Merck Science Initiative three mechanisms:
Directors Committee on Public Policy
and Social Responsibility provide » Rutgers University Future
Merck’s Office of Cor porate
oversight, strategic counsel and regular Scholars Program
Philanthropy supports charitable work
review of Merck’s overall corporate
» AAAS/Merck Undergraduate Science through cash donations and employee
philanthropy portfolio. In July 2009,
Research Program volunteerism that contributes not only
The Merck Company Foundation
to the health and well-being of people
underwent a voluntary internal audit » The Alliance/Merck Ciencia (Science)
around the world, but also to Merck
to ensure uniform giving, accurate Hispanic Scholars Program
employees, our neighbors and others
impact data, compliance and support for
in communities where employees live
Company transparency efforts. Internal
and work, and where the Company
audits will be conducted on a regularly
conducts business.
scheduled basis.
The Office of Corporate Responsibility amount of the grant provided. Merck » Following the May 12, 2008 earth-
and Global Policy Support engages plans to update this list annually begin-quake in China’s Sichuan Province,
with a range of stakeholders on initia- ning with a full 2009 report in 1Q2010. Merck donated more than $1 mil-
tives that build healthcare capacity, and lion in resources to address immedi-
provides donations of Merck’s medicines MAKING AN IMPACT IN OUR ate needs of the recovery efforts. As
and vaccines, primarily in the devel- LOCAL COMMUNITIES part of a post-earthquake recovery
oping world. The group manages the In a variety of ways, Merck’s philanthropic program organized by the White
Merck Medical Outreach Program, programs address local community House and the U.S. Agency for
the primary mechanism through which needs, support environmental steward- International Development (USAID),
Merck donates our pharmaceuticals ship, respond in times of emergency, and Merck is addressing health infrastruc-
and vaccines for humanitarian assistance, enable our employees to contribute ture needs in Sichuan Province. In
as well as the Merck MECTIZAN and participate in community well-being. May 2008, Merck also donated more
Donation Program, developing world than $720,000 in cash, product and
vaccine access programs and our global » In a collaborative partnership with the employee contributions to relief efforts
HIV/AIDS partnerships. National Alliance for Hispanic Health, in the wake of the Myanmar Cyclone.
we launched the Alliance/Merck
The Merck Company Foundation, a Ciencia (Science) Hispanic Scholars » After thousands of Americans were
52-year-old, U.S.-based, private chari- Program in 2008 to improve the abil- left without food and shelter due to
table foundation funded entirely by ity of Hispanic students to achieve the hurricanes that struck the Gulf
Merck, provides funding to The African access to higher education and pursue Coast region in late summer 2008,
Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partner- science, technology, engineering The Merck Company Foundation
ships, China-MSD HIV/AIDS Partnership, and mathematics careers. The Merck responded with a $250,000 contri-
Merck Childhood Asthma Network and Company Foundation committed bution to the American Red Cross
The Merck Institute for Science Education, $4 million in funding to this program Disaster Relief Fund to help provide
among other programs. Since its incep- over five years; The Merck Institute food, shelter, counseling and other
tion, the Foundation has contributed for Science Education is working critical services for individuals and
more than $560 million to projects and closely with the Alliance to imple- families battered by hurricanes Dolly,
partnerships around the world. ment the program. Edouard, Fay, Gustav, Hanna and
Ike. In a new effort to help prevent
CHARITABLE GRANTS » In April 2008, we created The Alliance future damage from natural disasters,

In accordance with its commitment to Reduce Disparities in Diabetes – the Foundation donated $200,000
made in last year’s report, in March 2009 a new initiative to help reduce to the Nature Conservancy to build
Merck reported on its website charitable healthcare disparities related to dia- up natural protective marshlands
contributions made in 4Q2008 through betes among minority, low-income along both the Gulf Coast and the
the Office of Corporate Philanthropy and underserved groups in the U.S. New Jersey shoreline. The Office of
and The Merck Company Foundation.1 The Merck Company Foundation Corporate Responsibility and Global
Information provided on our website officially launched the initiative in Policy Support donated $64,855 in
includes the name of the organization, February 2009 (see box on p. 58). Merck medicines specifically to sup-
program name and description, and the port Hurricane Gustav relief efforts.

In response to the recent acceleration and expansion of a national where Merck has a major presence – and to organizations, such as
food shortage crisis in the United States, Merck has launched a com- Meals on Wheels Association of America and Witnesses to Hunger,
munity initiative to increase access to healthy foods and nutrition a Drexel University program. In addition, food drives were held at
and to support the food bank safety net for children and seniors in most major Merck facilities in the U.S. In February 2009, Merck – in
U.S. communities. Through contributions, volunteering, and con- partnership with the Healthcare Institute of New Jersey and the
ferences to speak out about the urgency of addressing the sharp Liberty Science Center – hosted the Rx to Fight Hunger conference –
drop of U.S. food supplies, Merck hopes to lessen the effects of mal- a no-cost, participatory conference for funders in the New Jersey,
nutrition and food insecurity on vulnerable individuals and families. New York, Pennsylvania and Delaware region, through which an
additional $400,000 was committed by other, non-Merck funders
To date, Merck has made more than $200,000 in financial contribu-
towards nutrition and hunger programs.
tions to local food banks and pantries – particularly in communities
On February 25, 2009, The Merck Company Foundation launched Through a rigorous, competitive application process, the
a new initiative, The Alliance to Reduce Disparities in Diabetes Foundation selected five grantee programs from among the more
(, in collaboration with the Centers than 190 applications received from around the United States.
for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and U.S. Department
The program sites are: Camden, New Jersey; Chicago, Illinois;
of Health and Human Services’ Office of Minority Health (OMH).
Dallas, Texas; Fort Washakie, Wyoming and Memphis, Tennessee.
Supported by a $15 million commitment through 2013, this initiative
Funding will support community-based efforts to decrease diabe-
is designed to improve healthcare delivery among those popula-
tes disparities and enhance the quality of health care by improving
tions most at risk for diabetes – African-American, Hispanic and
prevention and management services among low-income and
Native American adults in the United States. The Alliance will
underserved populations with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes.
engage a range of healthcare stakeholders, including patients, pro-
viders and health system leaders, in supporting proven approaches The University of Michigan’s Center for Managing Chronic Disease
to comprehensive diabetes prevention and management. will serve as the Alliance Program Office and support the program
efforts of the grantee communities over the next five years as well as
provide leadership in building the Alliance as a national partnership.

CHAMPIONS FOR 40 different high schools how to protect review boards; others host neighbor or
THE ENVIRONMENT and conserve the area’s lush natural “town hall” meetings to seek input from
Through the Champions for the habitat. The center hosted educational communities on key developments. Sites
Environment program, Merck provides workshops and volunteers were involved also use community surveys and focus
grants for environmentally focused and in activities such as building footpaths, groups with fenceline neighbors and
educational projects. Successful proj- establishing a medicinal garden, planting employees to assess community interests,
ects have another key element: Merck trees and putting up interpretive signage concerns and needs. Based on the input,
employee volunteers work alongside featuring local flora and fauna. Merck seeks issue-specific proposals
community volunteers to accomplish developed by community organiza-
CHINA – Employees at Merck’s
the projects. Since the program’s incep- tions to address those needs, taking into
Hangzhou, China facility helped
tion, Merck employees have “cham- account the impact of a problem on the
“Green Zhejiang,” a youth volunteer
pioned” hundreds of projects – and local community, the urgency of the issue
group, select and implement proposals
volunteered thousands of hours on behalf and the resources available to address the
for creating environmentally-friendly
of local non-profit partners, including problem. Proposals are reviewed by local
communities in the city. The project was
schools, local government and environ- site philanthropy committees, based upon
inspired by China’s “Green Olympics”
mental and youth organizations. Projects uniform guidelines and funding criteria,
campaign to integrate environmentally-
focus on a range of community-based which make funding recommendations
friendly concepts into the venues for the
environmental needs such as wildlife to Merck. The NOC program follows
2008 Olympics.
habitat preservation, stream cleanups Merck’s philanthropic guidelines, but rec-
and bank restoration, phytoremediation, ognizes that our stakeholders value other
energy conservation and climate change, educational, civic, art and cultural, and

Through the “Neighbor of Choice”
and recycling and resource conservation. environmental programs and therefore
(NOC) program, Merck demonstrates
these are considered for funding under
its sensitivity and responsiveness to the
The following is a representative sample the NOC program.
specific concerns and needs of local
of Merck’s 2008 Champions for the
communities in which we operate.
Environment programs: The following is a representative sample
of Merck’s NOC programs:
U.S. – Triangle Land Conservancy (TLC) The NOC program, which Merck
is the local non-profit land trust for the developed in the mid-1990s, is based U.S. – In Harrisonburg/Rockingham
Triangle region of North Carolina. upon three fundamental principles: County, Virginia, a grant from
Merck’s Champions for the Environment Merck’s NOC program supports the
» Listen to and identify the com-
grant helped TLC conduct biological Harrisonburg-Rockingham Free Clinic,
munity’s essential needs, issues
inventories, create management plans, which provides outpatient health
and concerns;
and perform other duties as part of services to the uninsured. The grant
TLC’s mission to care for the natural » Respond appropriately to these needs, specifically supports the Pharmacy and
areas of the region. Merck employee issues and concerns; Medication Assistance Program, which
volunteers from our Durham facility provides free medications and supplies
» Establish and develop relationships
were stewards of the properties by clean- to all Free Clinic patients.
of trust with community groups
ing up litter, establishing boundaries and
and individuals. MEXICO – Merck employees and parents
access barriers, and posting signage.
of children at three public schools
COSTA RICA – A team of Merck volun- At the heart of the NOC program is near the Merck manufacturing site – a
teers helped the Tropical Sierra Foundation relationship building. Merck facilities kindergarten, an elementary school and
turn the area of Monte de la Cruz, develop culturally appropriate mecha- a special education school – are work-
San Rafael de Heredia Costa Rica into nisms to engage and build relationships ing together on a project in which the
an outdoor environmental education with their community stakeholders. schools are being painted, play areas
center designed to teach children from Some sites have created community and classrooms are being repaired and
In January 2009, Merck initiated a Global Volunteering policy
encouraging individual employees and teams of employees to
become involved in appropriate volunteering activities in Merck
communities. Under this policy, eligible Merck employees may
receive up to 20 paid work hours per calendar year to volunteer.
Merck volunteers address a variety of societal challenges, from
HIV education in Brazil, “Roll Up Your Sleeves” in the Netherlands,
“Lend a Hand” in Malaysia and “Clean Up Australia Day,” to
an award-winning pro-bono legal assistance program in the
United States and “Community Days” in the Philippines. To date
Merck employees across 26 sites have volunteered close to
50,000 hours in community volunteer projects. To read about these
local programs, go to

enhanced, handrails are being installed to FUTURE GOALS We recognize that measurable goals
improve safety, and other improvements AND PRIORITIES with reasonable timeframes for success
are being made. Through Merck philanthropy and part- will help Merck understand how it
nerships with the non-profit community, can best create shared social and busi-
SPAIN – Merck made a NOC con-
we plan to continue to address access to ness value.
tribution to support the Rainbow
Foundation – a social and economic health care for underserved populations, » Expand our global volunteering
growth initiative in Madrid that employs strengthening science education oppor- program to include skills-based place-
people with disabilities at a center that tunities, support for innovation, and ment to help develop our employ-
specializes in the packaging of diverse critical quality of life issues. We will also ees’ skills and talents, and to help
goods. With this grant, the Rainbow strive to achieve the following goals: strengthen the non-profit sector.
Foundation was able to purchase a » Incorporate “best practices” and con- » Drive more in-depth relationships
cellophane banding machine, install an tinue to make our grants and grant with employees, community organiza-
assembly line and start-up the operation. making processes transparent, integrat- tions and partners who share a com-
In addition, the Rainbow Foundation ing Merck’s guiding principles, values mon interest in charitable work.
was able to expand its activities by hir- and philanthropic priorities.
ing 12 new employees.
» Improve evaluation approaches by
incorporating performance measure-
ment tools into appropriate programs.

2008 2007 2006 2005

Merck’s philanthropic contributions (Total cash and product) 821 828 826 1,039
Cash contributions 55 62 58 60
Product donations through Merck Medical Outreach Program and the 592 605 442 437
MECTIZAN Donation Program
Product donations through U.S. Patient Assistance Program* 174 161 326 542

* Decline due in part to an increasing number of patients with prescription drug coverage, including Medicare Prescription Drug Program; another
contributing factor to usage decline was the removal of one Merck product – FOSAMAX – from the product list in mid-2008 (six months after patent expiry)
once patients had broad access to lower-cost generic equivalents.


2008 2007 2006 2005

Economic indicators
Sales (US$M) 23,850.3 24,197.7 22,636.0 22,011.9
Annual cash dividend paid per share (US$) 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52
Global tax expense as reported on income statement 1,999.4 95.3 1,787.6 2,732.0
Researching new medicines and vaccines to address unmet needs
Merck’s investment in R&D programs (US$B)[b] 4.8 4.9 4.8 3.8
Number of new products approved (Number of products 1 (47) 2 (49) 5 (57) 2 (58)
in pipeline [Phase I–III] and under regulatory review)
Percentage of top 20 global burdens of illness addressed by 53 60 N/A N/R
our products and pipeline (as defined by WHO and excluding
accidents, premature birth and self-inflicted injuries)[c]
Phase II–V clinical trials initiated (in number of countries)[d,e] 36 (62) 45 (54) 43 (49) N/R
Manuscripts of clinical trial results and related papers 235 172 172 N/R
submitted to peer-reviewed journals
Improving access to medicines, vaccines and health care
Number of Merck products for which not-for-profit 6 6 2 2
prices are offered to least developed countries
Number of patients on Merck ARV therapy – all formula- 653,867 (76) 763,118 (91) 701,391 (93) N/D
tions, all products (Percentage in the developing world)
Percentage of total patients on Merck ARVs estimated to 17 15 19 N/D
be children taking pediatric formulations of Merck’s ARVs
Number of countries where Merck has committed to 72 72 N/R N/R
not-for-profit prices for ROTATEQ and GARDASIL
Number of low- and middle-income countries using 16 11 N/R N/R
Merck’s vaccines in their public sectors
Number of new country registrations of GARDASIL and 18 (196) 72 (178) 105 (106) 1 (1)
ROTATEQ globally (and cumulative to date)[e]
Product donations (US$M) (% in the developing world)[f] 766 (77) 766 (79) 768 (58) 979 (45)
Millions of treatments approved for river blindness 174.2 128 118 114
through the MECTIZAN Donation Program

60 (at three tablets per treatment)

Number of patients utilizing Merck’s Patient
Assistance Program (total value of Merck medicines
dispensed under Merck’s PAP [g] [US$M])
Major PPPs to improve access to medicines, vaccines
or health care[h]
250,285 (174)

350,000 (161.5)

540,240 (326)

730,000 (502)


Ensuring confidence in the safety and quality of our products

Product recalls in the United States 0 2 0 1
Number of investigations of suspected counterfeit 45 102 73 51
Merck product
Number of substantiated cases of counterfeit Merck product 29 72 54 46
Conducting ourselves ethically and transparently
Percentage of required employees who took Know the 90 90 N/A N/A
Code training
Percentage of response to disclosure statement on 99.9 97 95 93
conflicts of interest
Number of calls to the Merck AdviceLine 151 149 77 80
Number of calls to the Office of Ethics/Ombudsman 583 600 597 770
Percentage of substantiated (including alternative 10.9 9.5 8.3 10.2
findings) allegations to concerns/issues raised
in connection with our Code of Conduct through
AdviceLine or Office of Ethics/Ombudsman[i]
2008 2007 2006 2005

Conducting ourselves ethically and transparently (continued)

Number of warning letters or untitled letters from 0 N/R N/R N/R
Merck operations at significant risk of forced or compulsory 0 0 0 N/D
labor, incidents of child labor, or violations of the right to
exercise freedom of association and collective bargaining.
Managing our environmental footprint
Environmental inspections 101 76 88 N/D
Environmental events 53 60 28 32
Environmental notices of violation 9 13 11 N/A
Environmental fines paid (US$) 1,579,600 31,515 10,652 281,025
Total energy supply (Million BTUs x 106) 12.8 15.2 15.5 17.5
Energy demand intensity (Million BTU/sq ft) 0.47 0.52 0.54 0.61
Total GHG emissions (as C02 eq) (Million metric tons)[l] 1.18 1.29 1.29 1.36
Total water usage (billion gallons) [% reduction versus 5.6 [36] 8.8 [8.3] 9.6 (5] 10.1 [13.6]
prior year]
Emissions of ozone-depleting substances (metric tons) 1.2 1.4[m] N/D N/D
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions (metric tons) 297 318[n] 322[n] 471[n]
Sulfur oxides (SOx) emissions (metric tons) 50 58 67[n] 84
Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 353 401 427 411
(metric tons)
TRI emissions (metric tons to air and water) 196 270 242 163
Hazardous waste generated in metric tons (% recycled) 46,800 (29) 54,000 (23) 62,300 (29) 60,900 (37)
Metric tons non-hazardous waste generated 27,000 32,000[n][o] N/D N/D
Percentage of non-hazardous waste recycled 46 42[n][o] N/D N/D
Advocacy and outreach
Corporate political contributions US: 597,775 US: 470,625 US: 611,975 US: 337,140
(U.S., CAN, AUS) (US$)[p] AUS: 5,040 AUS: 19,195 AUS: 20,292 AUS: 12,137
CAN: 30,695 CAN: 58,396 CAN: 45,765 CAN: 46,700
Portion of dues that major U.S.-based trade associations 6.8 paid to 6.9 paid to N/A N/A
report to us as being used for advocacy and/or political 8 groups 8 groups
activities in the U.S., where dues are >$50,000 (US$M)[q]
Compliance with political contribution evaluation All 11 principles 10 of 11 principles N/A N/A
criteria used by the Center for Political Accountability
Valuing our employees
Number of employees 55,200 59,800 60,000 61,000
Total compensation paid to employees/payroll 5.03 5.56 5.14 4.84
excluding benefits (US$B)
Women in workforce (globally) [%] 50 48 49 49
Women on the Board [%] 21 23 25 25
Women in executive roles (U.S.) [%] 28 27 26 28
Under-represented ethnic groups on the Board [%] 14 17 17 17
Under-represented ethnic groups in executive roles [%] 11 11 12 12
Employee response rate to Merck Culture 65 72 77 N/A[r]
Assessment survey [%]
Number of position eliminations through Merck’s 5,800 2,400 3,700 1,100
restructuring program
Overall turnover rate[s] 17.6 10.7 11.9 10.6
Safety inspections 75 41 65 N/D
Notices of safety violations/citations 7 3 8 N/D
2008 2007 2006 2005

Valuing our employees (continued)

Safety fines paid (US$) (Number of fines) 0 (0) 1,500 (1) 1,975 (2) 1,000 (2)
Reportable Injury Rate (RIR) 1.10 1.12 1.11 1.21
RIR change [%] –1.8 0.9 –8.3 –25.8
Lost-Time Incident Rate (LTIR) 0.42 0.48 0.43 0.44
LTIR change [%] –12.5 11.6 –2.3 –13.7
Fatalities 1 1 0 0
Accidents per million miles (APMM)[u] 7.03 9.64 9.92 10.40
Supply chain management
Spending on diverse suppliers in the U.S. [%] 14 12 8 5
Completed Screening Surveys received from existing 81 54 N/A N/A
external manufacturers [%][w]
Merck’s philanthropic contributions (total cash 821 828 826 1,039
and product) (US$M)
Cash contributions (US$M) 55 62 58 60

N/A: Not applicable. N/D: No data. N/R: Not reported; many of these indicators are new for Merck and for this reason some prior year data points are not reported.
[a] Amounts from 2008 include a gain on distribution from AstraZeneca LP, a gain related to the sale of the Company’s remaining worldwide rights to Aggrastat, the favorable
impact of certain tax items, the impact of restructuring actions, additional legal defense costs and an expense for a contribution to The Merck Company Foundation.
[b] Research activities and investments include all Merck divisions.
[c] The decrease in 2008 is due mainly to the changing nature of the Global Burden of Disease as defined by WHO.
[d] We have modified this KPI from last year to report clinical trials initiated vs. clinical trials conducted.
[e] Prior year data have been adjusted due to a change in methodology.
[f] We value our product donations based on the U.S. wholesale price. The decrease in product donations is due in part to declining patient enrollment
in our Corporate U.S. Patient Assistance Program, attributed in part to an increasing number of patients with prescription drug coverage, including
through the Medicare Prescription Drug Program, which began in January 1, 2006. Figure includes Merck Medical Outreach Program (including ACHAP),
MECTIZAN Donation Program, and Merck U.S. Patient Assistance Program.
[g] Totals include the U.S. Merck Vaccine Patient Assistance Program and are based on the U.S. wholesale price. Decrease in numbers due in part to
increasing number of patients with prescription drug coverage, including Medicare Prescription Drug Program.
[h] Major is defined as with an investment by Merck of more than $500,000 per year and/or engagement with a national government. Therefore, in 2008 these included ACHAP,
AAI, C-MAP, Diabetes Alliance, GARDASIL Access Program, MCAN, MDP, MISE, MMOP, MVN-A, ROTATEQ Access Program and the UN Foundation Measles Initiative.
[i] When Merck substantiates allegations of ethical misconduct, it imposes a variety of disciplinary actions on those responsible for the misconduct, such as
dismissal from the Company, issuance of final written warning letters and financial penalties.
[j] The increase in the number of environmental events is due primarily to a modified Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection interpretation
in late 2006 that resulted in reporting of spills, such as chilled water spills into storm water drains, that were not previously required to be reported.
[k] Reflects a significant environmental settlement ($1,575,000) paid in early 2008 associated with three spills that occurred in 2006.
[l] In accordance with US EPA Climate Leaders Protocol, GHG generation baseline data have been adjusted to remove facilities that have been sold.
[m] Data unavailable for a site sold at the end of 2007.
[n] Prior year data have been modified to reflect corrections identified after publication of previous report.
[o] 2007 was the first year we collected non-hazardous waste generation and recycling data. Data should be considered estimates.
[p] Totals reflect corporate contributions. Employee contributions through the Merck PAC are not included. Political contributions in the U.S., which are for state
candidates, are always much greater in even-numbered calendar years, because that is when most states hold their elections for state legislatures and governors.
[q] Because the U.S. tax law that requires reporting does not apply outside the United States, trade associations do not provide break-outs of lobbying
expenditures from membership dues. Thus, Merck is unable to report this data in other countries. This line includes dues for advocacy purposes for
major U.S. national and regional associations where dues are $50,000 or more.
[r] Survey not conducted prior to 2006.
[s] Overall turnover includes all types of turnover including restructuring.
[t] LTIR/RIR: Calculated per OSHA methodology.
[u] Change made in definition of accidents to include only business-related accidents.
[v] We no longer report percentage of facility visits conducted of potential manufacturers of new business as our screening surveys are adequate for
exploratory purposes. We have, therefore, removed the percentage of facility visits from our list of KPIs.
(w) Survey first conducted in 2007.


COZAAR® (losartan potassium)* High blood pressure
HYZAAR® (losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide) High blood pressure
TREDAPTIVE® (ER niacin/laropiprant)† High cholesterol
VYTORIN® (ezetimibe/simvastatin)‡ High cholesterol
ZETIA® (ezetimibe)‡ High cholesterol
JANUMET® (sitagliptin/metformin HCl) Type 2 diabetes
JANUVIA® (sitagliptin phosphate) Type 2 diabetes
ATRIPLA® (efavirenz 600mg/emtricitabine 200 mg/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg)§ HIV infection
CANCIDAS® (caspofungin acetate) Certain fungal infections
CRIXIVAN (indinavir sulfate) HIV infection
INVANZ® (ertapenem sodium) Certain bacterial infections
ISENTRESS® (raltegravir) HIV infection
PRIMAXIN® (imipenem and cilastatin) Certain bacterial infections
STOCRIN® (efavirenz)¶ HIV infection
COSOPT® (dorzolamide hydrochloride and timolol maleate) Elevated intraocular pressure
MAXALT® (rizatriptan benzoate) Acute migraine
SAFLUTAN® (tafluprost)\\ Elevated intraocular pressure
TIMOPTIC-XE® (timolol maleate ophthalmic gel forming solution)** Elevated intraocular pressure
TRUSOPT® (dorzolamide hydrochloride) Elevated intraocular pressure
EMEND® (aprepitant) Prevention of postoperative or chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
EMEND® for Injection (fosaprepitant dimeglumine) Intravenous prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
ZOLINZA® (vorinostat) Cancer (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma [CTCL])
ARCOXIA® (etoricoxib) Pain and arthritis
FOSAMAX® (alendronate sodium) Osteoporosis
FOSAMAX PLUS D® (alendronate sodium/cholecalciferol) Osteoporosis
SINGULAIR® (montelukast sodium) Asthma, indoor and outdoor allergies
PROPECIA® (finasteride) Male pattern hair loss
COMVAX® [Haemophilus b conjugate (meningococcal protein conjugate) and hepatitis B Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis B
(recombinant) vaccine]
GARDASIL® [human papillomavirus quadrivalent (types 6, 11, 16, 18) vaccine, recombinant] Cervical cancer, cervical lesions, vulvar lesions, vaginal lesions and genital warts
caused by HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18
M-M-R® II (measles, mumps and rubella virus vaccine live) Measles, mumps, rubella (German measles)
PEDVAXHIB® [Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine (meningococcal protein conjugate)] Haemophilus influenzae type b
PNEUMOVAX® 23 (pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent) Pneumococcal disease
PROQUAD® [measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (Oka/Merck) virus vaccine live] Measles, mumps, rubella (German measles) and chickenpox
RECOMBIVAX HB® [hepatitis B vaccine (recombinant)] Hepatitis B
ROTATEQ® (rotavirus vaccine, live, oral pentavalent) Rotavirus
VAQTA® (hepatitis A vaccine inactivated) Hepatitis A
VARIVAX® [varicella virus vaccine live (Oka/Merck)] Chickenpox
ZOSTAVAX® (zoster vaccine live) Shingles

* COZAAR and HYZAAR are registered trademarks of E. I. DuPont de Nemours, Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.
† TREDAPTIVE is to be marketed under the trademark CORDAPTIVE in Latin America.
‡ VYTORIN (marketed as INEGY outside the United States) and ZETIA (marketed as EZETROL outside the United States) are trademarks of and are marketed through a partnership known
as MSP Singapore Company LLC.
§ ATRIPLA is marketed by and is a trademark of Bristol-Myers Squibb and Gilead in the United States, Canada and Europe. Merck and Gilead are working to register and distribute
ATRIPLA in 106 developing countries around the world.
¶ Efavirenz is marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb as SUSTIVA in the United States, Canada and certain European countries, and by Merck in the rest of the world as STOCRIN.
\\ Tafluprost is marketed by Santen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. in Germany, Eastern Europe and Northern Europe under the trademark of TAFLOTAN®, and in Japan under the trademark of TAPROS®.
** TIMOPTIC-XE is a trademark of and marketed by Aton Pharma, Inc. in the United States.

A E M Public/private
Accelerating Access Initiative 24 Economic contribution 4 Marketing practices 34,36 partnerships 17,19,20,23,24,27,49
Access to medicines, vaccines Effluents 42–44 Manufacturers, external 54,55 developing world 20
and health care 1,2,16–27,49,56,57 Emissions 7,38–45 Materiality assessment process 3 HIV and AIDS 24
developed world 25–27 Employees 4,5,32–36,51–54,59 Merck AdviceLine 34 scientific 20
developing/emerging countries 19–25 communications and engagement 52 Merck Alliance to Reduce U.S.-based 27
partnerships 19–27,49,56,57 compensation and benefits 51 Disparities in Diabetes 27,58 vaccine demonstration projects 23
policy 16–18 development and training 51 Merck BioVentures 6,11 Q
priorities and goals 21,23,25,27 health and safety 52,53 Merck Childhood Asthma Network 27 Quality, of products 30,31
strategy 16 rights 36 Merck Company Foundation, The 48,56,57 R
Access to volunteering 59 Merck Institute of Science Regenerative medicines research 11
Medicines Index Inside front cover,2 Energy use 38–42 Education (MISE) 14,15 Registration of products 17,18
Adverse Experience Reporting 29,30 Environmental footprint 38–45 Merck Manuals 26 Remediation, environmental 44
Advertising of medicines (DTCA) 36,48 EPA Climate Leaders 40 Merck MECTIZAN Donation Renewable technologies/resources 38,39,45
African Comprehensive Ethical business practices 6,32–37,48 Program 2,6,18,19 Research and development 8–15
HIV/AIDS Partnerships 25 Guiding Principles for Ethical Business Merck Medical Outreach Program 18,21 agenda and strategy 8
Alzheimer’s 8–10,12 Practices with the Medical and Merck medicines and governance 8
Animal research 11 Scientific Community 35 vaccines list Inside back cover impact and performance 9,10
Anti-counterfeiting 28,29,31,47,54 training and development 33 Merck mission and values Inside front cover pipeline chart 10
Awards and recognition Inside back cover resources for employees 34 Merck Sharp & Restructuring program 52
B Executive compensation 50 Dohme (MSD) Inside front cover Revenue, by region 5
Biosimilars 6,11,46 F Merck Vaccines Network– Risk assessments, environmental 44
Board independence 50 Financial information 4 Africa (MVN–A) 23 ROTATEQ Access Partnership 23
Millennium Development
C Financial support disclosures 36,48,49
Goals Table of contents,20
Capacity-building, healthcare 1,16,20 Flexible work arrangements 52 Safety, of employees 53
Carbon Disclosure Project 40,41 G N Safety, of products 28–31
Carbon footprint 41 GARDASIL Access Program 6,23 Nanotechnology 45 post-marketing studies 28–30
Center for Political Accountability 46,47,48 GARDASIL safety 30 Neglected tropical diseases 6,12,16,20,21 Science education 14,15
Champions for the Environment 58 GAVI Alliance 6,20,23 Neighbor of Choice 58,59 SINGULAIR safety 30
Charitable grants 57 Genetic research 11 Notices of Violation 39,40 Solar power 41
China-MSD HIV/AIDS Partnership 24 Global Reporting O Stakeholder engagement Inside front cover,
Climate change 1,40,58 Initiative (GRI) Table of contents, Office of Ethics 33 1,3,46,47,49,58
Climate Resolve 40 Inside front cover Ombudsman Program 34 Stockholders/shareholders 4,50
Clinical trials 4,6,12–15,28 Good Clinical Practices Our Values and Standards Supply chain 6,7,29,30,37,54,55
disclosure policy 13 (GCP) Guidelines 13,28 (Code of Conduct) 32–37,54 continuity of supply 55
registration and registries 13 Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) 29,30 P diversity 55
Code of Conduct 7,8,13,32–37,47,48,49,54 Green chemistry 39,42,44 Pandemic preparedness 18,53 ethics and human rights 37
Community, supporting 5,56–59 Greenhouse gases 1,2,7,38–42 Patient Assistance Programs 1,18,26,27,36 quality 30
Compensation and benefits 51 H Patents 10,18 management 37–39,54
Compliance 6,28,32–36,38,39,47,48 Hazardous waste 42,43 Pediatric formulations/ T
environmental and safety 38,39 Healthcare reform 1,6,25–26,46,47 indications 10,12,13,24 Tax expense 4,5
marketing and sales 34–36 Health information 26 Pharmaceutical Research and Trade agreements 47
Contract Research Organizations 13 Health insurance coverage 25,26,47 Manufacturers of America 14,35,36,48 Transparency Inside front cover,
Continuing Medical Education 36 Health literacy 24,52 Code of Interactions with 1,2,4,36,47–49
Corporate Governance 50,51
Corporate responsibility
Health Matters 53 Health Care Professionals 35 U
HIV/AIDS 6,12,14,18,23–25 Guiding Principles on Direct- UNCF/Merck Science Initiative 15
approach Inside front cover,3,46 partnerships 24,25 to-Consumer Advertisements UN Global Compact Table of contents,
about the report Inside front cover product pricing 18 about Prescription Medicines 36 Inside front cover,1,2,5,36
Board of Directors’ PPSR Committee 2,51,56 public policy 25 Principles on Conducting Clinical Uninsured people 26,27
CR Council 3,50 research and development 12,14,21 Trials and Communication of
integration in our Human rights 36,37 Clinical Trial Results 48
business principles Inside front cover,1,2 Vaccines and immunization 22,23
business and 37 Pharmaceuticals in the environment 44,45
reporting approach Inside front cover of employees 36 Philanthropy 56–59 W
D right to health 37 Pipeline 4,6,9–11 Waste and waste reduction 38,39,42–44
Developing world 6,12,19–25 Political contributions 7,47–49 Water use 42
access to medicines 19–25 Post-marketing studies 28–30 Work-life effectiveness 52
Informed consent 13
diseases 12 Predictive Safety Testing Consortium 12 World Health Organization 17–21,34
Injury and Illness Rate 7,53
partnerships 20,23,24 Pricing 1,17,18,25 Ethical Criteria for Medicinal
Innovation 8–11,14,18,20,37,46
public policy and advocacy 21 Products 63 Drug Promotion 34
Intellectual property protection 18,27,47
research initiatives 12,20 labeling and information 29,30 Guidelines for Drug Donations 18
Interactions with
Disaster relief 21,57 packaging 16,39,43,44 prequalification of medicines and vaccines 17
healthcare professionals 6,34–37,48
Diversity and inclusion 51–52,55 registration 17,18 Special Program for Research and
supplier diversity 55 safety 5,6,28–31 Training in Tropical Diseases 20
Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) 60–62
Dividend 4 stewardship 44
Donations 18,21,56–59
L Public policy 11,13,21,25,46–48
Labor relations strategy 37
Product 18,21 access in the developing world 21
Licensing 6,10,11,18
Cash 57–59 HIV and AIDS 25
Lost-Time Injury and Illness Rate 7,53
WHO Guidelines 21 research and innovation 11,13
Awards and Recognition
Merck has received recognition for our commitment and performance worldwide on various aspects of our corporate responsibilities,
including the following:

» Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes – Merck has been placed on the Dow Jones Sustainability North
America Index, which is based on a thorough analysis of corporate economic, environmental, and social
9 10
performance. The North American Index captures the leading 20 percent in terms of sustainability out
of the largest 600 North American companies. (2009)

» FTSE4Good – Merck is a FTSE4Good constituent member. The FTSE4Good Index Series has been
designed to measure the performance of companies that meet globally recognized corporate responsibility
standards. (2008, 2009)

» KLD Research and Analytics – In 2008 Merck was a member of the Domini 400 Social Index, KLD Global
Photography from Bob Burgess (Weinberg), Michelle Frankfurter (Cook), Merck Visual Communications and Lamine Smaali (Kloiber) Writing support: Zoe Bell Consulting

Sustainability Index, KLD North America Sustainability Index and the KLD Select Social Index. In 2009
Merck is a member of the FTSE KLD US All Cap Sustainability Index (USSA), FTSE KLD 400 Social Index,
FTSE KLD US Large Cap Sustainability Index, FTSE KLD US Large-Mid Cap Sustainability Index
and FTSE KLD Select Social Index. The FTSE KLD indices measure companies’ environmental, social and
governance (ESG) performance.

» Access to Medicines Index – Ranked Merck No. 3 on its inaugural Index, which assesses and ranks the world’s
20 largest pharmaceutical companies based on various criteria around global access to medicines. (2008)

» Corporate Responsibility Officer Magazine – Ranked Merck No. 4 on the 10th Annual 100 Best Corporate
Citizens List. The tenth annual list rates companies on their performance in seven key areas: environment,
climate change, human rights, philanthropy, employee relations, financial and governance. (2009)

» DiversityInc – Ranked Merck No. 8 in its annual list of the “Top 50 Companies for Diversity” marking the
Company’s seventh consecutive appearance on the list. (2008)

» Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) – Recognized Merck with the 2009 ENERGY STAR Sustained
Excellence Award for continued efforts to protect the environment. Merck, an ENERGY STAR partner since
2004, has been recognized by the EPA for four consecutive years – twice as Partner of the Year and twice
for Sustained Excellence. (2009)

For a full listing of past awards, recognition and index memberships go to

Environmental Savings
Based on 5,100 lbs. of Mohawk Via Cool White 100% PC Recycled Paper, actual environmental savings are as follows:

» 48.96 trees saved

» 20,797 gallons of waste water flow saved

» 4,531 pounds of net greenhouse gases prevented


» 2,354 pounds of air emissions not generated


» 141.38 pounds of water-borne waste not created

» 2,301 pounds of solid waste not generated

» 34,680,000 BTUs of energy not consumed

» 5,601 cubic feet of natural gas unused

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Whitehouse Station, NJ 08889