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CITY PROFILE OF ALIGARH

1 Location
One of the important districts of western UP,ALIGARH is located 27*53`north latitude &
78*4`east longitude. It is situated along Delhi-Calcutta railway
126 kms from Delhi
1408 kms from Calcutta
308 kms from Kanpur
District covers an area of 38.29 sq km.Total population is 6, 58,165 (2001).Aligarh
development authority had Proposed development area (2001)=4980 hac.out of which 64.5%
achieved. That means % of the total city is developed. Topographically, the district
represents a shallow trough, formed by river ganga in north east & yamuna in north west. City
experiences tropical monsoon type climate. Temperature range of 46*c-4*c. A scanty rainfall
of 65 to 75cms is seen throughout the year.

2 General Statistics
AREA total area under city is 4980 hac.
POPULATION Aligarh has high population rate, as City
Grows by 2% naturally & 4% migrants from villages.
i) POPULATION GROWTH 49.75%(1981-1991)
ii) TOTAL POPULATION (1991)=6,03,706
iii) ST = 56,ST=105075
SEX RATIO
Sex ratio of city had improved in last decade from 867(1991) to 869(2001)
LITERACY
Woman literacy is quite low in comparison to that of males. because woman are gernally
confined to home & woman colleges are less in number(4).Even overall literacy is low in
comparison to national standard.

Table 10.1: LITERACY RATES BY SEX FOR STATE AND DISTRICT(Aligarh)


Sl. Persons Persons Males Males Females Females
No. State/District 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001
UTTAR
PRADESH 40.71 57.36 54.82 70.23 24.37 42.98
ALIGARH 44.94 59.70 59.96 73.22 26.89 43.88
Density

Table 10.2: POPULATION DENSITY


POP. AREA
TYPE AREA(HAC) POPULATION (2001) DENSITY %
PRESENT DEVELOPED
LAND 1460 250000 171 29.4
PROPOSED
DEVELOPED LAND 2940 355000 114 58.9
UNVERSITY AREA 580 15000 26 11.7

(Source master plan 2021)

Density varies, as socio-economic condition changes.


University area generally had flat housing & institutional area. This area is beautifully
landscaped. Therefore overall density of this is quite low (26 persons/hac).
Present developed land mainly comprises old Aligarh (congested city centre) and some later
development of civic authorities. This are had very high to medium density, with very little or
no green spaces at all. (171 persons/hac).
Proposed development is been done to achieve fair density of (114persons/hac). planning
norms for these area is been set out.

History and Growth


History Of Aligarh,
Dates Back 12th Century A.D, Town And Fort at that time was Held By Tomar Rulers (city was
knows As Koil). then came Islam, Fortress Captured By Qutubuddin Aibek In 1193.Later
Passed To Turk And Afghan Kings And Got The Name Aligarh.Later tookover by Jats From
Afghans,Then To Marathas And Finally To British In 1804 .They Divided city into in 6
Tehsils.Agriculture Was The Main Stay at that time ( Population Grew From 0.75million In
1847 To 12 Million In 1901).
Beginning Of Industries (Crude Glass And Glass Bangles) By 20th Century. By 1907 Brass &
Iron Lock Factories Were Established (27 In No.).Then main events of aligarh history can be :-
1920 Aligarh Muslim University Founded.
1975 Municipal Corporation Formed.
1981 Formation Of Aligarh Development Authority.
1981-2001 First Master Plan Drafted.
2001 -2021 Second Master Plan Drafted

Factors For Urbanisation


3 Factors for Urbanisation
STRONG AGRICULTURE BASE: - agricultural activity is prime source of income. Moreover
agricultural produce is high as it lies in ganga-yamuna plain. Regional agricultural mandies are
present in Aligarh.
SKILLED MAN POWER: - as higher education is available, (Aligarh Muslim university) within
city. This led to trained manpower.
WELL CONNECTIVITY VIA ROAD & RAILWAYS:- many important routes pass through aligarh
,this advantage makes aligarh a transportation hub.
LOCATION IN THE VICINITY OF BIG COMMERCIAL CENTRE. (DELHI,GHAZIABAD & AGRA
etc.)

Implications Of Urbanisation

Built form & land values


Aligarh, with passage of time had grown into 4 parts. They can be classified on basis of their
uniqueness. Land values are vary much dependent on the socio-economic profile of these
areas.
UPPER KOT AREA: - Historically it represents the core and mostly occupied by working and
middle class Muslim population. Households are having industries, like – lock, biscuits ,dyes
and building & fitting ,which are polluting environment. Most congested part of city

ACHAL TAL AREAS: -The area is inhabited dominantly by hindus.Has major locations like
manik chowk and madar gate (whole sale market)
CIVIL LINES AREA:-Area developed by British. Majority of area is sparsely built.marris road –
commercial with high land values. University area ramghat road – newly developed &
commercial.
PERIPHERAL RING AREA :-This is recently developed area – private builders, ada & cghs.
Land for commercial and residential use. Mostly planned

Travel pattern
INTER CITY MOVEMENT
Aligarh city is very well connected to region through rail & road.
DELHI – GHAZIABAD – ALIGARH movement is facilitated by daily shuttle train (EMU) & is
cheap too. (Rs=23.00 only).this serves as lifelines to those working in adjoining cities. Due its
location, many passengers change trip at ALIGARH.Delhi – Sikandrabad – Khurja – Aligarh
express highway. This 120 Kms express highway project (costing Rs 2450 million) will
encourage development in Aligarh.
INTRA CITY MOVEMENT
Govt, does not provide any public mean of transportation within city
Private taxi, rickshaw, Tonga and three-wheeler carry masses from one place to another.
Quality of life
Like most Indian town, Aligarh had shortfall of basic facilities.
Problems of housing had become acute due high rate of population growth (average 6
persons/house). City had poor infrastructure, both in terms of quality and quantity for
domestic water supply, people prefer bore well more than municipal connection, as it is more
reliable.
Because of topography (bowl shaped), stagnant pools and flooding of low-lying areas is quite
common. Herby sanitation is big problem.
Sewage and sanitation is mostly missing. Urban facilities absent in many of the new
developments also. Child labour is the worst aspect of city’s industries. They are engaged in
lock, brass and metal works.
Electric supply is inadequate as per the requirements of the city and is a major concern.
Apart from university area and few new settlements, overall state of urban comfort is missing.

Analysis
Failure of the administration to relocate industrial sector to the site provided by the state
government.
Core of city (densely congested) shows mixed use, and is too congested to live in .
Civil lines and marris road show the only green areas, those are present in the city.
Inadequate greens, very less recreational areas and dense residential growth show that the
development of city is market driven.
Separate Township has been proposed to ease burden on city infrastructure
High concentration of household industry in old areas, has converted them to mixed land use.
Clustering of slums all over the city has resulted in an unbalanced and organic growth.

4 Governance and Administration of city


Aligarh city is divided into 40 municipal wards, and a mayor is elected out of them. NAGAR
PARISHAD had is office, which act as seat for and all engineers & govt machinery.
For planning and development ALIGARH DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY is responsible. They are
now working for master plan 2021.For law & order; district magistrate is there. Remaining is
state and central administrative staff & officer.
5 Conclusions
SLUMS
It is outcome of, housing problems in aligarh. When city become insufficient in handling large
volume of immigration & housing demands it leads to formation of slums. These villagers
become the urban poor, who could not enjoy basic standard of living.
Proposal: Immigration from rural area could be brought down .by providing better facilities in
villages itself. Authority should try to bride the gap between demand and supply for housing.
HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIES IN HEART OF CITY
Lock industry is quite old and well established in aligarh .but with the sprawling of city, these
industries got residential right next to them. Uttar pradesh government provided a separated
industrial township for these hazardous industries. But administration failed to move these
industries out the city
Proposal:Licence for industrial activities should be given only, if the industry owner provides
noc for pollution control and
CHILD LABOUR
As estimated 10,000 to 40,000 children are engaged in various activities according to their age and skill in the lock industry.

SWOT ANALYSIS

STRENGTH
Big agriculture market
Ample manpower
Fertile land & large ground reserve
WEAKNESS
No mineral reserves
Topographically its bowl shaped
Lack of housing
Weak urban infrastructure
OPPORTUNITY
Mechanisation of lock industry
Agriculture based industry
Favourable climatic condition
Hardworking people
THREATS
Pressure of growing population
Increase in brass and metal industry in degradation of city.
Child labour in various lock and metal works.
Large immigration.