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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for Energy Delivery

Motor Protection
Basic Protective Relaying Ed Khan

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Motor Protection
Types of Failures

Before we get into the protection of motors: It is important to understand the types of failures motors can be subjected to and their probabilities:

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Motor Protection
Overload 30% Contamination 18% Single Phasing 15% Bearing Failure 12% Aging 10% Rotor Fault 5% Miscellaneous 10%
Source: ERA of UK
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Motor Protection
Some Facts: Dramatic improvement has been made in the weight to Horse Power ratio. Ratio is getting even better Hence motors are much lighter.

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Motor Protection
Some Facts:
This means the motor mass is smaller and consequently the thermal constants are lower.

This means: Motor heats up faster and overload capability is lower

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Motor Protection
Some Facts:
Why can’t we protect motors using simple bi-metal type of relay in all instances: It is still a reasonable method under steady state conditions; Motor starts cold runs at nearly constant load until an emergency causes a trip.

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Motor Protection
Some Facts:
Bimetallic relays cannot duplicate transient and cyclic conditions. We need more detailed algorithm to adequately Protect the motor under overload

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Motor Protection
Some Facts:
Non-organic insulating material such as glass fiber And silicone resins provide lot of benefits: Higher dielectric strength Higher operating temperature More HP per pound Etc.

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Motor Protection
Some Facts:
Non-organic insulating material however do not take as much abuse as the older insulating material like cotton and varnish.

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Motor Protection
Some Facts:
Prolonged overloads Stalling Too frequent starting We need good TRACKING of TEMPERATURE

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Motor Protection
Some Facts:
Motor does not have one temperature: There is a temperature spectrum: Stator slots Stator iron End Rings

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Motor Protection
Some Facts:
Synchronous motor protection as far as stator winding is the same as induction motor

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Motor Protection
Motor Protection depends on the size and rated voltage
Low Voltage Motor Protection

Across the line magnetic motor starter
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Motor Protection
Motor Protection depends on the size and rated voltage

Low Voltage Motor Protection

Reversing across the line magnetic motor starter
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Motor Protection

Smaller Motors have more thermal capacity than larger motors. Hence, we need more elaborate protection schemes to protect these larger motors.

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Motor Protection
Short Circuit Protection
Phase fault in the motor circuit has to be removed quick. It must distinguish between Starting current and a Short circuit

I >> Or ANSI 50

If starting current approaches short circuit level differential protection is applied
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Motor Protection
Short Circuit Protection
General Rule of thumb: If motor KVA (or approx. HP) = 50% of the transformer KVA, Phase instantaneous will work

I >> Or ANSI 50

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Motor Protection
Short Circuit Protection
Set I>> >1.6 I LR and < 33% of I 3ph Time I >> or ANSI 50 I LR Current
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I>>

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Motor Protection
Differential Protection
R

S

T Motor
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Motor Protection
Differential Protection Conventional
Id M

Ir Biased Differential Relay Differential normally applied On 1500 HP and > motors
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Motor Protection
Overload and Locked Rotor Protection
Typical Motor Damage Curve or Thermal Capability

Time

Locked Rotor Capability
Typical Starting characteristic

Current in Multiples of FLA

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Motor Protection
Overload and Locked Rotor Protection
Protection Engineer needs To know: Full load current Permissible continuous allowable temperature rise Locked Rotor Current and permissible maximum time at that current

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Motor Protection
Overload and Locked Rotor Protection
Three parts of the curve:
Locked Rotor Capability Lower part is rotor limited Middle portion is the acceleration thermal part of the curve The upper section relates to normal overload when the motor is running normally.

Time

Current in Multiples of FLA

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Motor Protection
Locked Rotor Protection
A rotating motor dissipates far more heat than a motor at Standstill because the cooling medium flows easily. Hence motor starting is a very high duty situation. Motors have a locked rotor capability in seconds—This is the time you can allow the motor to remain in locked rotor condition. 10-50 times more heat generated during stalled condition

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Motor Protection
This is the simple way of protecting the motor against Overload
There are three parts of the motor capability Curve: The upper part is the capability under normal Running overload The middle part is the capability during motor acceleration Protective Relay Characteristics Locked Rotor Capability

Time

Current in Multiples of FLA
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Motor Protection
This is the simple way of protecting the motor against Overload
Typical Motor Damage Curve or Thermal Capability

Time

Protective Relay Characteristics

Locked Rotor Capability

Current in Multiples of FLA
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Motor Protection
RTDs
Embedded winding RTDs are very useful in monitoring the temperature of the windings. These trip independently of the other relays Except in Numerical relays where the information from the RTDs is used in the calculation of the overall thermal condition of the motor.

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Motor Protection
NUMERICAL RELAY ALGORITHM Numerical Relays have made significant improvement To motor protection especially the overload protection. The protection we looked at is static in nature— No real time adjustments Numerical relays provide real time adjustments

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Motor Protection
NUMERICAL RELAY ALGORITHM Numerical motor protection relays are of many Types and have different algorithms: However, all of these address the basic short comings Of static monitoring of the motor thermal condition.

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Motor Protection
NUMERICAL RELAY ALGORITHM.
4 Basic items considered are: Thermal model curve that can be shifted up and down based on motor thermal condition Overload pickup level Motor cooling time constants Biasing of the thermal model based on hot cold information and or measured stator temperature

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Motor Protection
NUMERICAL RELAY ALGORITHM. Thermal Capacity Used is a very important concept:
The relay calculates the thermal capacity of the motor that has been used up. If zero capacity is left, the motor will be shut off while running or will not be allowed to be started if it is at standstill.

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Motor Protection
NUMERICAL RELAY ALGORITHM. Thermal Capacity Used is a very important concept:
The algorithm uses memory in the form of a register Called Thermal Capacity Used. This register is updated every power cycle using has been used up. If zero capacity is left, the motor will be shut off while running or will not be allowed to start.
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Motor Protection
NUMERICAL RELAY ALGORITHM. Another useful feature of numerical relays is its ability to remember how long it takes for a motor to start. It keeps a record of last 4-5 starts and uses the largest value as the starting time.

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Motor Protection
Load-Jam Protection This protection comes into play when the driven load get jammed. When this happens we have a locked rotor condition. The setting for this element is in current Set at a little less than Locked rotor setting and an appropriate delay.
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Motor Protection
Load Loss Protection

With no PTS present, this protection is based only on current levels. When the load is lost current levels go down

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Motor Protection
Load Loss Protection

Set it at >no load motor current but < normal motor load current. Appropriate delay needs to be provided. This delay has to be greater than starting time of the driven load

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Motor Protection
Load Loss Protection If Pts are applied at the motor terminal or the bus feeding the motor, power can be used as a monitored quantity instead of current

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Motor Protection
Current Unbalance Protection If the terminal voltage is unbalanced, the Current flowing in the motor will be unbalanced Unbalanced currents contain negative sequence Currents Lot of heating!!!!!

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Motor Protection
Current Unbalance Protection In thermal models used by numerical relays Heating due to negative sequence is accounted for However, some users prefer a separate current balance protection

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Motor Protection
Current Unbalance Protection
There are two ways in which relays Can calculate the unbalance: If average current is greater than motor rated full load current % unbalance= 100 X (I dev –I average)/ I average Where Idev is the phase current which has the largest deviation From I average.

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Motor Protection
Current Unbalance Protection

If average current is less than the motor rated full load current % unbalance= 100 X (I dev –I average)/ I FLA Where Idev is the phase current which has the largest deviation From I average and IFLA is motor rated full load current

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Motor Protection
Current Unbalance Protection

If average current is less than the motor rated full load current % unbalance= 100 X (I dev –I average)/ I FLA Where Idev is the phase current which has the largest deviation From I average and IFLA is motor rated full load current

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Motor Protection
Current Unbalance Protection

If motor current is below 20%-25% of the motor rated current this function is automatically disabled by the numerical relays

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Motor Protection
Current Unbalance Protection
Typically 6% unbalance current flows in the motor if the Voltage unbalance is 1%. So if at your facility the voltage unbalance is 2% set the Function at >12%. A typical setting of 14% alarm and 20% trip is good Alarm delay could be set at 9 seconds Trip delay at 4-5 seconds is a good setting
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Motor Protection
Current Unbalance Protection

If motor current is below 20%-25% of the motor rated current this function is automatically disabled by the numerical relays

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Motor Protection
Ground fault protection
Remove motor as quickly as possible to limit damage

400 A

Ig>>

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Motor Protection
Ground fault protection
Two prong SOLUTION: Use fast acting relay Use low resistance grounding At the source transformer
400 A

Ig>>

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Motor Protection
Ground fault protection
Core Balance CT R S T

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Motor Protection

Bearing RTD is a useful tool to monitor the temperature of the bearing

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Motor Protection
Reactive Power Monitoring You can monitor reactive power in and out of the motor in the case of synchronous motors and this can be used to detect loss of synchronism or loss of field conditions
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Thank You Any Questions?

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