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Knowledge Is Power SM

Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management


for Energy Delivery

Application of Pilot Schemes

J. Gosalia
Doble Engineering Company
Pilot Protection Scheme
Comparisonof
Comparison of
differentschemes
different schemes

Principle of
of Pilot WhatisisPilot
What Pilot
Principle
operation Protection protection
protection
operation
Schemes scheme?
scheme?

Typesof
Types ofpilot
pilot
schemes
schemes
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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End Zone Faults
A B C
F1 F2
G G

¾ Zone 1 setting at A & B = 80% of the line length


¾ Fault at F1:
ƒ Fault is seen in Zone 1 at A & B. Cleared instantaneously
¾ Fault at F2:
ƒ Cleared instantaneously at station B but cleared with Zone 2
time delay from Station A.
ƒ Fault remains on the line for Zone 2 time delay
¾ End Zone fault it is not cleared instantaneously
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End Zone Faults : Pilot Scheme
¾ Fault on the protected line should be
cleared instantaneously :
ƒ Continuity of supply
ƒ Limit the Damage & shock to electrical system
ƒ Stability of the system
ƒ Minimize Revenue loss $$$$........
¾ Faults on the protected line including end
zone fault can be cleared by employing pilot
scheme
ƒ Each end communicates with the other end to
clear faults on the protected line instantaneously

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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Direct Transfer Trip Scheme : DTT

G G

Signaling Signaling
Channel Channel

Z1 Z1

Z2 Z2
Trip Trip
21 21
Z3 Z3

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Direct Transfer Trip Scheme : Logic
Signal Receive
Signal Send

Z1

Z2
Trip
21
Z3

Maloperation
Mal operationof ofthe
thesignaling
signalingequipment
equipment
mayresult
may resultininan
anunnecessary
unnecessarytripping
tripping

Toavoid
To avoidmal
maloperation,
operation,signal
signalreceive
receive
canbe
can besupervised
supervisedby
bythe
thedistance
distance
elementZ2
element Z2before
beforeissuing
issuingtrip
tripcommand
command

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
Permissive Under Reach TT Scheme
Z1
G G
Z1 Z2

Signal Signal Send


Receive
Z1

21 & Trip
Z2
Z2t

Signalisissent
Signal senttotoremote
remoteterminal
terminalififZ1
Z1operates.
operates.
IfIfsignal
signalisisreceived
receivedfrom
fromremote
remoteterminal
terminalthen
thentripping
trippingisis
issuedinstantaneously
issued instantaneouslyififlocal
localZone
Zone22seeseethe
thefault
fault

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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Permissive Under Reach TT Scheme

G G

Signal Receive 52b Comm Signal Send

Z1

&
21 Z2 Trip
Z2t

Forend
For endZone
Zonefault
faultwith
withthe
theremote
remotebreaker
breakeropen,
open,fault
faultwill
willnot
notbe
be
clearedinstantaneously.
cleared instantaneously.
Use52b
Use 52bcontact
contacttotosend
sendthe
thecontinuous
continuouspermissive
permissivesignal
signaltoto
remoteend
remote endfor
foropen
openbreaker.
breaker.
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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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PUTT Scheme : Caution
A B

C D

¾ Fault near terminal A is not seen by Zone 1 at terminal B


ƒ No current flows through terminal B
ƒ Fault is seen as Zone 1 Fault at terminal A
¾ Breaker at A trips instantaneously
¾ Now the fault current if fed via line CD and through B.
¾ Protection at B now sees the fault in Zone 2 but has no
permissive signal from terminal A to trip
¾ Fault is cleared after Zone 2 timer times out.

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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PUTT Scheme : Solution
A B

C D

¾ As breaker A opens the permissive signal to B resets


¾ Now the fault is fed through breakers C,D and B
¾ Zone 2 at B picks up but has no permission from A to trip
¾ Solution : Add a time delay on drop out on a permissive
signal receive
¾ The drop out delay >= Zone 2 pick up time + safety margin

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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PUTT : Logic

Signal Receive 52b Signal Send

Z1

td
21 &
Z2 Trip
Z2t

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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PUTT : Limitation
ZR

Zone 2

Zone 1

Zs
¾¾ For
ForShort
Shortline
linefollowed
followedby
byaalong
longline:
line:
ƒƒ Faultwith
Fault withthe
thefault
faultresistance
resistancemay
maynotnotbe
beseen
seenininZone
Zone11
ƒƒ PUTTscheme
PUTT schemefails
failsto
toclear
clearthe
thefault
faulton
onthe
theline
line
ƒƒ Faultisiscleared
Fault clearedininZone
Zone22time
time

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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POTT Scheme

G G

Signaling Signaling
Channel Channel

Z1 Z1

Z2 Z2 &
&
21 Trip Trip 21
Z3 Z3

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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POTT : Logic
SignalReceive
Signal Receive

SignalSend
Signal Send

Z1

Z2
&
Trip
Trip
21

Z3

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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POTT : Fault Resistance Coverage

Zone 2

Zone 1

Zs

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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Permissive Overreach TT Scheme
A B

G G

C D
¾ C sees Zone 2 fault, B sees zone 1 fault
¾ Fault current flows C-D-B
¾ D receives permission to trip from C but D sees reverse fault
¾ Breaker B opens as it sees the fault in Zone 1
¾ Now the fault current reverses and flows through D-C-A
¾ D sees Zone 2 fault, C does not see fault and zone 2 resets and
stop sending permissive signal to D
¾ If D Zone 2 picks up before Zone 2 at C resets, D can trip
¾ If C Zone 2 is slow to reset it can trip for a fault on parallel line

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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POTT : Solution
SignalReceive
Signal Receive

SignalSend
Signal Send

Z1

tp
Z2
&
Trip
Trip
21

Z3

Addingaatime
Adding timedelay
delaytptpininSignal
SignalSend
Sendwill
willprevent
preventmalmaloperation
operation

tptp>>Fast
FastPU
PUlocal
localZ2
Z2time
time––slowest
slowestreset
resettime
timeofofremote
remoteZ2
Z2time
time

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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POTT Scheme :Remote Breaker Open
A B

G G

¾ A sees Zone 2 fault, B does not see fault as it is open


¾ A can not trip instantaneously as it does not receive the
permissive signal from B
¾ If the local breaker is open and receives permissive signal from
remote end, the permissive signal can be Echoed back to
remote breaker
¾ Now the breaker A can trip to clear the fault on the line

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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POTT : Signal Echo Logic

52b SignalSend
Signal Send
52b
T1 & T2 &

SignalReceive
Signal Receive

¾ T1 timer avoid sending Echo if breaker is tripped by other


protection
¾ T2 avoids continuous Echo

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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POTT : Logic
SignalSend
Signal Send
ƒƒ When
WhenPermissive
Permissive
FSK logic signalisisreceived
signal received
Trip and fromRemote
from RemoteEnd End
SignalReceive
Signal Receive
Guard Freq. guardfrequency
guard frequencyisis
lostand
lost andtrip
tripfreq
freqisis
received
received
Z1
ƒƒ Permissive
PermissiveTrip Tripisis
issuedby
issued bysignaling
signaling
Z2 equipmentto
equipment to
& Trip protectionwhenwhen
21 Trip protection
guardfrequency
guard frequencyisis
lostand
lost andtrip
trip
Z3 frequencyisisreceived
received
frequency
ƒƒ PLCC
PLCCequipment
equipment
transmitguard
transmit guardand and
tripfreq.
trip freq.over
overpower
power
line
line

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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POTT : Caution

Line Trap Line Trap


G G

Coupling cap Coupling cap

FSK logic FSK logic


Trip and Trip and
Guard Freq. Guard Freq.

¾ Guard as well as trip frequency can not be transmitted or


attenuated due to fault on the power line

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Un Blocking Scheme

¾ POTT scheme
ƒ Trip frequency must be received & guard
frequency must be lost to issue permissive signal
¾ Un Blocking Scheme
ƒ Enhanced POTT scheme
ƒ If guard frequency is lost then permissive trip
signal is issued only for 100-150 mSecs.
ƒ If Z2 is picked up protection trip during this time
ƒ After this time permissive trip signal is only issued
if guard frequency is lost & trip frequency received
¾ Very secure and reliable scheme
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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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POTT Scheme : Weak In feed
Z1
Z2
G

G
¾ Fault near the remote terminal is seen as
Zone 2 at local terminal
ƒ Needs permissive trip signal from remote end to
clear the fault
ƒ Remote end has a week source contributing to
the fault : Z2 at remote end does not pick up
and no permissive signal is sent at local end
ƒ Fault on the line is not cleared instantaneously
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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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POTT : Weak In Feed
Z1
Z2
G

Z3
G

Signal Receive
Echo Signal Send
&
Z3 Trip local Br.

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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Blocking Scheme

¾ Simple scheme
¾ Very popular in N. America
¾ Comm. channel only sends the blocking
signal to remote end to block tripping
ƒ Unlike POTT scheme where guard signal is sent
continuous
¾ Z3 is set reverse looking
ƒ Z3 Picks up and sends the blocking signal
indicating fault is beyond the protected line
section

Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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Blocking Scheme
Z1
Z2
G

Z3
G
¾ Fault near the remote terminal is seen as
Zone 2 at local terminal
ƒ Remote Z3 does not see the fault
ƒ No blocking signal is sent
ƒ Trip is issued after a time delay tp to clear fault
¾ For fault beyond remote terminal
ƒ Z3 reverse looking picks up & send block singal
ƒ No trip at local terminal
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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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Blocking Scheme : Logic
Z1
Z2
G

Z3
G
Z2
Trip local Br. Z3 Signal Send
& tp &
Signal Receive

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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Blocking Vs. Permissive Scheme
¾ Signal
¾ SignalReceive:
Receive:Blocks
Blocks ¾ ¾ Signal
SignalReceive
Receivetripstrips
localinst.
local inst.Z2
Z2tripping
tripping Z2instantaneously
Z2 instantaneously
¾ Signaling
¾ Signalingchannel
channelisis ¾ Signaling
¾ Signalingchannel
channelisis
normallyOFF.
normally OFF. only
only “ON”all
“ON” allthe
thetime
time
ONwhen
ON whenZ3 Z3picks
picksup up sending“Guard”
sending “Guard”
¾ When
¾ WhenZ2 Z2picks
picksup,
up,itit frequencyand
frequency and
waitsfor
waits foraatime
timedelay
delay changesto
changes totrip
tripfreq.
freq.ifif
tpbefore
tp beforeissuing
issuingtrip
triptoto Z2picks
Z2 picksup up
ensureremote
ensure remote ¾ No
¾ Nointentional
intentionaltime
time
terminalhas
terminal hasaatime
timeto to delayfor
delay fortripping
trippingifif
sendblock
send blocksignal
signal permissivesignal
permissive signalisis
received
received

Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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Blocking Vs. POTT : Comparison
¾¾ Intentional
Intentionaltime
timedelay
delay ¾¾ No
Nointentional
intentionaltime
timedelay
delay
addedto
added toavoid
avoidover
over ontrip
on tripfor
foraafault
faulton onthe
theline
line
tripping
tripping ¾¾ Failure
Failureof ofthe
the
¾¾ Failure
Failureof ofthe
the communicationchannel
communication channel
communicationchannel
communication channel mayresults
may resultsininaafailure
failuretoto
mayresults
may resultsininover
overtripping
tripping tripfor
trip foraafault
faulton
onthetheline
line
foran
anexternal
externalfault
fault
for ¾¾ POTT
POTTscheme
schemeisismore more
¾¾ Blocking
Blockingscheme
schemeisismore
more secure
secure
dependable
dependable ¾¾ Separate
Separatesignaling
signalingchannel
channel
¾¾ Single
SingleOn/Off
On/Offsignaling
signaling foreach
for eachdirection
directionof of
channelininuse
channel useoperating
operatingat at signaling
signaling
singlefrequency
single frequencyininboth
both
direction
direction
UnBlocking
Un Blockingscheme
schemecombines
combinessecurity
securityof
ofPOTT
POTTscheme
scheme&&
Dependabilityof
Dependability ofBlocking
Blockingscheme
scheme

Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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Selection of Pilot Scheme?

¾ Deciding factors
ƒ Reliability of signaling channels
• N. America for 115/230 kV lines,
blocking scheme is used frequently
• Reliability is quite good
¾ Operating speed
ƒ Fault clearing time requirement
¾ System operating practice

Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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Special Schemes
¾ Zone 1 extension scheme
ƒ No communication channel is used
ƒ Economical, Simple
ƒ Used along with AutoReclosing protection
ƒ 95% of all the faults are transient fault
¾ Phase distance and time over current protection in
blocking scheme
ƒ Ground distance protection has limited fault resistance
coverage
ƒ Little or not fault coverage for short line and/or strong
source
ƒ Use of time over current for ground fault provides higher
fault resistance coverage

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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Zone 1 Ext. Scheme
Z1x D
A Z1 B C
G G

21/79

¾ Zone 1 is set to over reach by setting Z1x


ƒ Z1x reach of AB is set to 20% in to the line section CD
ƒ If the fault occurs in line section CD, breaker A and C trips
ƒ High speed Auto Reclose protection closes the breakers
A&C
ƒ During the same time, the Z1x reach is pulled back to Z1
ƒ If the fault is permanent on the next line section only
breaker C will trip and breaker A does not trip
ƒ If the fault is transient, interruption in power transfer is
minimal
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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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Zone 1 Ext. Scheme : Logic

&

Z1
& Z1x Z1 trip.

Auto Reclose
In progress

79

Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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Zone 1 Ext. Scheme: Pros and Cons

¾Transient
¾ Transient faults
faults on
on the
the line
line are
are cleared
cleared
instantaneously without
instantaneously without thethe need
need for
for
elaborate communication
elaborate communication equipment
equipment
¾Permanent
¾ Permanent end end Zone
Zone faults
faults are
are cleared
cleared in
in
Zone 22 time
Zone time
¾Transient
¾ Transient faults
faults in
in the
the next
next line
line section
section will
will
create unnecessary
create unnecessary tripping
tripping and
and reclosing
reclosing
of the
of the circuit
circuit breaker
breaker
ƒƒ This
Thisisisthe
themain
maindisadvantage
disadvantagewhen
when
interconnectedhigh
interconnected highvoltage
voltagepower
powersystem
systemwhen
when
severalfeeders
several feederscan
canterminate
terminateat
ataasingle
singlebus
bus

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
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Pilot Scheme: 21P and 50/51G
¾ Blocking scheme : 21P as discussed earlier
¾ Ground over current uses 50/51 and directional protection
ƒ Local End:
• Block signal is sent to remote end by non directional ground
time over current element
• The block signal is cancelled if the ground directional element
picks up for a fault on a line (Forward fault)
ƒ Remote End:
• If high set is picked up (50 HS) and directional element picked
up & block signal is received : Fault is forward
• Wait for a time delay tp for block signal to be removed from
the remote end for a forward fault
• If the block signal from the local end is cancelled then the
protection trips
• If block signal is not cancelled then fault is on the next line
section and it may trip after a time delay 51G

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Pilot Scheme: 21P and 50/51G
A B C D
Z1
G G

21P 21P
50/51G 50/51G

¾ Protection A and B:
ƒ Block signal is sent to remote end by high speed non dir. ground
time over current element
ƒ The block signal is cancelled by the ground directional element
ƒ Block signal is received, 50 HS with directional element picked up.
ƒ Wait for a time delay tp to see if block signal is cancelled
ƒ Once the block signal is cancelled protection A and B trips to clear
the fault on the line

Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery