The Influence of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Satisfaction on Organizational Exit (Voluntary Turnover): Evidence from a Correctional Setting

HEADNOTE Executive Summary This research was aimed at determining if intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction was related to leaving behavior. It was determined that intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction are both related to the leaving behavior of Correctional Officers. Intrinsic satisfaction, as supported by previous research and the current article, appears to be the reason for the voluntary leaving behavior for Correctional Officers, when they were perceived as a homogenous group (male and female officers). Nonetheless, as a heterogeneous group (either male or female officers), extrinsic satisfaction became dominant. This suggests that intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction are important with both acting in different ways to influence the leaving behavior of employees. Lambert (2001) noted that, "personal characteristics influence how a person sees and reacts to his or her environment" (p.69). Introduction There is little doubt, evidenced by numerous research articles presented over the years, that job satisfaction, arguably the most popular work-related research variable, has long been associated with employees voluntarily leaving an organization (Mobley, 1977; Price et al., 1977; Steers & Koch, 1978; Peters et al., 1981; Michael & Specter, 1982; Arnold & Feldman, 1982; Bhuian et al., 1996; Price, 2001 ; Lambert et al., 2002). In addition to other variables such as organizational commitment, which have also been shown to be associated with voluntary turnover, the correctional literature also indicates that job satisfaction of Correctional Officers is linked to their voluntary leaving behavior (Lambert, 2001; Mitchell, et al., 2000; Farkas, 2001; Lambert et al., 2002; Udechukwu, Harrington, Manyak, Segal, & Graham, in press). While Udechukwu et al. (in press) noted in their research that different aspects of satisfaction, intrinsic or extrinsic satisfaction, may be contributors to the leaving behavior of Correctional Officers, they urged further research into this area for Correctional Officers. Tang et al. (2000) provide additional support needed in this area of research, by noting, "We assert that the distinction between intrinsic job satisfaction and extrinsic job satisfaction is a very important one, because two individuals may express the same amount of overall job satisfaction but for entirely different reasons" (p. 215). In response to these thoughts, the logical questions would be 1) Does intrinsic and/or extrinsic satisfaction influence the leaving behavior of employees? 2) Are these satisfiers influenced by personal characteristics such as either age or gender? The voluntary leaving behavior of Correctional Officers appears to be a problem for management of correctional agencies because of the costs (direct and indirect costs) associated with Correctional Officers leaving the organization at high rates. In 2004, the annual voluntary turnover rate for Correctional Officers in the government agency used for this study was about 20.45 percent which was higher than the annual turnover rate for the entire staff of that agency-17.25 percent (Udechukwu et al., in press). McShane, et al. (1991) notes that "turnover rates vary in prisons across the country, from less than 1 percent annually in one state to 45 percent in another. The average of all states' rates is 17 percent" (p. 220). Ramlall (2004) adds that for an exempt employee it costs "a minimum of one years' pay and benefits and a maximum of two years' pay and benefits" (p. 52).

and dissatisfaction can be due to low levels of satisfaction with intrinsic factors. job security. (2000) had previously noted that two individuals may express the same level of overall job satisfaction but for entirely different reasons. responsibility. He argued that motivators were the primary cause of satisfaction on the job. 50) also argued that satisfaction with the job can be due to high levels of satisfaction with intrinsic factors. supervision. based on their gender. 1993). while hygiene factors were the cause of unhappiness on the job. Similarly. Extrinsic factors cause both satisfaction and dissatisfaction less readily than do the intrinsic factors. However. 2001. p. Wernimont (1966. and thus demonstrated the distinct differences between satisfaction and dissatisfaction. especially for retention purposes.69). 1995. there are almost no studies detailing whether intrinsic and/or extrinsic satisfaction is related to Correctional Officer's voluntary leaving the organization. Nonetheless. indicates that there is no significant relationship between either race or gender and job satisfaction of correctional workers" (p.IMAGE TABLE1 Table 1. Examples of intrinsic satisfiers illustrated by Herzberg were achievement. 2003 Correctional Officer monthly voluntary turnover rates and their associated monthly costs (direct). (2002) noted "The correctional research. 2001). Lambert et al. This research aims to identify these aspects for Correctional Officers. They further added "all variables are equally potent contributors to job satisfaction" (p. etc. called. much of its underpinnings lie in the theories of motivation. and that both were separate and distinct factors rather than direct opposites-job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction. but individuals are more likely to say they have bad or dissatisfied feelings about these extrinsic factors. voluntarily leaving an organization has been conceptualized and studied as "intentions of quitting" (Griffeth & Horn. no such research appears to be available on the basis of the officer's personal characteristics (age and gender).. Nonetheless. He further added that motivators led to growth on the job while hygiene factors led to avoidance on the job. called motivator factors. given that Tang et al. while prisons all over the country are staffed by both female and male Correctional Officers. loyalty. to identify the nature of the relationship between the job satisfiers (intrinsic or extrinsic) and an officer's leaving behavior based on personal characteristics since attrition rates for Correctional Officers are generally high and costly. 1983. although again not in total agreement. Zhou & George. the two-factor-theory has not been without its fair share of controversy. the study of job satisfaction in either its intrinsic or extrinsic state is an attempt to explain the voluntary leaving behavior of employees. 131). and it is important from a humanitarian and . salary. Steel & Ovalle. or inconclusive. and he concluded extrinsic satisfiers were company policy. other research has been conducted specifically on job dissatisfaction which has now come to encompass concepts such as exit. overall satisfaction is commonly studied and referred to as job satisfaction. etc. Generally. Horn & Griffeth. Tett & Meyer. 396). However. This is important because. In addition. hygiene factors. the correctional literature has indicated that the data regarding satisfaction of Correctional Officers. is either mixed. it may be important for management. and neglect (Farrell. 1984. Hulin and Smith (1967) argued against the two-factor theory and concluded that there was no support for it. and those extrinsic to it. voice. status. recognition. inconsistent. Horner & Hollingsworth. Herzberg's (1968) two-factor theory illustrated that one's job was affected by factors intrinsic to it. Nonetheless. Lambert (2001) also added that "personal characteristics influence how a person sees and reacts to his or her environment" (p. advancement. 1978). Job satisfaction While satisfaction has been studied in an unprecedented numbers of articles. "Intentions of quitting" has been defined as the conscious and deliberate willfulness to leave the organization (Mobley.

is related to overall Correctional Officer's turnover? 2. In a related topic. 1. and that the level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction of employees may reflect the extent to which they experience good treatment in an organization. and noted their "results revealed that intrinsic factors. if any. O'Reilly and Caldwell (1980) are at issue with Wanous' (1977) view on how employees make job choices (organizational entry). Tang et al. is related to the Correctional Officer's age? . intrinsic or extrinsic. the focus here is to determine whether intrinsic and/or extrinsic satisfaction influences the leaving behavior (organizational exit) of employees. Randolph and Johnson (2005) conducted research to determine how intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction predicts career satisfaction and intention to quit the organization for rehabilitation professionals in the healthcare sector. The utilitarian perspective presupposes that the satisfaction or dissatisfaction of Correctional Officers can lead to behaviors that affect the functioning of the organization. It may also be indicative of the emotional and psychological well being of the employees. 256). Randolph and Johnson's conclusions are in agreement with O'Reilly and Caldwell's (1980) research. tend to be predictive of career satisfaction and desire to stay on the job" (p. 1997). The humanitarian perspective suggests that people deserve to be treated fairly and appropriately. The focus of this article is not to determine the nature of the interaction. 58). 236). intrinsic or extrinsic. (2000) had previously stated that "when intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction are examined together. Which of the satisfaction facets. They further added "the implication for managers is that if facilities desire is to attract and retain rehabilitation professionals. Which of the satisfaction facets.utilitarian perspective (Spector. Rather. an entry activity into the organization (recruitment). rather than extrinsic factors such as pay. In addition and more recently. Other researchers such as DeCharms (1968) reported that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation may interact. they will need to find ways to provide these intrinsic factors as well as those traditional benefits" (p. Research Questions There are almost no studies detailing the relationship between intrinsic or extrinsic satisfaction of correctional workers to their leaving behavior. For example. increased productivity within the organization is a reflection of one of many positive outcomes of satisfied employees while absenteeism and sabotage are well established negative outcomes of dissatisfied employees. 58). intrinsic or extrinsic. While job choice. They hypothesized and concluded that individuals whose job decisions (organizational entry) were influenced by intrinsic factors were more satisfied and committed to their job choice than individuals whose decisions were influenced by extrinsic factors. just as Herzberg (1968) had similarly theorized. is related to either male or female Correctional Officer's turnover? 3. The following research questions were developed to identify these trends for Correctional Officers. should also be influenced either by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Which of the satisfaction facets. The individual orientation approach adopted by O'Reilly and Caldwell suggested that individuals typically make decisions based on either intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Their objective was to assist management in the recruitment (entry activity) and retention of rehabilitation professionals. whereas extrinsic job satisfaction is how people feel about aspects of the work situation that are external to the job tasks or work itself (p. Intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction Hirschfield (2000) stated that "intrinsic job satisfaction is how people feel about the nature of the job tasks themselves. turnover. was the focus of O'Reilly and CaldwelFs research. an exit decision from the organization (turnover or organizational exit). but rather focus should be placed on individual orientation or circumstances governing an individual's job choice. This research aims to contribute to such research. O'Reilly and Caldwell argued that less focus should be placed on the organizational orientation to job choices. it appears that intrinsic job satisfaction has played a much more significant role in predicting actual turnover behavior than extrinsic job satisfaction" (p.

Intention to quit has been defined as the conscious and deliberate willfulness to leave the organization (Mobley et al. security (I). Dawis. achievement (I). recognition (E). & Lofquist. This variable was measured using the 20-item short form of the MSQ (Weiss. responsibility (I). Instrumentation The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) short form was used to gather data on the satisfaction levels for the Correctional Officers. creativity (I). These are denoted by (I) for intrinsic and (E) for extrinsic. H3^sub A^: Extrinsic satisfaction for a Correctional Officer is related to the officer's age. Two hundred and forty surveys were distributed to potential respondents. England. The response rate was approximately 67 percent. supervision-technical (E). working conditions. H4^sub A^: Intrinsic satisfaction for a Correctional Officer is related to the officer's age. 1978).. using Colarelli's (1984) intention to quit instrument. variety (I). The leaving behavior was conceptualized as intention to quit. H2^sub A^: Intrinsic satisfaction for Correctional Officers is related to their intention to leave the organization. Such components include. H2^sub 0^: Intrinsic satisfaction for Correctional Officers is not related to their intention to leave the organization. authority (I). Mobley. it was considered an extrinsic satisfier because Wernimont (1966) had labeled this attribute an extrinsic satisfier. advancement (E). supervision-human relations (E). The surveys included questionnaires on job satisfaction and intentions to quit. 3. Permission was sought from the Human Resources section of GDC to conduct the survey as an "organizational self study". moral values (I). Arnold & Feldman.These questions lead to the following hypotheses to be tested. social status (I). Job satisfaction. "job satisfaction and organizational commitment are the most immediate determinants of turnover intentions" (p. By . Several studies have found intention to quit an organization as a reliable predictor of actual turnover (Michaels & Spector. compensation (E). 1882. The MSQ manual makes a distinction on which satisfaction components are intrinsic and extrinsic. independence (I). The questionnaire package was delivered in self-sealing envelopes and also included self-sealing return envelopes. Organizational commitment was not a focus of this research. activity (I). with 161 returned surveys. H1^sub 0^: Extrinsic satisfaction for Correctional Officers is not related to their intention to leave the organization 2. Unsealed envelopes and surveys with any form of personnel identification were destroyed. company policies (E). 4. ability utilization (I). H8^sub 4^: Intrinsic satisfaction for a Correctional Officer is not related to the officer's age Research Methodology Correctional Officers in 12 prisons of a state's correctional facilities were participants in the surveys.219). 1967). 1982). H1^sub A^: Extrinsic satisfaction for Correctional Officers is related to their intention to leave the organization. gathered through surveys. coworkers. Research Hypothesis 1. The MSQ categorizes satisfaction into components that are either intrinsic or extrinsic to the job. H3^sub 0^: Extrinsic satisfaction for a Correctional Officer is not related to the officer's age. social service (I). Job satisfaction can be classified as those intrinsic (I) or extrinsic (E) to the job. It was selected because it embodied more specific factors that would otherwise not be available in other satisfaction instruments. While no labels were assigned to working the conditions item in the MSQ. 1977. Tang et al. (2000) further add that.

In this regard it was considered an extrinsic satisfier. "I am planning to search for a new job during the next 12 months. This is consistent with Nunally's (1967) recommendation of 0.93 percent being female. H1^sub 0^: Extrinsic satisfaction for Correctional Officers is not significantly related to their intention to leave the organization. Peters et al. is associated with work situations that are external to the job tasks or work itself. "I frequently think of quitting my job". that a significant and negative correlation exists between the extrinsic satisfaction of Correctional Officers and their intentions of quitting the organization. with items noting. From the matrix in Table 5.definition. This research used Colarelli's (1984) intentions to quit scale. H2^sub 0^: Intrinsic satisfaction for Correctional Officers is not significantly related to their intention to leave the organization. IMAGE TABLE2 Table 2. labeled as such. Intention to quit. using the 20-item MSQ. Pearson's correlations were used to test the data to determine the relationship between variables. Descriptive Statistics for Female Correctional Officers in Study Table 4. Intercorrelation Matrix for Female Correctional Officers in Study Table 7. Intercorrelation Matrix for all Correctional Staff in Study Table 6. when they are considered as a homogenous group. "If I have my own way. Descriptive Statistics for Male Correctional Officers in Study IMAGE TABLE3 Table 5." Cronbach alpha for the overall scale of Colarelli (1984) intention to quit scale for Correctional Officers in this research yielded 0. H^sub 2^A: Intrinsic satisfaction for Correctional Officers is significantly related to their intention to leave the organization.70 being sufficient for most research.92 at (N = 31 full time employees).07 percent of the population being male and 50. H1^sub A^.00). with 49. . Intel-correlation Matrix for Male Correctional Officers in Study IMAGE TABLE4 Table 7. Descriptive Statistics for all Correctional Officers in Study Table 3. I will be working for my organization one year from now". H1^sub A^: Extrinsic satisfaction for Correctional Officers is significantly related to their intention to leave the organization. 2. Research Analysis The data collected from the research was compiled and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Intercorrelation Matrix for Male Correctional Officers in Study 1.89.88. achieved a reliability estimate of 0.85. the coworker item. (1981). and thus. Cronbach alpha for the internal consistency for the overall job satisfaction scale of the MSQ for Correctional Officer's in this research was found to be 0. similar to Hsu's (2002) estimate of 0. The subjects of study were almost evenly split by gender. while studying full and part.363**. the relationship between the extrinsic satisfaction of the entire correctional staff and their intentions of quitting was found to be significant and negative (r = 0. which had no label. We accept the hypothesis.time employees. p = 0.

the strength of the relationship appeared to differ by gender. 2000).514**. Table 7 further shows that the relationship between the intrinsic satisfaction of male Correctional Officers and their intentions of quitting was found to be significant and negative (r = -0. a comparison of the matrices on Tables 6 and 7. H4^sub 0^: Intrinsic satisfaction for a Correctional Officer is not related to the officer's age The same data from the matrix on table 5 also shows that age was positively related to the officer's intrinsic satisfaction. has previously been supported by Randolph and Johnson (2005) and O'Reilly and Caldwell (1980). seems to be inconsistent. In addition. Discussion The data demonstrates that both intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction are related to the leaving behavior of Correctional Officers. Age did not appear to produce a consistent result with regard to its relationship to either the officer's intrinsic or extrinsic satisfaction. Clearly.. H3^sub 0^: Extrinsic satisfaction for a Correctional Officer is not related to the officer's age. Other researchers (Randolph & Johnson. p = 0. partially supporting Lambert. the relationship between the extrinsic satisfaction of female Correctional Officers and their intentions of quitting was found to be significant and negative (r = 0.049) than it was for male Correctional Officers (r = -0. 131). (2002) who noted that. 1980. when they are considered as a homogenous group. from the matrix in Table 5. "The correctional research. O'Reilly & Caldwell. We accept the hypothesis. Generally.218.283*. While we accept H4^sub A. 3. the impact of age on the extrinsic and intrinsic factors affecting the leaving behavior of Correctional Officers. it was also negatively related to the officer's extrinsic satisfaction. p = 0.Again. p = 0. 4. Tang et al. Thus. it was much stronger than when the officers were considered as a homogenous group (male and female officers). the relationship between the intrinsic satisfaction of the entire correctional staff and their intentions of quitting was found to be significant (r = 0. as with this research. 2005. indicates that there is no significant relationship between either race or gender and job satisfaction of correctional workers" (p.44).00). appeared to be the reason for the voluntary leaving behavior for Correctional Officers when they were perceived as a homogenous group (male and female officers). et al. it would appear that an officer's level of satisfaction is independent of their age.00). have identified the significant contribution made by intrinsic satisfaction to employees' decisions on entry (employee job choice and recruitment) and exit (turnover) activities in organizations. while age was negatively related to the officers leaving behavior. In addition.386**. hence. The significant impact of intrinsic satisfaction on the behavior of employees (entry or exit activities). The data shows.088. p = 0. that a significant and negative correlation exists between the intrinsic satisfaction of Correctional Officers and their intentions of quitting the organization. Surprisingly. H2^sub A^. intrinsic satisfaction appears to be more significant than extrinsic satisfaction in shaping the quitting behavior for Correctional Officers. as supported by previous research and the current analysis. p = 0. from the matrix on Table 5. While we accept H3^sub A^.^ the data was insignificant for Correctional Officers. that generally.534**. from the correlation matrix in Table 7. From the correlation matrix in Table 6.00).01). p = 0. H4^sub A^: Intrinsic satisfaction for a Correctional Officer is related to the officer's age. H3^sub A^: Extrinsic satisfaction for a Correctional Officer is related to the officer's age. the data was insignificant for Correctional Officers of both gender. the relationship between the extrinsic satisfaction of male Correctional Officers and their intentions of quitting was found to be significant and negative (r = -0. although again not in total agreement. However. Intrinsic satisfaction. Table 6 further shows that the relationship between the intrinsic satisfaction of female Correctional Officers and their intentions of quitting was found to be significant and negative . indicates that age appears to be a significant factor in the leaving behavior of female Correctional Officers (r = -0.

This is important because when Correctional Officers who are responsible for the incarceration of inmates leave voluntarily. Mobley (1982) also noted that work performance. and increased payroll administrative expenses stemming from the fluctuation in employees" (p. absenteeism. The implication of having unsatisfied workers is the possibility of undesirable work outcomes such as voluntary turnover. potentially diminishing then· motivation and morale to remain in the organization or to provide their best work performance. In this regard. Social/cohesiveness. creativity (I). the leaving employee likely impacted other existing employees.(r = -0. consistency. Moral. the prognosis. reduced quality of service. Even then. The command and control nature of operations in a correctional setting requires a good measure of social cohesiveness and communication among Correctional Officers for several reasons. security (I). However. The research shows that organizations may have to focus on the intrinsic reasons influencing employees leaving . In line with social communication and cohesiveness. to the organization. and morale issues or consequences are tied to organizations that take turnover for granted. etc. 20). Mitchell further added that "the indirect costs of staff attrition include decreased productivity. 2000). moral values (I).269*. At best. Mobley (1982) also noted. responsibility (I). emotional support. variety (I). is to reduce employee turnover by increasing levels of job satisfaction. when key employees of an organization leave. this research demonstrates the importance of two satisfaction concepts. In fact other staff who may be assigned the duties of the leaving employees may even find their own performance affected by the vacancy created by the leaving employee. In the case of morale. as this research has shown. specifically. it can either be caused by voluntary or involuntary turnover. safety. Inmates have generally been known to take advantage of situations where these reasons are inadequately addressed in the operations of a correctional facility. provides management with a strategic focus on areas of motivation the organization may want to concentrate. this narrows the options available to management in attempts to fix the officers level of satisfaction rather than adopt a universe of satisfaction possibilities. management is apt to ignore the cumulative effect of employee turnover on the overall health of the organization. 335). training or replacement costs will be incurred to fill the void. authority (I). this is not enough. there is no guarantee that the outcome of the new or retrained employee's performance will match the expectations of the organization. "Formal and informal communication patterns are characteristic of any organization" (p. Implications Since it has been shown that satisfaction is related to undesirable work outcomes like voluntary turnover. the importance of focusing on such outcomes as the costs associated with it-direct and indirect costs are more apparent (Mitchell. discipline. and low staff morale" (p. In line with costs. Because some of these consequences are not necessarily evident at the time the turnover phenomenon is occurring. employees make cohesion and socialization within organizations possible. Performance. While costs are the symptoms of turnover. and order. This research has primarily focused on voluntary turnover. According to Mitchell. thus. p = 0. ability utilization (I). Since intrinsic satisfaction may include activity (I). independence (I). etc. achievement (I). it was not as strong as when the officers were considered as a homogenous group (male and female officers). as described by the MSQ. social status (I). Surprisingly. this has the potential to temporarily disrupt the incarceration operations of the organization while putting the security of innocent citizens at risk. 335). Extending the research into whether the employee's satisfaction is a result of intrinsic or extrinsic reasons. Clearly. intrinsic satisfaction. social service (I). payment of overtime to remaining staff members to cover vacated shifts. while incurring unforeseen costs for the agency.015). social/communication. there is no guarantee that other employees will be keen or able to assume the previous duties of the leaving employee. "The direct financial costs include the increased expenditure of funds to recruit and train new staff members.

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. Udechukwu. 41-50. M. Harrington W. & Lofquist.. Wemimont. 673-686. Academy of Management Journal. Wayne Huizenga School of Business and Entrepreneurship Jan 2007 Provided by ProQuest Information and Learning. Kim J. Use of this site is governed by our Terms of Use Agreement and Privacy Policy. When job dissatisfaction leads to creativity: Encouraging the expression of voice. Journal of Applied Psychology. R. 46. L. package and/or redistribute the content of this page. He also has several coauthored several articles accepted for publication in journals such as Essays in Education.. D. P. P. Public Personnel Management. without the written permission of the copyright holder. J. 44. turnover intention. F. The Georgia Department of Corrections: An exploratory reflection on correctional turnover and its correlates. quantitative methods. Journal of Applied Psychology. & Meyer. Manual for the Minnesota Satsifaction Questionnaire (No. AUTHOR_AFFILIATION Ikwukananne I. D.Copyright Nova Southeastern University.. 213-245. L. H. T. Udechukwu has over five years of experience as a Compensation and Classification professional in the public sector.. H. 259-293. and recruitment strategies. & Ovalle. His research interests lie in the theories of motivations. without the written permission of the copyright holder. R. T.. (in press). (2000). and turnover: Path analyses based on meta-analytic findings. S.. Udechukwu. Zhou. reproduce. & George. Manyak. You may not repost. in whole or in part. Job satisfaction. Close Window Copyright © 1999 . J. K. reproduce. Nova Southeastern University AUTHOR_AFFILIATION About the Author Ikwukananne I. 53. in whole or in part. N. Public Personnel Management. S. All rights reserved. He holds an undergraduate degree in Business management from Park University and an MPA from Valdosta State University. Segal. R. © Copyright Nova Southeastern University. 22). Personnel Psychology. (1984). (1993). II. Dawis. L. K. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. P.com. Tang. All rights Reserved. organizational commitment. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors hi job satisfaction. Does attitude toward money moderate the relationship between intrinsic job satisfaction and voluntary turnover? Human Relations.2009 AllBusiness. 69. P. LLC. A review and meta-analysis of research on the relationship between behavioral intentions and employee turnover. & Graham S. 50. republish. 682-696. package and/or redistribute the content of this page. He has co-authored several manuscripts in several books. (1966). and Human Resource Development Review. Tett. . All rights Reserved. & Tang. (1967). republish. Inc. Wayne Huizenga School of Business and Entrepreneurship Jan 2007© Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship 2011Provided by ProQuest. He is currently a Compensation and Classification Analyst at Georgia State University. G. J. (2001). England.. You may not repost. Weiss..Steel. He is currently pursuing a DBA at Nova Southeastern University..

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