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troductory course in linear algebra. We will introduce matrix, vector,

vector-valued function, and linear independency of a group of vectors

and vector-valued functions.

A matrix is a group of numbers(elements) that are arranged in

rows and columns. In general, an m × n matrix is a rectangular array

of mn numbers (or elements) arranged in m rows and n columns. If

m = n the matrix is called a square matrix. For example a 2×2 matrix

is · ¸

a11 a12

a21 a22

and an 3 × 3 matrix is

a11 a12 a13

a21 a22 a23

a31 a32 a33

Generally, we use bold phase letter, like A, to denote a matrix,

and lower case letters with subscripts, like aij , to denote element of

a matrix. Here aij would be the element at ith row and j th column.

So a11 is an element at 1st row and column. Sometime we use the

abbreviation A = (aij ) for a matrix with elements aij .

are all zeroes. So 2 × 2 and 3 × 3 zero matrices are

· ¸ 0 0 0

0 0

and 0 0 0

0 0

0 0 0

Another special matrix is the identity matrix, denoted by I, a iden-

tity matrix is an matrix whose main diagonal elements are 1, and all

1

2 1. BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS AND MATRICES

· ¸ 1 0 0

1 0

and 0 1 0

0 1

0 0 1

A vector is a matrix with one row or one column. In this chapter,

a vector is always a matrix with one column as

· ¸

x1

x2

for a two-dimensional vector and

x1

x2

x3

for a three dimensional vector. Here the element has only one index

that denotes the row position (Sometimes we use different variable to

denote number in different position such as using

· ¸

x

y

for a 2-dimensional vector). We use bold lower case, such as v, to

denote a vector.

1.2. Operations on Matrices. Arrange number in rectangular

fashion, as a matrix, itself is not something terribly interesting. The

most important advantage from that kind arrangement is that we can

define matrix addition, multiplication, and scalar multiplication.

Definition 1.1.

if corresponding elements are equal, i.e. aij = bij .

(ii) Addition: If A = (aij ) and B = (bij ) and the sum of Aand

B is A + B = (cij ) = aij + bij .

(iii) Scalar Product: If A = (aij ) is matrix and k is num-

ber(scalar), the kA = (kaij ) is product of k and A.

From the above definition, we see that, to multiply a matrix by

a number k, we simply multiply each of its entries by k; to add two

matrices we just add their corresponding entries; A−B = A+(−1)B.

Example 1.1. Let

· ¸

2 3

A=

−1 4

1. VECTORS AND MATRICES 3

and · ¸

0 5

B= ,

3 −4

find (a) A + B, (b) 3A, (c) 4A − B.

Solution

(a)

· ¸ ¸ ·

2 3

0 5

A+B = +

−1 4

3 −4

· ¸ · ¸

2+0 3+5 2 8

= =

−1 + 3 4 + (−4) 2 0

(b)

· ¸ · ¸

2 3 6 9

3A = 3 =

−1 4 −3 12

(c)

· ¸ · ¸ · ¸

8 12 0 5 8 7

4A − B = − =

−4 16 3 −4 −7 20

a

The following fact lists all properties of matrix addition and scalar

product.

Theorem 1.1. Let A, bB, and C be matrices. Let a, b be scalars

(numbers). We have

(1) A + 0 = 0 + A = A, A − A = 0;

(2) A + B = B + A (commutativity);

(3) A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C, (ab)A = a(bA) (associa-

tivity);

(4) a(A+B) = aA+aB, (a+b)A = aA+bA (distributivity)

When we have a row vector and a column vector with the same

number of elements, we can define the dot product as

Definition 1.2. Dot Product: · ¸

£ ¤ y1

• in 2-dimension: Let x = x1 x2 and y = , the

y2

dot product of x and y is,

x · y = x1 y1 + x2 y2

4 1. BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS AND MATRICES

£ ¤ y1

• in 3-dimension: Let x = x1 x2 x3 and y = y2 ,

y3

the dot product of x and y is,

x · y = x1 y1 + x2 y2 + x3 y3

Definition 1.3. Matrix product

Let A = (aij ) and B = (bij ), if the number of columns of A

is the same as number of rows of B, then the product of A and B is

given by AB = (cij ) where cij is dot product of ith row of A with j th

column of B.

Example 1.2. Let

· ¸

2 3

A=

−1 4

and · ¸

0 5

B= ,

3 −4

find AB

Solution · ¸· ¸

2 3 0 5

AB =

−1 4 3 −4

· ¸ · ¸

2 · (0) + 3 · (3) 2 · 5 + 3 · (−4) 9 −2

= =

(−1) · (0) + 4 · 3 −1 · 5 + 4 · (−4) 12 −21

Notice, the first element of AB is 2 · (0) + 3 · (3) which ·is the¸ dot

£ ¤ 0

product of first row of A, 2 3 and first column of B, a

3

The following fact gives properties of matrix product,

Theorem 1.2. Let A, B, C be three matrices and r be a scalar,

we have

• A(BC) = (AB)C, r(AB) = A(rB) (associativity)

• A(B + C) = AB + AC (distributivity)

Notice, in general AB 6= BA, that is for most of the times, AB

is not equal to BA.

Using the matrix notation and matrix product, we can write the

following system of equations

½

ax1 + bx2 = y1

cx1 + dx2 = y2

1. VECTORS AND MATRICES 5

as Ax = y with · ¸

a b

A= ,

c d

· ¸ · ¸

x1 y1

x= , and y = .

x2 y2

Definition 1.4. A square (ex. 2 × 2 or 3 × 3) matrix A is

invertible if there is a matrix A-1 such that AA-1 = A-1 A = I.

Theorem 1.3. Let

· ¸

a b

A=

c d

be a 2 × 2 matrix, if A is invertible, we have

· ¸

-1 1 d −b

A =

ad − bc −c d

So if A is invertible, to solve Ax = y, we need to simply multiply

both sides with A-1 , that is

x = A-1 y.

Example 1.3. Solve the system of equation

½

3x1 − 4x2 = 2

−2x1 + 5x2 = 7

· ¸

3 −4

A= ,

−2 5

· ¸ · ¸

x1 2

x = , and y = . So in matrix form the system of

x2 7

equation is · ¸· ¸ · ¸

3 −4 x1 2

= .

−2 5 x2 7

Now the inverse of A is

· ¸

-1 1 5 4

A = ,

3(5) − (−2)(−4) 2 3

so the solution is

· ¸· ¸ · 38

¸

1 5 4 2

x = A-1 y = = 7

25

7 2 3 7 7

a

6 1. BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS AND MATRICES

3x1 − 4x2 + 5x3 = 2

−2x1 + 5x2 = 7

x − 5x + 8x = −1

1 2 3

3 −4 5

A = −2 5 0 ,

1 −5 8

x1 2

x = x2 , and y = 7 . So in matrix form the system of

x3 −1

equation, Ax = y, is

3 −4 5 x1 2

−2 5 0 x2 = 7 .

1 −5 8 x3 −1

It is a little harder to compute the inverse of a 3 × 3 matrix, we

will use Mathcad to solve the equation. Here is how to do it,

• Type A:[Ctrl][M] at a blank area to bring up the matrix

definition screen, put 3 in the both input boxes and click OK,

you will get a 3 × 3 matrix place holder like

A :=

key to navigate among the place holders(or just click each one).

• Type b:[Ctrl][M] in another blank area, the matrix defini-

tion screen is up again. This time put 3 in the number of row

box, and 1 in thenumber of column box and click OK. You

position.

• Type A^-1 *b= you will get the solution, which is,

154

81

175

81

80

81

1. VECTORS AND MATRICES 7

imal, you can double click on the result vector to change it

to fraction, after you double click the result you will have a

popup menu such as

a

The next example shows how we can determine the unknown con-

stants typically found in the initial value problems of system of differ-

ential equations.

Example 1.5. Let x1 (t) = C1 et + C2 e 2t and x2 = 2C1 et −

C2 e 2t . If x1 (0) = 2, x2 (0) = 3, find C1 and C2

x1 (0) = C1 e0 + C2 e 2(0) = C1 + C2 .

Similarly, x2 (t) = 2C1 et − C2 e 2t , gives x2 (0) = 2C1 e( 0) −

C2 e 2(0) = 2C1 − C2 .

Together with x1 (0) = 2, x2 (0) = 3 we have the following system

of equations, ½

C1 + C2 = 1

2C1 − C2 = 3

Rewrite the equation in matrix form

· ¸· ¸ · ¸

1 1 C1 1

= ,

2 −1 C2 3

and using Mathcad we find the solution is

· ¸ · 4 ¸

C1

= 3

C2 − 13

8 1. BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS AND MATRICES

the following system of differential equations,

½ 0

x1 (t) = −x1 (t) + x2 (t)

x02 (t) = 2x1

a

· ¸

a b

1.3. Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors. If A = the de-

¯ ¯ c d

¯ a b ¯

termined of A is defined as |A| = ¯¯ ¯ = ad − bc. For a 3 × 3

c d ¯

matrix

a11 a12 a13

a21 a22 a23

a31 a32 a33

we can compute the matrix as

¯ ¯

¯ a11 a12 a13 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯

¯ ¯ ¯ a22 a23 ¯ ¯ a21 a23 ¯ ¯ ¯

¯ a21 a22 a23 ¯ = a11 ¯ ¯−a12 ¯ ¯+a13 ¯ a21 a22 ¯.

¯ ¯ ¯ a32 a33 ¯ ¯ a31 a33 ¯ ¯ a31 a32 ¯

¯ a31 a32 a33 ¯

In Mathcad , type the vertical bar — to bring up the absolute

evaluator | |, put the matrix in the place holder and press = to compute

the determinant. The following screen shot shows an example,

in find solutions to system of differential equations.

Definition 1.5. We say λ is an eigenvalue of a matrix A (2 × 2

or 3 × 3) if the determinant

|A − λI| = 0.

An nonzero vector v is an eigenvector associated with λ if

Av = λv.

Remark 1.1.

1. VECTORS AND MATRICES 9

any square matrix with n rows and columns.

- p(λ) = |A−λI| is a polynomial of degree n for n×n matrix

A, which is called the characteristic polynomial of A.

- If we view A as an transform that maps a vector x to Ax,

an eigenvector v defines a straight line passing origin that is

invariant under A.

- If v is an eigenvector then for and number s 6= 0, sv is also

an eigenvector. This is especially useful when using Mathcad

to get eigenvectors, the result of Mathcad might look ”bad”, you

might need to remove the common factor of the component of

the vector to make it ”better.”

tedious, Mathcad provides two functions eigenvals() and eigenvecs()

to compute eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a matrix.

In Mathcad , eigenvecs(M) Returns a matrix containing the eigenvectors. The

nth column of the matrix returned is an eigenvector corresponding to the nth

eigenvalue returned by eigenvals.

change it by using simplify key word as shown in the following dia-

gram.

· √ ¸

Notice, in the diagram, the eigenvalues are listed as vector √3

− 3

and the eigenvectors are listed in a matrix

√ √

1+ 3 -( 3-1)

√ 1 √ 1

(8+2 3) 2 (8-2 3) 2 ,

2 2

√ 1 √ 1

(8+2 3) 2 (8-2 3) 2

10 1. BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS AND MATRICES

by a nonzero constant you· still get

√ an¸ eigenvector, so we

· can simplify

√ ¸

1+ 3 1− 3

the eigenvectors as v 1 = , and v 2 =

2 2

Here is how to use Mathcad ,

• Define the matrix by type A:[Ctrl][M] and specify the row

and column number, fill the entries.

• type eigenvals(, you will get eigenvals( ) and in the place

holder type A.

• Click at end of the eigenvals(A) and press [Shift][Ctrl][.],

you will get eigenvals(A) → . In the place holder type in

key word simple. And click any area outside the box to get

result.

• Using the same procedure for find eigenvector using eigenvecs()

function.

2. Vector-valued functions

A vector-valued function over [a, b] is a function whose value is a

vector or matrix. For example the following functions are vector-valued

functions,

· ¸

t

Example 2.1. (1) v(t) =

t2

1

(2) x = t2

et

· ¸

1 t3 − 4t + 5

(3) A(t) =

0 sin(t)

2.1. Arithmetics of vector-valued function.

• To add two vector-valued function is to add their correspond-

ing components.

• To multiply a vector-valued function by a scalar function to

to multiply each entry by the scalar function.

• To multiply a vector(matrix) valued function to another vector-

valued function is same as multiply a matrix with a vector.

The following example illustrate how to add/subtract two vector-valued

functions and how to multiply a vector-valued function by a scalar

function and how to apply a vector-valued function that is matrix to a

vector value function.

2. VECTOR-VALUED FUNCTIONS 11

t 1

Example 2.2. Suppose v(t) = t2

, x = t2 , and

3

t −2 et

1 t3 − 4t + 5 1

A(t) = 0 2 sin(t) .

2 0 1

(a) Find v(t) + x(t);

(b) Let f (t) = et , find f (t)x(t);

(c) Find A(t)x(t)

Solution

(a)

t 1 t+1

v(t) + x(t) = t2

+ t2 == 2t2 ;

3

t −2 et 3

t −2+e t

(b)

1 et

f (t)x(t) = et t2 = t et

2 ;

et e2t

(c)

1 t3 − 4t + 5 1 1

A(t)x(t) == 0 2 sin(t) t2

2 0 1 et

1 + t2 (t3 − 4t + 5) + et

= 2t2 + et sin(t)

2 + sin(t)

a

are continuous.

• A vector-valued function is differentiable if each of its entries

are differentiable.

• If v(t) is an vector-valued function, then the derivative dvdt(t) =

v 0 (t) of v(t) is a vector-valued function whose entries are the

derivative of corresponding entries of v(t). That is to find

derivative of a vector-valued function we just need to find de-

rivative of each of its component.

12 1. BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS AND MATRICES

R

• The antiderivative v(t) dt of an vector-valued function v(t)

is a vector-valued function whose entries are the antiderivative

of corresponding entries of v(t).

· ¸

3t2 − 5

Example 2.3. Find derivative of x(t) =

sin(t)

Solution

· ¸ · d

¸ · ¸

0

dx(t) d 3t2 − 5 (3t2 − 5) 6t

x (t) = = = dt

d =

dt dt sin(t) dt

(sin(t)) cos(t)

a

· ¸

3t2 − 5

Example 2.4. Find antiderivative of x(t) =

sin(t)

Solution

· ¸ · R ¸

R R 3t2 − 5 (3t2 − 5) dt

x(t) dt = dt = R

· 3 sin(t)

¸ · 3 ¸ sin(t)

· dt¸

t − 5t + C1 t − 5t C1

= = +

− cos(t) + C2 − cos(t) C2

a

valued functions (A(t) is matrix), and f (t) is differentiable scalar

function. We have,

(1) Sum and Difference rule:

- [v(t)

R ± x(t)]0 = v 0 (t) 0

R ± x (t), R

- v(t) ± x(t) dt = v(t) dt ± x(t) dt.

(2) Product rule:

- [f (t)v(t)]0 = f 0 (t)v(t) + f (t)v 0 (t),

- [A(t)x(t)]0 = A0 (t)x(t) + A(t)x0 (t),

Using Mathcad to find derivative or antiderivative of a vector-

valued function using Mathcad , you need to find derivative or anti-

derivative component wise as shown in the following screen shot,

2. VECTOR-VALUED FUNCTIONS 13

14 1. BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS AND MATRICES

Notice:

- Press [Shift][/]to get the derivative operator and press [Ctrl][I]

to get the antiderivative operator.

- To get dx(t)simplif y → you type dx(t) and press [Shift][Ctrl][.]

and type the key word simplify in the place holder before → .

- To execute symbolically (→ operator), just press [Ctrl][.]

3. Linearly independency

3.1. Linearly independency of vectors. Let x1 , x2 , · · · , xn

be n vectors, C1 , C2 , · · · , Cn are n scalars(numbers), the expression

C1 x1 + C2 x2 + · · · + Cn xn

if

C1 x1 + C2 x2 + · · · + Cn xn = 0

leads to C1 = 0, C2 = 0, · · · , Cn = 0.

A set of vectors are linearly dependent if they are not linearly in-

dependent.

• If 0 is one of x1 , x2 , · · · , xn , then they linearly dependent.

• Two nonzero vectors x and y are linearly dependent if and

only if x = sy for some s 6= 0.

• n nonzero vectors are linearly independent if one can be rep-

resented as linear combination of the others.

• Any three or more 2-dimensional vectors (vectors with two

entries) are linear dependent.

• Any four or more 3-dimensional(vectors with three entries)

vectors are linear dependent.

To determine if a given set of vectors are linearly independent,

create a matrix so that the row of the matrix are given vectors. Using

Mathcad function rref( ) to find the reduced echelon form of the

matrix, if the result contains one or more rows that are entirely zero

the vectors are linearly dependent, otherwise the vectors are linearly

independent.

3. LINEARLY INDEPENDENCY 15

2 0

Example 3.1. For x1 = 3 , x2 = 1 , and x3 =

4 −4

4

8 , we can form a matrix,

0

2 3 4

A = 0 1 −4 ,

4 8 0

apply rref(type rref and in the place holder type A, then press =),

1 0 8

rref (A) = 0 1 −4

0 0 0

.

We see that the vectors are linearly dependent as the last row is

entirely zero.

3.2. Linearly independency of functions. We can also define

linearly independency for a group of functions over an given inter-

val [a, b]. Let f1 , f2 , · · · , fn be n functions defined over [a, b],

C1 , C2 , · · · , Cn are n scalars(numbers), the expression

C1 f1 + C2 f2 + · · · + Cn fn

is called a linear combination of functions f1 , f2 , · · · , fn .

Definition 3.2. n functions f1 , f2 , · · · , fn is linearly indepen-

dent over [a, b]if

(1) C1 f1 + C2 f2 + · · · + Cn fn = 0 for all a≤t≤b

leads to C1 = 0, C2 = 0, · · · , Cn = 0.

A set of function are linearly dependent if they are not linearly

independent.

• If 0 function is one of f1 , f2 , · · · , fn , then they linearly de-

pendent.

• Two nonzero functions f (t) and g(t) are linearly dependent

over [a, b] if and only if f (t) = sg(t) for a constant s 6= 0

and all a ≤ t ≤ b, for example, f (t) = t and g(t) = 4t

are linearly dependent but f (t) = t and g(t) = 4t2 are not,

even f (0) = 4g(0) and f (1) = 4g(1).

• There are exists infinite many functions that are linearly in-

dependent. For example the set {1, t, t2 , t3 , · · · , tn , · · · } is

a linearly independent set.

16 1. BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS AND MATRICES

counter in solving a system of differential equations, assume k1 , k2 , · · · , kn

are different numbers,

- {tk1 , tk2 , · · · , tkn }.

- {ek1 t , ek1 t , ·, ek1 t }.

- {sin(k1 t), sin(k2 t), ·, sin(kn t)}.

- {cos(k1 t), cos(k2 t), ·, cos(kn t)}.

- The mixing of above sets.

- For each above set, when multiplying each element by an com-

mon nonzero factor, we get another linearly independent set.

The following screen shot displays a heuristic Mathcad function that

tries to determine if a given set of functions are linearly independent.

One warning, the result of the program is not very reliable, the user

should check the result manually to confirm the result.

To manually check if an set of functions are linearly independent

on [a, b], one need to show that the only solutions are C1 = 0, C2 =

0, · · · , Cn = 0. if equation (1) holds for all t in [a, b], which requires

strong algebraic skill.

One method is to choose n different numbers {t1 , t2 , · · · , tn }

from [a, b] and using the functions to create an matrix, the compute

the determinant of the matrix A = (fi (tj )), if the determinant is not

zero, the functions are linearly independent, but if the determinant is

zero, it is inconclusive(most likely are linearly dependent).

5t − 6, and f3 (t) = 5t2 − 11t + 4 are linearly independent.

3. LINEARLY INDEPENDENCY 17

f1 (t1 ) f1 (t2 ) f1 (t3 ) 7 3 2

f2 (t1 ) f2 (t2 ) f2 (t3 ) = 1 −6 −9

f3 (t1 ) f3 (t2 ) f3 (t3 ) 20 4 −2

Compute the determinant,

¯ ¯

¯ 7 3 2 ¯

¯ ¯

¯ 1 −6 −9 ¯

¯ ¯ = 50,

¯ 20 4 ¯

¯ ¯

¯ −2 ¯

Project

At beginning you should enter: Project title, your name, ss#, and

due date in the following format

Project One: Define and Graph Functions

John Doe

SS# 000-00-0000

You should format the text region so that the color of text is different

than math expression. You can choose color for text from Format–

>Style select normal and click modify, then change the settings for

font. You can do this for headings etc.

(1) Independent of functions as vectors

Goal: Familiar your self with the concept of linearly indepen-

dency.

• Use the Mathcad code provided at at the website www.unf.edu/∼mzhan/linear

to check if given set of functions are linearly independent

or not.

{sin(x), sin(2x), sin(3x)}

{t2 , 2t2 − 2t + 4, 3t, 6}

{et , tet , t3 et }

{e2t , e t , e 3t }

• Using algebraic arguments or reasoning to verify the con-

clusion of the Mathcad code.

18 1. BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS AND MATRICES

important, it is called the condition number, which can be de-

fined as C(A) = | sl , where λs is the eigenvalue with smallest

absolute value and lambdal is the eigenvalue with largest ab-

solute value, if C(A) is too large or too small, a little change

in b will result in a large in the solution

x. 1We1say

the system

1 2 3

Ax = b is not stable. Now if A = 12 31 14

1 1 1

3 4 5

• Find all eigenvalues, all eigenvectors,

and C(A).

1

• Find solution of Ax = b if b = 1

1

1

• Change b a little to b = 1 we get different solu-

1.1

tion, which component of the new solution change most?

The change of the third component if 10% what is the

percentage change of the most changed component?

Note:

• Our definition of condition number is not accurate, the

1

true definition is C(A) = -1k where k · k is a

kAkkA

given norm (metric).

• Mathcad provides three functions cond1(A), cond2(A)

and condi(A) in compute condition number for A in

different metric.

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