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Switching Operations

Åke Larsson

Abstract—This paper presents the modeling and analysis of by switching operations. Finally, Section IV presents an inves-

the flicker of wind turbines. Special emphasis is on explaining the tigation of flicker limitation at wind parks. In this investigation

start-up procedure and deriving equations for the calculation of flicker produced during continuous operation is compared to

flicker produced by switching operations. The derived equations

are compared with international standards. The paper includes flicker caused by switching operations. The investigation covers

measurements of the start and stop of different types of turbines. stall-regulated and pitch-control, fixed-speed as well as vari-

Finally the paper makes a comparison of flicker limitations at able-speed wind turbines.

wind parks.

Index Terms—Flicker, start, stop, wind turbine. II. FLICKER DURING SWITCHING OPERATIONS

Switching operations will produce flicker. Typical switching

I. INTRODUCTION operations are the start and stop of wind turbines. Start, stop and

switching between generators or generator windings will cause

W IND power is among the utilities considered to be poten-

tial sources for bad power quality. Uneven power pro-

duction and, often, connections at the end of long feeder lines

a change in the power production. The change in the power

production will cause voltage changes at the point of common

are some of the factors behind the statement. Not only the un- connection (PCC). These voltage changes will, in turn, cause

even power production from wind turbines but also other fac- flicker. Hence, even switching operations must be considered in

tors contribute to the power quality of wind turbines. One such wind turbine grid design.

factor is flicker. Electrical flicker is a measure of voltage vari-

ations which may cause disturbances to consumers. Flicker is A. Starting Sequence

outlined in Standard IEC Publication 868 [1]. The starting sequences of variable-speed and fixed-speed

Flicker from grid connected wind turbines has been the sub- wind turbines are different. Variable-speed wind turbines are

ject of several investigations. Most of these investigations have normally equipped with pitch-control. Generally, due to the

focused on flicker during the continuous operation of wind tur- controllable speed of the turbine and the pitch-control, the

bines. For example, different types of computer models for pre- starting sequence of variable-speed wind turbines is smoother

dicting flicker during continuous operation have been developed than for fixed-speed wind turbines.

[2], [3]. Published work presenting results from the IEC also 1) Fixed-Speed: With fixed-speed wind turbines, the speed

only deal with flicker due to continuous operation [4]. Flicker of the turbine is raised during the starting sequence until the

produced during continuous operation is caused by power fluc- generator speed is close to the synchronous one. The generator is

tuations. Power fluctuations mainly emanate from variations in then connected to the grid. In the case of a stall-regulated turbine

wind-speed, the tower shadow effect and mechanical properties the generator must be connected quickly. If the generator is not

of the wind turbine. Pitch-controlled turbines also have power connected quickly, the turbine torque may exceed the maximum

fluctuations caused by the limited bandwidth of the pitch mech- generator torque resulting in a turbine over-speed. Hence, the

anism. soft-starter on stall-regulated turbines normally operates for 0.2

In addition, switching operations will produce flicker, except s which leads to a relatively high in-rush current.

in continuous operation. Typical switching operations are the In the case of pitch-controlled wind turbines, the torque of

start and stop of wind turbines. the turbine can be controlled. Hence, the start of the generator

This paper describes the start of wind turbines, the flicker can be performed in a smoother and more controlled way. The

produced during start and a comparison of flicker limitations at soft-starter in pitch-controlled turbines normally operates for 2

wind parks. Measurements of the start and stop of wind turbines or 3 s, which gives a lower in-rush current compared with a

are presented in Section II of the paper. This section also de- stall-regulated turbine. Fig. 1 shows the measured power during

scribes the different methods used at start and stop by stall-reg- the start of a pitch-controlled wind turbine at s.

ulated and pitch-control, fixed-speed as well as variable-speed As can be seen, the wind turbine consumes reactive power in

wind turbines. Section III presents equations for flicker caused order to magnetize the generator. The soft-starter operates for 2

or 3 s in order to limit the current to the rated value. The reac-

Manuscript received August 29, 2000. This work was supported by tive power is then compensated for by means of shunt capacitor

ELFORSK AB. banks. It can be seen that the capacitors are being switched in

Å. Larsson is with the Department of Electrical Power Engineering, Chalmers

University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden. four steps with a time delay of approximately 1 s. As all capac-

Publisher Item Identifier S 0885-8969(02)01510-3. itor banks have been switched on at approximately s,

0885-8969/02$17.00 © 2002 IEEE

120 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 17, NO. 1, MARCH 2002

Fig. 1. Measured power during start of a fixed-speed, pitch-controlled wind rated power of the wind turbine is 500 kW. Active power (dotted line) and

turbine. The rated power of the wind turbine is 600 kW. Active power (dotted reactive power (solid line).

line) and reactive power (solid line).

turbine. Fig. 4. Measured power during stop of a fixed-speed, stall-regulated wind

turbine. The rated power of the wind turbine is 600 kW. Active power (dotted

line) and reactive power (solid line).

the blade of the turbine is pitched which results in an increase

in power production. The power production also affects the re-

turbine will be stopped in order to avoid a negative power flow.

active power consumption. The reactive power consumption of

In the second case it will be stopped to avoid high mechanical

induction generators increases with increased power.

loads. At low wind speeds (3–4 m/s) the active power is almost

In Fig. 2, the corresponding voltage of the wind turbine is

zero. The stop will be rather soft and the impact on the voltage

shown. The voltage change caused by the start of the wind tur-

in the PCC, small at these low wind speeds. The impact may be

bine can be divided into two parts. The first part is caused by the

more significant at high wind speeds 25 m/s since the tur-

reactive power consumption of the generator. As can be seen,

bine on these occasions produces rated power. When the turbine

the reactive power consumption causes a voltage drop. As the

is being stopped and the power goes from rated power to zero

capacitors are being connected and the reactive power consump-

production, then, the voltage at the PCC will be affected.

tion goes back to zero, the voltage level is restored. The second

1) Fixed-Speed: Fig. 4 shows the stop of a stall-regulated

part is caused by the power production. As the power produc-

wind turbine with a rated power of 600 kW. The power produc-

tion increases, the voltage level starts to rise.

tion is approximately half of the rated at the time the turbine

2) Variable-Speed: Fig. 3 shows the active and reactive

is stopped. As the wind turbine is being stopped the capacitor

power during the start of a variable-speed wind turbine under

bank for reactive power compensation is switched off. After a

high wind-speed conditions. The generator is connected to the

couple seconds is the turbine speed reduced by means of brakes.

grid via the converter at the time s. The active power

As can be seen in Fig. 4, the turbine is being braked at the time

rises smoothly and gently from zero to half the rated power in

s. In order to secure the stop of the turbine, the generator

30 s. During the time the active power rises, the reactive power

is disconnected when the power is reversed.

is controlled in order to keep the power factor constant. At this

2) Variable-Speed: Fig. 5 shows the stop of a variable-speed

particular site, a power factor of 0.98 has been chosen.

wind turbine under high wind conditions. The wind turbine is

operated at rated power. The power from the wind turbine begins

B. Shutting Down to decrease at the time, s. Four seconds later, the power

If the wind-speed becomes either too low or too high, the has decreased from rated power down to zero. The stop is, just

wind turbine will stop automatically. In the first case the wind as in the case with the start, very gentle and smooth.

LARSSON: FLICKER EMISSION OF WIND TURBINES CAUSED BY SWITCHING OPERATIONS 121

rated current . is the reference power of the wind turbine

and is the short-circuit power at the PCC.

If all voltage drops have the same form and the same max-

imum relative voltage change , (1) can be rewritten as

(6)

can, by means of (5), be expressed as

(7)

Fig. 5. Measured power during stop of a variable-speed wind turbine. The

rated power of the wind turbine is 500 kW. Active power (dotted line) and

reactive power (solid line). The long-term flicker is calculated for 2 h, that is 7200 s.

If the case of a step change in the voltage then . Equation

(7) can then be written as

III. FLICKER CALCULATION

The Standard IEC Publication 61 000-3-3 describes a method

to determine flicker from a limited number of independent volt-

ages changes [5]. The time duration between the end of one (8)

voltage change and the start of the next one must exceed 1 s. where should be the number of possible starts within a period

Under such conditions the long-term flicker may be expressed of 2 h. If more than one wind turbine of the same type is con-

as nected at the PCC, should be the total number of all starts.

Equation (8) is based on the fact that the same type of wind

turbine being connected to the PCC. On the assumption that

(1) two different types of wind turbines are connected to the PCC,

one wind turbine will have maximum relative voltage changes

where is the maximum relative voltage change in percent and with a form factor , and the other wind turbine will have

is a form factor of the th voltage change. is one in case maximum relative voltage changes , with a form factor .

of a step function. is the observed time period in seconds. Equation (1) can be expressed as

The voltage drop caused by a single start of a wind turbine

may be determined by

(9)

(2)

Analogous to (6) and (9) can be written as (10), shown at the

where is the current during start and is the short circuit bottom of the page, which is equal to

impedance of the grid defined as

(11)

(3) or more general

where is the voltage of the grid and is the three phase short- (12)

circuit current. Hence, the relative voltage change in percent can

be expressed as

According to the committee draft of the IEC 61 400-21, mea-

(4) surements are to be performed for switching operations during

wind turbine start and switching between generators [6]. The

switching between generators is only applicable to wind tur-

Equation (4) can be expressed as

bines with more than one generator or a generator with multiple

windings. The three phase currents and the three phase-to-neu-

(5) tral voltages are to be measured. Measurements and subsequent

(10)

122 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 17, NO. 1, MARCH 2002

voltage change factor and a flicker step factor for each of

the switching operations at different grid angles . The voltage

drop in percent caused by a single start of the wind turbine may

then be determined by

(13)

angle .

Wind turbines may start and stop several times under low

wind conditions. In the committee draft of the IEC 61 400-21,

a flicker is an introduced step factor. The flicker step factor is

Fig. 6. Calculated SCR as a function of number of pitch-controlled,

calculated from the measured voltage drop caused by the start fixed-speed wind turbines due to continuous operation (solid line) and

of the generator. The flicker step factor is calculated according switching operations (dotted line).

to the following definition:

where is the flicker coefficient and is the reference

(14) power of one wind turbine. is the total number of turbines

connected to the PCC. is the maximum acceptable flicker

emission level in the PCC. The required SCR at the PCC, as

where is the flicker step factor calculated at a grid with shown in (16), increases with the square root of the number of

short circuit power and is the short-term flicker value. wind turbines.

The flicker emission caused by a repeated number of starts of The required SCR at switching operation, according to (8)

the wind turbine can, then, be determined by using the flicker and (12) is similar

step factor as

(17)

(15)

According to (17), the required SCR at the PCC increases

where is the flicker step factor calculated at the grid with a little more than the cubic root of the number of wind

angle , is the maximal number of switching operations turbines.

during a period of two hours. One advantage of using a defini- Fig. 6 shows the required SCR to obtain at the PCC.

tion of the flicker step factor according to (15) is that the flicker The required SCR has been plotted as a function of the number

caused by a repeated number of starts can be calculated using of wind turbines for flicker produced during continuous opera-

the same equation as in (8). tion and caused by switching operations, i.e., (16) and (17).

As can be seen in Fig. 6, flicker produced during contin-

IV. FLICKER FROM WIND PARKS uous operation will need a higher SCR than flicker caused by

switching operations. The parameters in this particular case are

In order to reduce costs and to utilize land in windy areas

taken from a Danish manufactured, 600 kW, pitch-controlled

wind turbines are often placed in wind parks. All wind turbines

wind turbine, having a flicker coefficient and a flicker

in a wind park are normally connected to the same PCC. The

step factor . The parameters used in Fig. 6 are typ-

grid at the PCC must, therefore, be designed to withstand the

ical for pitch-controlled, fixed-speed wind turbines, i.e., a rather

total flicker disturbance produced by all the wind turbines in

high flicker coefficient and a rather low flicker step factor. The

the wind park. Wind turbines produce flicker at continuous op-

high flicker coefficient is mainly due to the wind gradient, the

eration, as well as at switching operations. Switching operations

tower shadow effect and power fluctuations caused by the lim-

do not occur during continuous operation. Flicker during con-

ited bandwidth in the pitch mechanism. The power fluctuations

tinuous operation may, therefore, be calculated independent of

from pitch-controlled turbines are almost twice the power fluc-

the flicker caused by switching operations. Hence, the dimen-

tuations from stall-regulated turbines [7]. The low flicker step

sioning parameter for the grid, due to flicker, is the operating

factor is mainly due to the controllable torque from the turbine

mode requiring the highest short circuit ratio, SCR. SCR is de-

during start.

fined as the ratio of the short circuit power of the grid at PCC

The parameters for stall-regulated, fixed-speed wind turbines

and the total reference power of the installed wind turbines.

are normally the very opposite. Stall-regulated turbines have a

Just as in switching operations, flicker is produced during the

lower flicker coefficient and a higher flicker step factor com-

continuous operation of wind turbines as defined in the com-

pared to pitch-controlled turbines. The high flicker step factor

mittee draft of the IEC 61 400-21. If the same kind of wind tur-

is caused by the uncontrollable torque during start, and the low

bines are used in a wind farm, the SCR can be calculated as

flicker coefficient is due to low power fluctuations. Fig. 7 shows

the required SCR for obtaining at the PCC. The re-

(16) quired SCR has been plotted as a function of the number of

LARSSON: FLICKER EMISSION OF WIND TURBINES CAUSED BY SWITCHING OPERATIONS 123

ample, in the case of pitch-controlled, fixed-speed wind tur-

bines, the torque of the turbine can be controlled. Hence, the

start of the generator can be performed in a smooth and con-

trolled way. The soft-starter in pitch-controlled turbines nor-

mally operates for 2 or 3 s which gives a lower inrush current

compared with a stall-regulated, fixed-speed turbine. Generally,

due to the controllable speed of the turbine and the pitch-control,

the start sequence of variable-speed wind turbines is smoother

than for fixed-speed wind turbines. In addition, the stop of vari-

able-speed wind turbines is, just as in the case with the start,

very gentle and smooth.

Under low wind conditions, wind turbines may start and stop

Fig. 7. Calculated SCR as a function of number of stall-regulated fixed-speed several times. In the committee draft of the IEC 61 400-21 a

wind turbines due to continuous operation (solid line) and switching operations

(dotted line). flicker step factor is defined. The flicker step factor is calcu-

lated from the measured voltage drop caused by the start of the

generator. The flicker emission caused by a repeated number of

starts can be determined by using the flicker step factor.

All wind turbines in a wind park are normally connected to

the same PCC. The grid at the PCC must, therefore, be designed

to withstand the total flicker disturbance produced by all the

wind turbines in the wind park. Wind turbines produce flicker

under continuous operation, as well as under switching opera-

tions. The required SCR caused by flicker under continuous op-

eration increases with the square root of the number of wind tur-

bines, whereas the required SCR caused by switching operations

increases with a little more than the cubic root of the number of

wind turbines.

If a wind park consists of a small number of fixed-speed

Fig. 8. Calculated SCR as a function of number of turbines due to flicker from wind turbines then stall-regulated turbines due to uncontrollable

stall-regulated and pitch-controlled fixed-speed wind turbines. torque during start, will produce higher flicker emission. If the

number of fixed-speed wind turbines is high, pitch-controlled

stall-regulated, fixed-speed wind turbines for flicker produced turbines will produce higher flicker emissions.

both during continuous operation and switching operations, i.e.,

the same conditions as in Fig. 6. The SCR needed to prevent REFERENCES

high flicker levels is, as a result of the high flicker step factor

[1] Flicker Meter—Functional and Design Specifications, IEC Std., Publ.

set by switching operations. The parameters used is taken from 868, 1990.

a Danish manufactured, 600 kW, stall-regulated wind turbine, [2] M. P. Papadopoulos et al., “Investigation of the Flicker emission by grid

having a flicker coefficient and a flicker step factor connected wind turbines,” in Proc. 8th Int. Conf. Harmonics Quality

Power, Athens, Greece, Oct. 14–16, 1998.

. [3] Z. Saad-Saoud and N. Jenkins, “Models for predicting flicker induced by

The required SCR needed to prevent flicker disturbances pro- large wind turbines,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conv., vol. 14, pp. 743–748,

duced by different numbers of stall-regulated and pitch-con- Sept. 1999.

[4] J. O. G. Tande, “Impact of wind turbines on voltage quality,” in Proc.

trolled fixed-speed wind turbines is plotted in Fig. 8. As shown 8th Int. Conf. Harmonics Quality Power, Athens, Greece, Oct. 14–16,

in Fig. 7 is the SCR decided by switching operations in the case 1998.

of stall-regulated turbines. In the case of pitch-controlled tur- [5] Electromagnetic Compatibility, Limitation of Voltage Fluctuations and

Flicker in a Low-Voltage Supply Systems for Equipment With Rated Cur-

bines the SCR is, as shown in Fig. 6, decided by continuous

rent 16 A, IEC Std., Publ. 61 000-3-3, 1994.

operation. [6] Power Quality Requirements for Grid Connected Wind Turbines, Com-

If a wind park consists of a small number of fixed-speed wind mittee Draft, IEC Std., Publ. 61 400-21, 1998.

[7] J. O. Tande, P. Nørgård, P. Sørensen, L. Søndergård, P. Jørgensen, A.

turbines stall-regulated turbines, due to uncontrollable torque Vikkelsø, J. Dyring Kledal, and J. S. Christensen, “Elkvalitet Ved Net-

during start, will produce higher flicker emission, compared to tilslutning af Vindmøller,” (in Danish), Risø Nat. Lab., Roskilde, Den-

pitch-controlled turbines. If the number of fixed-speed wind mark, Risø-R-853, 1996.

turbines is high, pitch-controlled turbines will produce higher

flicker emissions.

Åke Larsson received the M.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from the

V. CONCLUSION Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden, in 1994. He is

currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree at Chalmers University of Technology in

Switching operations will produce flicker. Typical switching the area of electrical machines and power electronic. His research interests

operations are the start and stop of wind turbines. The start and include power quality from wind turbines.

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