The Detrimental Post-War “American Dream” in the United States: Contemporary Propaganda Posters

Andrew Maloney

Presented in Partial Fulfillment of Senior Independent Study at The College of Wooster Department of Art

March 6, 2009

Advisor: Bridget Milligan

2 Acknowledgements I want to extend my appreciation to the following individuals: The Faculty of the Art Department that I have studied under for the past four years, because if it were not for your teachings, I would not be the artist I am today. I want to especially call to attention my advisor, Bridget Milligan, who played an important part in the formation of my project. My close friends Michael Zappitello, Samuel Taylor and Bryn Tulip for listening to me and helping me solidify my project, and to the many other acquaintances I have spoken with that have all directly or indirectly contributed to my project. Henry J. Copeland Fund for allowing me to have the opportunity to present an art exhibit I really put myself into. The College of Wooster for allowing me the opportunity to go abroad and see other parts of the world, as those experiences have an important impact on my view of the world as an artist. And most importantly my family, for being supportive of my artistic endeavors and everything else I have engaged in.

3 Illustrations Figure 1: Shepard Fairey, Untitled, 2008.………………………………………………..18 Figure 2: Shepard Fairey, Untitled, 2008.…………………………………………….….18 Figure 3: Ralph Steadman, Lizard Lounge, 1997. ………………………………………19 Figure 4: Derek Hess, Intervention, 2007………………………………………………..20 Figure 5: Derek Hess, obama, 2008……………………………………………………...20 Figure 6: Mimmo Rotella, Chisum, 2004………………………………………………..21 Figure 7: Andrew Maloney, Untitled, 2009………………………………………...……22 Figure 8: Andrew Maloney, Detail, 2009………………………………………………..23 Figure 9: Andrew Maloney, Detail, 2009………………………………………..………23

4 It was not until four years ago that I had a revelation about my life and the choices I had been making, or not making. In the middle of my senior year of high school, on Christmas Eve, I watched my father succumb to Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia and die. His health deteriorated because of a multitude of factors: the cancer itself, the radiation treatment from the bone marrow transplant he was undergoing, and old age. Because the death happened in such a rapid manner, I was emotionally taken aback. Going through my father’s death put me in a dissatisfied mental state. After the funeral events settled down, I became increasingly interested in how for such a long time I had been content with how I was previously living my life. That is to say, I realized that I had essentially been coasting on cultural and religious autopilot. It was as if I never knew there were other options out there. I did not know that I could stop attending church and entertain other spiritual options. I also that there was increasing unrest and criticism about the ‘suburban’ lifestyle my family and millions of other families had been living in the United States of America. The post-war idea of the so-called “American Dream” is a template for a lifestyle that is defunct and obsolete for numerous reasons. We have passed the point in the continuum of societal decisions and humanitarian progress where it is rational to maintain a lifestyle that produces exorbitant amount of waste and is spiritually defeating. The incredible horizontal expansion and outrageous consumption of land and resources in effort to better one’s self is a fashion fleeting away. Traditions die hard in the United States of America, as is evident in the only recently transcendence of traditions of racism and subsequent election of the first African-American president in our nations history.

5 But the earth we live on, and the society we live in are suffering because of these very same lasting traditions. Initially, my interest in countering my previous lifestyle choices dwelled on refuting Christianity, honestly. I was ‘baptized’ when I was born, ‘confirmed’ when I was old enough, completed ‘mission trips’ where I ‘spread the word’ and helped out communities (obviously I treasured the community service--not the theological forcefeeding) and essentially went to church every Sunday in between until a few weeks after my father’s death. Obviously, when a young male’s father dies, he is going to be upset. Not only was I upset, but also I was confused. I was brought up to believe that “God had a plan for everything, and even though this was a horrible thing to happen, something good will come of it.” I have to realize that I truly feel as though I was taught some fantastic moral lessons, but enabling young people to fully rely on God and not think for themselves is insane. My preoccupation with my own previous cultural and religious ignorance is coupled by my disbelief that there are probably so many other people just like me. Examples of morality are to be taught as examples and not necessarily should be imposed as the truth from the start. I would have loved for my father to have not died, but in his passing, is where my eyes finally opened. Because the exploration of religiosity is such an immense pursuit that tends not to leave many answers, I needed to focus on something more concrete. When I heard James Howard Kunstler talk about the “tragedy of suburbia”1, I was extremely intrigued. The investigation of my childhood in suburban living is far more fruitful to engage in. There
1

“The Tragedy of Suburbia”. James Howard Kunstler. Accessed January 22, 2009 online at http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/james_howard_kunstler_dissects_suburbia.html.

6 is a growing discourse about the flaws of this type of living situation. Given the current state of our earth, the precious, colossal entity that gives us life and the pursuit of happiness, I feel as though more attention to this matter needs to be brought. Author, social critic, and public speaker, James Howard Kunstler maintains that suburbia is the “greatest misallocation of resources in the world”. He describes the spaces we live in as the “physical manifestation” of the common good and that we define ourselves by these such places. The spaces we dwell in tell people about who we really are (or at least how perceive ourselves), and the sprawl we are experiencing is saying very negative things. He goes even as far as saying that certain parts of America beg the question, “Is this a place worth caring about?” or even “Is this a place worth defending?” Such a statement does not leave many feathers unruffled. There exists an educated man and many others like him, saying that our brothers, sisters, sons and daughters are spilling blood overseas only to come back to Walmarts, Targets, and lifeless suburbia—and that is what is wrong with our country. What was lost in the post-war boom of private single-family housing was the blurring of definitions between the rural country home and the city apartment or condo. There used to exist a distinct difference between the rural and the urban, and that is what was the novelty of it all. The two need to exist independent of one another in order for both to be equally treasured. Suburban subdivisions litter the American landscape as foolish “cartoons” trying to incorporate both the urban and the rural, an obnoxious combination. They are labeled as “cookie-cutter” houses, each one probably exactly or at least extremely structurally similar to the rest. Sometimes they do not even have windows on the sides of houses and have miniature, unusable ‘cartoon’ porches. The double-car

7 garage is essential to these tiresome units as owning and operating a car is essential to having a normal, functioning ‘American’ life. The residents of these communities need to be conscious civilians, not passive consumers. Was it normal for me to live in a neighborhood where every house looked the same, where no one who lived in the neighborhood could barely ever be seen out of their homes (the transition from the house to the car was usually made in the cover of the garage), where the automobile was so heavily relied on, and where conspicuous consumption and unconscious adaptation to societal norms took place? I do not think so. Perhaps it was ‘normal’ for the past 50 years, but times need to change. How have we veered so off course? There are a few important points in the past couple decades that have put Americans in a position I do not think they should be in any longer. After World War II, a number of federal policies that were passed, when combined together, strongly encouraged the American people to move away from urban centers. The Federal Housing Administration and the Veterans Administration helped inexpensive single-home units become more affordable, and even provided mortgages for over eleven million homes2. Unfortunately, the emphasis was put on building more homes, not fixing up old ones. Thus, the inner urban centers deteriorated while the growth moved outward. Meanwhile, a 41,000-mile Interstate Highway System was created, and mass transit in turn was neglected3. Again, elements of the previous, rich urban environment become dilapidated and urban exodus was further encouraged.

2

Duany, Andres, Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth, Speck, Jeff. Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream. New York: North Point Press. 2000. 7. 3 Ibid., 8

8 Because these new areas of growth were only focused on homebuilding, there was no room put aside for ‘corner stores’ or any semi-commercial unit where one could shop. Therefore, shopping centers were constructed elsewhere along roads. Roads at this point were the most logical place to put goods and services since everyone drove cars. And because the shopping centers were placed along roads, they needed a place for a parking lot, so the store was moved away from the road. Signs were erected and endless stretches of parking lots lay4 putting thousands upon thousands acres of indigenous nature under several inches of concrete. At some point in our country’s history, country planners became convinced that segregating all different aspects necessary for life was a good idea, and zoning became a major issue. Communities tended to contain a majority of some class or ethnicity within. But for the most part, diversely populated subdivisions were and still are rare. All landuse zones had to be split up and segregated. F.J. Popper makes the point that: “the basic purpose was to keep Them where They belonged—out. If they had already gotten in, then its purpose was to confine Them to limited areas. The exact identity of Them varied a bit around the country. Blacks, Latinos, and poor people qualified. Catholics, Jews and Orientals were targets in many places.” One might be able to deduce that perhaps the reason why our communities are in turmoil is because their advent was influenced by racism5. There was a massive migration known as the “White Flight” that occurred in the 1960s after an influx of poor, southern AfricanAmericans reached northern cities. These cities experience high crime rates, racial tensions, high unemployment, and rising taxes. The white people that had previously

4 5

Ibid., 9. Ibid., 10.

9 inhabited the city fled to the suburbs out of the city6. It is true that there is an increasing number of blacks entering the suburbs, however there is still a significant separation from the whites within these communities7. As the troops returned home from World War II in Europe, they also brought with them a new ability to efficiently manage complex, large-scale tasks. Since we were successful, and luckily the war seemingly went our way, these skills were brought back over to America and were applied to every other aspect of life. In doing so, the “out with the old” sentiment swept across America and the old way of town planning based on history, aesthetics and culture itself became obsolete. Managing land became a project based on numbers. The methods of classifying and counting that were so successful when building munitions and positioning and allocating troops were then applied to the facets of planning. The art of constructing successful cities was then replaced by a simpler version8. A consequence of these spread-out communities is that in order to have a normal functioning life, one needs a car. Cars are crucial for transport to any number of an American’s life’s priorities. But as we’ve learned in the past few decades, the more cars we have, and the more those cars use oil as means of fuel, the more pollutants enter our atmosphere and kill our planet. It is a fundamental truth that the more cars we have using oil and emitting pollutants into the atmosphere, the more we endanger the health of the earth and our children’s future.

6

Baldassare, Mark. Suburban Communities. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 18, 1992. 480. 7 Ibid., 482. 8 Duany, Andres, Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth, Speck, Jeff. Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream. New York: North Point Press. 2000. 11.

10 Until the middle of the century, traditional, small-scale neighborhoods were the type of living situations that were most common in the world. They came from European settlements, and contained varied populations and a variety of uses. These settlements that were brought from the New World explorers of the past allowed people to settle on the continent without depleting the country’s financial resources or destroying vast quantities of nature as suburban expansion does9. Suburban ‘sprawl’ as some put it, is now the most widely used system of growth in North America. Even when the population density is low in these areas, the sprawl does not pay for itself financially. In these areas traffic problems are produced, as well as societal problems such as inequality and social isolation10. The horizontal expansion of sprawl is literally like an explosion—the most active growth of the whole situation occurs at the outside edge, expanding outward, while the middle settles into a hapless void. In sprawl, there usually contains housing subdivisions, shopping centers, office parks, civic institutions, and an extensive maze of roadways11. Because of the 1970s and the 1980s and their respective federal handling of economic restructuring, the increasingly common replacement of domestic products by foreign goods and the subsequent loss of jobs, the suburbs grew because of the fall out in the city centers12. Suburbia and the neglect of alternate, culturally successful ways of life is not just the fault of town planners, military tactics, or a few federal policies passed, but also the fault of some of our past leaders to focus on other important matters. After all, the person

9

Ibid., 4. Ibid., 4. 11 Ibid., 7. 12 Baldassare, Mark. Suburban Communities. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 18, 1992. 481.
10

11 leading our country needs to be aware of these matters as it not only affects us, but the rest of the world. It is notable that middle-class America has not been socially or economically successful when under the leadership of a Republican president. In fact, it is as if those that live in these subdivisions do not want change. Republicans make up 48% of the voters in these eras, and wield an advantage when voting on city policy13. It seems like we have known for quite some time about the peril of the “Rustbelt” in America, a prime example of where suburban sprawl has continued and how the current state of affairs is detrimental to our economy and quality of life. In 1968 when Richard Nixon ran for president, a campaign contributor named Kevin Phillips wrote a document stating that Nixon could win the election if they gathered the votes of the Sunbelt or the Old Confederacy, the Southwest, and the West Coast, then they could almost guarantee a republican win without carrying any industrial state in the Northeast or Midwest. So thus it is obvious that Carter and Clinton were able to win in 1976 ad 1992 by means of winning a state in the south or winning California14. When Ronald Reagan took office in 1980, it was the first time in the history of our country that money was redistributed from the poor to the rich, from minorities to whites and from financial suffering cities to the cities of the Sunbelt and the west. Reagan had a lot to deal with coming out of the 70’s, where neglect for the consequences of unrelenting pillaging of natural resources and overall neglect of the environment and

13 14

Ibid., 478. Phillips, Kevin. “Reagan’s America: A Capital Offense,” as appeared in A History of Our Time: Readings on Postwar America. Fourth Edition. New York: Oxford University Press. 1995. 447.

12 workers health15 left Jimmy Carter reeling and positioned Reagan in a place similar to George W. Bush was after Clinton—the seemingly lesser of two evils. Within the suburbs, there is a widening gap between the rich and the poor, as local governments within these segregated communities can vote and channel their taxes towards improving localities, and attracting more affluence to the area. And in doing this they attract industries, increasing the economic deprivation of the less affluent areas of the metropolitan area. With the politicians trying to win the support of the affluent in the states excluding the rust belt, it is no wonder why concern for proper urban development fell by the wayside. In the 1980s, the rich were getting richer, with decamillionaires, centimillionaries, half-billionaires, and billionaires all increasing in quantity. The net worth of the richest Americans according to Forbes 400 tripled between 1981 and 1989. As CEO’s got richer, the corporations moved out of the city towards the suburbs, more specifically, towards the CEO’s house.16 And as the corporations moved out, they moved into Business Parks, sprawling asphalt deserts with enormous corporate cubes laid on top, with their subdivision counterparts close by. For the past few decades, there has been a significant decline in America’s path towards economic success and grasp on the environmental push. After Reagan, George Bush Sr. promised early on that he would be the environmental president, and signed the

15

Lekachman, Robert. Greed Is Not Enough. New York: Pantheon Books. 1982. 44.

16 16

Duany, Andres, Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth, Speck, Jeff. Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream. New York: North Point Press. 2000. 9.

13 Clean Air Act of 199017. However, when the economy started to stutter, and the EPA wanted to prosecute the big corporate polluters, he allowed the Justice Department to overrule them18. Bush Sr. also created the Council on Competitiveness, a continuation of a Reagan policy, which allowed corporations to slide beneath emissions and pollutant control because they “impeded economic growth and cost jobs”19. Then in 1992, Bush Sr. was the only leader of a nation not to sign a treaty to conserve millions of plant and animal species20. In his 1994 State of the Union Address, Bill Clinton stated that from 1989 to 1992, the national debt quadrupled, and the nation experience the slowest growth rate in half a century, and for the past twenty years the status of working families was stagnant or had been declining21. And thanks to the continuation of our current paths of wastefulness, a child born in the United States will have thirty times more of a wasteful impact on the earth during its lifetime than a child born in India. So obviously there is a lot that needs to change. This is an enormous case, and change can only be put into place one step at a time. Certain cities in the United States have instituted growth borders, and in doing so negotiate a stopping point to which the sprawl from an urban area will reach. In doing this, whatever exists within the confines of the city is forced to adapt and diversify within.

17

Gore, Jr., Albert, “The Global Environment,” as appeared in A History of Our Time: Readings on Postwar America. Fourth Edition. New York: Oxford University Press. 1995. 497. 18 Ibid., 497. 19 Ibid., 497. 20 Ibid., 497. 21 Jefferson Clinton, William. “The State of the Union” as appeared in A History of Our Time: Readings on Postwar America. Fourth Edition. New York: Oxford University Press. 1995. 507.

14 Narrower streets and more difficult intersections generate places that are pleasant and safe to walk along. Subdivisions tend to have long, bending corners that although may be easier for senior drivers, encourage speeding. Having difficult intersections is important to communicate to drivers that they cannot afford to be apathetic and careless. Drivers need to know the feeling that they are essentially “borrowing” the street from the people that live there. This same kind of driving cannot be used when intersections are at 90 degrees, or even intersections that contain five or more routes22. Creating mixed-use neighborhoods enhance the quality of life and bring needed diversity23. Condensing neighborhoods could be a crucial first step. At this moment, no other place in the world uses as much space as the typical American does. And the second residents of these suburbs leave their respective space they experience a stressful environment in the public realm. It is true that one does not necessarily need a sociology degree to determine that these cultures are perpetuating these blighted ideas and it is the people that live in these uniform communities that are voting on the taxes and public policies enforcing these trends24. Americans are increasingly keeping to themselves and avoiding public contact. Eight out of every ten new urban projects are gated25. However this is also an American thing. No one objected to the walled towns in Europe and Asia, but that is because within those walls there were not just the affluent elite, but also many diverse groups of people. Because there is an absence of places where one can walk, the opportunity to meet other

22

Duany, Andres, Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth, Speck, Jeff. Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream. New York: North Point Press. 2000. 39. 23 Ibid., 16. 24 Ibid., 42. 25 Ibid., 45.

15 people and socialize is dwindling. Driving in cars has enabled us to become desensitized to the amount of danger we are in when we are driving, whether it is weather, road conditions, pedestrians, and even other drivers26. All in all, attention needs to be paid to stopping horizontal expansion, as it is obvious that this is harmful to human development. Diverse, multi-purpose neighborhoods that are exemplified by old European standards, and pre-World War America are what are needed to bring back culturally significant establishments. America needs places worth caring about. In order to reach our greatest potential as humans we need the help of our government to do this. The first step is to gain awareness to this issue. In order to raise awareness to this issue, my project consists of multiple ‘propaganda posters’ echoing my sentiment towards suburban culture. Historically, posters have been valuable tools used by governments and certain peoples to gain attention to issues and to encourage action. They’ve been used for both altruistic and mischievous causes, but nonetheless they have been effective. They were first used in the First World War by the government as an advertising technique27. During the First World War in Britain, Charles Higham said that these posters, “improved lives by informing the public of new products, modes of behavior and even appearance.” In 1925 the Bishop of Durham said in a sermon given in the Westminster Abbey that the “posters were

26 27

Ibid., 59. Aulich, James. War Posters: Weapons of Mass Communication. New York: Thames & Hudson. 2007. 8.

16 persuasive and positive educational forces that provided social and aesthetic frameworks, much as religious art had done in the past.”28 The success of the poster depends on its appeal to the masses. Psychologists warned in the early 20th century that populations were susceptible to contagious and irrational suggestion through the subconscious and by the affirmation and repetition of appealing statements. The poster is considered the one of the most modern types of media because it is integral to the urban environment. These posters can be put virtually anywhere in the city where there is a surface, and where a multitude of eyes can see them e.g. venues, railway lines, streets, in commercial hearts, industrial centers, public squares and transport hubs. According to a 2002 report for the Advertising Standards Authority in the UK, the public ranked posters second only to television advertising in terms of impact29. Using the poster is a double-edged sword, however, as the pervasiveness of the industry makes the posters all the more invisible30. An effective poster is one that does not necessarily need to offer descriptive narrative elements or detailed renderings and illustrations. Simply substituting concepts for simplistic images—metonymy—can adequately portray a message. For instance, including a picture of a bomb in a poster can readily send a message about war without explicitly stating so31. Photographs are becoming increasingly vital elements of contemporary ‘propaganda’, especially the unforgettable images of torture at Abu Ghraib

28 29

Ibid., 11. Ibid., 12. 30 Ibid., 13. 31 Ibid., 15.

17 prison in 2004. These photos were recognized all over the world and when shown effectively evoke sickening sentiments over the disputed conflict in Iraq32. The popularity of propaganda posters in America and other ‘combatant nations’ increased during wartime as the governments of these respective nations tried to rally men and women together to accomplish various tasks. American corporations have often used such posters to energize their workers and to solidify their patriotism33. Traditional American posters shroud the confidence in American military might by stressing the power of the “working family” or “working peoples”34. Unfortunately, posters in the past have aimed at featuring the seemingly “positive” nature of American life such as the pervasiveness of consumerism and the virtues of having a middle class home in a free enterprise economy35. The joys of being American are many and splendid, but the posters I wish to create discount the consumerist elements of the past. The posters of the past have also taken a more blatant and aggressive tone, as in the Vietnam era of graffiti spit phrases like, “Fighting for peace is like fucking for virginity.”36 The dissenting tone associated with a lot of these posters is something that is special, as activist Susan Sontag said in a speech in 2003 at a human rights award ceremony: “We are all conscripts in one sense or another. For all of us, it is hard to break ranks; to incur the disapproval, the censure, the violence of an offended majority with a different idea of loyalty. We shelter under banner-words like justice, peace, reconciliation, that enroll us in new, if much smaller and relatively powerless communities of the like-minded;

32 33

Ibid., 15. Ibid., 51. 34 Ibid., 162. 35 Ibid., 169. 36 Ibid., 220.

18 that mobilize us for the demonstration, the protest, the public performance acts of civil disobedience not for the parade ground and the battlefield.” So the need for propaganda posters is still imminent, even though social spaces exist like the Internet, where information can be processed extremely fast. But the Internet only reaches a select group of individuals. There exists the rest of the population that walks around in the public realm, their eyes feasting on visual displays. There are several contemporary artists that have influenced my project stylistically. The former street-art guru and now mainstream artist Shepard Fairey has transcended notions of graffiti and has constructed images increasingly viewer friendly, as his poster for President Barack Obama (Figure 1) became the most widely used image of him during his campaign. The way he crafts his propaganda posters is what influenced me to have multiple layers on my work. Often his artwork yields a look to patterns or posters that lay underneath the readily apparent images. At the same time, those readily apparent images are thought provoking and visually striking (Figure 2).

Figure 1 Shepard Fairey, Untitled. 2008. Poster Size unknown.

Figure 2 Shepard Fairey. Untitled. 2008. Poster collage Size unknown.

19 The layers that make up my posters are intended to give the illusion that the background of the present piece is something that has existed for an extended period of time under an extended amount of use. The many worn-away layers are meant to replicate the walls of buildings, worn by constant graffiti, weather, commercial advertising and the like. The idea of diverse, multiple layers, also exists in tandem with the need for diversity in the narrowing scope of American life. Just as using one solid color for the background would make the piece seem boring and homogenous, so does the lack of diversity and public discourse in our suburban communities. The work of Ralph Steadman, made famous as the illustrator who used to work for Hunter S. Thompson influenced my work as well. Steadman’s relationship with Thompson concerned trying to “find the American Dream” at one moment when the two visited Las Vegas together. Steadman’s art plays a perfect companion for Hunter’s engaging “gonzo journalism”. Artistically, Steadman does not engage in creating propaganda posters, but his style demonstrates the ability to create massively moving and organic images in a whirl of ink and color. His images are sometimes borderline grotesque or absurd, but offer telling stories (Figure 3).

Figure 3 Ralph Steadman Lizard Lounge, 1997. Nine color silkscreen 38” x 50”

20 Similar in style, Derek Hess creates multimedia works, often for bands or flyers for musical shows. His style uses very gesture-oriented strokes of the pen, coupled with emotional splotches of ink or paint to create stunning compositions (Figures 4 and 5). Especially relevant for my project is the work of Mimmo Rotella (Figure 6), who merely uses the element of ripping posters on top of layers of other posters to create interesting compositions. The advantage of seeing multiple layers of posters gives the viewer something unique.

Figure 4 Derek Hess, Intervention, 2007 Pen, ink, acrylic 14.5” x 8.75”

Figure 5 Derek Hess, obama, 2008. Mixed Media 28” x 11”

21

Figure 6 Mimmo Rotella Chisum, 2004 Color screen print and collage 40” x 27.6”

The propaganda posters I have created are masonite boards with several layers of multiple types of media on them. The result is an amalgamation of media that hopefully portrays a definitive message, but at the same time begets more questions. There are several layers of gesso that were laid and sanded, then base layers of paint were laid on top of that. Then after producing three digitally rendered ‘posters’, I printed and laid them on top of the paint. The posters I have made were laid like bonds, pasted to the walls of buildings. After they dry, I proceeded to sand them down with an electric sander and rip them just as bonds and posters are ripped from various urban sites. Before I started

22 rendering the superficial objects of the posters, I wanted to achieve a weathered-looking environment first (Figure 7).

Figure 7 Andrew Maloney, Untitled, 2009 Mixed Media 4’ x 5’ As if I was preparing a canvas, or making an under-drawing, I aimed to recreate the status a building wall might have at an urban site, with posters peeling, revealing layers underneath (Figure 8 and 9), all emitting the same weathered, emotional undertone. Just as posters usually vary in size, as do mine, creating different feelings as the relationship between content and space varies. The content, or paintings and drawings laid on top of the illustrious environment behind were produced with acrylic paint, protective enamel, and various types of markers and pens. Using all types of media allowed me to work on large-scale but also maintain elements of detail.

23

Figure 8 Andrew Maloney, detail, 2009 Mixed media

Figure 9 Andrew Maloney, detail, 2009 Mixed media

I feel as though my methods were effective, as they incorporate a lot of various elements from the different artists that influence me. The posters are glimpses of urban environments, but hung in an art-oriented enclosure, an interesting juxtaposition of competing concepts. It at first almost does not make sense for these posters to be hanging in an art gallery, as they might be better off in a city setting. But as far as my intention for people to see these, this is perfect. Hanging the posters in a gallery space focuses attention on them, and hopefully on the important matters the posters contain. The scattered and various elements within the poster will hopefully draw the viewer closer in for a better look, and in essence better establish my ideas and concepts for better urban and smarter suburban development in their cognitions.

24 Bibliography Aulich, James. War Posters: Weapons of Mass Communication. New York: Thames & Hudson. 2007. Baldassare, Mark. Suburban Communities. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 18, 1992. Duany, Andres, Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth, Speck, Jeff. Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream. New York: North Point Press. 2000. Gore, Jr., Albert, “The Global Environment,” as appeared in A History of Our Time: Readings on Postwar America. Fourth Edition. New York: Oxford University Press. Howard Kunster, James. “The Tragedy of Suburbia” James Howard Kunstler. Accessed January 22, 2009 online at http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/james_howard_kunstler_dissects_suburbia.ht ml. Jefferson Clinton, William. “The State of the Union” as appeared in A History of Our Time: Readings on Postwar America. Fourth Edition. New York: Oxford University Press. 1995. Lekachman, Robert. Greed Is Not Enough. New York: Pantheon Books. 1982. Phillips, Kevin. “Reagan’s America: A Capital Offense,” as appeared in A History of Our Time: Readings on Postwar America. Fourth Edition. New York: Oxford University Press. 1995.

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