CHAPTER 1

1.1 INTRODUCTION Super fashion is a Govt. Recognized export house established in 1989 with a turnover of around $12 million. It is equipped with semi vertical latest state of the art Knitting, Computer Embroidery, Sewing, Dry-cleaning and finishing machines. The company has its own

independent manufacturing facilities for knits and woven spread over 2 production units and one unit dedicated to knitting for fabric production. The production capacity of knits is around 2,50,000 pcs per month and for wovens it is 20,000 pcs. The company handles value-added garments with embroidery, sequins & bead work, evening wear, casuals, accessories as being its main focus. Specialization in value added garment is also backed by our associated entities conveniently situated near to major manufacturing locations:

KnittingPlant Since knits are the mainstream of business, the company has vertically integrated its manufacturing operations by importing state-of-the-art Japanese & German Circular & Flat knitting machines.

DesignStudio All embroidery designs are developed by its own highly specialized professional designers The company also and caters to the customers their who require piece team. dyed

and embellished garment such as batik, tie & dye, logo- embroidery, sequence work & logo-prints etc.

WashingPlant

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Company has in-house washing facilities for enzyme wash, silicon wash etc. to compliment above, all garments are perk dry-cleaned.

1.2 Objective:

Implementation of Lean Manufacturing techniques using the 3M

Philosophy and its various tools, and to ultimately remove wastefrom the organization. 1.3 Need for Lean Manufacturing Techniques Over the last few years the company has shifted its focus from regular casual styles like polo neck t-shirts to high value embellished garments which can be seen from the fact that their buyers have changed considerably. The current buyers include DKNY, Debenhams, Next, George, River Island etc. Therefore, their costs of production has gone high and the number of value adding operations has increased. With each of these value adding operations wastes have also been increasing. To control and eliminate these wastes the need of the hour for Superfashion is lean manufacturing implementation. Lean techniques can regulate the production system efficiently and effectively and help in maintaining profits in a highly competitive market.

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CHAPTER 2 Page 4 of 67 .

agile and market-responsive company. in the right quantity to achieve perfect work flow while minimizing waste and being flexible and able to change Page 5 of 67 .1 LEAN MANUFACTURING Lean Manufacturing is a manufacturing philosophy that shortens the lead-time between a customer order and the shipment of the order. ―Lean Manufacturing is a manufacturing philosophy which shortens the time line between the customer order and the product shipment by eliminating waste. cycle times and non-value added activities. It is renowned for its focus on reduction of the original Toyota 'seven wastes' in order to improve overall customer value. by the elimination of all forms of waste. Lean Manufacturing helps firms in the reduction of costs. Lean manufacturing is a generic process management philosophy derived mostly from the Toyota Production System (TPS) but also from other sources.‖ Lean is focused on getting the right things. at the right time. to the right place. thus resulting in a more competitive. In simple words.2.

While the elimination of waste may seem like a simple and clear subject it is noticeable that waste is often very conservatively identified. Logistics: The aspect that provides definition for operating rules and mechanism for planning and controlling the flow of material. Organisation: the aspect focusing on identification of people‘s function. targeted improvement 5. stabilizing. 2. MURI and MUDA MURA: It is traditional general Japanese term for unevenness. controlling. Manufacturing Flow: The aspect that addresses physical changes and design standards that are deployed as part of the cell. 3. Process Control: this is basically for monitoring. training in new ways of working. The elimination of waste is the goal of Lean. 4. Metrics: The aspect addressing visible. inconsistency in physical matter or human spiritual condition MURI: It is basically the unreasonable work or over burden of work due to improper design of work space layout MUDA: is a traditional Japanese term for an activity that is wasteful and doesn't add value or is unproductive Page 6 of 67 . and Toyota defined three broad types of waste: MURA. result-based performance measures. and pursuing ways to improve the process.Five primary elements of lean manufacturing: 1. This then hugely reduces the potential of such an aim.

There are originally 7 types of wastes based on which Lean Tools have been developed. These wastes, also called as ―Muda‖ in the Japanese terminology are:

Fig. 2.1

OVERPRODUCTION • To produce sooner, faster or in greater quantities than the absolute customer demand • Manufacturing too much, too early or ―Just in Case‖ • Overproduction discourages a smooth flow of goods or services • Takes the focus away from what the customer really wants • Leads to excessive inventory

Caused by: • MRP push rather than kanban pull
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• Large batch sizes • Looks better to be busy! • Poor people utilisation • Lack of customer focus

Why one of the 7 wastes ?: • Costs money • Consumes resource ahead of plan • Creates inventory • Hides inventory/defect problems • Space utilisation

2. Inventory

Any raw material, work in progress (WIP) or finished goods which are not having value added to them

Caused by: • Production schedule not level • Inaccurate forecasting • Excessive downtime/set up

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• Push instead of pull • Large batching • Unreliable suppliers

Why one of the 7 Wastes ?: • Adds cost • Extra storage space required • Extra resource to manage • Hides shortages & defects • Can become damaged • Shelf life expires

3. Motion • Adds cost • Motion is the movement of ―man‖ • Waste motion occurs when individuals move more than is necessary for the process to be completed

Caused by: • No standard operating procedure

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• Poor housekeeping • Badly designed cell • Inadequate training Why one of the 7 Wastes ?: • It interrupts production flow • Increases production time • Can cause injury People or parts that wait for a work cycle to be completed • Where are the bottlenecks? • What are the major causes of lost machine availability? • What are we doing to improve machine availability? • Do people wait on machinery? Caused by: • Shortages & unreliable supply chain • Lack of multi-skilling/flexibility • Downtime/Breakdown • Ineffective production planning Page 10 of 67 .

Transportation Unnecessary movement of parts between processes • Complex material flow paths • Poor close coupling • Wasted floor space • Unnecessary material handling • Potential damage to products Caused by: • Badly designed process/cell Page 11 of 67 .engineering Issues • ‗Black art‘ processes Why one of the 7 Wastes ?: • Stop/start production • Poor workflow continuity • Causes bottlenecks • Long lead times • Failed delivery dates 5.design.• Quality.

Over-Processing Processing beyond the standard required by the customer By improving processing efficiency we ultimately use less resource to achieve the same customer satisfaction Caused by: • Out of date standards • Attitude .‗Always done it like this‘ • Not understanding the process Page 12 of 67 .• Poor value stream flow • Complex material flows • Sharing of equipment Why one of the 7 Wastes ?: • Increases production time • It consumes resource & floorspace • Poor communication • Increases work in progress • Potential damage to products 6.

Rework and Defects) A defect is a component which the customer would deem unacceptable to pass the quality standard • Defects reduce or discourage customer satisfaction • Defects have to be rectified • Rectification costs money with regard to time effort and materials • Defects in the field will lose customers • Right first time is the key Caused by: • Out of control/Incapable processes Page 13 of 67 . Non-Right First Time (Scrap.• Lack of innovation & improvement • Lack of standard operation procedures Why one of the 7 Wastes ?: • It consumes resource • It increases production time • It‘s work above and beyond specification • Can reduce life of component 7.

training & on the job support • Inaccurate design & engineering • Machine inaccuracy • Black art processes Why one of the 7 Wastes ?: • Adds costs • It interrupts the scheduled • It consumes resources • It creates paper work • Reduces customer confidence Page 14 of 67 .• Lack of skill.

content. SPC 9. Process mapping 3. Continuous improvement 7. Cell layout 8.2 Description of the Five Primary Elements Manufacturing Flow 1. One-piece flow Process Control 1. Product/quantity assessment (product group) 2. Standard work 9. Poka-yoke 3. Total productive maintenance 2. Workload balancing 6. Routing analysis (process. Visual control 6. Line stop 8. SMED 4. work. 5S housekeeping Page 15 of 67 . Kanban sizing 7. volume) 4. Graphical work instructions 5. Takt calculations 5.2.

Mix-model manufacturing 3. Service cell agreements 8. Level loading 4.C parts handling 7. metrics. Touch labor cross-training skill matrix 4. Total cost 4. Forward plan 2. Roles and responsibility Logistics 1. Operational rules Metrics 1. SPC. multidisciplined team 2.Organization 1. Product-focused. Lean manager development 3. Communication plan 6. Training (lean awareness. Kanban pull signal 6. continuous improvement) 5. A. Quality yield Page 16 of 67 . cell control. Process lead-time 3. Customer/supplier alignment 9.B. Workable work 5. On-time delivery 2.

Productivity REFERENCE Lean Manufacturing: Tools. which involves eliminating the waste of motion from moving things and the waste of looking for tools and materials. There is nothing wrong with being diligent about 5S. and some would argue they are in fact one and the same. Techniques. being primary methods for clearing the first layer of ―clouds‖ by physically removing the clutter in a work area. The primary purpose of the first S in 5S is to clear the clouds. other components of the 5S process—Straighten or Set in order. However. Travel distance 8. FELD 2. But well-organized and sparkling clean Page 17 of 67 . perhaps because a clean work area is one outcome. and Standardize—develop disciplined work habits that are crucial in later phases of lean implementation. But 5S is just one tool that enables stability that enables flow. Inventory (turns) 6. Doing 5S is liberating.3 5S We group 5S (Figure 4-2) and workplace organization together. Many people mistakenly believe that 5S is merely a clean-up initiative.5. Space utilization 7. Anyone who has experienced the joy of cleaning the basement or garage in the spring after a year of garbage has accumulated knows the feeling. We have seen too many companies make 5S into a stand-alone program with fanfare and rewards and signs everywhere. and How To Use Them BY WILLIAM M. Stand in one place too long and you are apt to get a circle drawn around where you are standing. Making 5S a Stand-alone Program Doing 5S is fun.

―Are you interested in reducing your lead time? Do you havenon-valueadded wastes that you can start to eliminate?‖ Obviously the answer is yes. every process has waste. Getting bogged down in 5S can be an avoidance pattern—avoiding the hard work of thinking about how to create flow and solve the real root cause problems inhibiting flow. THE TOYOTA WAY FIELDBOOK BY Jeffrey K. You need to move on down the spiral and get to true leveled flow. Here are the words: ❒Value-added ❒Non-value-added ❒Required non-value-added Page 18 of 67 . or muda in Japanese.4 3M’s We then ask. People engage in and the value of different types of activities as they relate to the customer. Liker David Meier 2.waste is still waste.

refers to activity that makes a product a more complete product. we drill. The bottom line is. and we paint. Our customers value these activities and are willing to pay to have them performed. The definition of value is always in the eyes of the customer. required non-value-added. This is activity that does not advance the product to a more complete or finished state. gets a little fuzzy at times. These activities are required if we are to create whatever it is we‘re making. to name a few things we do. when we do these things. and that the customer is unwilling to pay for. Seven waste are: ❒Overproduction ❒Unnecessary inventory ❒Transport ❒Process ❒Activity resulting from rejected product ❒Waiting ❒Unnecessary motion The third category. that adds no value in the customer‘s eyes. value-added. Page 19 of 67 . As we perform these activities. The end result of this cycle of activity is the receipt of cash for our actions. we get money for doing them. in simplest terms. we machine components. the product changes shape and becomes a more complete product until we reach the point where we have a completed product or system that is ready to ship to our customer. non-value-added. 2. we form liquid iron into castings. we weld components.The first term. we polish. we assemble parts. The second term. Two important notes: 1. is also pretty straightforward.

Reference Lean Manufacturing that Works By Bill Carreira Page 20 of 67 . making smaller batches is good. If the changeover process is not standardized and precise. then the large number of changeovers will lead to lost production. and so on. Changing over is lost production time. set at levels necessary to meet the higher demand. If the demand swings are large.We have never seen a situation where customers conveniently order the same mix and quantity of parts every day. which means changing over from product to product? There is often some time associated with changing materials. namely. any lost production time is bad. From a traditional mass production perspective. to level by product type means making small quantities of each item throughout the day. the alignment of resources to the constantly changing need. For example. From an overall lean system perspective. and excessive when the demand falls. there will be a need to have higher levels of inventory to adjust to the swings. and is in excess when demand is on the decline. which means having a controlled and standardized changeover process. The choice to level will leave no option but to reduce the time it takes to change over. changing a fixture. and the schedule will be missed. If life were only that simple! Constantly changing demand creates many issues within the value stream. Equipment capacity is limited when demand swings to the high side. The amount of resources needed will be higher overall— generally.

The overall operation was divided among three facilities located in Juarez. The division that owned this particular manufacturing site was Silver Systems Group (SSG). The Juarez. and delivered UPS systems to the computer and communications industry worldwide. designed. and El Paso. Mexico. resides a manufacturer of uninterrupted power supplies (UPS) for computers. with a total employee population of about 850.5 Case Study Operations Redesign Program Company Profile Located in an industrial park within the city of Juarez. line interactive. TX.000-square-foot facility. This particular facility was one of many sites owned and operated by a company called Unity Electronics. The Unity Electronics operation was divided into several different divisions.2. This primary manufacturing location was contained within a 90. Unity Electronics marketed. TX. SSG generated approximately $250 million in revenues during 1998 by focusing on three major product segments — standby. Mexico. manufactured. Horton Mesa. Mexico. and online units. This manufacturer was part of the Maquiiadora system utilized by many multinational companies as a source of lowcost labor for products. Their key manufacturing processes included the automated and manual insertion of printed circuit boards (PCBs) and wave solder operations. Page 21 of 67 . operation was accountable for producing approximately one half of SSG‘s revenue. as well as manual and automated assembly.

to meet customer requirements which did not allow any time for recovery or makeup plans should there be line stoppages. Aside from the factory.000square-foot warehouse facility in Horton Mesa. In November 1997. Capacity constraints on equipment limited the ability to satisfy customer delivery requirements and provide on-time shipments. was in the low-volume UPS business. Techniques. which handled all inbound and outbound material shipments. In addition. The resulting impact was an ineffective factory flow and Insufficient dock space to handle high-volume UPS production. Faucet. Over time. the need arose to expand into an adjacent building to support a growing demand for higher and higher production volumes. Drivers for Change The operational performance of this manufacturing site had not been satisfactory for several end-item customers over a 3. The factory had to operate 24 hours a day. Automated insertion (AI) equipment was running around the clock to keep up with production. there was a 30. To remove some of the constraints.to 9-month period of time. which could not be met. 6 to 7 days a week. Unity Electronics was purchased from Faucet and internal management consultants from the new parent company were sent to visit the site to conduct an operations Page 22 of 67 . there was a peripheral 13. PCB assemblies were outsourced and plans were made to transfer production to other.000-square-foot material staging warehouse in Juarez to handle the overflow of materials due to the ineffective flow through the plant. and How To Use Them The original facility was built when the initial company. higher cost facilities within the group. which allowed for only minimum scheduled maintenance. Key customers were also requiring additional capacity and flexibility.Lean Manufacturing: Tools. TX.

an initial improvement effort was launched in December 1998 and focused on supply-chain management. A limited number of shopfloor metrics focused only on quality. Inventory turns were around 2.diagnostic on the El Paso. a primary OEM worth approximately 50% of Unity‘s business. The company had a serious delivery performance problem (35% ontime to customer requested ship date). 6. In addition. an ―operations redesign‖ program (focusing on lean manufacturing Page 23 of 67 . 7. Unity desperately needed to get control of its demand management process. In addition. By February 1999. it became increasingly obvious that significant synergies could be gained for the business if several ongoing initiatives could be combined under one program. Supplier management and development were really nonexistent. 5. and Juarez facilities. Intermax.8. By April 1999. Horton.‖ With these identified drivers for change. 3. The limited ownership for product performance was scattered throughout the organization. 4. it is not difficult to see what motivated Unity Electronics to pursue a new way of doing business. several informal business rules were used to manage work prioritization on the shop floor. Many informal fixes were put in place without institutionalizing the improvements. 2. 8. The planning and control of material and information flow were handled through two different MRP systems. Project Background Based on the above findings. The result of this diagnostic indicated several issues: 1. had recently come in and rated the quality system of Unity Electronics as very poor — ―one of our worst suppliers.

It included their global strategic procurement initiative and took advantage of the opportunity to set up a ―greenfield‖ operation within a brand-new facility based on a business unit approach. In addition to concentrating on the longer term perspective. Throughout the project. and improvements were incorporated as quickly as possible during the concept design phase. This team focused on two main tasks: (1) developing an overall conceptual design for the new operation. and (2) generating a project implementation plan that signifi-cantly improved the company‘s ability to satisfy all external customer and internal business expectations. the project team received significant training in both change management methodologies and lean manufacturing techniques for operations management. Page 24 of 67 . and a plant expansion project into one overall program. Project Scope and Objective Unity Electronics‘ UOR program addressed the entire operations process from customer forecast and demand management through factory floor management and scheduling to supplier management and the distribution of finished goods. This is a measure of the entire process of forecasting. The primary performance objectives were intended to affect: Customer requested ship date (CRSD).principles) was launched which combined a supply-chain management project. short-term actions (or quick hits) were identified. the company‘s performance measured against the date first requested by the customer when an order is placed. The Unity Electronics Unity Operations Redesign (UOR) program was officially kicked off by selecting a multi disciplined team to focus on redesigning the value stream for the entire operations process. a strategic procurement project.

_ Supplier performance. Project Approach As was stated earlier. the overall approach to the UOR program actually evolved over time. the annual cost of sales (past 3 months annualized) divided by month-end inventory levels. the minimum length of time from customer order to delivery of requested product. service. _ Manufacturing lead-time. and cost expectations. the company‘s performance measured against the first promise given to a customer when an order is placed. _ Inventory levels and turns (raw materials.finished goods/service level strategy. work in process. and finished goods). from the customer to manufacturing planning and control on the shop floor to Page 25 of 67 . also. The promise date may not equal the CRSD. a measure of the ability of the factory to build and ship product on its scheduled date. _ Manufacturing delivery. a measure of a supplier‘s ability to satisfy delivery. the length of time from procurement of raw materials to completion of finished goods. quality. Customer promise date deviation. and engineering and factory performance. The project initially began with a focus on the Unity Electronics supply chain.

The individual projects included: 1. 3. Material planning and control: Focus on the design and development of the logistics process for planning and controlling the flow of material through the factory and warehouse system to the customer through Kanban pull. which were all interconnected via a common purpose through specifically identified objectives. The projects were time phased so that the team members who were assigned to initial projects could be reassigned to later projects. so the entire project was broadened to cover all of operations and placed under one program management structure.the delivery of finished goods to the customer through warehouse distribution. Process layout: Aspects dealing with the physical flow. By assigning resources in this manner. it was determined that a greater amount of leverage and subsequent benefit could be achieved through the synergy of several projects. Organization design: Page 26 of 67 . This new scope covered everything from order administration and supplier interface to manufacturing management and customer interface. Unity was able to achieve cross-functional knowledge transfer through exposure across project teams. The projects were segregated by major business process to provide focus for the individual teams and their assigned objectives. and final layout for each of the cells (12) and business units (4). After a few months of working on the project. cell design. Each project had an identified leader with assigned team members. 2. The overall program was split into several individual projects.

standard work. stranger. Facilities (the new plant): Construction of a brand-new manufacturing Facility. percent loading chart. 4. communication between teams was a constant activity. visual control. Each project had its own subset of objectives and assigned deliverables. ABC material management. Integration between the project team leaders in regard to what they were designing for the new processes was essential. Lean manufacturing (Five Primary Elements) One-piece flow. crosstraining. workable work. and support operations through a structured process of assessment and selection. service cell agreements. Kanban. scheduling. continuous improvement. Total acquisition cost: Generation of a global supply strategy and supplier development and selection process. therefore. takt time. 6. cell leaders. forward plan. 5. 5S housekeeping. roles and responsibilities. operating rules. runner. routing analysis Business process redesign Page 27 of 67 . shopfloor metrics. repeater. 3M’s. P/Q analysis.Organization redesign and training programs that included the cell team. mix-model manufacturing. Tactical procurement: Deployment of shared EDI with suppliers through EDI/e-commerce. and each team had to report progress to plan for their project every week. and reduction of the current supply base by 40%. business unit managers. project-focused management.

concept design. implementation planning. gap analysis. transition strategy Process value analysis Supplier-input-process-output-customer mapping (SIPOC) Page 28 of 67 . future state.Baseline performance. detail design.

CHAPTER 3 Page 29 of 67 .

The scope of the work is subdivided into four (4) phases as follows: Phase I Clarify Goals and Commitment to Change Phase II Assess and Design Improvement Plan Phase III Pilot Implementation of New Concept Phase IV Implementation of results of successful pilot runs for a longer period of time for better organisation Page 30 of 67 .

colour or fabric type.1Problems in the store and the already existing layout  Fabric incoming was much greater than the capacity available for storage (Use of wooden pallets for storage which left the store underutilized in terms of capacity).  Difficulty in locating a fabric type immediately which led to a lot of time and resource wastage. Fabric store improvement for better space utilisation Fabric is the major raw material in a garment industry and a well organised fabric store can reduce subsequent problems.3.  Since no marking was there.    The fabric rolls could be placed upto only a certain height. Well managed inventory and space can save a lot of costs and organize other processes on its own. Visual symbols for checked and unchecked fabrics were missing. 3. To implement lean tools in Superfashion.  Due to underutilization of capacity fabric was being kept outside the markings for palette area and was taking space of the pathways which was against compliance. improving the fabric store was the first step. No clear marking on the rolls for differentiation in terms of buyer. so the company had to rely on the store keepers‘ memory for locating a fabric. Page 31 of 67 .

... 3. The pallets which were not required were removed and as per the capacity requirements. Remaining area was divided by us into blocks which were demarcated by visual symbols and the wooden pallets were used in these areas to store unchecked and under checking fabric lots. The fabric rolls kept on the pallets could be stored up to a certain height only whereas in fabric racks the fabric could be kept up to the entire height that the rack supports. place was sorted for each and everything as per the theory.2 Solutions to the problems above Procurement of fabric racks and rack management Improving the layout..4 Improving the layout In the first step. 3. As per our calculations three racks were ordered by Superfashion which occupied two out of the three existing fabric storage columns.The early version of the layout is in the figure. The capacity of the store was calculated by measuring the measurements of the pallets and the roll sizes and the height to which the rolls could be kept.3 Methodology The existing capacity was calculated and was compared with capacity of racks to be procured to understand the benefits of buying the racks. In the second step we placed the racks in the space specified in the layout developed keeping appropriate distance between them so that the fabric trolley could Page 32 of 67 . racks were ordered. 3.

Page 33 of 67 . A bin card as explained later was also put on these blocks to identify the fabric lots and their locations.easily pass through them. Visual symbols were placed for each and everything in the store. The system required wassuch that easy tracking of a fabric type was possible without searching through the racks. In the third step we applied a rack management system to configure the Fabric Store in an orderly manner. The collar section was then removed and moved along with the fabric checking section as it was taking more space then that required by it. The space was cleared keeping in mind the fabric incoming quantities and wooden pallets were placed for fabric storage. The points taken into consideration were:   To set specific place for each buyer in the racks.  To make little changes to the existing system of record keeping so that it was easily adopted by the employees and understood well. To remove the reliance of people from the memory system of fabric keeping to a much more organised and recorded way. The racks were assigned to quality checked fabrics and the area was labelled so. The remaining areas for fabric storage were then classified and the space without the racks was divided into blocks and numbered from 1 to 6. These blocks were assigned to unchecked fabric and were labelled.

As the fabric lot was placed into the allotted cells. These 28 racks had 3 cells each which were given specification as A. Rack sytem 2 and 3 had 9 each. An employee could look directly into the register to locate the fabric and wouldn‘t have to go through the store to look for the fabric. Rack system 1 had a total of 10 integrated racks. This bin card was then tied on to the pillar of the cell in which the fabric was kept. balance qty etc so that just by looking at a bin card anyone could get the current status of the fabric. B. Step 2: Now to segregate these cells on the basis of buyers. So a cell designation was like numeral(A or B or C) where the value of numeral ranged from 1 to 28. issued qty.had information about the fabric and the cells in which it was kept. Each of these integrated racks were given numbers from 1 to 28 in a progressive manner. Step 3: A card called the bin card was formulated which can hold certain important information about a fabric lot which distinguished it from other. He could also locate an emty location on the racks by looking at the register. The bin card had essential information like the cell numbers in which the fabric lots were kept.Step 1: The rack management was started with first naming each and every cell of the rack. fabric procurement for each buyer was notified and on the basis of thisthe buyers were classified into major and minor and cells were allotted to them on the basis of percentage share each held in the inventory. These designations were then notified on the pillars of these cells. C. a bin card was made for it which was then filled with information about the fabric. Page 34 of 67 . A single person can maintain the entire stock with the help of helpers alone.

1 Area Savings Capacity Capacity earlier Capacity increase by adding the collar section Capacity now in kgs 13899.5 Results Area saved through racks in terms of percentage Percentage of usable area after removing the pathways 30.6 5879 25632 Difference in capacity(total increase in capacity) alongwith organising %age increase in terms of capacity Table 3.2 Capacity Increase 11732.The register would reduce the need of the company on the memory of store keeper for management of store and can appoint anyone without much training to manage the store if there is any shortage of manpower. 3.88% Table 3.40818441 Page 35 of 67 .4 84.61% 43.

CHAPTER 4 Page 36 of 67 .

This in turn is crucial for the Quality Assurance as per the Buyer‘s requirements.4 Identification and elimination of wastes from the finishing department 4. It also ensures that the measurements of garments labels etc are there or not. Main problems in finishing department:  High Finishing cost per pieces  Low Productivity A reason for above problems is Throughput time. 4. Superfashion had two finishing halls with working strength of around 40 people in each hall.1 What is finishing? Finishing of a garment is an integral process of garment manufacturing which provide a better look to garments by making them free from all the non value added things which are there in it during the handling of material. and Hand feel of the final product. Any Garment is incomplete without the proper finishing of the Garment relative to the Ironing. Sometimes it can be a value addition or elimination of extra things which are not required like thread etc. Fabric Wash. Finishing is an integral part of the manufacturing process as it ensures good quality products are delivered to the customer. Page 37 of 67 .2 Why finishing is crucial? Finishing as a process is very crucial for an export house because of its importance in culminating the Garment process in the industry.

Page 38 of 67 . Styles which were costed at 15 rupees were costing 21 to 22 rupees.Throughput time is the time taken by each piece during the whole process until that garment comes out from the processes. Average throughput time of finishing department in superfashion is around 480 minutes which is very high and the reasons are:  Material movement is high  Waiting time is high  Styles running in finishing room are more than 1 due to this each time when style changes the process time increases.1 Material movement LOW PRODUCTIVITY Frequent style change High waiting time Throughput time High costs of finishing. FISHBONE DIAGRAM FOR FINISHING ROOM Fig. it includes transportation time of garment and the waiting time in each process.4.

Page 39 of 67 .3 Identifying the MUDA To find a solution to the problems above. Over processing: It was a problem found at the folding workstation. The wastes thus identified from this process were : Transportation: Due to improper layout a piece had to move all through the room for the finishing process which could be reduced by a new design. Also there was just one folding workstation at each finishing floor which was being used for all the styles. This resulted in increased WIP and higher throughput time for a style. This was also a result of unreliable vendors doing the previous processes. Inventory: At a time at least two styles were running concurrently on the finishing floor as the company had a lot of style variations with low order quantities. This would result in holding up of styles at workstations if another urgent style would come from the previous processes.4. Size sorting was being done twice until packing which was a wasteful activity that could have been included in the process of folding only by improving the layout and better work practices. the wasteful activities were needed to be identified. For this purpose a study of the existing layout and material movement was done.

4 Infrastructure of finishing department Number of workers 5 – General checking 3 – final checking 6 – Measurement checking 8 – Pressing 8 – Helper 1 – Folder 4 – Alter man 1 – Thread cleaning 2 – M/C Alteration Spotting machine Pressing tables Tables Machine Supervisor 1 8 24 4 1 Table 4.4.1 Page 40 of 67 .

4.5 PROCESS FLOW Fig.2 GARMENT RECEIVED FROM PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT SPOTTING IRONING MEASUREMENT GENERAL CHECKING YES DEFECT NO ALTERATION RE-IRONING RE-MEASUREMENT FINAL CHECKING FOLDING Page 41 of 67 . 4.

Then garment is send to general checking for sewing cuts.The finishing department has a number of machines to carry out the function of completing a garment in order to prepare for the final stage of packaging and distribution. labels. Folding is done after final checking is over. here measurement is checked according to buyer specification. wash care labels etc. sizes in order to ensure that the desired quality standard is maintained throughout the lot that is ordered. Now the piece is moved to re-measurement table where the measurements are checked again to meet the specification. the garment is checked for spots and oil stains and spotting is done which removes the stains through chemical. size labels. the garment is checked for labels. label checking and the measurement of each of the garment pieces. During this stage. the garment is inspected thoroughly for spots. Page 42 of 67 . After spotting garment is send for pressing and then to measurement table. if the piece is ok then it is send for re-pressing and the pressing is done according to the measurement required. For the same purpose a ground infrastructure is required to check the hanging threads. in this process garments are folded and tags are put into it and then finally put into poly bags. After the threads have been cut. In the process of final checking. if there is any then it is send for alteration and if it is not mend able then that piece is rejected. repressing.

At each changeover cycle time for a style was found to be increased which came down as the operator got used to that operation.6 Solutions to the problem above    Improving the layout Improving the workstation Reducing the WIP 4. had different requirements of ironing and measurements. The cycle time would increase again as the same style was continued after a hold up. This was due to the fact that each style was folded differently. Page 43 of 67 . time study at each workstation was conducted to study the effects of style changes frequently due to hold ups.7 Research methodology followed  To establish the problems stated above.4.

Two time studies of a river island strap top after hold ups 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Page 44 of 67 .70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Fig. b.3 a. 4.

operations and movements of a piece. A process chart was formulated to study the delays.b Time studies of a Louis Phillipe polo t-shirt running intermittently with the above style 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14  To study the effects of improper layout.4. per piece transportation was calculated during the process of finishing.75 65 55 45 35 25 15 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Fig.4 a. Page 45 of 67 .

a team or group based layout was proposed. Integrating packaging in the finishing room could thus become easier if garments were already size sorted and solid packing could be done easily. Each of the finished garments had tags with sizes mentioned on the top or had colour coded sizes which were easier to identify. this method could serve as a motivating factor for the workers as they can now compete with the other group on the basis of productivity. the company could now run at least four styles at a time without any hold ups on its two floors. Page 46 of 67 . With the infrastructure available. The new layout also sought to remove the over-processing waste happening at the end workstation just before packing. With the concept of JIT (just in time). The idea was proposed to reduce the transport time and stop the extra sorting process happening by making sorting an integral part of folding operation only. In this method we divided the workforce of the finishing department equally and formed two separate groups on the same floor which would run entirely different styles.4. if the workstation could be improved then the operator folding the garments could also size sort them. Moreover.8 Improving the layout-MURI To resolve the problems of too many styles running simultaneously on the floor. we proposed the packing of finished goods be done at the folding section only. So. The sorting which was done separately was a wasteful operation as it could be combined with the folding operation only.

To increase the productivity or to reduce the throughput time we have taken following steps:  Changed the layout  Divide the whole finishing room into 2 groups equally (Team A and Team B)  Improved the workstation The layout of the finishing room is changed in such a way that the material movement time and transportation can be reduced as much as possible and to incorporate the packaging in same room by creating the space. TYPE OF WORK Initial checker Measurement Final checker Re-measurement Pressing Helper Alter man TEAM A 2 2 2 1 4 3 2 TEAMB 2 2 2 1 4 3 2 Page 47 of 67 .The whole work force is divided into 2 groups and it is assured that each group will get equal number of specialized worker so that each team can perform equally and will get the motivational factor to increase their team performance which automatically increases the productivity.

and waiting time is also reduced up to an extent because now no style is going on hold. The transportation time is reduced because now processes are aligned one by one in a systematic way.Machine alter Folder Total 1 1 18 1 1 18 Table 4. the worker cannot settle down in a particular style and the change over time will decrease their productivity. By doing this we have also eliminated some non value added processes like sorting and re-measurement which are not necessary for every piece. Shifting of packaging department has also saved the packaging department area and some workers which can be utilized somewhere else. we can easily run 2 style parallel without any interruption which further increase the productivity as frequent changes in style decrease the efficiency of a person. the ongoing lot has to be completed before starting new one. Doing this. if style has to be changed in the middle due to urgency. Page 48 of 67 .2 By dividing them into 2 teams. This will be shown in graphs in next pages.

4.5 GARMENT RECEIVED FROM PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT SPOTTING IRONING MEASUREMENT GENERAL CHECKING YES DEFECT ALTERATION NO RE-IRONING YES SIZE +/- RE-MEASUREMENT NO FINAL CHECKING FOLDING Page 49 of 67 .4.9 PROCESS FLOW Fig.

the garment reached to measurement. In earlier layout. The process of sorting is eliminated as the person keeps them according to size after folding and then they are packed immediately. the pieces are folded and dumped into a bin and then these pieces are sorted and taken away to packaging department where they are again sorted before they are finally packed. after spotting and ironing. for an instance a lot of 50 pieces reached to finishing department.In new layout some processes are discarded and some are kept for special cases. if there is any problem then only the piece goes to re-measurement (after re-ironing) otherwise it directly moves to general checking and then to final checking and folding. Page 50 of 67 .

6 Page 51 of 67 .10 The Folding workstation The flow of work at the folding workstation was as follows and the proposed methodology for the new system is also presented along side: The old system Folding The new/proposed system Folding Putting into polybags Putting into polybags and sorting Disposal into bins Sorting Disposal into racks with size columns and counting Counting Packing into cartons Disposal in the Packaging Department Re-sorting size wise and colorwise Packing into cartons Fig.4.4.

The process of counting was initiated first at the folding table itself when the incharge would count the pieces produced for noting down the output and then dump these pieces in the bins.4. For the ease of transporting. he Page 52 of 67 . the incharge would take the same pieces out of the bin after sometime when those pieces were required at packaging and would first sort them size wise and then count pieces of each size that were to be delivered to packaging. This was due to the fact that different styles were coming altogether from the two finishing departments at a time and packaging department could not handle too many styles at a time and also the work at packaging was being increased. Thereafter.1 Shortcomings of the old method The working area: On a table of area 4608 square inch only 840 square inch of area was being used for the process of folding and the remaining area of the table was wasted for keeping the finished pieces in a stacked but unorganised way till the time they were counted and dumped in the bins waiting to be sent to packaging.10.7 35” Normal working area 48” 24” Movement per piece: The movement per piece was being increased as the finished pieces were being dumped into bins in an unsorted manner. 96” Fig. Time wasted in sorting and counting: A lot of time was being wasted in the process of sorting and counting.4.

Here cartons were placed next to the folding table and the finished garments were counted and without any need of sorting now. Movement per piece: The packaging was moved from the packaging department to each of the folding stations. were placed into their respective cartons. Time at sorting and counting: With just one time counting and that too during packaging reduces the wasteful time and improves upon the efficiency of the operator. The table had enough space for keeping the style sizes in an orderly manner.2 The Improved Method The Working Area: The remaining area of the table was used to keep finished pieces in an organised manner on the basis of the sizes. The garments had tags representing the sizes which were easier to identify and the operator could place them as per the sizes without adding much time to his process.times for a single lot of 40 pieces. Manpower wasted: Because of redundancy of work a lot of manpower was wasted. Page 53 of 67 . 4.10.would then mix all the pieces and transport them to packaging where again the time taking process of sorting and counting would occur. This process was being carried out three . A single process of sorting and counting of a lot of 40 finished garments would take about 1 min 45 seconds on an average. Sorting too has been included in the task of folding only which aids the packaging operator. Arranging the pieces was also not difficult for the worker as it was the essentially the same process.

49 973301 32.Manpower: The in charge‘s work has been reduced to just counting styles as per size to just once.585 839380 18.19 After implementation February Finishing 77893 12.3 Page 54 of 67 .11 Results Month Department Quantity Costing/pc Total amount paid Output in pcs/person January Finishing 39322 19.3 Table 4.9 March Finishing 53855 15.20 755170 14. His travelling time has been reduced and this remaining time can be utilised in looking after the other folding station without any increase in manpower. 4.

4. february march Page 55 of 67 .costing/pc in Rs.8 costing/pc in Rs. 20 15 10 5 0 january Fig.

CHAPTER 5 Page 56 of 67 .

The Topic of Thread Consumption was taken. This followed by calculating and measuring the length of thread utilized in the process. Being in this company over a period of time it was evaluated that the thread consumption work already carried out was not according to the standards of the global industry. Sometimes the unraveling of thread was not possible. Due to this faulty process. the average of the thread consumption relied solely on the garment that was under production process.2 METHODOLOGY FOLLOWED IN THE PROJECT:1. the thread was measured and marked with a marker according to a given length Page 57 of 67 . maximum number of times the thread quantity ordered was more than required and sometimes the thread quantity was less than required. 5.5. We calculated the thread consumption by stitching 10cm of fabric and unraveling of thread. Earlier. The thread consumption average as given by the thread in-charge was given without any calculative methods. keeping in mind the functioning environment of our sponsors Super Fashions Pvt.1 WHY THREAD CONSUMPTION To implement lean we sought out the problems in the inventory department where unused threads of previous style was kept. In such cases. 2. Ltd.

7. and it was found out that no further thread is issued to the production floor. for garment orders below 5000 pcs. In this sheet. For garment orders ranging from 5000. This enabled us to calculate the length of fabric sewn with that length of thread. After the successful run. 4. it gives the total thread consumption by giving the number of reels and cones required to produce that garment. The average thread consumption taken before. the calculation was passed by the competent authorities. we pilot test our calculation by picking up the styles which is ready to go in production and whose thread is procured according to the in-charge. Wastage has been taken at 25% b. 3. if you measure the length of the stitched area and type the type of machine used in the stitching process. After development of excel sheet. 60% reels were ordered and 40% cones were ordered. based on the formula devised by us. Now the thread was issued to that styles according to our calculation. Accordingly. Wastage is at 20% c. Wastage has been taken at 15% 6. For garment orders above 10000 pcs. After this calculation we developed an excel sheet. 8.10000 pcs.and then stitched onto the fabric. Page 58 of 67 . by the accessory manager was taken in the ratio of reels and cones. The percentage of wastage in this formula is – a. 5.

A person has been trained to calculate the thread consumption who knows the garment breakdown and can calculate even a single stitch which are not visible in garments.9. Page 59 of 67 .

Cons. 100 Order Qty. 232. 140 masters thd. 3192 Masters avg.4 Differenence 120657.5. 5. 260 masters thread consumption 2090400 Actual thread consumption 1366800 Difference 723600 Rate/mtr 0.3 SAVING IN TERMS OF MONEY BUYER NAME: River Island Order Qty. 840000 our thd.16 Saving in Rs.3 Page 60 of 67 . :KCMUK 080 color White Order Qty.216 BUYER NAME: GEORGE color sea STYLE NO.2.2 masters thread Consumption 861840 Actual thread Consumption 741182. 115776 BUYER NAME: DKNY STYLE NO. 5.16 Saving in Rs. 600000 Diff. 170 color Grey Masters avg. 240000 Rate/mtr 0.1. 8040 STYLE NO. 6000 Masters avg. 270 Our Avg.#8601 Our Avg.16 Saving in Rs. :JT03 Our Avg.6 Rate/mtr 0. Cons. 38400 *Around 150000 mtrs of thread is extra in Accessory store(20 box of reel and 14 cones) Table 5. 19305. .

CHAPTER 6 Page 61 of 67 .

1 Visual Assessment of application of 3M’s Fabric store improvement plan Before After Page 62 of 67 .6.

Page 63 of 67 .

Finishing Room Improvement Plan BEFORE AFTER Page 64 of 67 .

Extra Threads in Inventory Page 65 of 67 .

and How To Use Them BY WILLIAM M. Liker Page 66 of 67 .beyondleantool. Techniques.6. BARNES  Lean Manufacturing: Tools.com  Stitch world article by Charles Dagher  Industrial Engineering By RALPH M.2 BIBLIOGRAPHY:  www. FELD  Lean Manufacturing that Works BY Bill Carreira  THE TOYOTA WAY FIELDBOOK BY Jeffrey K.

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