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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation).
Italian full-rigged ship Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976
A ship ( Audio (help·info)) is a large vessel that floats on water. Ships are generally distinguished from boats based on size and cargo or passenger capacity. Ships may be found on lakes, seas, and rivers and they allow for a variety of activities, such as the transport of people or goods, fishing, entertainment, public safety, and warfare. Historically, a ship referred to a vessel with sails rigged in a specific manner. Ships and boats have developed alongside mankind. In major wars, and in day to day life, they have become an integral part of modern commercial and military systems. Fishing boats are used by millions of fishermen throughout the world. Military forces operate highly sophisticated vessels to transport and support forces ashore. Commercial vessels, nearly 35,000 in number, carried 7.4 billion tons of cargo in 2007. These vessels were also key in history's great explorations and scientific and technological development. Navigators such as Zheng He spread such inventions as the compass and gunpowder. Ships have been used for such purposes as colonization and the slave trade, and have served scientific, cultural, and humanitarian needs. New crops that had come from the Americas via the European seafarers in the 16th century significantly contributed to the world's population growth. As Thor Heyerdahl demonstrated with his tiny craft the Kon-Tiki, it is possible to navigate long distances upon a simple log raft. From Mesolithic canoes to today's powerful nuclearpowered aircraft carriers, ships tell the history of human technological development.
1 Nomenclature 2 History
2.1 Prehistory and antiquity 2.2 Renaissance
○ ○ • ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • ○ ○ • ○ ○ ○ ○ • •
2.3 Specialization and modernization 2.4 Today 3.1 Commercial vessels 3.2 Naval vessels 3.3 Fishing vessels 3.4 Weather vessels 3.5 Inland and coastal boats 4.1 The hull 4.2 Propulsion systems 4.3 Steering systems 4.4 Holds, compartments, and the superstructure 4.5 Equipment 5.1 Hydrostatics 5.2 Hydrodynamics 6.1 Design 6.2 Construction 6.3 Repair and conversion 6.4 End of service
3 Types of ships
5 Design considerations
7 Measuring ships 8 Ship pollution
○ ○ ○ ○
8.1 Oil spills 8.2 Ballast water 8.3 Exhaust emissions 8.4 Ship breaking
• • • •
9 Buoyancy 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References
Main parts of ship. 1: Smokestack or Funnel; 2: Stern; 3: Propeller and Rudder; 4: Portside (the right side is known as starboard); 5: Anchor; 6: Bulbous bow; 7: Bow; 8: Deck; 9: Superstructure For more details on this topic, see Glossary of nautical terms. Ships can usually be distinguished from boats based on size and the ship's ability to operate independently for extended periods. A commonly used rule of thumb is that if one vessel can carry another, the larger of the two is a ship. As dinghies are common on sailing yachts as small as 35 feet (10.67 m), this rule of thumb is not foolproof. In a more technical and now rare sense, the term ship refers to a sailing ship with at least 3 square-rigged masts and a full bowsprit, with lesser ships described by their sailplan (e.g. barque, brigantine, etc.). A number of large vessels are traditionally referred to as boats. Submarines are a prime example. Other types of large vessels which are traditionally called boats are the Great Lakes freighter, the riverboat, and the ferryboat. Though large enough to carry their own boats and heavy cargoes, these vessels are designed for operation on inland or protected coastal waters. In most maritime traditions, ships have an individual name, and modern ships may belong to a ship class often named after its first ship. In English, a ship is traditionally referred to as "she", even if named after a man, but as of the 2000s this figure of speech is in decline and journalistic style guides advise to use "it".
Further information: Maritime history
 Prehistory and antiquity
A raft is among the simplest boat designs. The history of boats parallels the human adventure. The first known boats date back to the Neolithic Period, about 10,000 years ago. These early vessels had limited function: they
could move on water, but that was it. They were used mainly for hunting and fishing. The oldest dugout canoes found by archaeologists were often cut from coniferous tree logs, using simple stone tools. By around 3000 BC, Ancient Egyptians already knew how to assemble wooden planks into a hull. They used woven straps to lash the planks together, and reeds or grass stuffed between the planks helped to seal the seams. The Greek historian and geographer Agatharchides had documented ship-faring among the early Egyptians: "During the prosperous period of the Old Kingdom, between the 30th and 25th centuries B. C., the riverroutes were kept in order, and Egyptian ships sailed the Red Sea as far as the myrrhcountry." Sneferu's ancient cedar wood ship Praise of the Two Lands is the first reference recorded (2613 BCE) to a ship being referred to by name. By about 2000 BC, Minoan civilization in Crete had evolved into a naval power exercising effective control of the sea in the eastern Mediterranean. It is known that ancient Nubia/Axum traded with India, and there is evidence that ships from Northeast Africa may have sailed back and forth between India/Sri Lanka and Nubia trading goods and even to Persia, Himyar and Rome. Aksum was known by the Greeks for having seaports for ships from Greece and Yemen. Elsewhere in Northeast Africa, the Periplus of the Red Sea reports that Somalis, through their northern ports such as Zeila and Berbera, were trading frankincense and other items with the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula well before the arrival of Islam as well as with then Roman-controlled Egypt. The ancient Egyptians were perfectly at ease building sailboats. A remarkable example of their shipbuilding skills was the Khufu ship, a vessel 143 feet (44 m) in length entombed at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza around 2500 BC and found intact in 1954. According to Herodotus, the Egyptians made the first circumnavigation of Africa around 600 BC. The Phoenicians and Greeks gradually mastered navigation at sea aboard triremes, exploring and colonizing the Mediterranean via ship. Around 340 BC, the Greek navigator Pytheas of Massalia ventured from Greece to Western Europe and Great Britain. In the course of the 2nd century BC, Rome went on to destroy Carthage and subdue the Hellenistic kingdoms of the eastern Mediterranean, achieving complete mastery of the inland sea, that they called Mare Nostrum. The monsoon wind system of the Indian Ocean was first sailed by Greek navigator Eudoxus of Cyzicus in 118 BC. With 300 Greek ships a year sailing between Roman Empire and India, the annual trade may have reached 300,000 tons. In China, by the time of the Zhou Dynasty ship technologies such as stern mounted rudders were developed, and by the Han Dynasty, a well kept naval fleet was an integral part of the military. Ship technology advanced to the point where by the medieval period, water tight compartments were developed.
Roman trireme mosaic from Carthage, Bardo Museum, Tunis.
Boats soon developed into keel boats similar to today's wooden pleasure craft. This absence of technology did not prevent some civilizations from becoming sea powers. Affixed to the top of a pole set upright in a boat. The first navigators began to use animal skins or woven fabrics as sails.000 years ago. navigational technology remained comparatively primitive. At about the same time. 1571. and likely also imported goods brought to Africa through the Southeast African shore trade of Kilwa in modern-day Tanzania. which allowed the size of boats to gradually be increased. allowing. naval engagement between allied Christian forces and the Ottoman Turks. In China. and the Byzantine navy.The Swahili people had various extensive trading ports dotting the coast of medieval East Africa and Great Zimbabwe had extensive trading contacts with Central Africa. Before the introduction of the compass. Examples include the maritime republics of Genoa and Venice. these sails gave early ships range. people living near Kongens Lyngby in Denmark invented the segregated hull. A replica of the carrack Santa María of Christopher Columbus . Hanseatic League. Arabic sources describe what some consider to be visits to the New World by a Mali fleet in 1311. The Battle of Lepanto. trade in the Baltic Sea and plunder many of the coastal regions of Western Europe. This allowed men to explore widely. It is known by historians that at its height the Mali Empire built a large naval fleet under Emperor Mansa Musa in the late 13th and early 14th century. The true mariner's compass. using a pivoting needle in a dry box. early versions of the magnetic compass were being developed and used in navigation between 1040 and 1117. was invented in Europe no later than 1300. for example the settlement of Oceania about 3. The Vikings used their knarrs to explore North America.  Renaissance Until the Renaissance. celestial navigation was the main method for navigation at sea.
the caravel. the turtle ship. based on the Arabic qarib which could sail closer to the wind. Venetia. in 1588. Hobyo and their respective ports flourished. It is likely that the Mongols of the time took advantage of both European and Asian shipbuilding techniques. During the Age of the Ajuuraan. Egypt. Model of a medieval Mogadishan ship. wheat. Barbosa also highlighted the abundance of meat. and the artillery associated with it. Barawa. India. barley. the use of freeboard and freeing ports become widespread on galleons. . as in the carrack Santa María of Christopher Columbus. was also developed. These towers decreased the vessel's stability. Middle Age Swahili Kingdoms are known to have had trade port islands and trade routes with the Islamic world and Asia and were described by Greek historians as "metropolises". Duarte Barbosa noted that many ships from the Kingdom of Cambaya in what is modern-day India sailed to Mogadishu with cloth and spices. became more widely used. A Japanese atakebune from the 16th century In the 16th century. and in the 15th century. designed by the Portuguese. Japan used defensive naval techniques in the Mongol invasions of Japan in 1281. This increased freeboard allowed another innovation: the freeing port. by defeating the Spanish Armada. including the atakebune. Persia. one of the world's first iron-clads. The towers were gradually replaced by the forecastle and sterncastle. for which they in return received gold. Elsewhere in Korea in the 15th century. enjoying a lucrative foreign commerce with ships sailing to and coming from Arabia. In Japan. and fruit on the coastal markets.Towards the end of the 14th century. Mogadishu. China's Ming Dynasty assembled one of the largest and most powerful naval fleet in the world for the diplomatic and power projection voyages of Zheng He. At this time. horses. by coastal fleets of several hundred boats. in part. the Somali sultanates and republics of Merca. wax and ivory. ships like the carrack began to develop towers on the bow and stern. Portugal and as far away as China. during the Sengoku era from the fifteenth to 17th century. the great struggle for feudal supremacy was fought. During the 15th century. which generated enormous wealth for the merchants. ships were developing in Asia in much the same way as Europe. In the 16th century. The English modified their vessels to maximize their firepower and demonstrated the effectiveness of their doctrine.
who explored the Portuguese and Spanish trade routes into the Pacific Ocean. In 1498. A major sea power. with historical evidence. This has led to great speculation. Fifty years before Christopher Columbus. The largest of his ships had nine masts.  Specialization and modernization The British HMS Sandwich fires to the French flagship Bucentaure (completely dismasted) into battle off Trafalgar. Zanzibar. Chinese navigator Zheng He traveled the world at the head of what was for the time a huge armada.000 men aboard 70 vessels. while in the 18th century it was British explorer James Cook who mapped much of Polynesia. In the 17th century Dutch explorers such as Abel Tasman explored the coasts of Australia. Ferdinand Magellan led the first expedition that circumnavigated the globe in 1519-1522. with the goal of bringing glory to the Chinese emperor. In the 14th century CE King Abubakari I. The carrack and then the caravel were developed in Iberia. and Kilwa were known to Chinese sailors such as Zheng He and medieval Islamic historians such as the Berber Islamic voyager Abu Abdullah ibn Battua. The Bucentaure also fights HMS Victory (behind her) and HMS . This is corroborated by ibn Battuta himself who recalls several hundred Malian ships off the coast. Replica of Magellan’s Victoria. the brother of King Mansa Musa of the Mali Empire is thought to have had a great armada of ships sitting on the coast of West Africa.Famous African trade ports such as Mombasa. European exploration rapidly accelerated.000 merchant ships. England and the Netherlands. by reaching India. nearly two hundred years before Christopher Columbus and that black traders may have been in the Americas before Columbus. These explorations in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans were soon followed by France. reaching Australia in 1606 and New Zealand in 1642. Vasco da Gama proved that the access to the Indian Ocean from the Atlantic was possible. were 130 metres (430 ft) long and had a beam of 55 metres (180 ft). His fleet carried 30. After Columbus. and many new trade routes were established. the Dutch in 1650 owned 16. that it is possible that Malian sailors may have reached the coast of Pre-Columbian America under the rule of Abubakari II.
This type of ship became the backbone of all European fighting fleets. Mercantile trade went hand-in-hand with exploration. Still primarily a coastal endeavor. These ships were 56 metres (184 ft) long and their construction required 2.Temeraire (left side of the picture). This difficulty is increased by the fact that the terms such as sloop and frigate are used by old and new ships alike. Factors including the quest for more efficient ships. they carried a crew of about 800 sailors and soldiers. fishing is largely practiced by individuals with little other money using small boats. towed by draft animals on an adjacent towpath. ships in service of marine fishery and trade also developed in the period between antiquity and the Renaissance. HMS Sandwich never fought at Trafalgar.800 oak trees and 40 kilometres (25 mi) of rope. the French Navy began to develop a new type of vessel known as a ship of the line. the painter. it's a mistake from Auguste Mayer. A clipper was a very fast sailing ship of the 19th century. also began to appear. and continued to map the world. and research. In fact. and the opening of the Suez and Panama Canals. and often the modern vessels sometimes have little in common with their predecessors. RMS Titanic departs from Southampton. new mechanical methods of propulsion. Maritime trade was driven by the development of shipping companies with significant financial resources. During the first half of the 18th century. In light of this. acted to suppress piracy.  Today . contended with the railway up to and past the early days of the industrial revolution. the end of long running and wasteful maritime conflicts. military. featuring seventy-four guns. such as firefighting. Parallel to the development of warships. trade. Ships built for entirely new functions. self-financed by the commercial benefits of exploration. The clipper route fell into commercial disuse with the introduction of steam ships. The industrial revolution. and the increased financial capacity of industrial powers created an avalanche of more specialized boats and ships. Canal barges. Her sinking would tighten safety regulations During the 19th century the Royal Navy enforced a ban on the slave trade. Even using very broad functional classifications such as fishery. and exploration fails to classify most of the old ships. Ship designs stayed fairly unchanged until the late 19th century. and the ability to construct ships from metal triggered an explosion in ship design. rescue. classification of vessels by type or function can be difficult. Flat-bottomed and flexible scow boats also became widely used for transporting small cargoes.
a sum that grew by 8% over the previous year.600.660 tons and China 402.882 commercial vessels with gross tonnage of more than 1. 39% of these ships are tankers. The geographic origin of the vessel. wood. Motorships are ships which use internal combustion engines as a means to propel themselves. 26% are bulk carriers. not counting small vessels such as patrol boats. the gondolas of Venice. Steamships are ships which are propelled by steam engines.35 million tons. such as the pinnace of Northern Europe. one of the largest container ships in the world. aluminum. As of 2004. and sails. and plastic.240 warships operating in the world. ships are classified using the first four of those categories.000 tons. mechanical. fiberglass. but the smallest are legion. giving categories like monohull.000 tonnes (84. One classification is based on propulsion. giving categories like dinghy. owned and operated by Hapag-Lloyd of Germany In 2007. triremes of Ancient Greece. mainly because there are so many criteria to base classification on. there were 1. The size of the world's fishing fleet is more difficult to estimate.The Colombo Express. The 20th century saw many naval engagements during the two world wars.000 LT. the United Kingdom 504. The manufacturer. commercial vessels.04 billion tons.  Commercial vessels Main article: Commercial vessel .800. and one for vessels which fall outside these categories. 94. The world's major powers have recently used their naval power in cases such as the United Kingdom in the Falkland Islands and the United States in Iraq. fishing boats. In terms of tonnage.  Types of ships See also: List of types of naval vessels and List of boat types Ships are difficult to classify. many vessels are associated with a particular region. the world's fleet included 34.830 tons. The same study estimated that the world's 29 million fishermen caught 85. and the junks of China. catamaran. This system includes military ships. The epoch in which the vessel was used. These ships carried 7. or class. the Cold War. giving human-propelled.000 ST) of fish and shellfish that year. Fishing vessels can be found in most seaside villages in the world. with ships categorised as either a sailing ship a Steamship or a motorship. Motorships include ships that propel itself through the use of both sail and mechanical means. The type of propulsion system used. and the rise to power of naval forces of the two blocs. as described by Paulet and Presles. totaling 1. The shape and size. Other classification systems exist that use criteria such as: • • • • • • The number of hulls. giving steel. Russia 1.4 billion tons of cargo in 2006. keelboat. • Another way to categorize ships and boats is based on their use. The United States accounted for 3 million tons worth of these vessels. and adding a section for lake and river boats. The building materials used. trimaran. Sailing ships are ships which are propelled solely by means of sails. men of war in the 18th century.400. 17% container ships and 15% were other types. the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimated 4 million fishing vessels were operating worldwide. series. In 2002. and icebreaker. The largest of these are counted as commercial vessels. pleasure craft and competitive boats. In this section.
and special-purpose ships. passenger ships. Commercial vessels are typically powered by a single propeller driven by a diesel engine. or driven aboard as in roll-on roll-off ships. for example scientists aboard research vessels. . and cruise ships. which carry passengers on one-way trips. Modern naval vessels can be broken down into three categories: warships. research vessels. although smaller shipments may be carried on container ships in tank containers. Examples include tugboats. This type of vessel includes ferries. Most commercial vessels have full hull-forms to maximize cargo capacity. submarines. rescue boats. Commercial vessels generally have a crew headed by a captain. packed directly onto a general cargo ship in break-bulk. Hulls are usually made of steel. Passenger ships range in size from small river ferries to giant cruise ships. cable ships.  Naval vessels Main article: Naval ship American aircraft carrier Harry S.Two modern container ships in San Francisco Commercial vessels or merchant ships can be divided into three broad categories: cargo ships. such as oil tankers. survey vessels. Cargo ships transport dry and liquid cargo. packed in intermodal containers as aboard a container ship.  Vessels which operate at the higher end of the speed spectrum may use pump-jet engines or sometimes gas turbine engines. and ice breakers. and support and auxiliary vessels. pilot boats. Truman and a replenishment ship There are many types of naval vessels currently and through history. which move passengers and vehicles on short trips. and fiberglass on the smallest service vessels. although aluminum can be used on faster craft. chemical tankers and LNG tankers. Special-purpose vessels often have specialized crew if necessary. with deck officers and marine engineers on larger vessels. ocean liners. Liquid cargo is generally carried in bulk aboard tankers. which typically transport passengers on roundtrip voyages promoting leisure activities aboard and in the ports they visit. Dry cargo can be transported in bulk by bulk carriers. Special-purpose vessels are not used for transport but are designed to perform other specific tasks.
frigates. the Russian Federation. They can be categorized by several criteria: architecture. submarines also became able to effectively hunt each other. Most navies also include many types of support and auxiliary vessels. As of 2004. geographical origin. 94. corvettes. Combat vessels like cruisers and destroyers usually have fine hulls to maximize speed and maneuverability.800. such as minesweepers. submarines and amphibious assault ships. For example. better sonar systems. but two-thirds of the open vessels were traditional craft propelled by sails and oars. Fishing boats are generally small. and nuclear propulsion. Most military submarines are either attack submarines or ballistic missile submarines. inserting and removing covert agents and military forces. patrol boats. trawlers have winches and arms. Until the end of World War II . In 2004. Spain or the United States of America. The development of submarinelaunched nuclear missiles and submarine-launched cruise missiles gave submarines a substantial and long-ranged ability to attack both land and sea targets with a variety of weapons ranging from cluster bombs to nuclear weapons. More than 60% of all existing large fishing vessels were built in Japan. They also usually have advanced electronics and communication systems.3 million were decked vessels with enclosed areas and the rest were open vessels. Most decked vessels were mechanized. and hospital ships which are designated medical treatment facilities. and intelligence-gathering.  Fishing vessels Main article: Fishing vessels The Albatun Dos. a tuna boat at work near Victoria. which are: aircraft carriers. stern-trawlers have a rear ramp. Anchoveta represented the largest single catch at . as well as weapons. offshore patrol vessels. Aboard a fish processing vessel. the type of fish they catch.Modern warships are generally divided into seven main categories. 1. often little more than 30 meters (98 ft) but up to 100 metres (330 ft) for a large tuna or whaling ship. With the development of the homing torpedo. but generally small in size and often subject to different regulations and classification. cruisers. the catch can be made ready for market and sold more quickly once the ship makes port. the primary role of the diesel/electric submarine was anti-ship warfare. but are not in current service with any navy in the world.600. and tuna seiners have skiffs. Battleships encompass an eighth category. and technical features such as rigging.000 tonnes (84. Special purpose vessels have special gear.000 ST) of fish were caught in the marine capture fishery.400.000 LT. the fishing method used. replenishment ships. Of these. Peru. the world's fishing fleet consisted of some 4 million vessels. 85. destroyers. Seychelles Fishing vessels are a subset of commercial vessels.
 Beginning in the 1970s.000 ST).800. such as tropical cyclones.  Other species including salmon. It was also meant to aid in search and rescue operations and to support transatlantic flights.10.000 LT. and Yellowfin tuna. Proposed as early as 1927 by the aviation community. Skipjack tuna.  Weather vessels Main article: Weather ship The weather ship MS Polarfront at sea. shrimp. Atlantic herring. returning back to port for 10 day stretches. This number was eventually negotiated down to nine. Another is trawling. their role became largely superseded by weather buoys due to the ships' significant cost. They were also helpful in monitoring storms at sea. One is fishing by nets. Another method is the use of fishing trap. Their crews were normally out to sea for three weeks at a time.000 tonnes (10.500. The last weather ship was Polarfront. Japanese anchovy. clams. Modern commercial fishermen use many methods. squid and crab. gillnets. Hooks and lines are used in methods like long-line fishing and hand-line fishing. The removal of a weather ship became a negative factor in forecasts leading up to the Great Storm of 1987. The agreement of the use of weather ships by the international community ended in 1990. Weather ship observations proved to be helpful in wind and wave studies. which was put out of operation on 1 January 2010. Largehead hairtail. are also commercially fished. Surface weather observations were taken hourly. the top ten marine capture species also included Alaska pollock. Weather observations from ships continue from a fleet of voluntary merchant vessels in routine commercial operation. known as weather station M ("Mike"). such as purse seine.  Inland and coastal boats See also: Riverboat and Barge . or entangling nets. lobster. A weather ship was a ship stationed in the ocean as a platform for surface and upper air meteorological observations for use in weather forecasting. Chub mackerel. and four radiosonde releases occurred daily. including bottom trawl. with 13 to be supplied by the United States. lift nets. the establishment of weather ships proved to be so useful during World War II that the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) established a global network of weather ships in 1948. beach seine.700. Blue whiting. 11. as they did not avoid weather systems like other ships tended to for safety reasons. Chilean jack mackerel. That year.
Riverboats and inland ferries are specially designed to carry passengers. Similarly. Riverboats can survive with this type of configuration as they do not have to withstand the high winds or large waves that are seen on large lakes. cargo. Other characteristics are common. built in 1906 as the William P Snyder. all were over 20 years of age. lakers tend to last much longer than ocean freighters. Michigan. but not as . Lakers older than 50 years are not unusual. rivers and canals. with a low freeboard and high topsides. the largest lakers are confined to the Upper Lakes (Superior. Since the freshwater lakes are less corrosive to ships than the salt water of the oceans. Mary's Challenger. Because the smallest of the Soo Locks is larger than any Seaway lock. and route flexibility of rail transport. not ships. and often floating or sunken logs and trees (called snags) can endanger the hulls and propulsion of riverboats. Barges towed along canals by draft animals on an adjacent towpath contended with the railway in the early industrial revolution but were out competed in the carriage of high value items because of the higher speed. The St. most barges are not self-propelled and need to be moved by tugboats towing or towboats pushing them. As of 2007 the Ford was still afloat as a stationary transfer vessel at a riverside cement silo in Saginaw. Every vessel has a hull of sorts. Rivers present special hazards to vessels.M. the latest major vessel to be wrecked on the Lakes. These are the vessels that trade upon the lakes. "topping off" when they have exited the Seaway. Riverboats are generally of shallow draft. or a nuclear reactor. very large salties are never seen inland of the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Flat-bottomed boats built to transport heavy goods. Changing siltation patterns may cause the sudden appearance of shoal waters. The most wellknown is the SS Edmund Fitzgerald. falling costs. and as of 2005. or both in the challenging river environment. also called lakers. salties that can pass through the Seaway may travel anywhere in the Great Lakes. They usually have varying water flows that alternately lead to high speed water flows or protruding rock hazards. are cargo vessels that ply the Great Lakes. an ox. being broad of beam and rather square in plan. Michigan. is the oldest laker still working on the Lakes. Barges are a prime example of inland vessels. Visiting ocean-going vessels are called "salties. Lake freighters. seas. Ford." Because of their additional beam. built in 1898 as the Presque Isle.  Architecture Further information: Naval architecture Some components exist in vessels of any size and purpose. Similarly. whether it's a pole. These vessels are traditionally called boats. Erie) because they are too large to use the Seaway locks. the E. Most vessels have some sort of steering system. was sailing the lakes 98 years later in 1996.Passenger ship of Köln-Düsseldorfer on the river Rhine Many types of boats and ships are designed for inland and coastal waterways. or oceans. Huron. Because of their deeper draft. beginning at the Welland Canal that bypasses the Niagara River. salties may accept partial loads on the Great Lakes. Every vessel has some sort of propulsion.
and many hulls have a flat back known as a transom. A vessel may have a single hull (called a monohull design). and composite materials are often found in sailboats and pleasure craft. such as compartments. holds. rudders for steering. The keel is at the very bottom of the hull. such as fishing gear and sonar domes. extending the entire length of the ship.  Propulsion systems A ship's engineroom . as illustrated by this reefer ship in bad weather. Vessels with more than three hulls are rare. and equipment such as anchors and winches. Multiple hulls are generally parallel to each other and connected by rigid arms. Common hull appendages include propellers for propulsion. Hulls are subject to various hydrostatic and hydrodynamic constraints. or three in the case of trimarans. The key hydrostatic constraint is that it must be able to support the entire weight of the boat. Other hull features can be related to the vessel's work. For a ship to float. and maintain stability even with often unevenly distributed weight. The rear part of the hull is known as the stern. Many ships feature a bulbous bow. There are many types of hulls. from logs lashed together to form a raft to the advanced hulls of America's Cup sailboats. a superstructure.universal. weather collisions and groundings. Older ships and pleasure craft often have or had wooden hulls. Hulls have several elements. Some ships have been made with concrete hulls. Aluminium is frequently used for fast vessels. its weight must be less than that of the water displaced by the ship's hull. but some experiments have been conducted with designs such as pentamarans. Steel is used for most commercial vessels. two in the case of catamarans. and stabilizers to quell a ship's rolling motion. Hydrodynamic constraints include the ability to withstand shock waves.  The hull A ship's hull endures harsh conditions at sea. The bow is the foremost part of the hull.
These electric systems are often more energy efficient than other systems where the engine is mechanically connected to the propeller. and gas turbine engines on faster ships. Some propulsion systems are inherently steering systems. the bow thruster. a steering system becomes necessary. and nozzle-style propellers. rotorsails. and the superstructure Larger boats and ships generally have multiple decks and compartments. Smaller vessels tend to have a single propeller. or electro-hydraulic systems. Autopilot systems combine mechanical rudders with navigation systems.  Steering systems The rudder and propeller on a newly built ferry For ships with independent propulsion systems for each side. supported by stays and spars and controlled by ropes. Steam engines were first used for this purpose. sailing. controllablepitch. a submerged plane located at the rear of the hull.6 m).Main article: Marine propulsion Propulsion systems for ships fall into three categories: human propulsion. Fishing boats and cargo ships . outboard motors. Large vessels use multiple propellers. and mechanical propulsion. Sail systems were the dominant form of propulsion until the 19th century. are used more for steering than propulsion. compartments. such as manual oars or some paddles. contra-rotating. Mechanical propulsion systems generally consist of a motor or engine turning a propeller. manual wheels. Some sails. Power is transmitted from the engine to the propeller by way of a propeller shaft. but have mostly been replaced by two-stroke or four-stroke diesel engines. Ducted propellers are sometimes used for steering. such as boats propelled by engines or sails.  Holds. In most designs. Examples include the outboard motor. There are many variations of propeller systems. such as jibs and the mizzen sail on a ketch rig. Human propulsion includes rowing. supplemented with bow. They are now generally used for recreation and competition. including twin. which may or may not be connected to a gearbox. an impeller or wave propulsion fins. and wingsails have been used on larger modern vessels for fuel savings. usually powered by generators.and stern-thrusters. Nuclear reactors producing steam are used to propel warships and icebreakers. such as the turbosails. Rudders can be rotated by a tiller. Propulsion by sail generally consists of a sail hoisted on an erect mast. which was used even on large galleys. and there have been attempts to utilize them to power commercial vessels (see NS Savannah). or less frequently. and the Z-drive. Separate berthings and heads are found on sailboats over about 25 feet (7. steering systems may not be necessary. The most common is a rudder. although experimental sail systems. Rudders are rotated to generate a lateral force which turns the boat. Some modern vessels use electric motors connected directly to the propeller shaft.
navigation lights. On passenger ships and warships. engine oil. a galley. they are almost always located near the ship's stern. can operate in a non-displacement mode. area of operation. design. the boat floats. For non-displacement craft such as hovercraft and air-cushion vehicles. like the LCAC. • A vessel is in equilibrium when the upwards and downwards forces are of equal magnitude. Cargo equipment such as cranes and cargo booms are used to load and unload cargo and ship's stores. until the vessel is foilborne. Safety equipment such as lifeboats. and similar devices often required by law. liferafts. and survival suits are carried aboard many vessels for emergency use. Anchors are used to moor ships in shallow water. On modern cargo ships. On larger vessels. known as displacement vessels. and purpose. When the two forces are equal.typically have one or more cargo holds. fog signals. They are connected to the ship by a rope or chain. such as the hydrofoil. Ballast tanks are equipped to change a ship's trim and modify its stability. Superstructures are found above the main deck. it floats without trim or heel. the vessel is suspended over the water by a cushion of high-pressure air it projects downwards against the surface of the water. and anchors. As a vessel is lowered into the water its weight remains constant but the corresponding weight of water displaced by its hull increases. If weight is evenly distributed throughout the vessel. Most larger vessels have an engine room. Boats and ships are kept on (or slightly above) the water in three ways: • • For most vessels. • •  Design considerations  Hydrostatics Some vessels. For planing ships and boats. radar transponders. these are usually very low. Tanks are used to store fuel. and fresh water. and various compartments for work. On sailboats. Ground tackle includes equipment such as mooring winches. the vessel's weight is offset by that of the water displaced by the hull. the lift developed by the movement of the foil through the water increases with the vessel's speed. the superstructure generally extends far forward. windlasses.  Equipment Shipboard equipment varies from ship to ship depending on such factors as the ship's era. the chain runs through a hawsepipe. . Some types of equipment that are widely found include: • • Masts can be the home of antennas.
Stability problems can lead to excessive pitching and rolling. and the hull actually settles slightly in the water as it is now only supported by two wave peaks. This resistance can be broken down into several components. Advanced designs such as the bulbous bow assist in decreasing wave resistance. and the stern is no longer supported by the wake. This results in an exponential increase in resistance with increasing speed. . Antifouling paint is commonly used to assist in this. it is prohibitively expensive to do so. in metric units: where L is the length of the waterline in feet or meters. the wave rapidly dissipates to the sides. in essence.34. Since the water is not able to "get out of the way of the hull fast enough". the hull speed. A simple way of considering wave-making resistance is to look at the hull in relation to its wake. and eventually capsizing and sinking. and resistance begins to increase at a very high rate. and so it grows in amplitude. the wavelength is now longer than the hull. As the vessel exceeds a speed/length ratio of 1. causing the stern to squat. and the bow rise. the main ones being the friction of the water on the hull and wave making resistance.34. At speeds lower than the wave propagation speed. The hull is now starting to climb its own bow wave. the wake at the bow begins to build up faster than it can dissipate. and the action of waves and wind. when subjected to movement. the hull. The friction of the water is also reduced by regular maintenance of the hull to remove the sea creatures and algae that accumulate there. To do so. at speed/length ratios of under 1. it starts to outrun most of its bow wave. high-speed vessels are often more slender. has to climb over or push through the bow wave. with fewer or smaller appendages. When the vessel exceeds a speed/length ratio of 0. This hull speed is found by the formula: or.  Hydrodynamics Fishing boat Dona Delfina The advance of a vessel through water is resisted by the water.0. Most large vessels operate at speed/length ratios well below that level. however. rolling and pitching.94. As the hull approaches the wave propagation speed. it is necessary to reduce the wetted surface and use submerged hull shapes that produce low amplitude waves. While it is possible to drive a displacement hull faster than a speed/length ratio of 1.A vessel's stability is considered in both this hydrostatic sense as well as a hydrodynamic sense. To reduce resistance and therefore increase the speed for a given power.
4. operators. Vessels are also subject to ocean surface waves and sea swell as well as effects of wind and weather. and construction blueprints to be used at the building site. 5. Then. yaw. ships must change course or speed to stop violent rolling or pitching. assess required dimensions. pitch. the designer can iterate on the ship's design. which a naval architect uses to create a project outline.can be disassmbled or disposed easily and that waste is reduced to a minimum. Then the ship is constructed in a shipyard. the architect can create an initial hull design. a phenomenon called pounding. and create a basic layout of spaces and a rough displacement. and plumbing and ventilation plans. the design phase carried out by a naval architect. and must be controlled if possible. sway. to an extent. Ships end their careers in a number of ways. roll For large projects with adequate funding. adding detail and refining the design at each stage.Vessels move along the three axes: 1. Pitching movement is more difficult to limit and can be dangerous if the bow submerges in the waves. surge. 6. the details of which can vary widely based on relationships between the shipowners. electrical schematics. ship designers need to create their design in such a way that the ship -when it nears its end-of-term. After this initial rough draft. At this stage. . heave. a general specification describing the peculiarities of the vessel.  Lifecycle A ship will pass through several stages during its career. ranging from shipwrecks to service as a museum ship to the scrapyard. 2. Lines plan for the hull of a basic cargo ship  Design See also: Naval architecture A vessel's design starts with a specification. Designs for larger or more complex vessels may also include sail plans. The rolling movement can be controlled. a general profile and an initial overview of the ship's propulsion. the vessel is launched and goes into service. As environmental laws are strictening. The first is usually an initial contract to build the ship. After construction. These movements can be stressful for passengers and equipment. by ballasting or by devices such as fin stabilizers. designers and the shipyard. hydrodynamic resistance can be tested experimentally in a hull testing pool or using tools of computational fluid dynamics. 3. Sometimes. The designer will typically produce an overall plan.
and can last from a few months for a unit produced in series.  Construction Main article: Shipbuilding Ship construction takes place in a shipyard. and on vessels over about 30 meters (98 ft). a supertanker around $105 million and a large LNG carrier nearly $200 million. A ship's cost partly depends on its complexity: a small. and about $2. while the steel hull of a cargo ship is made from large sections welded together as they are built. general cargo ship will cost $20 million. can be done after the vessel is afloat. $1. it is launched. Southern India Generally.000. and a 1. the vessel is delivered to the customer. to several years to reconstruct a wooden boat like the frigate Hermione. This is done in a drydock or on land. A typical small rowboat can cost under US$100. Hull materials and vessel size play a large part in determining the method of construction.000 for a Vendée Globe class sailboat. Once completed. such as raising the superstructure and adding equipment and accommodation. The hull of a mass-produced fiberglass sailboat is constructed from a mold.MS Freedom of the Seas under construction in a shipyard in Turku. The last stages. tens of thousands of dollars for a cruising sailboat.5 million. The most expensive ships generally are so because of the cost of embedded electronics: a . A ship launching at the Northern Shipyard in Gdansk. to more than 10 years for an aircraft carrier.000-person-capacity high-speed passenger ferry can cost in the neighborhood of $50 million. by the laying of the keel. a Panamax-sized bulk carrier around $35 million. construction starts with the hull. Ship launching is often a ceremony of some significance. and is usually when the vessel is formally named. Poland A shipyard at Kerala. A 25 meters (82 ft) trawler may cost $2.000 for a small speedboat. Once the hull is assembled and painted.
and rotting compromise hull strength. such as a shipyard. Solid wooden ships can last much longer but require regular maintenance.Seawolf-class submarine costs around $2 billion. or in some cases. whether they be underway. Major repairs to the propulsion and steering systems as well as major electrical systems are also often performed at dry dock. and replacing sacrificial anodes used to protect submerged equipment from corrosion. forces such as corrosion. pierside. osmosis. sandblasting and repainting the hull. and a vessel becomes too dangerous to sail. A ship graveyard in France  End of service Main article: Ship disposal Most ocean-going cargo ships have a life expectancy of between 20 and 30 years. At this point. . Tasks often done at drydock include removing biological growths on the hull. or expended to construct breakwaters or artificial reefs. A sailboat made of plywood or fiberglass can last between 30 and 40 years. in periods of reduced operating status between charters or shipping seasons. require trips to special facilities such as a drydock at regular intervals. As ships age. it can be scuttled at sea or scrapped by shipbreakers. however. Ships may also be converted for a new purpose: oil tankers are often converted into floating production storage and offloading units. and an aircraft carrier goes for about $3.5 billion. Vessels that sustain major damage at sea may be repaired at a facility equipped for major repairs. Most ships.  Repair and conversion An able seaman uses a needlegun scaler while refurbishing a mooring winch at sea Ships undergo nearly constant maintenance during their career. Carefully maintained steel-hulled yachts can have a lifespan of over 100 years. Ships can also be used as museum ships.
beam (breadth). . Plimsoll. the degree to which humans are polluting and how it affects the world is highly debated and has been a hot international topic for the past 30 years. 40. It is expected that." Because of increased traffic in ocean ports. climate. fresh. The pollution produced affects biodiversity.993. “. called the "Plimsoll Line".. and consists of a circle with a horizontal line through the centre. taxation.880.  Oil spills Main article: Oil spill The Exxon Valdez spilled 10. that mark. Anyone who signed on to such a ship for a voyage and. depth (distance between the crown of the weather deck and the top of the keelson). Because different types of water (summer. food. could end up in jail. tropical fresh. To this day.800. In Britain until Samuel Plimsoll's Merchant Shipping Act of 1876. when it reached the surface of the water during loading of cargo. posing an increasing threat to the world’s oceans and waterways as globalization continues. the United Nations estimates. subsequent regulations required painting a group of lines forward of the Plimsoll mark to indicate the safe depth (or freeboard above the surface) to which a specific ship could load in water of various densities.000 L) of oil into Alaska's Prince William Sound.shipping traffic to and from the USA is projected to double by 2020. chose to leave the ship. realised the problem and engaged some engineers to derive a fairly simple formula to determine the position of a line on the side of any specific ship's hull which. a Member of Parliament. resulting in a dangerously unstable condition. length of the ship at the waterline. winter north Atlantic) have different densities. A number of different tonnage definitions exist and are used when describing merchant ships for the purpose of tolls.  Ship pollution Ship pollution is the pollution of air and water by shipping. meant the ship had reached its maximum safe loading level.. ship-owners could load their vessels until their decks were almost awash.  Measuring ships One can measure ships in terms of overall length. collisions. Hence the "ladder" of lines seen forward of the Plimsoll mark to this day. The Allies lost some 5. exists on ships' sides. draft (distance between the highest waterline and the bottom of the ship) and tonnage.Many ships do not make it to the scrapyard. pollution from ships also directly affects coastal areas. This is called the "freeboard mark" or "load line mark" in the marine industry. and are lost in fires. It is a problem that has been accelerating as trade has become increasingly globalized. etc.000 US gallons (8. There are more than 3 million shipwrecks on the ocean floor. However. On the Great Lakes of North America the circle is replaced with a diamond. grounding.000 imp gal.150 ships during World War II. upon realizing the danger. or sinking at sea. and human health.
940. Mnemiopsis leidyi. the United States passed the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA-90). this ballast water is pumped out from these compartments.351 accidental spills since 1974. An oil tanker can carry 2 million barrels (318. susceptibility to disease. or 84.000 imp gal. the European Union passed its own stringent anti-pollution packages (known as Erika I. groundings.000 m3) of crude oil. which included a stipulation that all tankers entering its waters be double-hulled by 2015. The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation has researched 9. Meinesz believes that one of the worst cases of a single invasive species causing harm to an ecosystem can be attributed to a seemingly harmless jellyfish. 91% of the operational oil spills were small.  Ballast water Main article: Ballast water discharge and the environment A cargo ship pumps ballast water over the side When a large vessel such as a container ship or an oil tanker unloads cargo. most spills result from routine operations such as loading cargo. Despite efforts of scientists. and III). a species of comb jellyfish that inhabits estuaries from the United States to the Valdés peninsula in Argentina along the Atlantic coast. over 400. Crude oil contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are very difficult to clean up.800. and last for years in the sediment and marine environment. seawater is pumped into other compartments in the hull to help stabilize and balance the ship.000. 40. managers. Following the sinkings of the Erika (1999) and Prestige (2002). about 1. has caused notable damage in the Black Sea.000 US gallons (8. with 84% of these involving losses of over 700 tons. Spills resulting from accidents like collisions.000 L) of oil into the ocean in March 1989.880. According to this study. and volunteers. discharging cargo. This is more than six times the amount spilled in the widely known Exxon Valdez incident. resulting in less than 7 tons per spill.000. hull failures. and taking on fuel oil.000 US gallons (69. By the sheer amount of oil carried. One of the problems with ballast water transfer is the transport of harmful organisms. and abnormal reproductive cycles. Following the Exxon Valdez spill. and immense numbers of fish were killed. It was first .000 seabirds.000 sea otters. Marine species constantly exposed to PAHs can exhibit developmental problems. which require all tankers entering its waters to be double-hulled by 2010.000 L). The Erika packages are controversial because they introduced the new legal concept of "serious negligence". 318. II. During loading. and explosions are much larger. the ship ran aground and dumped 10. modern oil tankers must be considered something of a threat to the environment. In this spill.993.Oil spills have devastating effects on the environment.000 imp gal.
940 LT) in 1984 to zero in 1993..000 tonnes (13." Ballast and bilge discharge from ships can also spread human pathogens and other harmful diseases and toxins potentially causing health issues for humans and marine life alike. Most ships have a lifespan of a few decades before there is so much wear that refitting and repair becomes uneconomical. by 1988. sprat from 24. causing alterations such as changes in growth.000 LT) in 1984 to 200 tonnes (220 ST. and genetic abnormalities or even death. horse mackerel from 4. 24.as much sulfur as all the cars. tumors.. along with other sources of marine pollution.  Ship breaking Main article: ship breaking Ship breaking or ship demolition is a type of ship disposal involving the breaking up of ships for scrap recycling. Invasive species can take over once occupied areas. animals. . Ship breaking allows materials from the ship. with the hulls being discarded in ship graveyards. up to 40% of air pollution over land could come from ships.S. and thought to have been transported to the Black Sea in a ship’s ballast water. birth defects. 11. Discharges into coastal waters.800 LT) in 1993.100 ST. yet they continue to maintain a stranglehold on the ecosystem. including fish larvae. and disorders resulting in cancer. and microorganisms. alter landscapes and jeopardize the ability of native species to obtain food. lorries and factories in Europe put together. "The anchovy catch fell from 204." Now that the jellyfish have exhausted the zooplankton.introduced in 1982. “.” “By 2010. When inhaled sulfur is known to cause respiratory problems and increase the risk of a heart attack. invasive species are responsible for about 137 billion dollars in lost revenue and management costs in the U. suppression of the immune system.” Sulfur in the air creates acid rain which damages crops and buildings. Recently the jellyfish have been discovered in the Caspian Sea. Exhaust emissions from ships are considered to be a significant source of air pollution.” In Europe ships make up a large percentage of the sulfur introduced to the air. “Seagoing vessels are responsible for an estimated 14 percent of emissions of nitrogen from fossil fuels and 16 percent of the emissions of sulfur from petroleum uses into the atmosphere.410 ST. each year.200 ST. introduce new genetic material.000 tonnes (4.200 LT) in 1984 to 12. 201. it was wreaking havoc upon the local fishing industry. to be reused.  Exhaust emissions Exhaust stack on a container ship. have the potential to be toxic to marine plants.000 tonnes (225. The population of the jellyfish shot up exponentially and.600 tonnes (27. disruption of hormone cycles.000 ST. especially steel. facilitate the spread of new diseases. 3. 197 LT) in 1993. their numbers have fallen dramatically. "On land and in the sea.
in which ship breaking yards are located. the local population and wildlife. have meant that ship-breaking in most developed countries is no longer economically viable. Asbestos was used heavily in ship construction until it was finally banned in most of the developed world in the mid 1980s.  See also Nautical portal Find more about Ships on Wikipedia's sister projects: Definitions from Wiktionary Images and media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity . Aside from the health of the yard workers. have lax or no environmental law. enabling large quantities of highly toxic materials to escape into the environment and causing serious health problems among ship breakers. In the developing world. along with the potentially expensive insurance and health risks. the costs associated with removing asbestos. the mass of the boat (plus contents) as a whole divided by the volume below the waterline is equal to the density of water (1 kg/l). and so the boat sinks a little to compensate. Protective equipment is sometimes absent or inadequate. shipyards can operate without the risk of personal injury lawsuits or workers' health claims. Bangladesh In addition to steel and other useful materials. in recent years. Asbestos and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are typical examples. the volume below the waterline will increase to keep the weight balance equal.  Buoyancy See also: Buoyancy A floating boat displaces its weight in water. If the boat floats. however. Environmental campaign groups such as Greenpeace have made the issue a high priority for their campaigns. ships (particularly older vessels) can contain many substances that are banned or considered dangerous in developed countries. ship breaking has also become an issue of major environmental concern. If weight is added to the boat.Ship breaking near Chittagong. Dangerous vapors and fumes from burning materials can be inhaled. however. but if this is the case then it forms only the outer layer. meaning many of these shipyards may operate with high health risks. Many developing nations. Removing the metal for scrap can potentially cost more than the scrap value of the metal itself. Currently. The material of the boat hull may be denser than water. and dusty asbestos-laden areas around such breakdown locations are commonplace.
News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Airship Chartering (shipping) Dynamic positioning Factory ship Flag State Environmental issues with shipping Ferry Glossary of nautical terms Marine electronics Marine fuel management Maritime history Maritime law Naval architecture Navy Propulsion system Sailing Sailing ship Sailor Ship burial Ship transport Shipwreck Spaceship Train ferry Whaler Ship model Ship model basin Ship replica List of civilian nuclear ships List of fictional ships Model ships Lists • • .
com/? id=2Nu918tYMB8C&pg=PA13&lpg=PA13&dq=medieval+Somali+sailors. Archaeology. See also George. Egyptian boats composed of planks joined by mortises and tenons were found in Dashur. 356.google. ^ Aksum An African Civilization of Late Antiquity by Stuart Munro-Hay 13. 2. ^ Agatharchides. Translated from the Greek and Annotated (1912). 15. The University of North Carolina. http://www." 11. 3.. item # 5393. ^ "Aksum by MSN Encarta". United States Navy. Number 3. New York. and Co.mil/navydata/cno/n87/history/subsaga5.com.org 8. 2003.C. Retrieved 2008-10-03. ^ a b c Ward. 15th edition. Slate Magazine. pages 50 (for attribution) and 57 (for quote). in Wilfred Harvey Schoff (Secretary of the Commercial Museum of Philadelphia) with a foreword by W.• • • • • • List of historical ship types List of ships List of shipwrecks List of the world's largest cruise ships List of world's largest ships by gross tonnage List of world's longest ships  Notes 1. ^ Cutler 1999.google. ISBN 9780313313332. Books.html. They consisted of planks joined by ropes passing through mortises. P. May/June 2001)." in Archaeology (Volume 54. Director.html. 6.com/encyclopedia_761564182/aksum. p. Retrieved 4 December 2010. 12. page 385 Reference to a ship with a name appears in an inscription of 2613 BCE that recounts the shipbuilding achievements of the fourthdynasty Egyptian pharaoh Sneferu. ISBN 0-226-10403- 6.navy.msn. Encarta. p.msn. ^ a b c d UNCTAD 2007. and were found in Abydos in 1991. . Wilson. Retrieved 2009-04-21. Cheryl. ^ E. 32.g. Similar boats dating to 2600 B. 10. ^ Cutler 1999. 14. "All at Sea". ^ "The Columbian Exchange". ^ Anzovin. 5.se 9. He was recorded as the builder of a cedarwood vessel called "Praise of the Two Lands. were found in 1954 and 1987 in pits at the Great Pyramid of Khufu in Giza. http://encarta.C. The Philadelphia Museums. 620. Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century. "The Saga of the Submarine: Early Years to the Beginning of Nuclear Power". See: ABC. x and p. http://books. Retrieved 2009-04-21. In 1894.com/id/2274626/entry/2274627/. 611. Sc.slate.. Aksum by MSN Encarta. 2001. p. New York: Longmans. The Chicago Manual of Style. 7. http://www.com. Archaeological Institute of America. ^ Chief of Naval Operations (March 2001). Rose (29 November 2010). 4. p. ^ "Minoan civilization". ^ Chisholm. Green. ^ The earliest known Egyptian boats date to 3000 B. "World's Oldest Planked Boats. Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ Cultures and Customs of Somalia. 1911:703.
^ East Africa and its Invaders pg..co. Fordham.” The American Historical Review.edu 20.co.com/? id=vLzp_zs1t6cC&pg=PA245&lpg=PA245&dq=Swahili+trade+ports.bbc. ^ "West African Kingdoms". ^ Joan Baxter (13 December 2000). "Maritime exploration in the age of discovery. ISBN 9780253340061. UNESCO. ^ Frederic C. Retrieved 2009-04-21.kurahulanda.metmuseum. ^ "Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-1354". Digital History.edu. 1415-1800". 32. Metmuseum. BBC News. Bbc. Retrieved 2009-04-21. Ronald S. p.shtml. 24. 3. Books. Retrieved 2009-04-21. “The Economic Meaning of the Invention of the Compass. ^ "Africa's 'greatest explorer' by BBC".co. Retrieved 2009-04-21. Retrieved 2009-04-21.uk. http://news. 2. No. Greenwood Publishing Group. Silliman. 28.com/west- african-kingdoms/west-african.615ff. No.uk/2/hi/africa/1924318. Retrieved 2009-04-21.16.google. http://news. ^ Auguste Mayer's picture as described by the official website of the Musée national de la Marine (in French) 38. ^ Africa's Part in the Discovery of America by the New York Times 33. ^ Chisholm. http://www. ^ "Tanzanian dig unearths ancient secret by Tira Shubart". 45. ISBN 9781405107518. 31. ^ "The Middle Colonies: New York". Stephen W. Lane.bbc.” Isis. Ivey Business Journal. 27. 29. "Africa's 'greatest explorer'".com. 17.fordham. ^ Journal of African History pg.50 by John Donnelly Fage and Roland Anthony Oliver 25.co. Aimant et Boussole. 21. Historical Archaeology.bbc. Retrieved 2009-04-21.181 22.org/toah/ht/06/sfe/ht06sfe.. http://www.google. 1911:284. ^ UNCTAD 2007. http://books. 35. Discovery Channel. ^ "The Story of Africa". (2006).+trade+port.uk/2/hi/africa/1068950. 19.utsa. Kurahulanda. 2001-02-21. ^ "The Origins of Globalization".stm. ^ "The European Golden Age of Shipping". . 2006. p. http://news.uk/2/hi/africa/1068950.stm. BBC News. Greenwood guides to historic events. 30. ISBN 0313320438 36. ^ Hall.edu/halsall/source/1354-ibnbattuta. Books. ^ Greatest emporium in the world. BBC News. 37.com/? id=cmaTt05CJ3wC&pg=PA242&lpg=PA242&dq=Great+Zimbabwe. 2000-12-13. p. ^ Texancultures. 1500-1900.co.stm.htm. 18.38 26.uk/worldservice/specials/1624_story_of_africa/page82. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 2002-04-17. 1963). ^ "Eastern and Southern Africa 500-1000 AD".html. “Origine de la Boussole 11. 1954). Vol. Retrieved 2008-02-12.google.bbc. (Jul. 1995. 32. ^ Li Shu-hua. ^ Love. http://www.com.org. 68. (Apr. ^ A History of Mozambique. 34. 23.com.. Vol.google. Martin. http://www. CSI. http://books.
ISBN 2-903539-46-4.6. connaissance et pratique. http://books. 51. ^ a b c Malcolm Francis Willoughby. Presles . Jr. 44. Princeton University) 46. 48. Ocean surface waves: their physics and prediction. pp. 53. 45. Dominique.google.com/books? id=ICoDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA121&dq=weather+ship+network+book&hl=en&ei=T A82TaODHYO0lQfD_rn5Cw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0 CFEQ6AEwCDgU#v=onepage&q=weather%20ship%20network%20book&f=false. ^ UNFAO 2005. Retrieved 2011-01-18. http://www. 11. 42. 40.com/books? id=QtkDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA136&lpg=PA136&dq=weather+ship+book&source=b l&ots=OmpRml_kBT&sig=G7QIzrcG4dh7nOfS7BHtVuI7EI&hl=en&ei=dbU1TfnWLIeSgQe7qeiXCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct =result&resnum=9&sqi=2&ved=0CEwQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=weather%20ship %20book&f=false.39. 369–371.S. Massel (1996). "The First Plane to Germany".com/books? id=8sHp9ml7G6YC&pg=PA371&lpg=PA371&dq=weather+ship+book&source=bl& . Paris: Éditions de la Villette. Inc. 49. ^ UNFAO defines a large fishing vessel as one with gross tonnage over 100 GT. Navy Ships".mil/navydata/our_ships. 25. 224. Retrieved 2011-01-18. "U. Coast Guard in World War II. p. June 1948. Popular Science (Popular Science Publishing Company.9.google. 43.Dominique (1999) (in Français). but slightly more detailed classification system. p. 50. Physics of the marine atmosphere. this is the categorization used at United States Navy. ^ Cutter. p. World Scientific. 28. ^ Paulet. p. United States Navy.google. ISBN 9780125936507. Academic Press. ^ a b c UNFAO. ^ UNFAO 2005. http://books.asp. ^ George Lee Dowd. http://books. Architecture navale. 2007. http://books. p. 54. ^ a b "Britain's First Weather Ship". 41. p. 127– 130.) 111 (2): 121. 2007. ^ UNFAO. ^ Stanislaw R. ISBN 9789810221096. 52. ^ Hans Ulrich Roll (1965).google. Retrieved 2011-01-18. Retrieved 2008-04-20.com/books? id=NEuXtdcroDMC&pg=PA14&dq=weather+ship+network+book&hl=en&ei=F_o1 TZqVM8P7lwfvtNDCCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&sqi=2&ve d=0CFoQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=weather%20ship%20network%20book&f=false.com/books? id=T5A9LCujs08C&pg=PA129&lpg=PA129&dq=weather+ship+book&source=bl& ots=G7-lIok3VQ&sig=kzpixxcNE3S7GxswCW8YOwooIM&hl=en&ei=ybk1TaXBDcfTgQfUleyqCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=res ult&resnum=1&ved=0CBUQ6AEwADgU#v=onepage&q=weather%20ship %20book&f=false. ^ UNCTAD 2007. ^ a b c d UNFAO. Popular Mechanics: 136. p. 14–15. pp. (August 1927). 2007.navy. 1999. http://books.S. 47. The U. Retrieved 2011-01-18.google. xii uses a similar. ^ Hospital Ship (definition via WordNet. pp. ^ With the addition of corvettes.
58. National Research Council (U. 55.). State of Alaska. ^ Carl.lib. 2006. 64. ^ Sea Lanes in Wartime . Erickson (March 1967). for their superior maneuverability. CD] Pew Oceans Commission. Retrieved 2011-0118.com/books? id=nCLWnFozM6EC&pg=PA25&dq=weather+ship+network+book&hl=en&ei=dQE 2TeWwMIaKlwenytCaCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDg Q6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=weather%20ship%20network%20book&f=false. http://money. 61. Commission on Natural Resources.S. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 2005-06-09.gov/rescue/mwr/095/mwr-095-03-0121. The Royal Navy however operated diesel-electric harbour tugs with paddles into the 1970s. 40. E. http://books. ^ European Parliament.state. Retrieved 2011-0118. ^ "Frequently asked questions about the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill". Retrieved 2009-09-19. by Albion. 57. Only a few examples with separate engines were steerable.pdf.S.google. http://www. USA Today. Tim (2007-09-11). Retrieved November 1. T. America's living oceans: charting a course for sea change [Electronic Version. (2004. National Research Council. from USAtoday. 62. "Some Aspects of the Development of Hurricane Dorothy". Monthly Weather Review 95 (3): 121–130. New Scientist (IPC Magazines) 116 (1583): 22. 1987-10-22. ^ a b c d e Panetta. 66.com. 1968. ^ Office of Data and Economic Analysis. ^ National Research Council (U. Jennie Barnes. August 30).htm. ^ Almost all paddle steamers had a single engine with their paddles permanently coupled. 56. Study Panel on Ocean Atmosphere Interaction (1974). and so could not be used for steering. The role of the ocean in predicting climate: a report of workshops conducted by Study Panel on Ocean Atmosphere Interaction under the auspices of the Ocean Science Committee of the Ocean Affairs Board. Retrieved 2011-01-18.cnn.com/information-services/data-and-statistics/statistics/. http://www. 60. Money. Ship pollution clouds USA's skies. Archon Books. Retrieved 2009-04-21.htm.noaa.fortune/in dex. without any clutches. National Academies.evostc.).google.us/History/FAQ. http://books. 2nd edition.The American Experience 1775-1945. Ocean Science Committee. Directive 2005/35/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 on ship-source pollution and on the introduction of . p. O. Itopf.tv/2007/09/10/news/companies/odyssey_treasure_fortune.cnn. ^ Watson. (Chair) (2003). ^ a b c d "International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Statistics". 2.tv. http://docs.com/books? id=2zQrAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA40&dq=weather+ship+network+book&hl=en&ei=TA8 2TaODHYO0lQfD_rn5Cw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC wQ6AEwADgU#v=onepage&q=weather%20ship%20network%20book&f=false. 2006. L.ots=H7OPU6yWbr&sig=p3qEkpMqecWnmK78eSM4Z78B2kU&hl=en&ei=Y7c1Tf m_B8P3gAfT8oGDCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBkQ 6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q=weather%20ship%20book&f=false. ^ "Romeo Would Have Spied the Storm". 59. 65. Robert Greenhalgh and Pope.itopf.com 63. p. ^ Arango.ak. "Curse of the $500 million sunken treasure".
Retrieved 2008-02-22. from http://www.co. 2006. ISBN 0824209583. Philadelphia: J. 22nd ed). Det Norske Veritas. pp. Famous First Facts (International Edition). Edward Keble (1915). ISBN 1-55750-065-7. PBS: NOVA. Charles Clement. "Navigation". Central Intelligence Agency (2007). The American Practical Navigator. 2006.: National Academy Press 69. Rome: Food and Agriculture • • • • • • • • • . In Chisholm.org/wiki/User:Tim_Starling/ScanSet_TIFF_demo. Cotterill. Encyclopædia Britannica. "Knock Nevis". Bethesda. ^ National Research Council.com/?id=CcVAAAAMAAJ&printsec=titlepage.aspx? extool=vessel&subview=summary&vesselid=16864. (December 2003). Committee on the Ocean's Role in Human Health.).html.B. ISBN 0939837544. "Ship". Retrieved 2008-02-22. Steven (2000). In Chisholm. https://www.wikisource. MD: Naval Institute Press.greenpeaceweb. DNV Exchange. From monsoons to microbes: understanding the ocean's role in human health. (2003. ^ a b Meinesz. A. ^ "Shipbreaking".org/wgbh/nova/algae/impact. June 25).irbs.com/exchange/main. from http://news. ISBN 978-1557502483. Cutler. BBC News. The Impact of Invasive Species. Fisheries and Aquacultures Department (2007). http://en.org/shipbreak/. Hugh. Commission on Geosciences. Lippincott Company. Retrieved November 26.bbc. Encyclopædia Britannica (1911). ISBN 1602390800. R. Md: Naval Institute Press.penalties for infringements. http://books.europa. Retrieved 2007-08-27. 19 (11th edition ed.). Thomas J. The Bluejacket's Manual (Bluejacket's Manual. MD: National Imagery and Mapping Agency. March 16.google. Greenpeace.google. Thomas J.php? title=User:Tim_Starling/ScanSet_TIFF_demo&vol=24&page=ED4A915. Skyhorse Publishing.). Hugh. ancient and modern.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/index. 24 (11th edition ed.html 68. Retrieved 2008-10-02. Annapolis.C. Retrieved November 1. London: Seeley.dnv. http://www. 2006. (1999).  References • • Anzovin. Encyclopædia Britannica (1911).com/bowditch/. Ships and sailors.com/? id=j1wBAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover. D. Wilson Company. Nathaniel (2002). Jackson and Halliday.cia. Annapolis. http://www. http://eur-lex. Sailing Ships and Their Story: The Story of Their Development from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. Deep Sea Invasion. Environment. Bowditch. 67.do? uri=OJ:L:2005:255:0011:01:EN:HTML.org/w/index. Edward Delanoy (1868). Cutler. and Resources. 881–889. Little. W. "The Status of the Fishing Fleet". EU faces ship clean-up call. Dutton's Nautical Navigation (15th ed. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2006. (2003).wikisource. Encyclopædia Britannica. Det Norske Veritas (2008).stm 70. ^ a b c Harrabin. http://en. (1999). Washington.pbs. https://exchange.uk/2/hi/europe/3019686. Ocean Studies Board. H. http://books. CIA World Factbook 2008. Chatterton.
Merchant Marine Officers' Handbook (4th ed. ISBN 0-87033-528-6.osg. Centreville. 1999).). ISBN 0-87033-549-9. Retrieved March 13. Maloney. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) (2006) (PDF).com/uploadedFiles/2222008FleetlistDownload. "The world’s biggest ship".org/en/docs/rmt2006_en. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) (2007) (PDF). Sailing ship to supertanker: the hundred-year story of British Esso and its ships. Brian (2004). ISBN 0-41515309-3. Centreville. A.. New York and Geneva: United Nations.pdf.). O. Lavery.pdf. Tanker operations: a handbook for the person-in-charge (PIC). Mitchell. Overseas Shipholding Group. MD: Cornell Maritime Press. Mark (2001).pdf.. "World Merchant Fleet 2001– 2005" (PDF).Organization of the United Nations.htm#4.tribuneindia.com/1999/99jul11/sunday/head3. [hide]v · d · eAbout fishing vessels • • • • • • • Commercial fishing boats · Trawlers · Seiners · Drifters · Longliners · Factory ships · Fishery Commercial Protection Squadron · Fishing fleet · Research vessels · Whalers · Whaling ships · British ships · Japanese ships Traditional Traditional fishing boats · Bawley · Bokkura · Caïque · Cape Islander · Chasse-marée · Coble · Coracle · . William A. Sawyer. http://www. MD: Cornell Maritime Press. The Times (of India). New York and Geneva: United Nations. New York: DK Publishing Inc. 2007. Stability and Trim for the Ship's Officer. Martin (1997).. Overseas Shipholding Group (2008-02-22). New York. http://www. ISBN 978-0-87033-564-8. United States Maritime Administration. W. Hayler. L. Review of Maritime Transport. (1980). Suffolk: Terence Dalton. http://www. Ship: The Epic Story of Maritime Adventure (Smithsonian). http://books.org/docrep/009/a0699e/A0699E04. Maritime economics. Chapman Piloting and Seamanship (64th ed.unctad.gov/MARAD_statistics/2005%20STATISTICS/World %20Merchant%20Fleet%202005.google. Turpin.1. Lavenham. New York: Routledge. http://www. McEwen.marad. American Merchant Seaman's Manual. (1987). NY: Hearst Communications Inc. ISBN 0-87038-056-X.com/?id=_R-YB70kly8C&printsec=frontcover.xls. William B.dot. Singh. MD: Cornell Maritime Press.5. (2003). Elbert S.. Cambridge. Keever. Stopford. ISBN 086138-055-X. http://www. 2007. William (2005).unctad. http://www. Huber. "Overseas Shipholding Group Fleet List". Review of Maritime Transport. Cornell Maritime Pr. 2006. Baljit (July 11. Retrieved 2008-04-07.htm. ISBN 1-58816-098-0. John M. • • • • • • George. Office of Data and Economic Analysis (July 2006). (December 2003). Edward A.org/en/docs/rmt2007_en.fao. ISBN 0756604966.
Couta · Currach · Dogger · Dhoni · Dugout · Falkuša · Felucca · Fifie · Friendship sloop · Galway hooker · Herring buss · Jangada · Jukung · Kolae · Lugger · Luzzu · Mackinaw · Monterey clipper · Nobby · Pirogue · Reed boat · Sampan · Sgoth · Shad boat · Sixareen · Smack · Well smack · Yawl · Yoal Dories Banks · Cape Ann · Gloucester · McKenzie River · Swampscott Bugeye · Deadrise · Log canoe · Pungy · Schooners · Sharpie · Skipjack Oyster boats Recreational Bass boat · Farley [show]v · d · eFisheries and fishing topic areas F i s h Fisheries science · Wild fisheries · Fish farming · Aquaculture · Fish diversity · Fish e diseases · Fisheries management · Fishing quota · Sustainability r i e s F i s h Fisherman · Artisan fishing · Fishing villages · Fishing vessels · Fishing history i n g I n d u s Commercial fishing · Processing · Products · Seafood · Marketing · Markets t r i a l R ngling · Game fishing · Fly fishing · Catch and release A .
e c r e a t i o n a l T e c h n Gathering · Spearfishing · Line fishing · Netting · Trawling · Trapping · Other i q u e s T a c Hook · Line · Sinker · Rod · Bait · Lures · Artificial flies · Bite alarms k l e L o c a tFishing by country · Fishing villages · Fishing banks · Fish ponds · Oceanic habitats i o n s Index of fishing articles · List of fishing topics by subject · Fisheries glossary [show]v · d · eModern merchant vessels D Barge · Bulk carrier/Lake freighter · Car float · Coaster · Collier · Container ship · Heavy lift r ship · Hopper barge · Lighter aboard ship · Reefer ship · RORO ship · Submarine Cargo y Vessel · Train ferry · Livestock carrier c a r .
g o T a n k Chemical tanker · FPSO unit · LNG carrier · Oil tanker · Tanker e r s P a s s Cargo liner · Cruiseferry · Cruise ship · Ferry · Narrowboat · Ocean liner · RORO ship · e Train ferry n g e r S u p p Dive support · Fireboat · Supply ship · Tender · Towboat · Tugboat o r t O tPipe-laying ship · Cable layer · Crane vessel · Dredger · Drillship · Fishing vessel · h Icebreaker · Merchant submarine · Research vessel · Riverboat · Semi-submersible · e Snagboat r [show]v · d · eTypes of sailing vessels and rigs Barca-longa · Barque · Barquentine · Bermuda rig · Bermuda sloop · Bilander · Brig · Brigantine · Caravel · Carrack · Catamaran · Catboat · Clipper · Dutch clipper · Cog · Corvette · Cutter · Dhow · Dinghy · East Indiaman · Falkuša · Felucca · Fifie · Fluyt · Fore-and-aft rig · Frigate · Full rigged ship · Fusta · Gaff rig · Galeas · Galleon · Gunter rig · Hermaphrodite brig · Herring buss · Hoy · Jackassbarque · Jangada · Junk · Ketch · Koch · Longship · Lugger · Man-of-war · Mast aft rig · Mersey Flat · Multihull · Nao · Nordland · Norfolk punt · Norfolk wherry · Pausik · Pilot cutter · Pink · Pinnace · Pocket cruiser · Polacca · Pram · Proa · Punt · Razee · Sailing barge · Sailing hydrofoil · .
Trustworthy 0 1.org/wiki/Ship" View page ratings Rate this page Rate this page Page ratings Please take a moment to rate this page.0 1 ratings Well-written 0 3.0 2 ratings I am highly knowledgeable about this topic (optional) I have a relevant college/university degree It is part of my profession It is a deep personal passion The source of my knowledge is not listed here .0 1 ratings Complete 0 1.0 1 ratings Objective 0 1. Current average ratings.wikipedia.Scow · Schooner · Ship of the line · Sixareen · Sgoth · Shitik · Sloop · Sloop-of-war · Smack · Snow · Square rig · Tall ship · Thames sailing barge · Trailer sailer · Trimaran · Uru · Vinta · Well smack · Wherry · Windjammer · Windsurfer · Xebec · Yacht · Yawl · Yoal [show]v · d · eWarship types of the 19th and 20th centuries Aircraft carrier · Battleship · Battlecruiser · Cruiser · Destroyer · Frigate · Corvette · Ironclad · Monitor · Submarine · Torpedo boat · Missile boat · Gunboat Retrieved from "http://en.
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