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FUNCTION
5.1. FUNCTION : Function : If x and y be two real variables related to some rule, such that corresponding to every value of x within a defined domain we get a defined value of y, then y is said to be a function of x defined in its domain. Here the variable x to which we may arbitrarily assign different values in the given domain is known as indeperdent variable (or argument) and y is called the dependent variable (or function). Notations : Generally we shall represent functions of x by the symbols f(x), F(x), f(x), y(x) etc. Example : A man walks at an uniform rate of 5 km per hour. If s indicates the distances and t be the time in hours (from start), then we may write, s = 5t. Here s and t are both variables,s is dependent if t is independent. Now s is a function of t and the domain (value) of t is 0 £ t £ ¥. Example : y = f (x ) = x2 . x
For x ¹ 0, y = x and for x = 0, y is not known (undefined). Here the domain is the set of real numbers except zero. Constant Function : y = f(x) = 7 for all real values of x. Here y has just one value 7 for all values of x. Singlevalue, Multivalued Function : From the definition of function we know that for y = f (x), there exists a single value of y for every value of x. This type of function is sometimes known as singlevalued function. Example : For y = f (x) = 2x + 3 x = 1, y = 21 + 3 = 2 + 3 = 5. = 2, y = 2.2 + 3 = 4 + 3 = 7 If again we get more than one value of y for a value of x, then y said to be a multiplevalued (or multivalued) function of x. Example : y2 = x. Here for every x > 0, we find two values of y as y = = ± x . Explicit and Implicit Function : A function is said to be explicit when it is expressed directly in terms of the independent variable ; otherwise it is implicit. Example : y = x2 – x + 1 is an explicit function : 2x2 + 3xy + y2 = 0 an implicit function.
MATHS 5.01
Parametic Representation of a Function : If the dependent variable x be expressed in terms of a third variable, say t, i.e., y = f (t), x = F (t), then these two relations give the parametic representation of the function. Example : y = t2 + 1, x = 2t. Odd and Even Functions : A function f (x) is an odd function of x if f(– x) = – f(x) and is an even function of x if f (– x) = = f(x). Example : f(x) = x. Now f (– x) = – f (x), so f (x) = x is an odd function of x. f(x) = x2, f ( – x) = (– x)2 = x2 = f(x), so f (x) = x2 is an even function of x. Inverse Function : It forms a function y = f(x), we can obtain another function x = F(y), then each functions known as the inverse of the other. Example : y = 4x – 3 and x =
1 (y + 3) are inverse to each other. 4
Functions of one independent variable : Polynomial Function : A function of the form F(x) = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + … + an – 1 xn – 1 + anxn, Where n is a positive integer and a0, a1 …. an are constants is known as a polynomial function in x. For n = 0, f(x) = a0, a constant function = 1, f(x) = a0 + a1x, a linear function in x = 2, f(x) = a0 + a1x + a2x2, a quadratic function in x. = 3, f(x) = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + a3x3, a cubic function in x. Rational function : A function that is expressed as the ratio of two polynomials i.e., f (x ) = a 0 + a1 x + a 2 x 2 + ...... + a n x n . b 0 + b1 x + b 2 x 2 + ...... + b n x n
is called a rational function of x, such function exists for denominator ¹ 0. Example : f (x ) = x+2 exists for all values of x, if x2 – 4x + 3 ¹ 0. Now for x2 – 4x + 3 = 0 or x 2  4x + 3
(x – 1) (x – 3) = 0 or, x = 1, 3 Denominator becomes zero and hence the given function does not exist. Irrational function : Functions of the form functions. Algebraic function : A function in the form of a polynomial with finite number of terms is known as algebraic function.
x, x 2 + 2x + 4 ,
x are known as irrational x +3
2
5.02
MATHS
Example : x 2 + 2x  3, x 2 + 1 etc. Domain and Range of a Function : The set of values of independent variables x is called the ‘Domain’ of the function and the set of corresponding values of f(x) i.e. the dependent variable y is called the ‘Range’ of the function. Example : For the squared function of y = x2, we get the ordered pairs (1, 1) (2, 4) (3, 9), …., the set of independent variables {1, 2, 3, …} is the domain, where as set of dependent variable {1, 4, 9, .…} represents the range. Example : For the following functions find the domain and range. (i) f (x )=
f (0) =
2x + 1 x2  4 3 x , x ¹ 2 (ii) f (x ) = (iii) f (x ) = (x  1)(x + 1) x2 x 3
4 3 5 = 2, f ( ) = 1 = 3, f (3)= = 5, f (4) = 6, f ( 1) = 1 2 1 1
\ domain
= { –1, 0, 1, 3, 4, …..}, range = R – {2},
= {1, 2, 3, 5, 6, ….} = R – {4}, R = real number,
(ii) f (0) =
3 = 1, f ( ) = 1, f (2) = 1, f ( 1) = 1 1 3
domain = { – 1, 0, 1,2, 4, ….}, range = { –1, –1, –1, ….} = {–1} = R – {3} (iii) The value of f(x) exists for x ¹ 1, x ¹ – 1. \ domain = R – {– 1, 1}, range = R. Example : Find the domain of definition of the function Denominator = x 2  7 x + 12 =
4x 5 4 x  5
2 x 2  7x
+ 12 x  7 x + 12
(x  3)(x  4).
Given function cannot be defined for 3 £ x £ 4. So
domain is for all real values of x except 3 £ x £ 4. Absolute Value : A real number a may be either a = 0, or a > 0 or, a < 0. The absolute value (for modulus) of a, denoted by  a  is defined as  a  = a, for a ³ 0 = – a, for a < 0 Thus  – 4 = – (– 4) = 4, and  4  = 4. Solved Examples : 1. Given f(x) = 2x2 – 3x + 1 ; find f(2), f(0), f (– 3) f(2) = 2.22 – 3.2 + 1 = 2.4 – 6 + 1 = 8 – 6 + 1 = 3 f(0) = 2.02 – 3.0 + 1 = 2.0 – 0 + 1 = 0 – 0 + 1 = 1 f( – 3) = 2 (– 3)2 – 3. (– 3) + 1 = 2.9 + 9 + 1 = 18 + 9 + 1 = 28.
MATHS
5.03
2. If y = 4x – 1, find the value of y for x = 2. Can y be regarded as a function of x? Also find the domain. For x = 2, y = 4.2 – 1 = 8 – 1 = 7. Again for x = 0, y = – 1 and for x = – 1, y = – 5. So for every value of x in – ¥ < x < ¥, we find different values of y, So y is a function of x and its domain is – ¥ < x < + ¥. 3. If f (x) = x +  x , find f (3) and f (– 3) and show also they are not equal. f(3) = 3 +  3  = 3 + 3 = 6 ; f ( – 3) = – 3 +  – 3 = – 3 + 3 = 0. As 6 ¹ 0, so f(3) ¹ f ( – 3). Note : If f(x) = f(– x) [i.e., f (3) = f (– 3)] then f(x) will be an even function of x. 4. Show that
x 2  5x + 4 is not defined for 1 < x < 4
x 2  5x + 4 =
(x  1)(x  4).
Now for any value x > 1, but < 4 the expression becomes imaginary. So the expression is undefined for 1 < x < 4. 5. If f (x ) =
x f (x + h ) f (x ) 1 show, that = 1 x h (1  x )(1  x  h )
Now f (x + h ) =
x+h 1  (x + h )
L.H.S. of given expr.
(x + h )(1  x ) x(1  x  h ) x+h x (1  x  h )(1  x ) x  x 2 + h  xh  x + x 2 + xh = 1 x  h 1 x = = h h (1  x  h )(1  x )h
= h
(1  x  h )(1  x )h (1  x )(1  x  h )
x x 9
2
=
1
= R.H.S.
6. Find the domain of f ( x ) =
Here f(x) has a unique value except for x = 3, – 3. For f (3) =
3 3 3 3 (undefined) = (undefined) and f ( 3) = = 99 0 99 0
\ domain of the function f(x) is – ¥ < x < – 3 ; – 3 < x < 3 and 3 < x < ¥. 7. Given the function f (x ) = 52 x  1, – 1 £ x < 0 =
=
x2  2 , x2
2x , x 1
2
0£x<1 1£ x < 3
5.04
MATHS
Find f (– 1), f(0), f (1/2), f (2). f( – 1) = 5– 2 (–1) – 1 (since – 1 lies in – 1 £ x < 0) = 52 – 1 = 25 – 1 = 24. Points 0,
1 lie in the second interval ; so, 2
1 2 02 7 æ1ö 4 = . f (0) = = 1, f ç ÷ = 1 02 è2ø 2 6 2 Now 2 lies in the third interval f(2) =
2.2 4 4 = = . 2 2 1 4 1 3
8. If f(x) = eax + b. Prove that eb f(x + y) = f (x). f(y) eb f(x + y) = e b . e a ( x + y ) + b = e b + ax + ay + b = eax + b. eay + b = f(x). f(y). Hence proved. 9. If f ( x ) =
x 1 f ( x )  f ( y) xy , show that = x +1 1 + f ( x ) f ( y) 1 + xy
x 1 y 1 (x  1)(y + 1) (x + 1)(y  1) x +1 y +1 L.H.S. = = x  1 y  1 (x + 1)(y + 1)+ (x  1)(y  1) 1+ . x +1 y +1 = xy (on reduction) = R.H.S. 1 + xy
10. If f(x) = x – a, q(x) = x + a then show that {f(x)}2 – {q(x)}2 = – 2a {f(x) + q(x)} L.H.S. = (x – a)2 – (x + a)2 = x2 + a2 – 2ax – (x2 + a2 + 2ax) = – 4ax R.H.S. = – 2a {x – a + x + a} = – 2a. 2x = – 4ax. SELF EXAMINATION : 1. If f(x) = (x – 1) (x – 2 (x – 3) find the values of (i) f(1) (ii) f(2) (iii) f(3) (vi) f(0). 2. If f(x) =  x  + x, find whether f (3) and f(– 3) are equal? 3. Given f(x) = x, and F(x) = x is F(x) = f(x) always? x
2
[Ans. 0, 0, 0, – 6] [Ans. No] [Ans. equal, except x = 0]
4. (i) If f(x) = x2 + 2x4 verify f(x) = f (– x). (ii) If f(x) = x + 2x3 verify f(x) = – f (– x) 5. If y = 5 for every value of x, can y be regarded as a function of x? 6. f(x) = x +  x , are f(4) and f(– 4) equal? [Ans. Yes] [Ans. No]
MATHS
5.05
7. If f (x ) = b
FUNCTION
xa xb +a , then f(a) + f(b) = f(a + b). ba ab
8. If f(x) = x2 – x, then prove that f(h+1) = f(– h) 9. If f ( x ) = a
xb x a +b , (a ¹ b ) obtain f (a), f (b) and f (a + b) and then verify ab ba
f (a) + f (b) = f (a + b). 10. If y = f ( x ) =
ax + b prove that f(y) = x. cx  a
11. Show that
x 2  6x + 8 is undefined for x = 2 and also find f(6). x 2  8x + 12
[Ans. undefined]
12. For what values of x are the following functions not defined? (i)
1 , (ii) x4
x , (iii)
x  1, (iv)
(x  1)(x  2),
(v)
x2 1 x 1
[Ans. (i) 4, (ii) any negative integer, (iii) x < 1, (iv) 1 < x < 2, (v) x = 1] 13. Let f(x) = 2– x =4 = 2x – 1, Calculate f(– 1), f(0), f(1), f(3). –1£x<0 0£x<1 1. £ x £ 3 [Ans. 2, 4, 1, 5]
14. A 3wheeler charges Re. 1 for 1 km or less from start, and at a rate of 50 p. per km or any fraction thereof, for additional distance. Express analytically the fare F (in Rs.) as a function of the distance d (in km). 15. If g(x) = 2x, then show that g(a), g(b) = g(a + b). 16. If f(x) = epx + q, (p, q are constants) then show that f(a) f(b) f(c) = f(a + b + c) e2q. 17. If f (x ) = 18. If f (x ) = ax + b æ1ö , prove that f (x ). f ç ÷ = 1. bx + a èxø
2x + 1 and f (x) = 2f (2x) then find f(2, 5). 2x 2 + 1 2 (2 x )+ 1 2. (2 x ) + 1
2
[Ans. F = 1, 0 < d < 1, F = 1 +
1 (d  1), d > 1] 2
[Ans. 22/51]
[Hints : f (x ) = 2.
=
8x + 2 & etc.] 8x 2 + 1
5.06
MATHS
Example : Draw the graph of f ( x ) = Now, f ( x ) =
2x = 2, when x ¹ 0. x
2x x
Y y = 2x/x 1 X´ –3 –2 –1 0 X 1 2 3
Y´ The table is as follows : X f(x) –2 2 –1 2 0 undefined 1 2 2 2
Note : Since f(x) is undefined at x = 0, there is gap of the straight line near the yaxis as shown. Example : Draw the graph of the following functions : y = x. For x = 0, 1, 2, 3, –1, –2,
1 , 2 1 6
Y 2 1 X´ –3 –2 –1 0
y=
x
X 1 2 3
Y´ y = 0, 1, 2, 3, –1, –2,
1 , 2 1  , 6
Scale : Take suitable scale on x and y axes. Now the corresponding values of x and y are plotted in the graph paper (based on suitable scale).
MATHS
5.07
On joining the plotted points we find a straight line passing through the origin and bisecting the
FUNCTION
axes. 5. y = x2 0 . For x = 0, y = , (undefined) and for x ¹ 0, y = x x 0
The plotting of points of this graph will be similar to the previous graph with the exception that for x = 0,there will be no value of y. It means no point can be plotted for x = 0. So the graph will be a straight line (except origin) lying in the first and thrid quadrants, bisecting the axes. The origin (0, 0) being excluded. 6. y = f(x) = x = 0, = – x, For x = 4, 3, 2, y = 4, 3, 2, when x > 0 when x = 0 when x < 0
1 , 0, –1, – 2, 10
1 , 0, 1, 2 10
Scale. Take suitable scale. Y 3
y
=
–
x
2 1
y
=
x
X´ –3 –2 –1
0
X 1 2 3
Y´ On plotting the above corresponding points, we find two half lines, one in the first quadrant bisecting the axes and the other in the second quadrant bisecting the axes. In both cases origin is included. [Note : This is also the graph of the function y =  x ] SELF EXAMINATION QUESTIONS : Draw the graph of following functions :
1. f(x) = 2x. 2. F(x) = 3x – 1. 3. f (x ) =
x x
4. F(x) ³  x .
5.08
MATHS
5.
y = 1, = 0, =–1
when x > 0 when x = 0 when x < 0. when x < 0 when 0 £ x £ 1. when x > 1. when x < 1 when x > 1 when x = 1. when x £ 0 when x > 0.
6.
y = – x, = x, =2–x
7. f(x) = x =1+x =3/2 8. f(x) = 3 + 2x = 3 – 2x
5.2 LIMIT AND CONTINUITY : LIMIT : Introduction : Calculus is based, in general, on the idea of a limit. At present this idea including its related concepts, continuity to mention, will be discussed. Meaning of. (i) x tends to zero : Let x be a variable. Now the value of x may gradually decrease to such a small value (¹ 0) so that for all values of d (> 0) however small value it may attain, such that the relation  x  < d or – d < x < d may be established. We may say that x tends to zero, i.e., (in symbol) x ® 0. (ii) Infinitely small quantity : If a variable (x say) gradually approaches to zero, but not equal to zero, but not equal to zero, then that variable (x) is infinitely small. It means the value of x is very close to zero, but x ¹ 0. (iii) x tends to zero from the right : It means x, is positive and infinitely small. In symbol it is x ® 0 + (or x ® 0 + 0). Again for d ( > 0), the relation 0 < x < d holds. (iv) x tends to zero from the left : Here x is negative and infinitely small. In symbol x ® 0 – (or x ®0 – 0). The relation – d < x < 0 for d (> 0). Note : x tends to a from the right may be represented in symbol by 0 <  x – a  < d, the value x = a is excluded. Limit of a Real Variable : Let a real variable pass through a number of values according to any law, so that we can discriminate one value of x with its another value.
MATHS
5.09
Let A be a point on the number axis corresponding to the number 2. Let us assume that the point P (right of A)corresponds to the number 3. A is thus a fixed point and the moving point initially coincides with P. At first moving point approaches towards A from right (i.e.), from P). The point P = (= 2.9) is taken between A and P. While the moving passes through P1 (= 2.9) and lies in open interval(A, P2) i.e., in (2, 2.9) we will say it is approaching towards A. Similarly take a second point P2 (= 2.8) as shown in Fig. x P´ P´1 P´2 P´3 X´ 1.99999 A´1 A A1 2 2.00001 x P3 P2 P1 P X
When passing P2, the point lies in open interval (A, P2), i.e. in (2, 2.8) and again we say that the moving point approaches towards A. In the same way a set of points P3 (2.7), P4 (2.6), …., are taken to the right of A, each lying within the open intervals (A, P3), (A, P4), …. Now passing through P3, P4, …. And finally through A1 (2.00001) which is a point to the right of A and as close to A as possible, and remains in open interval (A, A1) i.e., in (2, 2.00001), we say the moving point approaches towards A from the right. Again if the moving point initially coincides with the point P¢ (= 1.0) a point to the left of A and in the same way we take points P1¢ (= 1.1). P2¢ (= 1.2), …., left of A each lying within the open intervals (P¢, A, (P1, A), (P2¢ P2.) … If the moving point passes through the point P¢, P2¢ P3¢ …. And finally through A1¢ ( = 1.99999) which is point to the left of A and as close to A us possible, and lies in the open interval (1.99999, 2) i.e., satisfies AA1 = A1¢ A, we say that the moving pint approaches A from the left. So we find x approaches 2, if it lies in the open interval (2, 2.00001) from right or it lies in (1.99999, 2) from left, and excluding the point x = 2. Analytical Representation : A1 and A1¢ are taken as close to A as possible. In calculus we will use a symbol e, to represent a small positive quantity, however small it may be. If we now represent A by a, then A1 and A1¢ will be a + e, a – e respectively. So we can say that x lies in (a, – e, a + e) and x approaches to a, (x ¹ a). Now the condition that x approaches to a (denoted by x ® a) is that for any positive number e, however small it may be, the absolute value of (x – a) should be less than e. i.e., 0 <  x – a  < e, the value of x = a is excluded.
or, a – e < x < a + e, which divided into two parts becomes a – e < x < a and a < x < a + e. In the former case, x is said to approach a from left, while for the second x approaches a from right.
5.10
MATHS
Notations : x approaches a from right is denoted by x ® a + or x ® 0, while x approaches a from left is denoted by x ® a – or x ® 0. Also for x approaches a is symbolically by x ® a or lim x = a. Thus we get x ® a (i.e. a – e < x < a + e, x = a excluded)
x ® a – 0 (from left) (i.e., a – e < x < a)
x ® a + 0 (from right) (i.e., a < x < a + e)
Observation : The same variable cannot tend simultaneously to two different limits a and b (b > a), as both (x – a) and (x – b) cannot be numerically less than
1 (b  a ). 2
Limit of Function : Let the two variables x and y be connected by the functional relation y = f(x). If x ® a then what is the change in y or f(x). Here a is assumed to be a point within the domain of definition of the given function. On putting successive values with the limit a to x (but excluding x = a) if the corresponding values of y exist and also approach towards a constant finite quantity l, then we can say that l is the limit of y as x ® a, and write
x ®a
Lt y = l
or lim f ( x ) = l
x ®a
Infinite limits : If the successive values of x become and remain greater than any given number however large it may be, then we say that x has an infinite limit and tends to ¥. We write x ® ¥ or lim x = ¥. Similarly if x becomes and remains less than any chosen number however small, we say that x has the limit – ¥ and write x ® – ¥. Idea of Limit with the help of Numbers : For the begineers to make clear idea, we take an example y= Now y= x2  4 as x ® 2. x2 x2  4 = x + 2, for x ¹ 2, x2
= undefined, for x = 2. For x ® 2, from the right, x = 2.5 2.4 2.3 ... 2.01 2.001 ® 2 y = 4.5  4.4 4.3 ... 4.01 4.001 ® 4
MATHS
5.11
And for x ® 2, from the left,
FUNCTION
x = 1.5 1.6 1.7 ... 1.99 1.999 ® 2 y = 3.5  3.6 3.7 ... 3.99 3.999  ® 4 So, we find y ® 4, when x ® 2 + 0 and also y ® 4 when x ® 2 – 0, now the right hand limit and left hand limit are equal ; we say y ® 4 as x ® 2. Note : x = 2 is not discussed in finding the limit of y when x ® 2. Notations : y or f(x) ® 4 as x ® 2 + 0, is denoted by lim f ( x ) = 4
x ® 2+ 0
And y or f(x) ® 4 as x ® 2 – 0, is denoted by lim f ( x ) = 4.
x ® 2 0
As the two limits are equal we simply write as
lim f ( x ) = 4
x ®2
é ù êor xLt2 f ( x ) = 4ú ® ë û
Note : If however the two limits i.e. left hand limit and right hand limit are not equal, then the limit of the function does not exist. Existence of Limit. As x ® a, then lim f(x) will exist if (i) lim f ( x ) exists, (ii) lim f ( x ) exists and (iii) lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ).
x ®a + x ®a x ®a + x ®a 
Note : If however lim f ( x ) = l1 and lim f ( x ) = l2 , then lim f ( x ) does not exist, as l1 ¹ l2.
x ®a + x ®a x® a
Rule of finding the Limit of Function : (i) For lim f ( x ), put x = a directly in the expression of f(x). Provided we do not get a form
x® a
like
0 (or denominator = 0) and hence find the limiting value. 0
x ®1
Example : Find lim Hence for x = 1, So put x = 1 in
4x  1 x +1
4x  1 0 does not attain the form . x +1 0 4x  1 4.1  1 3 = = . x +1 1+1 2
4x  1 and find the value \ lim x ®1 x +1
0 (or denominator = 0) after putting x = a, then put x = a x®a 0 + h (h is small number) so that x ® a as h ® 0 i.e., lim f ( x ) = lim f (a + h ). Now after simplifying the lim f ( x ) , if expression of f(x) attains the form
x ®a h ®0
expression [put h = 0 and hence find the value.]
5.12
MATHS
Example : Find lim
x®2
x3  8 . x2
0 . So putting 0
3
For x = 2, the expression takes the form
x = 2 + h, we get lim
x®2
x3  8 (2 + h )  8 = lim x  2 h®0 2 + h  2
= lim
h®0
(2 + h )3  8 = lim 8 + 12h + 6h 2 + h 3  8
h
h ®0
h
= lim
h®0
h 12 + 6h + h 2 = lim 12 + 6h + h 2 , (as h ¹ 0) h ®0 h
(
)
(
)
= lim 12 + lim 6h + lim h 2 = 12
h®0 h ®0 h ®0
(putting h = 0)
Definition : A function f (x) is said to have a limit l, as x ® a, if for any pre assigned positive quantity e, however small it may be, there corresponds another quantity d (depending on e) such that  f (x) – l  < e for 0 <  x – a  < d We can write it simply as = lim f ( x ) = l.
h ®0
This means that f(x) must lie in (l – e, l + e ), e being arbitrarily small for all values of x in (a – d, a) and (a, a + d). Y
l+e l l–e
y=
) f(x
O
a–d
a
a+d
X
Graphical presentation of = lim f ( x ) = 1.
h®0
Two horizontal lines (parallel to x axis) are drawn through the points l – e and l + e on y axis. Similarly two vertical lines and drawn (parallel to y axis) are drawn through the points a – d and a + d
MATHS
5.13
on x axis. The part of the graph of y = f(x) that lie between vertical lines will also lie between two
FUNCTION
horizontal lines as shown is the figure. The statement of = lim f ( x ) = l is now clear from the graph.
h®a
Worked out Examples : 1. lim
x ®2
x2  4 = 4. x2
For if x = 2 + h, whether h be positive or negative,
x 2  4 (x  2 )(x + 2) h (4 + h ) = = =4+h (x  2 ) x2 h
and by taking h numerically small, the difference of
x2  4 and 4 can be made as small as we like. It x2
may be noted here that however small h may be, as h ¹ 0, one can cancel the factor (x – 2) i.e., h between numerator and denominator here. Hence lim function x2  4 = 4. But for x = 2, the x4
x®2
x2  4 is undefined as we cannot cancel the factor x – 2, which is equal to zero. x2 x2  4 , lim f ( x ) = 4 whereas f(2) does not exist. x  2 x®2 x2 and discuss from the diagram whether the limit of f(x) exists at x = 0 x
Now writing f ( x ) =
2. Draw a diagram f (x ) =
or not? Also obtain the right hand and left hand limits from mathematical approach and hence discuss the existence of lim f (x ) .
x®0
Graphical Approach : y = f (x) = x2 can be broken as follows : x y = x, = undefined, Values are x = 1, 2, 3, 4,
undefined,
for x ¹ 0 for x = 0. 0
–1,
–1,
–2, –3,
–2, –3,
1 , 10
1 , 10
1 100

1 100
y = 1, 2, 3, 4,
5.14
MATHS
For x = 0, no point can be plotted. In the graph, we find a straight line (except, origin) lying in the first and third quardants. Y
X´
y= x
/x
2
(0,0) Excluded
X
Y´ From the graph (fig. above) we observe as x ® 0 from right y = f (x) ® 0 and as x ® 0 from left, the ordinate y again ® 0. \ f (x) ® 0 when x ® 0 either side \
x ®0
lim f ( x ) exist and is equal to zero.
Mathematical approach : lim f ( x ) = lim x2 = lim x = 0. x ®0 + x x ®0 +
x ®0 +
x ®0 
lim f (x) = lim
x2 = lim x = 0. x ®0  x x ®0 x ®0
Since both the limits from right and left sides are equal, hence lim f ( x ) = 0. Note : For x ® 0, x = 0 is excluded and hence the cancellation of the factor x from numerator is possible. 3. For f (x) =  x , find, lim f ( x ).
x ®0
Graphical : As x ® 0 both the half lines (one 1st in quardant and the other in 2nd quardant) approach to origin. Thus f(x) ® 0 as x ® 0 from both sides.
\ lim f ( x ) exists and is equal to zero.
x ®0
ì x , for x ³ 0 Mathematical : f(x) =  x  means í î x , for x < 0 Now
x ®0 +
lim f ( x ) = lim  x  = lim x = 0
x ®0 + x ®0 +
MATHS
5.15
And
x ®0 
lim f ( x ) = lim  x  = lim ( x ) = 0.
x ®0 x ®0 
FUNCTION
\
x ®0
lim f ( x ) = 0.
4. Show that lim 2x = 2, using e (> 0), such that
x ®1
 2x – 2  < e i.e.,  x – 1 <
e 2
for for
0 <  x –1 < d 0<x–1<<d
e and by definition the existence of limit is assured. 2
The relation holds good for d =
5. Find analytically lim x  3 , if it exists.
x ®3
x ®3 +
lim
x  3 = 0, but lim
x ®3 
x  3 does not exist. As when x ® 3 – 0 is definitely less than 3,
whereas x – 3 is negative and square root of negative is never real but an imaginary. \ the limit does not exist. Alternatively : Put x = 3 + h, as x ®3, h ® 0
x ®3 \
lim x  3 = lim 3 + h  3 = lim h
h ®0 h ®0
h ®0 +
lim
h = 0, but = lim
h ).
x ®3
h ®0 
h does not exist (as the h near to but less than zero corresponds no real
value of \
lim x  3 does not exist. x  3 = 3  3 = 0 \ f(3) exists.
Note : At x = 3, f (x) =
6. Do the following limits exists? If so find the values (i) lim
1 x ®2 x + 2
(ii) lim
x ®0
1 x
ì x  12 ü (iii) lim í x 2  1 + ý x ®1 x 1 þ î
(
)(
)
(i) lim
x ® 2
1 1 1 = lim = lim x + 2 h ® 0  2 + h + 2 h ®0 h
1 1 = + ve ; lim =  ve. As the two values are not same, so the limit does not exist. h ®0  h h
Now lim (ii) lim
x®0+
x ®0+
1 1 = +¥, lim =  ¥. The limit does’t exist as the two values are unequal. h ®0  x x
ì (x  1)(x  1)ü = lim x 2  1 + (x  1), as (x – 1) = 0 ; (iii) Expr. lim í x 2  1 + x ®1î (x  1) ý x ®1 þ
(
)
{ (
)
}
5.16
MATHS
= lim x 2 + x  2 = ( + 1  2) = 0. On putting the limiting value of x, the value of the function exists 1
x ®1
(
)
and its value is 0. Distinction between lim f (x ) and f(a). By lim f (x ) we mean the value of f(x) when x has any
x ®a x ®a
arbitary value near a but not a. The quantity f (a) is the value of f(x), when x is exactly equal to a. Note : The following cases may arise : (i) f(a) does not exist, but lim f (x ) exists.
x®a
(see for reference W.O. Ex. 1) (See for reference W.O. Ex. 6)
(ii) f(a) exists, but lim f (x ) does not exist.
x®a
(iii) f(a) and lim f (x ) both exist, but unequal.
x ®a
Let f(x)
= 0, = 1,
for x ¹ 0 for x = 0
x ® 0+
lim f (x ) = 0 = lim f ( x ) and f(0) = 1, unequal values.
x ® 0
(iv) f (a) and lim f ( x ) both exist and equal.
x®a
(v) neither f(a) or, lim f ( x ) exists.
x®a
Function tends to Infinity. lim f(x) f(x) = ± ¥. As x approaches a (from right or left), if f(x)
x®a
tends to infinity with the same sign in both the cases, then as x tends to a, f(x) tends to infinity positive or negative as the case may be and write symbolically lim f(x) = ¥ or, – ¥.
x®a
Note : It may be noted that there is no such number as ¥ or, – ¥. We mean here that the values of x are continually increasing or decreasing. Fundamental Theorem on Limits : If lim f(x) = l and lim f (x) = m, where l and m are finite quantities then
x®a x®a
1. lim [ (x )± f (x )] = l ± m f
x®a
2. lim [ ( x ). f (x )] = lm. f
x®a
3. lim
x®a
f (x ) l = ,m¹0 f (x ) m
x ®b
4. If lim f (x ) = b and lim f (u) = f (b) then
x®a
x®b
ì ü lim f { (x ) = f í lim f (x )ý = f (b). f } x®a î þ
MATHS
5.17
More Solved Examples :
FUNCTION
9. Evaluate, lim
x 2 + 3x  1 . x ®1 2x + 4
As the limit of the denominator ¹ 0, we get lim x 2 + 3x  1 Expression =
x ®1
(
)
=
lim x 2 + lim 3x  lim 1
x ®1 x ®1 x ®1
lim (2x + 4 )
x ®1
lim 2x + lim 4
x ®1 x ®1
(by therom 1)
=
1 + 3 .1  1 3 1 = = 2.1 + 4 6 2
We have not applied the definition to save labour. If we substitute x = 1, we get the value of the function = below. 10. Evaluate lim x 2  3x + 2 . x 2  4x + 3
1 (equal to the limit the value as x ®1). Practically this may not happen always, as shown 2
x ®1
Reqd. limit = lim
x ®1
(x  1)(x  2) = lim x  2 = 1  2 = 1 . (x  1)(x  3) x ®1 x  3 1  3 2
0 which is undefined. Further limit of the denominator is 0
If we put x = 1, the function becomes
zero, we cannot apply theorem 2, hence cancelling the common factor (x – 1) which is ¹ 0 as x ®1, we may obtain the above result. Problem when variable tends of infinity : 11. Find the limit of lim 2x 2  5x + 2
x ®¥
(
)
5 2 ö æ Now 2x2 – 5x + 2 = x2 ç 2  + 2 ÷ x x ø è
5 2 ö 5 2 ö æ æ \ lim 2 x 2  5x + 2 = lim x 2 ç 2  + 2 ÷ = lim x 2 ´ lim ç 2  + 2 ÷ x ®¥ x®¥ x ®¥ è x x ø x®¥ x x ø è
(
)
Now lim x 2 = ¥ ; lim 2 = 2 ; lim
x®¥ x®¥ x®¥
2 2 = 0 ; lim = 0 x ®¥ 2 x
\ lim 2 x 2  5x + 2 = ¥ ´ 2 = ¥.
x® ¥
(
)
13. Find lim
4x 5 + 2x 3  5 x ®¥ 7x8 + x 4 + 2
Here the highest power of x in the denominator is 8. We now divide both the numberator and the denominator by x8 to avoid the undefined form
¥ . So we get ¥
5.18
MATHS
4 2 5 + 5 8 3 5 8 3 x x = lim 4u + 2u  5u lim x x ®¥ u ®0 1 2 7 + u 4 + 2u 8 7+ 4 + 8 x x = lim (4u 3 + 2u 5  5u 8 )
u ®0
(put
1 = u , so as x ® ¥ , u ® 0) x
lim (7 + u 4 + 2u 8 )
u ®0
(as denominator ¹ 0)
4 lim u 3 + 2 lim u 5  5 lim u 8 =
u ®0
7 + lim u + 2 lim u
u ®0 u®0
u ®0 4
u ®0 8
=
0+00 0 = =0 7+0+0 7
14. Find lim
x®¥
5  2x 2 . 3x + 5 x 2
æ1 ö ç = u , as x ® ¥, u ® 0 ÷ èx ø
5 2 2 5u 2  2 Expression = lim x = lim x ®¥ 3 u ® 0 3u + 5 +5 x
5 lim u 2  2 =
u ®0
3 lim u + 5
u ®0
=
02 2 = . 0+5 5
Problems regarding retionalisation : 15. Find the value of : lim x+h  x = lim h ®0 h
= lim
h ®0
h ®0
x+h  x h
h ®0
lim
( x + h  x )( x + h + x )= lim x + h  x h ( x + h + x) h( x + h + x)
h ®0
h h
( x +h + x)
x®l
= lim
h®0
1 x+h + x
, (h ¹ 0) =
1 x+0 + x
=
1 2 x
.
16. Evaluate : lim
x + 8  8x + 1 5  x  7x  3
.
Of the given expression numerator = x + 8  8x + 1 = x + 8  8x  1 x + 8 + 8x + 1 x + 8  8x + 1 x + 8 + 8x + 1 7 (  x) 1 x + 8 + 8x + 1 5  x  7x  3 5  x + 7x  3 8 (  x) 1 5  x + 7x  3 ´ ´ x + 8 + 8x + 1
(
)
=
=
Denominator = 5  x  7 x  3 = = 5  x  7x + 3 5  x + 7x  3
( 5 x +
7x  3
)
=
MATHS
5.19
Given expr. = lim
7 (  x) 1 x + 8 + 8x + 1
x ®1
´
FUNCTION
5  x + 7x  3 7 5  x + 7x  3 = lim . x ®1 8 8(  x) 1 x + 8 + 8x + 1
=
7 5 1 + 7  3 7 2 + 2 7 4 7 = . = . = . 8 1 + 8 + 8 + 1 8 3 + 3 8 6 12
Problem regarding both sides limits : 17. A function is defined as f(x) = x 2, = 4.1, = 2x, Does lim f ( x ) exist?
x ®1
for for for
x>1 x=1 x < 1.
Let us find lim f ( x ) and lim f ( x ).
x ®1+ x ®1
Now lim f ( x ) = lim x 2 = 12 = 1,
x ®1+ x ®1+
as f(x) = x2 as f(x) = 2x
for x > 1 for x < 1
Again lim f ( x ) = lim 2 x = 2.1 = 2,
x ®1x ®1
Since the two limiting values are not equal, so lim f ( x ) = lim f (x ) does’t exist.
x ®1x ®1
Miscellaneous Problems : 18. Evaluate (i) lim (i) lim
lim
x®0
4x +  x  x 2 (ii) lim x®2 x  2 3x +  x 
x®0+
4x + x 5x 5 = lim = , as x ¹ 0 and also for x > 0,  x  = x 3x + x x ® 0 4 x 4
x®0
4x  x 3x 3 = lim = as x ¹ 0, and for x < 0,  x  = – x 3x  x x ® 0  2 x 2
\ the given limit does’t exist, as the above two limiting values are unequal. (ii) lim x2 x2 = lim x2 = 1. x ®2+ x  2
x®2+
for  x – 2  > 0 i.e., for x > 2,  x – 2  = x – 2
lim x2 x2 = lim  (x  2) = 1 x ® 2  (x  2 )
x®2
for  x – 2  < 0 i.e., for x < 2,  x – 2  = – (x – 2) As the two limiting values are unequal, so the given expression does not exist. Some Useful Limits :
1 (A) lim ( + x ) / x = e 1 x®2
(B) lim
x®0
1 log e ( + x ) = 1 1 x
5.20
MATHS
(C) lim
x®0
ex 1 =1 x xn  an = an n  1 xa e 3x  1 = 3. x
(D) lim
x®0
ax 1 = log e a [ICWA Dec. ’94] x
(E) lim
x®a
(F) lim
(1 + x )n  1 = n.
x
x®0
Example : lim
x®0
Put 3x = u, as x ® 0 u ® 0.
x®0
lim
e 3x  1 eu  1 eu  1 = lim = 3´ lim . = 3 ´ 1 (by C ) = 3. u®0 u / 3 u ®0 x u
log ( + 6x ) 1 = 6. x®0 x
Example : lim
Put 6x = u, as x ® u, u ® 0
Expression = lim
u®0
log ( + u ) 1 log ( + u ) 1 = 6 ´ lim = 6 × 1 (by B) = 6. u ®0 u/6 u
Example : lim
x®0
a x  bx x
[ICWA Dec. ’97]
Expression = lim
x ®0
ax 1 bx +1 ax 1 bx 1 = lim lim x ®0 x x x ®0 x
a . b
= log a – log b by (D) above = log e ax  e bx x
Example : lim
x®0
Expression = lim
(e
ax
x ®0
 1  e bx  1 e ax  1 e bx  1 = lim  lim x ®0 x®0 x x x
)(
)
= lim
u®0
eu  1 ev 1  lim u / a v®0 v / b
= a lim
eu  1 en  1  b lim u ®0 n ®0 u n
= a. 1 – b.1 = a – b. Show that : 1. (i) lim x2 1 x2  4 = 2 (ii) lim =4 x®2 x  2 x 1 3x [Ans. 2] x +1
x ®3
x ®1
(iii) lim
x ® 2
x2  4 = 4 x+2
2. (i) lim
x ®2
(ii) lim (x + 1)(x + 2 ) [Ans.–7] (iv) lim
[Ans. 20] h 2 + 4h 2h [Ans. 3]
(iii) lim x 2 + 3x  7
x®0
(
)
x®0
[Ans. 2]
(v) lim
3x 2  4 x + 7 [Ans. 11] x®2 3x  5
(vi) lim
(2x  1)2
x +1
x®2
MATHS
5.21
3. (i) lim
x®0
FUNCTION
1+ x  1 x x
[Ans.1]
1 ] 2
(ii) lim
x®0
1+ x2 1 x
[Ans. 0]
(iii) lim
1 1 x2 x®0 x2 1 + 2 x  1  3x x
[Ans.
(iv) lim
[Ans.
x®0
5 ] 2
Do the following limits exists? If so find the values. 4. (i) lim f (x ) when f (x) ,
x ®3
= 2x + 3, x > 3 = 3x + 1, x £ 3. [Ans. does’s exist]
(ii) lim f (x ) when f(x)
x®0
= 1, x ³ 0. = – 1, x < 0 [Ans. does’t exist, in graph (0, – 1) will be excluded]
5. A function f(x) is defined as follow : f(x) = x2, = 2. 5, = x + 2, Does lim f (x ) exist?
x ®1 2
for x < 1. for x = 1 for x > 1. [Ans. no]
6. Given f(x) = x2,
for x > 1
= 2. 1, for x = 1 = x, Find lim f (x ) .
x ®1
for x < 1. [Ans. 1]
Verify the following limits : 7. (i) lim
4 x 3 + 5x  1 2 = . x ® ¥ 6x 3 + 7 x 2 + 4 3
(ii) lim
6  5x 2 1 = . x ® ¥ 4 x + 15x 2 3 2 x 9  5x 2 + 2 =¥ x ® ¥ 9 x 5 + 2 x + 12 log x x 1
(iii) lim
4x 5  x + 7 = 0. x ® ¥ 2 x 7 + 3x + 2 e x 1 . x®0 x
2
(iv) lim
8. (i) lim
[Ans. 0]
(ii) lim
x ®1
[Ans. 1]
CONTINUITY : Introduction : A function is said to be continuous if its graph is a continuous curve without any break. If, however, there is any break in the graph, then function is not continuous at that point.
5.22
MATHS
If for a value of k, the limit of f(x) does not exist i.e., if on the curve of f(x) a point is absent, the graph will be discontinuous i.e., not continuous. A function f(x) is said to be continuous at x = a, if lim f ( x ) exists in finite and is equal to f(a)
x ®a
i.e., i.e.,
x ®a+
lim f ( x ) = lim f (x ) = f (a )
x®a 
f (a + 0) = f (a – 0) = f (a) briefly or lim f (a + h ) = f (a )
x®0
Thus we are to find following three values : (i) lim f ( x ),
x ®a+
(ii) lim f ( x )
x ®a
(iii) f(a)
If however all these values are equal, then f (x) is continuous at x = a, otherwise it is discontinuous. Example : Show that f(x) = 3x2 – x + 2 is continuous at x = 1. Now,
x ®1+
lim f ( x ) = lim 3x 2  x + 2 = lim 3 ( + h )2  ( + h )+ 2 1 1
x ®1+ h ®0
(
)
{
}
[Putting x = 1 + h as x ® 1, h ® 0] = lim 3h 2 + 5h + 4 = 3.0 + 5.0 + 4 = 4
h ®0
(
)
and
h ®1
lim f (x ) = lim 3x 2  x + 2 = lim 3 (  h )2  (  h )+ 2 1 1
x ®1h ®0
(
)
{
}
(x = 1 – h, h ® 0 as x ® 1)
h ®0
lim 3h 2  5h + 4 = 3.0  5.0 + 4 = 4
(
)
Again f (1) = 3.12 – 1 + 2 = 4 Thus we find that all the values are equal. \ f (x) is continuous at x = 1 ; e  d Definition : Again corresponding to definition of limit, we may define the continuity of a function as follows : The functions f(x) is continuous at x = 1, if f (a) exists and for any preassigned positive quantity e, however small we can determine a positive quantity d, such that f (x) – f (a)  < e, for all values of x satisfying  x – a  < d. Some Properties : 1. The sum or difference of two continuous functions is a continuous function (i.e.,) lim { (x )± f (x )}= lim f (x )± lim f (x ) f .
x ®a x ®a x ®a
2. Product of two continuous functions is a continuous function. 3. Ratio of two continuous functions is a continuous function, provided the denominator is not zero.
MATHS
5.23
Continuity in an Interval, at the End Points :
FUNCTION
A function is said to be continuous over the interval (open or closed) including the end points if it is continuous at every point of the same interval. Let c be any point in the interval (a, b) and if lim f (x ) = lim f (x ) = f (c ) then f(x) is continuous in ,
x ® c+ x ®c 
the interval (a, b) A function f(x) is said to continuous at the left end a of an interval a £ x £ b if lim f (x )= f (a ) and ,
x ®a +
at the right end b if lim f (x ) = f (b ) .
x®b
Discontinuity at a Point : If at any point x = a in its domain, at least one of values
x®a +
lim f (x ) lim f (x ) and f(a) be different from the others, then f(x) fails to be continuous at that point, ,
x®a 
i.e., at x = a. Example : Discuss the continuity of f (x) at x = 4, where f(x) = 2x + 1, =8 Here
x ®4 +
x¹4 x = 4.
lim f (x ) = lim (2x + 1) = 2.4 + 1 = 9
x ®4+ x ®4
x ®4 
lim f (x ) = lim (2x + 1) = 2.4 + 1 = 9
f (4) = 8, which is different from the previous value. \ f (x) is not continuous at x = 4. Geometrical Interpretation : A function is said to be continuous in an interval if in its graph there is no break in that interval. The graph of y – x is continuous as there is no break, while that of y = x2/ x is not continuous at x = 0, since there is a break at that point. So : (i) a function is continuous at x = a if there is no break in the graph of f(x) at the point whose abscissa is a. (i) a function is continuous in the closed interval [a, b] if we get the graph of f(x) as an unbroken straight (or curve) line from the point having absicca a to the point of abscissa b. Worked out Examples : 1. Show that f(x) = 2x + 3 is continuous at x = 1.
5.24
MATHS
Graphical approach : Let y = 2x + 3. Now for different values to x (taken in abscissa), the corresponding values of y are plotted. By joining the plotted points, a straight line is obtained without any break anywhere, as shown. Y 9 8 7 6 5 4 Q3 P P2 P1 P3 P4
3 Q2 2 (– 1,1)Q1 X´ –1 1 0½1 2 3 4 X
For x = 1 and y = 5, P is the corresponding point in the graph. As x ® 1 from the right the points P1, P2 ….. etc., approach P. Also for x ® 1 from the left, the points Q1, Q2…., etc. approach P. So the curve is continuous at P, i.e., f(x) is continuous at x = 1. Analytical Method :
x ®1 +
lim f (x ) = lim (2x + 3) = 2.1 + 3 = 5.
x ®1+
x ®1
lim f (x ) = lim (2x + 3) = 2.1 + 3 = 5. and at x = 1, f(1) = 2.1 + 3 = 5
x ®1
\ lim f (x ) = lim f (x ) = f ( ) = 5 ; \ f(x) is continuous at x = 1. 1
x ®1+ x ®1 
2. Discuss the continuity of f (x) =  x  at x = 0. F (x) =  x  means f(x) = x =0 =–x for for for x>0 x=0 x < 0.
Graphical : Refer Fig. Of W.O. ex., previous chapter. The lines meet at the origin without any break. So for x = 0, f(x) = 0 and also
x ®0+
lim f (x ) = lim f (x ) = 0. Hence f(x) is continous at x = 0.
x ®0
Analytical. lim f (x ) = lim x = 0
x®0+ x ®0+
MATHS
5.25
x®0
lim f (x ) = lim ( x ) = 0 and at x = 0, f(0) = 0
x ®0
FUNCTION
\ lim f (x ) = lim f (x ) = f (0) = 0 ; \ f ( x ) is continous at x = 0.
x®0+ x ®0 
3. Show that f (x ) = f ( )= 1
1 is discontinuous at x = 1. x 1
1 1 = , undefined. 11 0
h®0
Now lim f (x )= lim
x ®1 +
1 1 = lim = + ¥ 1 + h  1 h ®0 h
(Putting x = 1 + h, as x ® 1, h® 0) (Putting x = 1 – h, as x ® 1, h ® 0)
And lim f (x ) = lim
x ®1
h ®0
1 1 = lim = ¥ 1  h  1 h ®0  h
We find right hand limit is not equal to left hand limit. \ at x = 1, f (x) is discontinuous. 4. Discuss the continuity at x = 2 where f(x) = 4x + 8, = 12 Now
x ® 2+ h ®0
x¹2 x=2
lim f (x ) = lim 4 (2 + h )+ 8 = 16 (Putting x = 2 + h as x ® 2, h ® 0)
And lim f (x ) = lim 4 (2  h )+ 8 = 16. [for x = 2 – h, h ® 0, as x ® 2]
x®2h ®0
Again at x = 2, f(x) = f(2) = 12. Three values are not equal. Hence f(x) is discontinuous at x = 2. 5. Let f(x) be defined as follows : f (x ) = x2  x  2 , x2 for x ¹ 2 for x = 2
= 3,
Examine the continuity of the function f(x) at x = 2. Now lim f (x ) = lim
x ®2 +
x ® 2+
(x  2 ) (x + 1) = lim x +1 , as (x – 2) ¹ 0 x2  x  2 = lim ( ) x ® 2+ x ® 2+ x2 (x  2 )
= 2 + 1 = 3. Again
x ®2 
lim f (x ) = lim
x2  x  2 = lim (x + 1), (x  2 )¹ 0 x ®2x ®2 x2
= 2 + 1 = 3. At x = 2, f (2) = 3 So we find lim f (x )= lim f (x ) = f (2)
x®2+ x ® 2
\ The given function is continuous at x = 2.
5.26
MATHS
6. Prove that f (x ) = = 1,
x a x 0
, for x ¹ a for x = a is discontinuous at x = a.
 x – a  = x – a, if (x – a) > or, x > a = 0, if (x – a) = 0 or, x = a = – (x – a), if (x – a) < 0 or, x < a Now
x®a +
lim f (x ) = lim
(x  a ) = 1 x ® a + (x  a )
x ®a 
x®a 
lim f (x ) = lim
 (x  a ) = 1 and at x = a, f(a) = 1 (x  a )
Since
x®a +
lim f (x ) ¹ lim f (x ) ¹ f (a ) so the given function is discontinuous at x = 1.
x®a 
SELF EXAMINATION QUESTIONS : 1. f (x) = x2 + 1. Is the function continuous at x = 2? 2. A functions is defined as follows f(x) = x , x ¹ 2 = 2, x = 2 Is f(x) continuous at x = 2? 3. Where are the following function discontinuous : (i)
2 x
2
[Ans. Yes]
[Ans. No]
(ii)
1 x 1
(iii)
2x 2 x2
(iv)
1 . x  4x + 3
2
[Ans. (i) 0, (ii) 1, (iii) 2, (iv) 1, 3]
4. Discuss the continuity of f(x) at x = c, where f (x ) = x 2  c2 x¹ c xc [Ans. Continuous]
= 2c, x = c 5. (i) The function f (x ) =
x2  4 is undefined at x = 2. What value must be assigned to f(x), if f(x) is x2
to be continuous at x = 2 ? Give reasons for your answer. [Ans. f (x ) = (ii) f (x ) = x2  4 , x ¹ 2 = 4, x = 2 ] x2
x2  9 when x ¹ 3. State the value of f(3) so that f(x) is continuous at x = 3. x 3 [Ans. 6]
6. Is the function f (x ) = f(x) continuous at x = 2.
x3  8 continuous at x = 2? If not what value must be assigned to f(2) to make x2
[Ans. 12]
[Ans. 12]
MATHS
5.27
7. (i) A function f(x) is defined as follows :
FUNCTION
f(x) = x + 1, = 3 – ax2
when x £ 1. when x > 1. [Ans.1]
For what value of a will f(x) be continuous? With this value of a draw the graph of f(x). (ii) Show that f (x ) =
1 is discontinuous at x = 2. x2
8. A function f(x) is defined as follows : f(x) = x =–x for x ³ 0 for x < 0.
Draw the graph of f(x) as defined and show that f(x) is not discontinuous at x = 0. 9. Draw the graph of f(x) as defined below. From the graph examine whether f(x) is continuous at x = 0. f(x) =1 = – 1, = 0, 10. A function f(x) is defined as follows : f(x) = x, = 1, = 1 – x, 0£x<
x= 1 2
[Ans. No] x>0 x<0 x = 0.
1 2
1 < x £ 1. 2
1 Draw the graph of f(x) and show that f(x) is not continuous at x = . 2
11. Show that f(x) is continuous at x = 0 and x = 1, where f(x) = x2, = x, = 2 – x, 12. A function f(x) is defined as follows : f(x) = 1, = 0, = – 1, Show that it is discontinuous at x = 0. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS : 1. If f(x) = (x – 1) (x – 2) (x – 3), find f(0)
2. If f(x) = x +  x , find f(– 2) [Ans. 0
x£0 0<x<1 x ³ 1.
x>0 x=0 x<0
[Ans. – 6]
[Ans. 0]
5.28
MATHS
3. If f (x ) =
x 2  6x + 8 find f(0) x 2 + 8x + 12 x2 is F(x) = f(x) always? x,
[Ans. 2 ] 3 [Ans. equal for x ¹ 0] [Ans. 4]
4. Given f(x) = x, F (x ) = 5. If f(x)
= 2 + x, x < 3 = 7 – x, x ³ 3, find f(3)
6. If f(x)
= (x – 2) (x – 3) (x + 4) find f(3)
[Ans. 0] [Ans. – 1] [Ans. – 1] [Ans. x + 2x3] [Ans. 2] [Ans. e36] [Ans.
1 ] 2
7. Given f (x ) = x , for what value of x, f(x) is undefined? 8. Find the range of the function f (x ) = 9. If f(x) = x + 2x3, find – f(– x) 10. f (x ) = x x , x ¹ 0 and is a real number, find f (c ) f ( c ) .
x2 , x¹2 2x
11. If f(x) = e3x + 4, find f(1) + f(2) + f(5) 12. If f (x ) =
1 x , find f 2 1 2 1+ x
( )
(iii) lim x2 x2
13. If f(x) = x +  x  are f(2) and f(– 2) equal? 14. Evaluate : (i) lim 15. Evaluate : (i) lim x2 +1 x2 1 (ii) lim x ®1 x  1 x +1
[Ans. no] [Ans. (i) 1 (ii) 2 (ii) no exisstance]
x ®1
x®2
x ®1
x 2 + 5x  6 ex 1 (ii) lim x®0 x 1 x
[Ans. (i) 7 (ii) 1]
2 ] 9 1 ] 2
16. Evaluate : lim
x ® 1
x 2 + 4x + 3 x 2  7x  8 1 1 x x
[Ans.
17. Find the value of lim
x ®0
[Ans.
18. If f(x) = x2, evaluate : lim
h ®0
f (x + h )  f (x ) h
[Ans. 2x] [Ans. Yes] [Ans.
1 ] 2
19. Is the function f(x) =  x  continuous at x = 0 20. Evaluate : lim
6  5x 2 . 4x + 15x 2
x ®¥
21. A functions is defined as follows : f(x) = 2x – 1, = k, = 8 – x, x<3 x=3 x > 3. [Ans. 2]
For what value of k, f(x) is continuous at x = 3?
MATHS
5.29
22. A function is defined as follows :
FUNCTION
f(x)
= 1, = 0, = 1
x>0 x=0 x < 0. Is the function is continuous at x = 0 [Ans. no]
5.3 DERIVATIVE : Introduction : The idea of limit as discussed previously will now be extended at present in determining the derivative of a function f(x) with respect to x (the independent variable). For this let us know at first what the term ‘increment’ means. Increment : By increment of a variable we mean the difference of initial value from the final value. i.e., Increment = final value – initial value. Let x change its value from 1 to 4, increment of x = 4 – 1 = 3. Again if x changes from 1 to – 2, increment = – 2 – 1 = – 3. (i.e., increment may be positive or negative). Symbols : Increment of x will be denoted by h or, dx (delta x) or Dx (delta x) and that of y will be represented by k or, dy or, Dy. If in y = f(x), the independent variable x changes to x + dx, then increment of x = x + dx – x = dx (¹ 0). So y = f(x) changes to y = f(x + dx). \ increment of y = f(x + dx) – f(x) Now the increment ratio If the ratio [as y = f(x)]
dy f (x + dx ) f (x ) f (x + h ) f (x ) = = dx dx h
dy tends to a limit, as dx ® 0 from either side, then this limit is known as the derivative of dx
y [ = f(x)] with respect to x. Example : If y = 2x2, then y + dy = 2 (x + dx)2, dy = 2 (x + dx)2 – 2x2
\ dy 2 (x + dx )  2 x 2 = dx dx 1 1 1 , dy =  5 5 5 x (x + dx ) x dy dx
2
Again for =
Definition : A function y = f(x) is said to be derivable at x if lim or,
lim
dx ® 0
dx ® 0
f (x + dx ) f (x ) dx
or, lim
h®0
f (x + h ) f (x ) h
exists and equal to l. Now this limit l that exists is known as derivative (or differential coefficient) of y [or f(x)] with respect to x.
5.30
MATHS
Symbols : Derivative of y [ = f(x)] w.r.t.x (with respect to x) is denoted by
dy dx
or, or,
f ¢ (x), D [f(x)]
or, or,
d [f (x )] dx
or, Now
Dy
y1
dy dy f (x + dx ) f (x ) f ( x + h )  f (x ) = lim = lim = lim , provided this limit exists. d x ® 0 dx d x ®0 h ®0 dx dx h dy d d does not mean the product of with y. The notation stands as a symbol to dx dx dx
Note :
denote the operation of differentiation only. Read SUMMARY : The whole process for calculating f¢ (x) or
dy as ‘dee y by dee x’. dx
dy may be summed up in the following stages : dx
1. Let the independent variable x has an increment h and then find the new value of the function f (x + h). 2. Find f(x + h) – f(x). 3. Divide the above value by h i.e., find 4. Calculate lim
f (x + h ) f ( x ) = f ¢ (x ) h ®0 h f ( x + h )  f (x ) . h
DIFFENENTIAL COEFFICIENT OF SOME STANDARD FUNCTIONS
(FROM FIRST PRINCIPLE)
A. Differential Coefficient of x3. Let f(x) = x3 From definition, f ¢(x ) = lim = lim
h ®0
(x + h )  x 3 f (x + h ) f (x ) = lim h ®0 h h
3
x 3 + 3x 2 h + 3xh 2 + h 3  x 3 h®0 h 3x 2 h + 3xh 2 + h 3 h 3x 2 + 3xh + h 2 = lim h®0 h ®0 h h
h®0
= lim
(
)
= lim 3x 2 + 3xh + h 2 , as h ¹ 0 since h ® 0. = lim 3x 2 + lim 3xh + lim h 2 = 3x 2 + 3x. 0 + 0 = 3x 2 .
h®0 x ®0 h®0
(
)
B. Differential Coefficient of xn Let f(x) = xn From definition, f ¢(x ) = lim f (x + h ) f (x ) (x + h )n  x n = lim h ®0 h h
h ®0
MATHS
5.31
Now putting x + h = u, so that h = u – x and as h ® 0 u ® x, we now get
FUNCTION
f ¢(x ) = lim
un  xn = nx n 1 , for all rational values of n. u®x u  x
[by formula E of useful limits, see before]
\ d n x = nx n 1 , for all rational values of n. dx
( )
Example :
d 4 d x = 4x 3 ; x = 1.x11 = 1x0 = 1.1 = 1. dx dx
( )
d æ 1 ö d 1 1 x = 1.x 11 = 1x  2 = 2 ç ÷= dx è x ø dx x
d d 12 1 1/ 2 1 . x= x = .x = ; dx dx 2 2 x
d 1 d 1 1 1 d . = .x 2 =  .x 3 / 2 = 3 / 2 ; x x dx x dx 2 2x dx d ( ) = dx .x
3/ 2
=
3 12 3 x = x; 2 2
C. Derivative of ex Now f ' (x ) = lim
\
Let f(x) = ex
f ( x + h )  f (x ) ex+h  ex eh  1 eh  1 = lim = lim e x . = e x , as lim =1 h® 0 h®0 h ®0 h ®0 h h h h
d x e = ex . dx
D. Derivative of loge x
f ' (x ) = lim
Let f(x) = loge x, x > 0.
log e (x + h ) log e x f (x + h ) f (x ) 1 x+h = lim = lim . log e h ®0 h®0 h® 0 h h h x
= lim
h® 0
1 x 1 æ hö 1 . log e ç1 + ÷ = lim log e ( + u ) 1 x h xø x u®0 u è
[where u =
h ] x
= \
1 1 .1 = (by formula B) x x
d 1 log e x = . dx x d 1 d 1 . log u = ; log (x + 1)= . du u dx x +1
Example : Corr.
d (log a x )= 1 . log a e. dx x
SOME USEFUL DERIVATIVES : 1. 3.
d n x = nx n 1 dx d x e = ex . dx
2. 4.
d 1 n . n =  n +1 . dx x x d x a = a x log e a. dx
MATHS
5.32
5.
d 1 log e x = . dx x
6.
d (log a x )= 1 log a e. dx x
EXISTENCE OF DERIVATIVE OF f (x) AT A POINT : Derivative of f(x) at c, a £ c £ b, will exist if
lim
h ®0+
f (c + h ) f (c ) h
[in short Rf¢ (c)] [in short Lf¢ (c)]
and
h ®0 
lim
f (c + h ) f (c ) h
both must exist and they are equal i.e., Rf¢ (c) = Lf¢ (c). If, however, either one fails to exist or if both exist and are unequal, then f¢ (c) does not exist. Note : f(x) is derivable in the closed internal [a, b] if f(x) has a derivative at every point of a £ x £ b. Theorem : If f´ (c) is finite, then f(x) is continuous at x = c. We know f´(c) = lim
h®0
f (c + h ) f (c ) f (c + h ) f (c ) ; f (c + h ) f (c ) = ´h h h
f (c + a ) f (c ) é f (c + h ) f (c ) ù ´ h ú = lim ´ lim h \ lim [ (c + h ) f (c )] = lim ê f h®0 ë h ®0 h ®0 h®0 h h û
= f ¢ (c) × 0.
\ lim f (c + h ) = f (c )
h ®0
[as f¢ (c) is finite]
From the definition of continuous, we find f(x) is continuous at x = c. Hence for any value of x, if derivative of f(x) is finite then f(x) is continuous at that point. Important Note : The reverse of the theorem is not true, i.e., if f(x) is continuous at x = c, f¢ (c) may not exist. The idea will be clear from the following example : Let f(x) =  x . Now f(x) is continuous at x = 0 (See worked out Ex. In Continuity Part) Now to examine whether f´(0) exists or not. Rf ' (0) = lim h f (0 + h ) f (0) f (h ) 0 = lim = lim =1 h ®0+ h ®0+ h ®0+ h h h h f (0 + h ) f (0 ) f (h ) = lim = lim = 1 h ®0 h h ®0 h h (as  h  and h are positive integers)
Lf ' (0) = lim
(as  h  is positive, h is negative)
h ®0
Since Rf¢ (0) ¹ Lf ¢ (0) f ´ (0) does not exist.
MATHS
5.33
Geometrical Interpretation of the Derivative
dy dx
FUNCTION
A function y = f(x) can be represented graphically (as shown before). Now a geometrical interpretation of the derivative
dy corresponding to any value of x may also be given. dx
Let P (x, y) be a point on the continuous curve y = f(x), axes are taken as rectangular. Q(x + dx, y + dy) be a neighbouring point (on either side at P) on the curve. Draw PM, ON perpendiculars on xaxis, and PL perpendicular on QN. QL = y + dy – y = dy, PL = x + dx – x = dx. Y Q R
( y= x,y) f(x )
P
L
X´
T
O
M
N
X
From the knowledge of slope in coordinate geometry, we know slope of a line. = increase in y axis increase in x axis
QL dy = PL dx
\ slope of the chord PQ =
… (1)
If now Q approaches P along the curve (i.e. Q ® P) from either side (which makes dx ® 0), then the chord PQ tends to a definite limiting position RPT and RPT will ultimately become a tangent to the curve at P, making an angle y with x –axis. So as PQ ® RPT, we get q ® y. As dx ® 0, lom
dx® 0
dy dy (by definition of derivative) = dx dx dy [or f ´ (x)] dx
From (i), we find slope (or gradient) of tangent PT =
Hence f ¢ (x) is the slope (or gradient) of the tangent to the curve y = f(x) at (x, y).
Note : (i) If f ¢ (x) = 0, then the tangent at (x, y) is parallel to Xaxis.
5.34
MATHS
(ii) Equation of tangent line at (x, y) is Y – y = f ¢ (x) (X – x) from y – y1 = m (x – x1) of coordinate geometry, here m = f ¢ (x). WORKED OUT EXAMPLES : 1. If y = 2x. find
dy from the first principle. dx
Let y = f(x) = 2x, then f(x + h) = 2(x + h) Now f(x + h) – f(x) = 2(x + h) – 2x
\
[replace x by x + h, h ¹ 0]
dy f (x + h ) f (x ) 2(x + h ) 2 x 2h = f ' (x ) = lim = lim = lim = lim 2 = 2. h®0 h®0 h®0 h h®0 dx h h
[cancelling h as h ¹ 0] 2. If y = 2 dy , (x ¹ 0), from the first principle find. . x dx
2 2 , then f(x + h) = x (x + h )
Let y = f(x) =
Now f(x + h) – f(x) =
2 2 2 x  2 x  2h 2h  = = (x + h ) x x (x + h ) x (x + h )
\
dy f (x + h ) f (x )  2h 2 2 2 = lim = lim = lim , (as h ¹ 0) = = 2. h ®0 h ® 0 x (x + h )h h ® 0 x (x + h ) dx h . x. x x
dy from first principle. dx
3. If y = 2, find
Let y = f(x) = 2, then f(x + h) = 2, f(x + h) – f(x) = 2 – 2 = 0
dy f (x + h ) f ( x ) 0 = lim = lim = 0 h® 0 h dx h ® 0 h
(in general
d .c = 0, where c = constant) dx
4. Find from first principle, the derivative of Let f (x ) =
2 , (x ¹ 0) at x = 0, 2. x2
2 2 2 2  2h (2x + h ) , f (x + h ) = ; f (x + h ) f (x ) =  2 = 2 2 2 2 x (x + h ) (x + h ) x x (x + h )2 f ' (x ) = lim f (x + h ) f (x )  2h (2 x + h ) = lim 2 h ® 0 h. x 2 (x + h ) h
2
h ®0
= lim
h ®0
 2 (2x + h ) x
2
(x + h )
=
 2 .2 x , as h ¹ 0 x2. x 2
=
 4x  4 = 3 x4 x
\ f ' (x ) =
4 . x3
at x = 0, f(x) has no existence (as 2/0 is undefined)
MATHS
5.35
\ at x = 0, f ¢ (x) also has no existence
FUNCTION
Again at x = 2, f ' (x ) =
4 4 1 1 = =  . i.e., f ' (2 )= 3 8 2 2 2
Alternative way to find f¢ (2) : As
f (x ) = 2 2 2 , f (2) = 2 , f (2 + h ) = x2 2 (2 + h )2
2 2 f (2 + h ) f (2) (2 + h )2 2 2 = lim  2h (4 + h ) , f ' (2 ) = lim = lim 2 h ®0 h®0 h ® 0 22 ( + h ) . h h h 2
= lim
h ®0
as h ¹ 0
 2 (4 + h ) 2
2
(2 + h )
2
=
 2 .4 1 = . 2 2 2 2 .2
5. Find from the first principle, the derivative (with respect to x) of x2 + 3x. Let f(x) = x2 + 3x, f(x + h) = (x + h)2 + 3 (x + h) f(x + h) – f(x) = (x + h)2 + 3 (x + h) – (x2 + 3x) = x2 + 2xh + h2 + 3x + 3h – x2 – 3x = 2xh + h2 + 3h = h (2x + 3 + h) f ' (x ) = lim
h ®0
f (x + h ) f (x ) h (2x + 3 + h ) = lim = lim (2 x + 3 + h ) = 2x + 3 . h® 0 h® 0 h h
x (x, 0) from the first principle. Point out the step where you require to
6. Find the derivative of use x > 0.
Let f (x ) = x , f (x + h )= x + h
f ' (x ) = lim f (x + h ) f (x ) x+h  x = lim h®0 h h
h ®0
= lim
h®0
( x  h  x )( x + h + x ) h ( x +h + x)
(x + h ) (x )
1
(rationalising)
= lim
h®0
( x + h + x )= lim ( x + h + x ), as h ¹ 0
h®0
h
= lim
h®0
( x + h + x )=
1 x+ x
=
1 2 x
.
If x < 0,
x will be imaginary and again for x = 0, 1/0 is undefined. So the function will not be
real, if x is not greater than zero. 7. f (x) = 3 + 2x = 3 – 2x for for
3 <x£0 2
0<x<
3 . 2
5.36
MATHS
Show that f(x) is continuous at x = 0 but f ¢ (0) does not exist. f(0) = 3 + 2.0 = 3 + 0 = 3
x ®0
lim f (x ) = lim (3 + 2x ) = 3,
x ®0
x® 0 +
lim f (x ) = lim (3  2x ) = 3
x ®0+
\ f(x) is continuous at x = 0. Denoting lefthand and righthand derivatives at x = 0 by the symbols Lf ¢ (0) and Rf ¢ (0) respectively, we find
Lf ' (0 ) = lim
h®0
f (0 + h ) f (0) 3 + 2h  3 = lim = 2. h ® 0h h
Rf ' (0 ) = lim
f (0 + h )  f (0 ) h
h®0+
= lim
h ® 0+
3  2h  3 = 2. h
SELF EXAMINATION QUESTIONS : 1. From the first principle, find the derivatives with respect to x of : (i) 5x, (ii) – 5x2, (iii) 5x5, (iv) 5, (v)
1 . x2
[Ans. (i) 5, (ii) – 10x, (iii) 25x4, (iv) 0, (v)  2 2. Using first principle, differentiate with respect to x of : (i) x2 + x + 1, (ii) (x + 1)2, (iii)
x 2 , (iv) . x +1 2x  1
x3
]
[Ans. (i) 2x + 1, (ii) 2 (x + 1), (iii) 3. Differentiate from first principle : (i) x (ii) 1 x
1
(x + 1)
2
, (iv)
4
(2x  1)2
1 2 x3
]
[Ans. (i)
1 2 x,
(ii)
]
4. If f(x) = x2 + 1, using first principle find f ¢ (x) when x = 2. FUNDAMENTAL THEOREMS ON DERIVATIVES : 1. The derivative of a constant is zero. i.e.,
d (c)= 0 where c is a constant. dx f (x + h ) f (x ) cc 0 = lim = lim = 0. h®0 h ®0 h h h
h ®0
[Ans. 4]
Let f(x) = c for all values of x, then f(x + h) = c. Now f ' (x ) = lim
h®0
Example : f ' (x ) = lim
f (x + h ) f (x ) cc 0 = lim = lim = 0. h®0 h ®0 h h h
MATHS
5.37
2. The derivative of the algebraic sum (or difference) of two derivable functions is the algebraic sum
FUNCTION
(or difference) of their derivatives. i.e.,
d (u ± v )= du ± dv dx dx dx
[where u and v are two derivable functions of x]
Let f(x) = u + n ; du and dn are the increments of u and v respectively corresponding to dx of x. Now f(x + dx) = u + du + v + dv,
f ' (x ) = lim f (x + dx ) f (x ) du + dv du dv du dv = lim = lim + lim = + . dx ® 0 dx ® 0 dx ® 0 dx dx ® 0 dx dx dx dx dx
Again for f(x) = u – v we find f ' (x ) =
du dv  . dx dx
du dv dw ± ± ± ...... dx dx dx
Extensions : If f(x) = u ± n ± w ± …… then f ' (x ) = Where u, v, w, …. are derivable functions of x. Examples :
d 3 d 3 d 2 x + x2 = x + x = 3x 2 = 2x. dx dx dx
(
)
3. The derivative of the product of two functions = first function × derivative of the second function + second function × derivative of the first function. i.e.,
d (uv)= u dv + v du . The proof is not given at present, dx dx dx
Example :
d 2 x d x d 2 x .e = x 2 e + ex x = x 2 e x + e x . 2x = x 2 e x + 2 xe x . dx dx dx
(
)
Extension of the above theorem. If f(x) = (u1. u2. u3 ….. un) where u1 u2. u3 …., un are derivable functions of x, then
f ' (x ) = du1 du du (u 2 .u 3 ...u n ) + 2 (u1.u 3 .... u n ) + ...... + x (u1 , u 2 ,......u x 1 ) dx dx dx
4. To find
d (c. u.), where c is constant and u is derivable function of x. dx
d du dc du du (c ) = c + u = c + u.0 = c . dx dx dx dx dx
\
d (cu )= c du . dx dx
Example :
d dx 4 2x 4 = 2 = 2 .4 x 3 = 8 x 3 . dx dx
( )
5. Derivative of the quotient of two derivable functions : = denom.´ derivative of num.  num. ´ derivative of denom
(deno min ator )2
, (deno min ator ¹ 0)
5.38
MATHS
d æuö i.e., ç ÷= dx è v ø
v
du dv u dx dx ., (where v ¹ 0) (The proof is not shown at present) v2 u du d 2 x2 . Let y = where u = x2, = x = 2 x 21 = 2 x x +1 v dx dx
Example : If y =
( )
And v = (x + 1) ,
dv d = (x + 1)= d x + d .1 = 1 + 0 = 1 dx dx dx dx v du dv  u. 2 2 2 2 . dx dx = (x + 1) 2x  x .1 = 2x + 2x  x = x + 2x v2 (x + 1)2 (x + 1)2 (x + 1)2
dy d æ u ö Now = ç ÷= dx dx è v ø
Remember : Differentiation from definition or from first principle means to find the derivative without assuming any rule of differentiation. SOLVED EXAMPLES : [Regarding Sum and Difference of functions :] 8. Find
dy of the following functions : dx
(i) x4 + 4x, (ii) 3x5 – 5x3 + 110, (iii) – 2 + (4/5) x5 – (7/8) x8. (i) Let y = x4 + 4x.
dy d 4 d 4 d = x + 4x = x + (4x )= 4.x 41 + 4 d . x = 4x 3 + 4. dx dx dx dx dx
(
)
(ii) Let y = 3x5 – 5x3 + 110
dy d d d d = 3x 5  5x 3 + 110 = 3x 5 5x 3 + .110 dx dx dx dx dx
(
)
( )
( )
=3
d 5 d x  5 x 3 + 0, (as 110 is a constant number) dx dx
= 3.5x5 – 1 + 5.3x3 – 1 = 15x4 + 15x2. (iii) Let y = 2 +
4 5 7 8 x  x 5 8
dy d æ 4 5 7 8ö d = ( 2)+ d æ 4 x 5 ö  d æ 7 x 8 ö ç 2 + x  x ÷ = ç ÷ ç ÷ dx dx è 5 8 ø dx dx è 5 ø dx è 8 ø
=0+ 4 d 5 7 d 8 x x , 5 dx 8 dx
(as – 2 is a constant number)
4 7 = + .5x 51  .8x 81 = 4x 4  7 x 7 . 5 8
MATHS
5.39
9. If y =
2 x 3 + 3x 2 + 4 x + 5 x y=2 x3 x +3 x2 x
, find x x
FUNCTION
dy when x = 4. dx 1 x = 2 x 3 . x 1 / 2 + 3x 2 . x 1/ 2 + 4 x1. x 1 / 2 + 5.x 1 / 2
Now
+4
+ 5.
= 2x5/2 + 3x3/2 + 4x1/2 + 5x–1/2
dy d d d d = 2 x 5 / 2 + 3 x 3 / 2 + 4 x1/ 2 + 5 .x 1/ 2 dx dx dx dx dx 5 3 1 æ 1ö = 2. x 5 / 2 1 + 3. x 3 / 21 + 4. x1 / 2 1 + 5. ç  ÷.x 1/ 2 1 2 2 2 è 2ø
= 5x 3 / 2 +
9 1/ 2 5 9 2 5 x + 2 x 1/ 2  x 3 / 2 = 5x 3 / 2 + x+  3/ 2 2 2 2 x 2x
Now putting x = 4 in
dy we find dx
dy 9 2 5 = 5 .4 3 / 2 + 4+ = 5. 2 2 3/ 2 dx 2 4 2 .4 = 5.23 + 9 + 1 
()
3/ 2
9 2 5 + .2 + 2 2 2. 2 2
()
3/ 2
5 5 5 = 5.8 + 9 + 1  = 40 + 10 3 16 16 2 .2
5 800  5 795 11 = = = 49 . 16 16 16 16
= 50 
1 ds 10. If s = ut + ft 2 , find when t = 2. 2 dt
ds d æ 1 ö d d æ1 ö dt 1 d = ç ut + ft 2 ÷ = (ut )+ ç ft 2 ÷ = u + f t 2 dt dt è 2 ø dt dt è 2 ø dt 2 dt
(here u, f,
= u .1 +
1 are constants & t is a variable, since we are to differentiate w.r.t. t) 2
1 1 f .2 t 2 1 = u + .2ft = u + ft 2 2
For
t = 2,
ds = u + 2f . dt
REGARDING PRODUCT : 11. Differentiate (x + 1) (2x3 – 21) with respect to x. Let y = (x + 1) (2x3 – 21) = u. n where u = x + 1, n = 2x3 – 21
du d (x + 1)= dx + d .1 = 1 + 0 = 1 = dx dx dx dx
dn d d d = (2x 3  21)= 2 .x 3  (21) = 2.3x 31  0 = 6x 2 . dx dx dx dx
5.40
MATHS
Now
dy dn du =u +n = (x + 1) 6x 2 + 2 x 3  21 .1 . dx dx dx
(
)
= 6x3 + 6x2 + 2x3 – 21 = 8x3 + 6x2 – 21. 12. y = x (x2 – 1) (x3 + 2), find
dy . dx
Let y = uvw, where u = x, v =x2 – 1, w = x3 + 2
du dv dw = 1, = 2x and = 3x 2 dx dx dx dy d = (uvw )= vw du + uw dv + uv dw dx dx dx dx dx
= (x2 – 1) (x3 + 2).1 + x (x3 + 2). 2x + x (x2 – 1). 3x = 6x5 – 4x3 + 6x2 (on simplification). 13. If y = 2 x 3 / 2
dy ( x + 2)( x  1) find dx . , du 3 = 2. .x 3 / 2 1 = 3x1/ 2 = 3 x dx 2
Let y = uvw, where u = 2x 3/2, v = x + 2,
w = x  1, \
dv d 1/ 2 d 1/ 2 d 1 1 = x +2 = x + .2 = x1/ 21 + 0 = x 1/ 2 dx dx dx dx 2 2
(
)
dw d 1/ 2 d 1 1 = x  .1 = .x1/ 2 1  0 = x 1 / 2 dx dx dx 2 2
dy du dv dw = vw + uw + uv dx dx dx dx
=
( x + 2)( x  1).3
( x (+ x
x + 2x 3 / 2
( x  1). 1 x 2
1 / 2
+ 2x 3 / 2 .
( x + 2)1 x . 2
1/ 2
= 3 x x  x + 2 x  2 + x 3 / 21 / 2 =3
( x  1)+ x x  2 ) x ( x  1) x ( x + 2 ) + +
)
3 / 2 1 / 2
( x + 2)
= 3x x + 3x  6 x + x x  x + x x + 2x = 5x x  6 x + 4 x. 14. If y = 10x x10 , find Now Again
\ dy . dx
Let y = u.n where u = 10x and v = x10 [by formula 4, useful derivaties]
du d x = 10 = 10 x log e 10 ; dx dx
dv d 10 = . x = 10. x10 1 = 10x 9 . dx dx dy d = (u.v.)= u dv + v du = 10 x . 10x9 + x10. 10x loge 10 = 10x (10x9 + x10 loge 10) dx dx dx dx
MATHS
5.41
REGARDING DIVISION :
FUNCTION
15. If y = Let
x 1 dy , find x +1 dx
y= u du d , where u = x – 1, = (x  1)= dx  d .1  0 = 1 v dx dx dx dx dv d = (x + 1)= dx + d 1 = 1 + 0 = 1 dx dx dx dx
v = x + 1, v
\
dy = dx
du dv u 2 dx dx = (x + 1).1  (x  1).1 = x + 1  x + 1 = 2 2 2 v (x + 1) (x + 1) (x + 1)2
16. If y = Let
(x + 1) ( x 2  1), 2
x2 +1
y=
find
dy . dx
u , where u = (x + 1) (2x2 – 1) = 2x3 + 2x2 – x – 1. v
du = 6 x 2 + 4 x  1 and dx
v = x2 + 1 ;
dv = 2x dx
dy = dx
v
du dv u 2 2 2 4 3 dx dx = x + 1 6x + 4x  1  (x + 1) 2x  1 . 2x = 2x + 3x + 2x  1 . 2 2 v2 x2 +1 x2 +1
(
)(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
SELF EXAMINATION QUESTIONS : Part Aregarding sum and difference of functions : Differentiate the following functions with respect to x (or independent variable) : (a, b, c, m, n, are constants) : 1. (i) x7 + 7 2. (i) ax + b + c (ii) 7x7 + 7 (ii) ax2 – bx (iii)
a 4 b 2 .x + x + c 4 2
[Ans. (i) 7x6, (ii) 496] (iv) x5 + bx3 – cx.
[Ans. (i) a (ii) 2ax – b (iii) ax3 + bx (iv) 5x4 +3bx2 – c] 3. (i) xm + mx [Ans. (i) mxm – 1 + m 4. (i)
x+ 4
(ii) xm + xm – 1 (ii) mxm –1 + (m – 1) xm – 2] (ii) 2 x + 3x (iii)
( x + 1)
2
(iv) 4 1 2 x 1 x 1 2 x 
(x +x )
2
[Ans. (i)
2 x 1ö æ (ii) ç x + ÷ xø è
2
(ii)
1 x
+ 3 (iii) 1 +
2
1 x
(iv)
2 x
+ 8x ]
5. (i) 2 x 2 +
(iii) 2 x3
x+
æ 1 ö ÷ (iv) ç x ç ÷ xø è 1 1 (iv) 1  2 ] 3/ 2 2x x
[Ans. (i) 4 x 
2 x2
(ii) 2 x 
(iii)
5.42
MATHS
MATHS
5.43
19. (i)
FUNCTION
x2 log x
(ii)
log x x2
(iii)
ex x
(iv)
x2 ex
[Ans. (i)
2x log x  x
(log x )2
(ii)
x  2x log x x4
(iii)
xe x (2  x ) e x (x  1) (iv) ] e 2x x2
DERIVATIVE OF FUNCTION OF A FUNCTION : A variable y may be a function of a second variable z, which again may be a function of a third variable x. i.e., y = z2 + 3, and z = 2x + 1 Here y is a function of z and z again a function of x. Ultimately y is seen to depend on x, so y is called the function of another function. Symbolically, if y = f (z), z = f (x) then y = f {f (x)} Theorem. If y = f(z) and z = f (x) then
dy dy dz = . dx dz dx du du dv dw = . . dx dv dw dx
(proof is not shown at present)
Corr. If u = f(v), v = f (w), w = y (x) then Example : To find Now
dy for y = 2z2 + 1, z = 4x – 2 dx
dy dz = 4z and =4 dz dx
dy dy dz = . = 4z. 4 = 16z = 16 (4x  2) = 64x  32. dx dz dx
Rule 1. If y = ax + b, to find So \
dy dx
Let y = z, and z = ax + b.
y = f (z) and z = f (x)
dy dy dz = . = 1 . (a. 1 + 0) = a dx dz dx dy . dx
Rule. 2. If y = (ax + b)n, to find Now \
Let y = zn and z = ax + b
dy dz = n.z n 1 and =a dz dx dy dy dz = . = nz n 1 a = na (ax + b)n – 1 dx dz dx
Example : If {y = (2x + 5)4] Now Now
dy dz = 4z 3 , =2 dz dx
Let y = z4, where z = 2x + 5.
dy dy dz 3 3 = . = 4z 3 . 2 = 4.2 (2x + 5) = 8 (2x + 5) dx dz dx
MATHS
5.44
Rule 3. If y = log u (u is a function of x), then to find Example : y = log (4x), find
dy . dx
dy dy dy du ; = . dx dx du dx du =4 dx
Let y = log u, where u = 4x,
dy dy du d (log u ). 4 = 1 × 4 = 4. 1 = 1 . = = dx du dx du u 4x x
Example : y = log 1 + x , find
(
)
dy . dx
Let y = log u, where u = 1 + x .
du 1 1 dy dy du 1 1 1 =0+ = ; = . = . = dx 2 x 2 x dx du dx u 2 x 1 + x . 2 x
(
)
SOLVED EXAMPLES : 1. Find
du , if y = (2x – 5)6. dx
Let y = z6, where z = 2x – 5,
dz =2 dx
dy dy dz d 6 = . = z . 2 = 6z 5 .2 = 12z 5 = 12 (2x  5) 5 dx dz dx dz
()
2. If y = x 2 + 7 , find
dy . dx
Let y = z , where z = x 2 + 7,
x x +7
2
dz = 2 x. dx
dy dy dz d 1 x = . = . z . 2x = . 2x = = dx dz dx dz 2 z z
.
3. If y = x 3 + 2x 2 + 5x
(
dy ) , find dx .
3
Let y = u – 3, where u = x3 + 2x2 + 5x, dy = 3u  4 du
du = 3x 2 + 4x + 5 dx
dy dy du d = . = . u 3 . 3x 2 + 4x + 5 dx du dx du
(
)
= – 3.u– 4. (3x2 + 4x + 5) = – 3 (3x2 + 4x + 5). (x3 + 2x2 + 5x)– 4 4. If y = x2. 53x, find \ Now y = u.v v = 53x = 5w (say), where w = 3x
dv dw dv dv dw = 5 w log e 5, =3; = . = 5 w log e 5.3 = 3.53x log e 5 dw dx dx dw dx
Again
dy du . Let u = x2 so that = 2x ; and v = 53x , dx dx
(putting w = 3x)
dy d = (u.v.)= u dv + v du = x 2 .3.53x log e 5 + 53x. 2x = 53x. 2x = 53x 3x 2 log e 5 + 2x dx dx dx dx
(
)
MATHS
5.45
5. Given y =
2x + 1 dy , find . x+2 dx
FUNCTION
2x + 1 du Let y = u , where u = , = x + 2 dx
(x + 2)
d (2x + 1) (2x + 1) d (x + 2) dx dx 2 (x + 2)
du (x + 2) 2  (2x + 1).1 . 3 = = 2 dx (x + 2) (x + 2)2
dy 1 1 = = . du 2 u 2
dy dy du 1 = = dx du dx 2
x+2 2x + 1
x+2 3 3 . . = 2x + 1 (x + 2)2 2 2x + 1. (x + 2 )3 / 2
6. If y = log log log x2, find
dy Let y = log u where u = log v and v = log x2 = 2 logx. dx
dy 1 1 1 = = = . du u log v log log x 2
du 1 1 1 = = = . dv v log x 2 2 log x dv 2 = dx x
\
dy dy du dv 1 1 2 1 = . . = . . = dx du dv dx log log x 2 2 log x x x log x log log x 2
7. Differentiate x5 w.r.t.x2
Let y = x5, z = x2
dy dz d 2 dx 1 = 5x 4 , = x = 2x , so that = . dx dx dx dz 2x
Now
dy dy dx 1 5 = . = 5x 4 . = x 3. dz dx dz 2x 2
dy 8. y = loge æ x + x 2 + a 2 ö, find . ç ÷ è ø dx du d d 22 2 x = x+ x +a dx dx dx
Let y = logu H where u = x + or
du 1 =1+ . 2x 2 dx 2 x + a2
x2 + a2
(
( )
1/2 1/ 2
Now
dy dy du 1 æ x = = . ç1 + 2 dx du dx u ç x + a2 è
ö 1 x + x2 + a2 ÷= . = ÷ 2 2 x2 + a2 ø x+ x +a
1 x + a2
2
.
5.46
MATHS
SELF EXAMINATION QUESTIONS : Differentiate the following functions w.r.t.x : 1. (x2 + 5)2. 2. (i) (ax + b)5. [Ans. 5a (ax + b)4] (iii) (3 – 5x)3/2. 3. (x3 + 3x)4 4.
3x 2 + 7
[Ans. 4x (x2 + 5)] (ii) (1 – 5x)6. [Ans. – 30 (1 – 5x)5] [Ans. 15 3  5x ] 2
[Ans. 12 (x2 + 1) (x3 + 3x)3] [Ans. 3x 3x 2  7 ]
5. (2x2 + 5x – 7)– 2 6. x 3 1  x 2 .
x2 1 x2 +1
[Ans. – 2 (4x + 5) (2x2 + 5x –7)– 3] [Ans. 3x 2 1  x 2 x4 1 x2 ]
7.
[Ans.
2x
(x
2
1 x2 +1
)(
)
3/ 2
]
8. e4x 9. (i) e 3x (ii) e 3 x
2
[Ans. 4e4x]
+ 4 x 7
[Ans. (6x + 4) e 3x [Ans. 6 (x – 1) e 3x [Ans.
2
2
+ 4 x 7
6 x + 2
] ]
2
6 x + 2
2
10. log (x2 + 2x + 5). 11. log
2 (x + 1) ] x + 2x + 5 1 2 x2 1
( x +1 
x 1 .
)
[Ans.
dy = x. dx
[Ans.
]
12. log log log x2. 13. If y = 1 + x 2 , prove that y 14. Differentiate x6 w.r.t.x4. 15. Differentiate x5 w.r.t.x2 DERIVATIVE OF IMPLICIT FUNCTION :
1 1 2 . . ] 2 2 log log x log x x
[Ans. [Ans.
3 2 x ] 2 5 3 x ] 2
If f(x,f(x,=y) = 0 defines a derivable function of x, then differentiate each termeach term w.r.t.x. The idea If y) 0 defines y as y as a derivable function of x, then differentiate w.r.t.x. The idea will be clear from the given example.
will be clear from the given example.
MATHS
5.47
Example : Find
FUNCTION
dy , if 3x4 – x2y + 2y3 = 0 dx
dy æ dy ö Differentiating each term of the functions w.r.t.x we get, 3.4x3 – ç x 2 + 2 xy ÷ + 6 y 2 =0 dx dx è ø
or,
12x 3  x 2
dy dy  2xy + 6 y 2 =0 dx dx dy )dx = 2xy  12x
3
or,
(y 6
2
 x2
or,
dy 2xy  12x 3 = . dx 6y 2  x 2
DERIVATIVE OF PARAMETRIC FUNCTION : Each of variable x and y can be expressed in terms of a third variable (known as parametric function). For example. X = f1 (t), y = f2 (t). Now to find
dy dy dt dy / dt dx = . = , ¹ 0. dx dt dx dx / dt dt dy dy dx we are to find and so that dx dt dt
Example : Find
dy , when x = 4t, y = 2t2 dx
dx dy dy dy / dt 4t = 4, = 4t, = = =t dt dt dx dx / dt 4
Example : Find
dy 3 at 3at 2 , when x = , y= dx 1 + t3 1 + t3
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) dy ( + t )6at  3at ( t ) 3at (  t ) 1 3 2 = = dx (+ t ) 1 (+ t ) 1 dy ( + t )6at  3at ( t ) 3at (  t ) 1 3 2 = = dx (+ t ) (+ t ) 1 1
dx 1 + t 3 . 3a  3at 3t 2 3a 1  2t 2 = = 2 2 dt 1 + t3 1 + t3
3 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 2
SELF EXAMINATION QUESTIONS : Find derivative of the following functions w.r.t. x 1. 2x2 + 5xy + 3y2 = 1 2. x3 + y3 = a3  x2 ] y2
1 ] t
[Ans. 3. x3 + y3 = 3axy
a t
 (4 x + 5 y ) ] (5x + 6y ) ay  x 2 ] y 2  ax
1 ] t2
[Ans.
[Ans.
4. x = at2, y = 2at [ Ans.
5. x = at, y =
[Ans. 
6. 2x = t2, 3y = t3 [Ans. t]
7. x = 5t – t3, y = t2 + 4, at t = 1
[Ans. 1]
5.48
MATHS
1 8. x = , y = 4t, at t = – 2 t
[Ans. – 16] [Ans. t] [Ans. 3 ] 2
9. x = 2at, y = at2 10. 2x2 + 3xy + y2 = 4 at the point (0, 2) TOTAL COST AND MARGINAL COST : Total cost (C) is expressed as a function of output (x) produced i.e., C = f (x). If, however, q is output then C = f (q) Average cost (AC) = total cost C f (x ) = , or . output x x
This average cost (AC) represents the cost per unit of production. Marginal cost (MC) : Represents the change in the total cost for each additional unit of production. As such we get MC is the first derivative of total cost function. w.r. to output i.e.,
MC = dC . dx
DIFFERENT FORMS OF COST FUNCTION : Total cost (C) = f(x) + K, (K is fixed cost) ; Average cost (AC) = Average variable cost (AVC) = Average fixed cost (AFC) =
f (x ) , as K is not variable cost x C f (x) + K = x x
K dC ; Marginal cost (MC) = . x dx
Relation between AC and MC curves : Cost function curve may be represented in different forms or shapes under different conditions. With certain limitations let us assume that average cost and marginal cost curves be Ushaped.
C d æCö From AC = we get the slope as ç ÷= x dx è x ø
x
dC C 1 æ dC C ö 1 dx = ç  ÷ = (MC  AC) 2 x è dx x ø x x
Case 1. When AC is declining i.e., AC curve slopes downwards, its slope will be negative so that
d æCö ç ÷ < 0 or, MC – AC < 0 or, MC < AC, MC curve will lie below AC curve. dx è x ø
Case 2. If AC curve reaches a minimum point its slope becomes zero i.e.,.
d æCö ç ÷ = 0 or, MC – AC = 0, or, MC = AC dx è x ø
The two curves intersect at the point of minimum average cost.
MATHS
5.49
Case 3. While AC curve rises upwards, its slope is positive.
FUNCTION
d æCö ç ÷ > 0 i.e. MC > AC dx è x ø MC curve will be above the AC curve. Example : The total cost (C) for output x is as follows : 3 15 C= x+ . 5 4 Find (i) Cost when output is 5 units (ii) Average cost of output of 10 units (iii) Marginal cost Cost (C) 3 15 for 5 units = .5 + = 3 + 3.75 = 6.75 units. 5 4
3 15 x+ C 5 4 = 3 + 15 AC = = x x 5 4x
\ AC for 10 units =
3 15 d(C ) 3 + = 0.6 + 0.375 = 0.975 ; MC = = = 0.6. 5 40 dx 5
Example : The average cost function (AC) is increasing and the output for which AC is decreasing, with increasing output. Find also the total cost (C) and marginal (MC) as functions of output x. For increasing or decreasing of AC we are to find the slope of AC i.e. Now
d (AC)= d æ 2x  1 + 50 ö = 2  50 ç ÷ dx dx è x ø x2 50 50 > 0, or, x2 > 25 or x > 5 and decreasing if 2  2 < 0 or, x < 5 (for 2 x x d (AC). dx
AC is increasing if 2 
increasing outputs, x is positive)
50 ö æ Again total cost (C) = ACx = ç 2 x  1 + ÷ x = 2x 2  x + 50 x ø è
Marginal cost (MC)
dC d = 2x 2  x + 50 = 4x  1. dx dx
(
)
Example : The cost function (C) for commodity (q) is given by C = q3 – 4q2 + 6q. Find the AVC and also find the value of q for which AVC is minimum. AVC = C = q 2  4q + 6, (in cost function (C), fixed cost is absent) q
MC =
d 3 q  4q 2 + 6q = 3q 2  8q + 6. dq
(
)
For
AVC
minimum,
slope
of
AC
is
zero
i.e.,
d 2 q  4q + 6 = 0 or, 2q – 4 = 0 or, q = 2 units. dq
(
)
5.50
MATHS
Aliter : For AVC minimum MC = AVC i.e. 3q2 – 8q + 6 = q2 – 4q + 6, or 2q2 – 4q = 0 or, q = 2. Example : The cost function of a manufacturing firm E.P.C., is given by C = 0.03q3 + 0.5q2 – 12q + 2. Find (i) Average cost (AC) (ii) Average variable cost (AVC) (iii) Marginal cost (MC) (iv) Slope of AC (v) Slope of MC.
AC = C .03q 3 + .5q 2  12q + 2 2 = = 0.03q 2 + 0.5q  12 + q q q
AVC =
.03q 3 + .5q 2  12q = 0.03q 2 + 0.5q  12 q
(
)
MC =
d (C)= d 0.03q 3 + 0.5q 2  12q + 2 = 0.09q 2 + q  12 dq dq
(
)
Slope
AC =
d æ 2ö 2 ç 0.03q 2 + 0.5q  12 + ÷ = 0.06q + .5  2 ç ÷ dq è qø q d .09q 2 + q  12 = 0.18q + 1. dq
Slope
MC =
(
)
Revenue : This is the total sale value of a product. Again total revenue (TR) is the product of quantity demand (q) and the price (p) per unit of output i.e. TR = q × p = q × f(q) as p = f(q). Marginal Revenue (MR) :This is the change in T.R. for each additional unit of sale. So MR = d (TR ) . dq pq q d (TR ) = 0. Again for profit maximisation MR = MC. dq
Average Revenue (AR ) =
For TR to maximum we have MR i.e.
æ x2 ö ÷ Example : A firm assumes a cost function C ( x ) = xç ç 10 + 200 ÷ where x is the monthly output. Its è ø revenue function is given by R (x) =
1 (2200  3x ) x. Find (i) the firm’s cost, marginal cost, total 2
revenue and marginal revenue if the firm decides to produce 10 units per month. æ 10 2 ö ÷ At x = 10, C (10) = 10 ç ç 10 + 200 ÷ = 2100 è ø MC = öü d æ x 3 ö 3 2 d d ì æ x2 ï ç ï ç ÷ C (x ) = xç + 200 ÷ý = í ÷ï dx ç 10 + 200 ÷ = 10 x + 200 dx dx ï è 10 øþ è ø î
3 .10 2 + 200 = 230. Again at x = 10, 10
5.51
At x = 10, MC (10) =
MATHS
TR = R (10) =
FUNCTION
1 (2200  3 ´ 10)10 = 10850 2
MR =
d (TR )= d ì 1 (2200  3x )x ü = 1 . d 2200x  3x 2 = 1 (2200  6x )= 1100  3x í ý dx dx î 2 2 þ 2 dx
(
)
At x = 10, MR (10) = 1100 – 3 × 10 = 1100 – 30 = 1070. SELF EXAMINATION QUESTIONS : 1. The total cost (C) of output q is given by
4 7 q+ . 7 4
Find (i) Cost when output is 14 units. (ii) Average cost of output 7 units. [Hints : Refer example 1.] 2. Average cost functions (AC) of output x is given by AC = [Ans. (i) 9.75 unit (ii)
1 18 x + 17 + . 2 x 23 units.] 28
Find the output for which AC is increasing and also decreasing, with increasing output also find total cost and marginal cost. [Hints : Similar to example 2] 3. The cost function (C) of output value of q for which AVC is minimum. [Hints : Refer W.O. example 3] 4. The cost function (C) of a firm is given by : C = 0.4q3 – 0.32q2 + 1.4q + 4.1. Find (i) AC (ii) AVC (iii) MC (iv) slope of MC (v) slope of AC. [Ans. (i) 0.4q2 – 0.32q + 1.4 + 4.1/q ; (ii) 0.4q2 – 0.32q + 1.4 ; (iii) 1.2q2 – 0.64q + 1.4 ; (i) [Hints : Similar to example 4] 5. The cost function (C) of a firm is as follows :
C=
[Ans. x > 6 ; x < 6 ;
1 2 x + 17 x + 18 ; x + 17 ] 2
[Ans.
1 2 q  4q + 5 ; 4] 3
2.4q – 0.64 ; (v) 0.8q – 0.32 – 4.1/q2.]
1 2 3 3 2 , q  q + 4q + 2. Show that Slope of AC = (MC  AC) where output is q. q 3 2
6. Cost function is C = a + bx + cx2, x is output produced. Show that the slope of AC curve is
1 (MC  AC). x
5.52
MATHS
SECOND ORDER DERIVATIVE : Introduction : We have seen that the first order derivative of a function of x, say f(x), may also be a function of x. This new function of x also may have a derivative w.r.t.x which is known as second order derivative of f(x) i.e. second order derivative is the derivative of first order. Similarly the derivative of the second order derivative is known as third order derivative and so on up to nth order. Symbols : For the function y = f(x), is first order derivative w.r.t.x denoted by discussed before. Now the second order derivative of y = f(x) is expressed as read as “dee two y by dee x squared”. Example : If y = x4, find
y = x4, d2y . dx 2 d2y d2y or f ¢¢ (x) or y2. The notation is dx 2 dx 2
dy or f¢ (x) or y1 as dx
dy d 2 y d æ dy ö d = 4x 3 , again 2 = 4 x 3 = 4.3x 31 = 12 x 2 . ç ÷= dx dx è dx ø dx dx
Note : To find
d3y d3y d æ d 2 y ö d d ç ÷= ; 3 = 12 x 2 = 12. x 2 3 dx ç dx 2 ÷ dx dx dx dx è ø
( )
= 12.2x2 – 1 = 24x i.e., third order derivative is 24x. WORKED OUT EXAMPLES : 1. Find
d2y log x if y = . 2 x dx
dy (= y1 ) = dx
x.
1  log x.1 1  log x x = ; x2 x2 æ 1ö x 2 ç  ÷  (  log x ) 2x 1 . è xø x4
d 2 y d æ dy ö d æ 1  log x ö = ç ÷= ç ÷= dx 2 dx è dx ø dx è x 2 ø
=
 x  2 x (  log x )  1  2 (  log x ) 2 log x  3 1 1 = = . 4 x x3 x3 d2y . dx 2
2. If y = 5x, find
y = 5x or, log y = x log 5
MATHS
5.53
5.54
FUNCTION
MATHS
d2y d d d = 2A. e 2 x + 2Bxe 2 x + Be 2 x 2 dx dx dx dx
(
)
(
)
( )
= 2A . e2x . 2 + 2B (xe2x. 2 + e2x) + B. e2x . 2 = 4Ae2x + 4Bxe2x + 2Be2x + 2Be2x = 4Ae2x + 4Bxe2x + 4Be2x Now
d2y dy 4 + 4y 2 dx dx
= 4Ae2x + 4Bxe2x + 4Be2x – 4 (2Ae2x + 2Bxe2x + Be2x) + 4 (Ae2x + Bxe2x) = 0. 5. If y = log æ x + 1 + x 2 ö, then 1 + x 2 y 2 + xy1 = 0. ç ÷ è ø Here,
y1 = dy d2y , y2 = 2 dx dx 1 x + 1+ x
2
(
)
Now y1 =
.
d æ 2 çx + 1+ x ö ÷ è ø dx
=
æ ö 1 1 1+ x2 + x 1 . ç1 + . 2x ÷ = . = ç ÷ 2 x + 1+ x2 è 2 1+ x2 1+ x2 1+ x2 ø x + 1+ x 1
y2 =
d .1+ x2 dx
(
)
1 / 2
1 =  . 1+ x2 2
(
)
3 / 2
.
d 2x 1+ x2 = dx 2 1+ x2
(
)
(
)
3/ 2
=
x
(+ x ) 1
2 3/ 2
Now
( + x )y 1
2
2
+ xy1 = 1 + x 2
(
) x ( + x ) 1+ x 1
2
2
+ x.
1 1+ x2
= 0.
FOR IMPLICIT FUNCTION AND PARAMETRIC FORMS : 6. For
x 2 y2 d2y + 2 = 1, find a2 b dx 2 2x 2 y.y1 2 x 2y b2 x + 2 = 0 or 2 + 2 . y1 = 0 or y1 =  2 . a2 b a b a y
Diff. Both sides w.r.t. x we get
d 2 y æ b 2 ö y.1  x.y1 æ b 2 ö = ç  ÷. = ç 2 ÷ ç a ÷ dx 2 ç a 2 ÷ y2 è ø è ø
æ b2 x ö y+x ç 2 . ÷ ça y÷ è ø y2
[putting the value of y1]
æ b2 ö a 2 y 2 + b 2x 2 æ b 2 ö a 2b 2 = ç  2 ÷. =ç 2 ÷ . 2 3 ç a ÷ ç a ÷ a y a 2 y3 è ø è ø
(
)
[from the given expression]
=
b4 . a 2 y3
d2y 1 dy 1 = , y2 = 2 =  2 . dx x dx x
Example : If y = log x ; y1 =
MATHS
5.55
Example : If y = t2 + t3, x = t – t4, find
d2y . dx 2
FUNCTION
dy dx = 2 t + 3t 2 , = 1  4t 3 dt dt dy dy dt dy = . = dx dt dx dt dx 2 t + 3t 2 = dt 1  4t 3
æ dy ö ç ÷ è dx ø
2
d 2 y d æ dy ö d æ dy ö dt d = = ç ÷ = ç ÷. dx 2 dx è dx ø dt è dx ø dx dt
3 2
dx d æ 2 t + 3t 2 ö ÷ 1  4t 2 = ç dt dt ç 1  4t 3 ÷ è ø
(
)
=
(  4t )(2 + 6t ) (2t + 3t )( 12t )= 12t + 16t + 6t + 2 1 (  4t ) . (  4t ) 1 1 (  4t ) 1
4 3 3 2 2 3 2
5.56
MATHS
We know that area of a rectangle is the product of its length and breadth, i.e., area = l × b. Now if the length increases (when breadth is constant), area increases. If again breadth decreases (taking length as constant), area decreases. So here area is a function of two independent variables, (i.e., length and breadth). Again we know that area of a triangle is altitude, (i.e., two variables). If u is a function of two independent variables x and y, then we may write u = f(x, y). The result obtained in differentiating u = f(x, y) w.r.t.x, treating y as a constant, is called the partial derivative of u w.r.t.x and is denoted by any one of
¶f ¶x ¶u ¶f . , f x (x, y ), u x ,f x where ¶x ¶x 1 base × altitude, i.e., area is a function of base and 2
or f x = lim
¶x ® 0
f (x + ¶x , y ) f (x, y ) , if it exists ¶x
Similarly, the partial derivative of u = f(x, y), w.r.t. y (treating x as a constant) is the result in differentiating u = f(x, y), w.r.t. y and is denoted by ¶u ¶f ¶f or fy where or , ¶y ¶y ¶y
f y = lim
¶y ® 0
f ( x , y + ¶y)  f (x, y ) provided the limit exists. ¶y
Note : The curl ¶ is used for partial derivative in order to make different form of symbol d of ordinary derivative. Example : u = (x + y)2 = x2 + 2xy + y2, ¶u ¶u = 2 x + 2 y, = 2x + 2 y. ¶x ¶y
Function of three variables : A function may be of three variables also, i.e., u = f(x, y, z). Now the partial derivative of u w.r.t. x is the derivative of w.r.t.x (treating y and z as constant). Example : u = x2 + y2 + z2 ; ¶u ¶u ¶u = 2 y, = 2x , = 2z. ¶x ¶y ¶z
Partial derivative of higher order Partial derivative of higher order is obtained by usual method of derivative. For the function u = f(x, y), we have following four partial derivative of second order : (i) ¶ 2 u ¶ æ ¶u ö ¶ 2 u ¶u = = ç ÷ = f x x (ii) ¶x 2 ¶x è ¶x ø ¶y 2 ¶y ¶2u ¶ = ¶x¶y ¶x æ ¶u ö ç ÷ = fyx ç ¶y ÷ è ø æ ¶u ö ç ÷ = fyy ç ¶y ÷ è ø (iv) ¶2u ¶ æ ¶u ö = ç ÷ = fxy. ¶y¶x ¶y è ¶x ø
(iii)
Example : u = 2x2 – 4xy + 3y2 find
¶ 2u ¶ 2u ¶ 2u , , ¶x 2 ¶y¶x ¶x¶y
MATHS
5.57
FUNCTION
¶u ¶ 2u ¶ æ ¶u ö ¶ (4x  4y )= 4. = 4 x  4 y, 2 = ç ÷= ¶x ¶x è ¶x ø ¶x ¶x
Again
¶ 2u ¶ æ ¶u ö ¶ = (4x  4 y )=  4. ç ÷= ¶y¶x ¶y è ¶x ø ¶y
¶u ¶2u ¶ æ ¶u ö ¶ ç ÷= =  4 x + 6 y, = ( 4x + 6y )=  4 ¶y ¶x¶y ¶x ç ¶y ÷ ¶x è ø Note : (i)
¶2u ¶u means partial derivative of w.r.t.y. ¶y¶x ¶x
(ii)
¶u ¶ 2u means partial derivative of w.r.t.x. ¶y ¶x¶y
¶ 2u ¶ 2u = (from the above result) i.e., ux y = uyx. ¶y¶x ¶x¶y
(iii) We get
Homogeneous function : A function f(x, y) of independent variables x and y will be a homogeneous of degree n if it canbe æxö æ yö expressed as xn f ç ÷ or, yn f ç ÷ . ç y÷ èxø è ø Alternative test : A function f(x, y) will be a homogenous of degree n if f (tx, ty) = tn f(x, y). é æ yö x 3 ê1 + ç ÷ 3 3 x +y ê èxø Example : = = ë yö x+y æ x ç1 + ÷ è xø
3
ù ú ú û = x 2 ´ a function of y x
\ u is a homogeneous function of x and y of degree 2. Alternative way : f (x , y ) = x 3 + y3 t 3 x 3 + t 3 y3 t 3 x 3 + y 3 , then f(tx, ty) = = = t 2 f ( xy). Hence x+y tx + ty t (x + y )
(
)
f(x, y) is a homogeneous function in x and y of degree 2. Example : f(x, y) = x + y ; f (tx, ty) = homogeneous function of x and y of degree
tx + ty = t 1 . 2
( x + y )= t
1/ 2
f ( x , y), i.e., f(x, y) is
Euler’s Theorem on Homogeneous Function : Theorem : If f(x, y) be a homogeneous function of x and y of degree n, then x ¶f ¶f +y = nf ( x, y) ¶x ¶y
5.58
MATHS
MATHS
5.59
FUNCTION
¶u 2y ¶ 2u x 2 + y 2 2  2 y (2 y ) 2 x 2  y 2 = 2 , = = 2 2 ¶y x + y 2 ¶y 2 x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
4. Verify Euler’s theorem for the function. ax2 + 2bxy + cy2 Let u = f(x, y) = ax2 + 2bxy + cy2 which is a homogeneous function of x and y of degree 2. ¶u ¶u = 2ax + 2by, = 2bx + 2cy. ¶x ¶y Now, x ¶u ¶u +y = x(2ax + 2by) + y (2bx + 2cy) ¶x ¶y = 2 (ax2 + 2bxy + cy2) = 2f (x, y). 5. Verify Euler’s theorem of the following function : f(x, y) = 2x3 + 2y3 + 3x2y + 3xy2 æ 2y 3 y y2 ö f(x, y) = 2x3 + 2y3 + 3x2y + 3xy2 = x3 ç 2 + 3 + 3 + 3 2 ÷ ç x x x ÷ è ø = x3 f (y/x), so f(x, y) is a homogeneous function of x and y of degree 3. We are to show x ¶f ¶f +y = 3f ( x , y) ¶x ¶y ¶f = 6x2 + 6xy + 3y2 ¶x
x ¶f = x (6x2 + 6xy + 3y3) = 6x3 + 6x2y + 3xy2 ¶x
Now
…(i)
¶f = 6y2 + 3x2 + 6xy ¶y y ¶f = 6 y 3 + 3x 2 y + 6xy 2 ¶y ¶f ¶f = 6x2 + 6y3 + 9x2y + 9xy2 +y ¶y ¶y …(ii)
Adding (i) and (ii), we get x
= 3 (2x3 + 2y3 + 3x2y + 3xy2) = 3f (x, y). 6. If f(x, y) = x2 – 3xy + y2 then prove that æ ¶ 2f ¶f ¶f ¶ 2f ö ÷ = (x  y ) ç 2 ç ¶x ¶x ¶y ¶x¶y ÷ è ø
¶f ¶ = x 2  3xy + y 2 = 2 x  3y ¶x ¶x
(
)
¶f ¶ 2 = x  3xy + y 2 = 3x + 2 y ¶y ¶y
(
)
5.60
MATHS
L.H.S. =
¶f ¶f = 2 x  3y  (  3x + 2 y ) = 5 ( x  y ) ¶x ¶y
¶ 2f ¶ æ ¶f ö ¶ (2x  3y )= 2 = ç ÷= ¶x 2 ¶x è ¶x ø ¶x
¶ 2f ¶ æ ¶f ö ¶ ç ÷= = ( 3x + 2 y )=  3 ¶x¶y ¶x ç ¶y ÷ ¶x è ø R.H.S. = (x – y) (2 + 3) = 5 (x – y). Hence proved. 7. Verify Euler’s theorem for the function f(x, y) = x 3 + y3 xy
f(x, y) =
x 3 1 + y3 / x 3 = x 2 f ( y / x ), So f(x, y) is a homogeneous function of x and y of degree 2. x (  y / x) 1
(
)
[We are to verify that x
¶f ¶f +y = 2f (x, y) ] ¶x ¶y
Now
¶f (x  y ) 3x 2  ( x 3 + y 3 ) 2x 3  3x 2 y  y 3 = = ¶x (x  y)2 (x  y )2 ¶f (x  y ) 3y 2 + x 3 + y 3 3xy 2  2 y 3 + x 3 = = 2 ¶y (x  y ) (x  y)2
(
)
x
¶f ¶f x 2 x 3  3x 2 y  y 3 y 3xy 2  2 y 3 + x 3 +y = + ¶x ¶y (x  y )2 (x  y )2 = 2 x 2  y 2 x 2 + y 2  xy
(
) (
)
2
(
)(
(x  y )
2
)= 2 (x + y) (x
+ y 2  xy (x  y)
)
=
2 x 3 + y3 = 2f ( x , y), verified. (x  y )
(
)
SELF EXAMINATION QUESTIONS : 1. fx fy for the following f(x, y) : (i) (x – y)2 x+y (x  y) (ii) x3 + 3xy + y3
x 3 + y3 x+y
(iii)
x 2 + y2
(iv)
1 x + y2
2
(v)
(vi)
(vii) ex y
(viii) log (xy). [Ans. (i) 2 (x – y) ; – 2 (x – y) (ii) 3x2 + 3y : 3x + 3y2
(iii)
2 y 2x
x x +y
2 2
.
y x +y
2 2
(iv)  x. x 2 + y 2
(
)
3 / 2
;  y x 2 + y2
(
)
3 / 2
(v)
(x  y) (x  y )2
; 2
(vi)
2x 3 + 3xy 2  y 3 2 y 3 + 3xy 2  x 3 ; (x + y )2 (x + y )2
MATHS
5.61
5.62
FUNCTION
MATHS
MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM VALUES OF f(x, y) : A function f(x, y) will be maximum or minimum at the point (a, b) if f(x, y) if f(x, y) £ f(a, b) in some neighbourhood of (a, b). For a maximum, D f = f (a + h, b + k) – f(a, b) < 0 And for a minimum, Df = f (a +h, b + k) – f (a, b) >0, Where h2 + k2 is sufficiently small. Again f (a, b) is known as extreme value of f(x, y). Conditions for extremes of f(x, y) NECESSARY CONDITIONS : The only points at which a function f (x, y) can have an extreme are those where two partial derivatives
¶f ¶f and vanish or case to exist. ¶x ¶x
SFFICIENT CONDITIONS : : SUFFICIENT CONDITIONS At a point (a, b) where fx = fy = 0 the function f(x, y) will have an extreme when H = fx x fy y – fxy2 > 0 further consideration. Example : Find the extremes, if any, of the following functions : f (x, y) = 2 + x2 + y2 æ ¶f ö æ ¶f ö Here f x = ç = ÷ = 2x , f y = ç = ÷ = 2 y Now fx = 0, ç ¶y ÷ è ¶x ø è ø fy = 0 gives x = 0, y = 0 ; fxx = 2, fxy = 0, fyy = 2 \ H = fx x fyy – fxy2 = 2. 2 – 0 = 4 > 0 again Fxx = 2 > 0. So f(x, y) is minimum at (0, )0. Example : Examine for maximum and minimum values of the function f(x, y) = x3 + y3 + 3xy. fx = 3x2 + 3y = 3 (x2 + y), fy = 3y2 + 3x = 3 (y2 + x) maximum if fx x < 0, minimum if fx x > 0 Again when H < 0, f(x, y) has no extreme value (i.e. saddle points). For H = 0, the case requires
MATHS
5.63
fx = fy = 0 gives (0, 0) (– 1, – 1). At (0, 0),
FUNCTION
fxx = 6x = 0. fyy = 6y = 0. fxy = 3 \ H = fxx fyy – fxy2 = 0. 0 – 9 = – 9 < 0, no extreme values. H = fxx fyy – fxy2 = ( – 6) ( – 6) – 32 = 36 – 9 = 27 > 0 and fxx = – 6 < 0, maximum.
Again at (– 1, – 1), fxx = 6x = – 6, fyy = 6y = – 6, fxy = 3 \
So at (– 1, – 1) f(x, y) has a maximum value and that is f( – 1, – 1) = – 1 – 1 + 3 = 1.
Example : (i) f(x, y)
1  x 2  y2 ,
[Ans. max at (0, 0)] [Ans. no max. or min.]
(ii) f (x, y) = 2x2 – xy – 3y2 – 3x + 7y (Try yourself) Example : Determine the extreme values of f (x, y) = 4x + 2y – x2 + xy – y2 f (x, y) = 4x + 2y – x2 + xy – y2 fx = 4 – 2x + y ….(i), fy = 2 + x – 2y ….(ii)
fx = fy = 0, gives 4 – 2x + y = 0, 2 + x – 2y = 0. Now solving these equations we get x = Again fxx = – 2 < 0, fyy = – 2 < 0, fxy = 1. H = fxx. fyy – fxy2 = ( – 2) (– 2) – 12 = 4 – 1 = 3 > 0 and fxx = – 1 < 0, maximum æ 10 8 ö So at ç , ÷ f(x, y) has a maximum value and that is è 3 3ø
4. 10 8 æ 10 ö 10 8 æ 8 ö 28 + 2.  ç ÷ + .  ç ÷ = (after reduction). 3 3 è 3ø 3 3 è 3ø 3
2 2
10 8 , y= . 3 3
Example : Verify that a saddle point exists for the function z = 18x2 – 6y2 – 36x – 48y ¶z ¶z ¶z ¶z = 36x  36 ; = 12 y  48 ; = 0 Þ x = 1 and = 0 Þ  12 y = 48 or, y = – 4. ¶x ¶y ¶x ¶y Again ¶2z ¶2z ¶ 2z ¶ 2z ¶ 2z = 36, 2 = 12 ; =0; 2. 2 ¶x¶y ¶x 2 ¶y ¶x ¶y æ ¶ 2z ö ÷ ç ç ¶x¶y ÷ = 36. (– 12) – 0 = – 432 < 0 è ø
So the function has saddle points at x = 1, y = – 4. LAGRANGES METHOD MULTIPLIERS : To find the extreme of a differentiable function f(x, y) of two variables subject to the condition of independent and differentiable equation g (x, y) = 0 Here f(x, y) depends in reality on only two independent variables x and y. For symmetry multiply f(x, y) by 1 and equ. (i) by l (a constant) and add them together so that we get,
5.64
MATHS
L = 1. f (x, y) + l g (x, y) For maximum or minimum ¶L ¶L = =0 ¶x ¶y … (ii)
Now solving equ. (i) and (ii) we may find the values of z and y, and hence the extremes. Example : Find the extreme value of the function f (x, y) = x2 – y2 + xy + 5x. Subject to x + y + 3 = 0 Let g (x, y) = x + y + 3 L = 1. f (x, y) + l g(x, y) = x2 – y2 + xy + 5x + l ( x + y + 3). For max. or min., i.e., ¶L ¶L = =0 ¶x ¶y … (i), – 2y + x + l = 0 …(ii)
2x + y + 5 + l = 0
Again x + y + 3 = 0 (given)
… (iii) Solving (i) (ii) (iii)
We get x = – 2, y = – 1, l = 0 so at ( – 2, – 1) The given function has extreme value and the value is f (– 2, – 1) = 4 – 1 + 2 – 5.2 = 6 – 11 = – 5. Example : Find the extreme values of the function. f (x, y) = x2 – y2 + xy + 5x subject to x – 2y = 0 Let L = 1 f(x, y) + lg (x, y), where g (x, y) = x – 2y; L = x2 – y2 + xy + 5x +l (x – 2y). From max. or min. ¶L ¶L ¶L = 2x + y + 5 + l = 0 = = 0 so that ¶x ¶y ¶x … (i)
¶L = 2 y + x  2l = 0 ¶x
… (ii)
In equ. (i), putting x = 2y as x – 2y = 0 we find 4y + y + 5 + l or, l = 0 From (iii), 5y + 5 = 0 or, y = – 1 as l = 0 \ x = 2y = 2 (–1) = – 2 At (– 2, – 1), extreme value = 4 – 1 + 2 + 5 (– 2) = – 5. Example : Find the minimum value of f(x, y) = x2 + y2 subject to x + y = 10 Let g (x) = x + y = 10. L = 1. f(x) + lg (x) = x2 + y2 + l (x + y – 10). For minimum value ¶L ¶L = = 0 i.e. ¶x ¶y 2x + l = 0 …. (i) 2y + l = 0 … (ii)
Again x + y – 10 = 0 …. (iii) solving (i), (ii), (iii) we get x = 5, y = 5, l = – 10. At x = 5, y = 5, the given function f(x, y) has minimum value and the value is 52 + 52 = 50. MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM : Increasing and Decreasing Functions : Increasing function : y = f(x) is said to be an increasing function of x, if f(x) increases for increasing value of x in a certain interval [a, b]
MATHS
5.65
In [a, b], say a £ x1 < x2 < … x5 < x6 £ b, then
FUNCTION
f(x6) > f(x5) … > f(x2) > f(x1). In this case the tangent at any point (within the interval) makes an acute angle with the positive direction of xaxis (see the figure of geometrical interpretations of derivative). i.e.,
dy > 0 and the curve of y = f(x) will be rising at that interval. dx
Decreasing function : If for increasing value of x in an interval [a, b], y = f(x) decreases, then f(x) is a decreasing function. For a £ x1 < x2 < … < x5 < x6 £ b, f(x6) < …. < f(x1). In such case, the tangent at any point makes an obtuse angle with the positive direction of xaxis. i.e., dy > 0 and the curve of y = f(x) will be falling at the interval. dx
Note : (i) A function y = f(x) may be neither increasing nor decreasing at some point, then that point is called as stationary point. (ii) At stationary point, the derivative is zero, i.e., dy = 0 and the tangent is parallel to xaxis. dx
(iii) At the stationary point (S) the curve will be neither rising nor falling. Example : Find whether y is increasing or decreasing when x = 1, or – 1, if y = x4 – x2 As y = x4 – x 2
dy = 4.1  2.1 = 2 > 0 dx
\
dy = 4 x 3  2 x. dx
For x = 1,
\ y is an increasing function and the tangent at x = 1 makes an acute angle with positive direction of xaxis.
1 Example : If y = x 3  3x 2 + 9x , show that y increases for all values of x. 3 1 dy 1 dy Here y = x 3  3x 2 + 9 x, = .3x 2  3.2 x + 9 = x 2  6x + 9 or, = (x  3)2 which is always 3 dx 3 dx
positive. For all values of x.
\ y
increases for all values of x.
Example : Find the range of values of x for the function. (i) increases with x, (ii) decreases with x. Find also the stationary points, if exists. f ' (x ) = dy = 3x 2  12x + 9 = 3( x 2  4 x + 3) = 3( x  1) (x  3) . dx
5.66
MATHS
(i) For x < 1, (x – 1) and (x – 3) both are negative and so the product is positive, i.e,
dy > 0. dx
So y is an increasing function for – ¥ < x < 1. For every point within this interval the tangent will make an acute angle with positive direction of xaxis. (ii) For 1 < x < 3, (x – 1) is positive and (x – 3) is negative and their product is negative, i.e.,
dy <0, dx
so y is a decreasing function for 1 < x < 3. For every point within this interval the tangent will make an obtuse angle with the positive direction of xaxis. (iii) For x > 3, the product of (x – 1) and (x – 3) is positive i.e., function, and there will be a rising curve for y = f(x). (iv) At x = 1, x = 3,
dy = 0, i.e., the curve y = f(x) is stationary at these points. The tangent at these dx
dy > 0 and y is also an increasing dx
points will be parallel to the xaxis. SELF EXAMINATION QUESTIONS : 1. Find whether y is increasing or decreasing in the following examples : (i) x 4 – 2x at x = 0, 1 (ii) 2x 2 – x + 1 at x =
1 , 1 4
[Ans. decr. Decr.] [Ans. stationary ; decr.]
2. Show that y increases always in the following cases, for all values of x. (i)
1 3 x  x2 + x 3
(ii) 2x 3 – 6x 2 + 6x + 6.
3. Determine the range of values of x for which x 3 + 6x 2 – 36x + 7 is a decreasing function of x. [Ans. – 6 < x < 2] 4. Determine the interval in which the following functions are (a) increasing, (i) x – 3x.
3 2 3
(b) decreasing. [Ans. increasing for – ¥ < x < – 1, and 1 < x < ¥ decreasing for – 1 < x < 1]
(ii) 2x – 9x + 12x.
[Ans. incr. For – ¥ < x < 1, and 2 < x < ¥ ; decr. For 1 < x < 2]
Concavity or Convexity of Curves : In the graph of a function y = f(x), the slope or gradient of the tangent at a point P (say) depends on the nature of the curve of y = f(x).
If the tangent at P lies below the curve, then the are is concave upwards, i.e., convex downwards Fig.
Q P dy 2 >0 dx (a) (b)
2
Q P P dy 2 <0 dx (c)
2
MATHS
5.67
(a). If however, the tangent at P lies above the curve, the are is concave downwards, i.e., convex
FUNCTION
upwards [Fig. (b)].
In Fig. (a) as the point P moves upwards to Q, the slope also increases, i.e, slope increases as x increases, i.e. f ¢ (x) is an increasing function of x and so its derivative f ¢¢ (x) is + ve. In Fig. (b) as x increases slope decreases ; so f ¢ (x) is a decreasing function of x and hence f ¢¢ (x) is –ve. In short : The curve of y = f(x) is concave upward (or convex downward) if
d2y >0. dx 2 d2y > 0 and concave dx 2
downward (or convex upward if
Point of Inflexion : A situation may occur when the concavity and convexity of curves (i.e., above two positives) are combined together. A point P that separates arcs having opposite directions bending (i.e. concave upwards to concave downwards or vice versa) is known as point of inflexion. [See Fig. (c)]. Now in the two sides of P (i.e., point, of inflexion) second derivative will have opposite sign and so at that point (i.e., at P) second derivative becomes zero. Note : In Fig. (c) ;
d2y d2y is first + ve upto P (i.e., concave upwards) and then is – ve (i.e., dx 2 dx 2
concave downwards). But at P, Working Rule : (i) Find
d2y = 0. dx 2
d2y d2y dy for the function y = f(x). (ii) Find . (iii) Making = 0 (this is a necessary dx dx 2 dx 2 d3y ¹ 0. (this dx 3
condition). (iv) Find the value (s) of x (let they be a, b, …., the points of inflexion). (v) is not a necessary condition). Example : For y = f(x) = x4 – 2x3 + 2x + 1, examine the points of inflexion.
dy d2y = 4x 3  6x 2 + 2 ; 2 = 12x 2  12x = 12x (x  1) . dx dx
2
B(1,2)
A (0,1) 1 O
5.68
1
2
MATHS
Making
d2y = 0, i.e. 12x (x – 1) = 0, we get x = 0, 1 dx 2 d2y = 12 ( – ne) (– ve) = + ve. dx 2
For x < 0 (but sufficiently near to 0),
For x > 0 (but sufficiently near to 0),
d2y = 12 (+ ve) (– ve) = – ve. dx 2
\
d2y changes sign, and so at x = 0, there is a point inflexion. The curve is concave upward upto x dx 2 d2y d2y > 0 ) and then it is concave downward (as < 0 ). dx 2 dx 2 d2y = 12 (+ ve) (– ve) = – ve. dx 2
= 0 (as
Again for x < 1 (but very near to 1),
For x > 1. (very near to 1),
d2y d2y = 12 (+ ve) (+ ve) = + ve. We find that changes sign again at 2 dx dx 2
x = 1, the second point of inflexion. Curve is concave downward before x = 1 (as
d2y >0) dx 2 d2y < 0 ) and concave upwards after dx 2
x = 1 (as
The nature of the above has been shown in above fig. From y = x4 + 2x3 + 2x + 1, we get for x = 0, y = 1. x = 1, y = 2. Let A (0, 1) and B (1, 2) are the points of inflexion on the curve. Description : The curve is concave upwards everyhere to the left of A (0, 1) and from the right of A upto the left of B (1, 2) it is concave downward and then again from the right of B it is concave upward.
MATHS
5.69
MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM :
FUNCTION
A function f(x) is said to be maximum at x = a if f(a) is greater than every other value of f(x) in the immediate neighbourhood of x = a (i.e., f(x) ceases to increase but begins to increase at x = a. Similarly the minimum value of f(x) will be that value at x = b which is less than other values in the immediate neighbourhood of x = b. [i.e., f(x) ceases to decrease but begins to increase at x = b] P1 Y P2 Q1 X´ N1 N2 R1 M1 M2 L2 R2 X P3
L1
Y´
Q2
The above figure represents graphically a continuous function f(x). The function has a maximum values at P1, P2, P3 and also minimum values at Q1, Q2. For P2, abscissa is OL2, ordinate is P2 L2. Similarly OR1 and R1Q1 are the respective abscissa and ordinate to Q1. In the immediate neighbourhood of L2, we may get a range of M1 L2 M2 (on either side of L2) such that for every value of x within that range (expect at L2), the value f(x) is less than P2 L2 (i.e., the value at L2), the value of f(x) is less than P2 L2 (i.e., the value at L2). Hence we can now show that f(x) is maximum at x = OL2. In the same way we may find a neighbourhood N1 R1 N2 or R1 so that for every value of x within the range (expect at R1) the value of f(x) is greater than at R1. So the function is minimum at R1. The ordinate P2 L2 should not necessarily be bigger than the ordinate R1 R1. Features regarding Maximum and Minimum : (i) Function may have several maximum and minimum values in an interval (as shown in Fig. Above). (ii) Maximum and minimum values of a function occur laternatively (for clear idea see Fig above). (iii) At some point the maximum value may be less than the minimum value (i.e., Fig., P2 L2 < Q2 R2). (iv) In the graph of the function maxima are like mountain tops while minima are like valley bottoms. (v) The points at which a function has maximum or minimum value are called turning points and the maximum and minimum values are known as extreme values, or extremum or turning values. (vi) The values of x for which f(x) = 0 are often called critical values.
5.70
MATHS
Criteria for Maximum and Minimum : (a) If a continuous function y = f(x) is maximum at a point x = a (say), then by definition, it is an increasing function for values of x just before x = a and a decreasing function for values of x just after x = a, i.e., its derivative negative after x = a. This means at x = a, Since Thus
dy is positive before x = a and dx
dy changes sign from + ve to – ve. dx
dy is continuous function of x it can change sign only after passing through zero value. dx dy = 0. dx
Hence for a function y = f(x) to attain maximum value at x = 1. (i)
dy dy dy = 0, (ii) changes sign from + ve to – ve at x = a, i.e., is a decreasing function of x dx dx dx
and so
d2y < 0. dx 2
(b) If again a continuous function y = f(x) is minimum at x = a, then by definition it is decreasing just before x = a and then increasing just after x = a, i.e., its derivative + ve just after x = a. This means dy is – ve just before x = a and dx
dy changes sign from – ve to + ve values. A continuous function dx
dy dy can change sign only after passing through zero value, so = 0. dx dx
Hence for a continuous function y = f(x) to attain a minimum value at x = a, (i)
dy dy dy = 0, (ii) changes sign from – ve at + ve at x = a, i.e., is an increasing function of dx dx dx
x hence Summary :
d2y > 0. dx 2
For a function y = f(x) to attain a maximum point at x = a, (i) (i)
dy = 0, dx dy =0 dx
(ii) (ii)
d2 y < 0, and for a minimum point dx 2 d2 y > 0. dx 2
Conditions for Maximum and Minimum : Necessary Condition. If a function f(x) is maximum or minimum at a point x = b and if f ¢(b) = 0.
MATHS
5.71
Sufficient Condition : If b is a point in an interval where f(x) is defined and if f ¢ (b) = 0 and f¢¢ (b) ¹
FUNCTION
0. Then f(b) is maximum if f ¢¢ (b) <0 and is minimum if f ¢¢ (b) > 0. (The proof is not shown at present).
Definition : If in a function y = f(x), for continuous increasing value of x, y increases upto a certain value and then decreases, then this value of y is said to be the maximum value. If again y decreases upto a certain value and then increases for continuous increasing value of x, then this value y is said to be minimum value. The points on the curve y = f(x). which separate the function from its increasing state to decreasing state to vice versa are known as turning points on the curve. From these turning points the curve may attain the extreme values. (i.e., maximum or minimum). Analytical Expression : Let a – h, a, a + h be the three values of x (h is very small) : then the corresponding values of y will be f(a – h), f(a) and f(a + h). If however, f(a) be greater than f(a – h) and f(a + h), then f(x) is said to be maximum at x = a. Again if f(a) be less than both f(a – h) and f(a + h), the f(x) is said to be minimum at x = a. Discrimination of Maximum and Minimum of a function : It is now clear that
dy (i.e., slope with dx
Xaxis) changes its sign, positive to negative, as x passes through a (say) at which the function attains the maximum value. It means for a value of x slightly less than a, slightly greater then a, Similarly
dy is – ve. dx dy is + ve, and for a value of x dx
dy changes sign from negative to positive for x passes through b (say) at which the dx
function attains the minimum value. Working Rule : by First Derivative Method : Steps to find the maximum or minimum point of a curve y = f(x). Find f ¢ (x) and equate it to zero. From the equation f ¢ (x) = 0, find the value of x, say a and b. Here the number of roots of f ¢ (x) = 0 will be equal to the number of degree of f ¢ (x) = 0. Then find f ¢ (a – h) and f ¢ (a + h), then note the change of sign if any (here h is very small). If the change is from positive to negative, f(x) will be maximum at x = a. If again the change of sign is from negative to positive to negative, f(x) will be maximum at x = a. Similar treatment for x = b.
5.72
MATHS
Note : We have seen that
dy changes sign (positive to negative or vice versa) is passing through the dx dy changes sign in passing through an infinite value (the detail is dx
value zero. It may also happen that not shown as present).
Example : Examine for maximum and minimum for the function f(x) = x3 – 27x + 10. Now f ¢ (x) = 3x2 – 27. For maximum and minimum f ¢ (x) = 0 or 3x2 – 27 = 0 or 3x2 – 27 = 0 or, x2 = 27 = 9 \ x = ± 3. 3
Now let us enquire whether f(x) is maximum or minimum at these values of x. For x = 3, let us assign to x, the values of 3 – h and 3 + h (h is very small) and put these values at f(x). Now f ¢ (3 – h) = 3 (3 – h)2 – 27 which is negative for h is very small. And f ¢ (3 + h) = 3(3 + h)2 – 27 which is positive. dy ö æ Thus f ¢ (x) ç i.e., ÷ changes si gn from negative to posi tive as it passes t hroug x = 3. Theref ore f(x) is dx ø è minimum at x = 3. The m inimum value is f(x) = 33 – 27.3 + 10 = 27 – 81 + 10 = – 44. Similarly f ¢ (– 3 – h) = 3 ( – 3 – h2) – 27, it is positive and f ¢ ( – 3 + h) = 3 (– 3 +h )2 – 27, it is negative, and consequently the change of sign of f(x) being positive to negative, f(x) is maximum at x = – 3. The maximum value is f(– 3) = (– 3)3 – 27 ( – 3) + 10 = – 27 + 81 + 10 = 64. Working Rule : By second Derivative Method : For the function y = f(x), find say a and b. Find
d2y d2y d2y . Put x = a in , if at x = a is – ve, the function is maximum at x = a and maximum dx 2 dx 2 dx 2
dy dy and make it zero. From the equation = 0, find the values of x dx dx
value is f(a). If again by putting x = a in is f(a). Similarly for the value x = b.
d2y , the result is +ve, then the function is minimum and minimum value dx 2
MATHS
5.73
Example : Examine maximum value of the function
FUNCTION
y = x2 – 27x + 10 (the same example given above) dy dy = 3x 2  27. Taking = 0 i.e., 3x 2  27 = 0, we get x ± 3. dx dx Now
d2y d2y = 6x. At x = 3, = 6. 3 = 18, + ve, so the function is minimum at x = 3 and min. value dx 2 dx 2
is 33 – 27.3 + 10 = – 44. Again at x =  3,
d2y = 6. ( 3) = 18, ve, so the function is max. at x = – 3 and max. value is dx 2
(– 3)3 – 27 (– 3) + 10 = 64. 1. For what value of x the following function is maximum or minimum, (Use of Second Derivative Method) Let y = x 2  7x + 6 x  10 dy (x  10 )(2x  7 ) x 2  7 x + 6 x 2  20 x + 64 = = dx (x  10 )2 (x  10 )2 making or, Now
dy = 0, we find x2 – 20x + 64 = 0 dx
x 2  7x + 6 . x  10
(
)
(x – 4) (x – 16) = 0 \ x = 4, 16.
d 2 y (x  10) (2x  20) x 2  20x + 64 . 2 (x  10) = dx 2 (x  10)4 =
_ )2 2 (x  10(  (x  4)(x  16)
2
(
)
{ {
}
(x  10)
2
3
At
x = 4,
d 2 y 2 (4  10 ) 2 1 = = =  ,  ve \ function is max. at x = 4. 2 3 dx (4  10)  16 3 d 2 y 2 (  10) 16 2 1 = = = + ve dx 2 (16  10)3 6 3
2
At
x = 16,
\ function is min. at x= 16.
2. Examine f(x) = x3 – 9x2 + 24x – 12 for maximum or minimum values, (using first dervative method). f ¢ (x) = 3x2 – 18x + 24. Taking f ¢ (x) = 0,we have 3x2 – 18x + 24 = 0 or, 3 (x – 2) (x – 4) = 0 or, x = 2, 4
f ¢ (2 – h) = 3 (2 – h – 2) (2 – h – 4) = 3 (– h) (– 2 – j) = + ve
5.74
MATHS
f ¢ (2 + h) = 3 (2 + h – 2) (2 + h – 4) = 3 (h) (– 2 + h) = – ve f (x) is maximum at x = 2 and the maximum value is f(2) = 23 – 9.22 + 24.2 – 12 = 8 Again f ¢ (4 – h) = 3 (4 – h – 2) (4 – h – 4) = 3 (2 – h) (– h) = – ve f ¢ (4 +h) = 3 (4 +h – 2) (4 + h – 4) = 3 (2 + h) h = + ve f(x) is minimum at x = 4 and minimum value is 4.
(h is very small and positive)
Aliter (using second derivative method) f ¢ (x) = 3x2 – 18x + 24. For maximum or minimum we have f ¢ (x) = 0 i.e., or, 3x2 – 18x + 24 = 0 or, 3 (x2 – 6x + 8) = 0 (x – 2) (x – 4) = 0 or, x = 2, 4 or, x2 – 6x + 8 = 0
Again f ¢¢ (x) = 6x – 18 For x = 2, f ¢¢ (x) = 6.2 – 18 = – 6 < 0, max. X = 4. f ¢¢ (x) = 6.4 – 18 = 6 > 0, min. So the given function is maximum at x = 2 and minimum at x = 4. Maximum value = f(2) = 23 – 9.22 + 24.2 – 12 = 8 Minimum value = f(4) = 43 – 9.42 + 24.4 – 12 = 4. 3. Show that the function x3 – 3x2 + 3x + 1 is neither a maximum nor a minimum at x = 1. Let f(x) = x3 – 3x2 + 3x + 1 f ¢ (x) = 3x2 – 6x + 3. For maximum or minimum value f ¢ (x) = 0 i.e., 3x2 – 6x + 3 = 0 or, 3(x2 – 2x + 1) = 0 or, 3(x – 1)2 = 0, or, x = 1, 1
Again f ¢¢ (x) = 6x – 6. At x = 1, f¢¢ (1) = 6 – 6 = 0, so the given function attains neither maximum nor minimum value at x = 1. 7. Show that the maximum value of x 3 + Let
y = x3 + 1 x3
1 is less than its minimum value. x3
… (i)
dy 3 dy 3 = 3x 2  4 . For max or min. value we have = 0 i.e. 3x 2  4 = 0 dx dx x x
or,
x6 = 1 Again
or,
x6 = ( ± 1)6
or
x=±1
d2 y 12 d2y = 6x + 5 . For x = 1, 2 = 6 + 12 = 18 > 0, min. 2 dx x dx x =  1, d2 y =  6  12 =  18 < 0, max. dx 2
MATHS
5.75
1 Now minimum value = 1 + = 1 + 1 = 2, from (i) and maximum value = – 1 = – 2. 1
FUNCTION
So we find maximum value is less than its minimum value. 8. Prove that the function f(x) = 12 – 24x – 15x2 – 2x3 has a maximum at x = – 1, minimum at
5 x = – 4 and point of inflexion at x =  . 2
f(x) = 12 – 24x – 15x2 – 2x3 f ¢ (x) = – 24 – 30x – 6x2. For max. or min. We have f ¢ (x) = 0 means, – 24 – 30x – 6x2 = 0 or, or, – 4 – 5x – x2 = 0 (x + 4) (x + 1) = 0 or, i.e., x2 + 5x + 4 = 0 x = – 4, – 1
Again f ¢¢ (x) = – 30 – 12x = – 6 (5 + 2x) At x = – 4, f ¢¢ (x) = – 6(5 – 8) = 18 > 0, minimum x = – 1, f¢¢ (x) = – 6 (5 – 2) = – 18, and maximum The givenfunction is maximum at x = – 1 and minimum at x = – 4 For point of inflexion, f ¢¢ (x) = 0 i.e., – 30 – 12x = 0 or, x = 5 2
For x < – 5/2, (but sufficiently near to – 5/2), f ¢¢ (x) = – 6 ( – ve) = + ve x > – 5/2, (but sufficiently near to – 5/2), f ¢¢ (x) = – 6 ( + ve) = – ve \ f ¢¢ (x) changes sign and so at x = – 5/2, there is a point of inflexion. Application : Few terms : The term marginal cost indicates the changes in the total cost for each additional unit of production. If total cost = c, output = q, then c = f(q) and c q æ f (q )ö ç= ÷ ç q ÷ è ø dc = marginal cost. dq
Now, average cost =
For example, let c = q3 – 2q2 + 4q + 15, to find average cost and marginal cost. Here c is a function of q. Total cost c = q3 – 2q2 + 4q + 15 Average cost =
c q 3  2q 2 + 4q + 15 15 = = q 2  2q + 4 + q q q
Marginal cost =
dc d 3 = (q  2q 2 + 4q + 15 )= 3q 2  4q + 4 dq dq
5.76
MATHS
Note : The total cost is represented by the constant 15, for even if the quantity produced is zero., the cost equal to 15 will have to be incurred by the firm. Again since this constant 15 drops out during the process of deriving marginal cost, obviously the magnitude of fixed cost does not affect the marginal cost. Minimum Average Cost : The minimum average cost can be determined by applying first and second derivatives, which will be clear from the following example. 9. If the total cost function is c = 3q3 – 4q2 + 2q, find at what level of output, average cost be minimum and what level will it be? Total cost ( = TC) = 3q3 – 4q2 + 2q. Average cost (= AC) = Marginal cost (MC) = Now c = 3q 2  4q + 2, q d(TC ) = 9q 2  8q + 2 dq
d (AC) d (AC) 2 = 6q  4 ; making = 0 we get 6q – 4 = 0, q = . dq dq 3
2 d2 (AC)> 0. Now d 2 (AC)= 6 > 0 which dq 2 dq
At this level average cost function will be minimum if
shows average cost is minimum. Hence average cost will be minimum at an output level of
2 æ2ö æ2ö value will be 3 ç ÷  4 ç ÷ + 2 = . 3 è3ø è3ø
2
2 and its 3
Marginal Revenue : For any demand function p = f (q), the total revenue (TR) is the product of quantity demand (q), and the price (p) per unit of output. TR = q × p = q × f (q) as p = f(q) Now the marginal revenue represents the change in TR for each additional unit of sale, so Marginal revenue (MR ) = d (TR ) i.e., derivative of TR w.r.t. quantity demanded. dq pq q d (TR ) = 0 (i.e., first dq
Here TR = Revenue = pq, AR (average revenue) =
For TR maximum we may also have to find the output (q), making MR = 0 i.e.,
derivative w.r.t. output equal to zero) and hence we can estimate the price (p) and finally the maximum revenue. Note : For profit maximisation, MR = MC.
MATHS
5.77
FUNCTION
æ x2 ö ÷ 10. A radio manufacturer produces ‘x’ sets per week at a total cost of Rs. ç ç 25 + 3x + 100 ÷ . He is è ø
monopolist and the demand for his market is x = 75 – 3p ; where p is the price in rupees per set. Show that the maximum net revenue is obtained when about 30 sets are produced per week. What is the monopoly price? Net revenue (NR) = Sale – total cost = x × p – TC
2 ö æ 75  x ö æ x =xç  ç + 3x + 100 ÷ ÷ è 3 ø è 25 ø
For max. net revenue, we have
d (NR ) 2x æ 2 x ö = 0 or, 25 ç + 3÷ = 0 dx 3 è 25 ø
or,
æ1 1 ö  2 x ç + ÷ = 3 – 25 = – 22 è 3 25 ø æ 28 ö x ç ÷ = 11 è 75 ø
or,
or, x =
11 ´ 75 = 30 (app.) 28
Now, p =
75  x 75  30 45 = = = 15 3 3 3
\ monopoly price = Rs. 15 per set. 11. A manufacturer can sell x items per month at a price p = 300 – 2x rupees. Produced items cost the manufacturer y rupees y = 2x + 1000. How much production will yield maximum profits? Profit (P) = Sale – total cost = x × p – y = x (300 – 2x) – (2x + 1000) = 298x – 2x2 – 1000 For maximum profits, or, Again
dP = 0 i.e., 298  4 x = 0 dx
x = 74.5 = 74 (as the number cannot be fraction and also x ¹ 75 as x > 74.5) /
d 2P =  4 < 0. Hence the production will be maximum for 74 items. dx 2 d (TR ) d (TC ) = dx dx
Alternative way : For profit maximisation we know MR = MC i.e … (i)
TR = px = (300 – 2x) x = 300x – 2x2
d (TR ) d = 300x  2 x 2 = 300  4 x dx dx
(
)
Again TC = 2x + 1000,
d (TC) = 2. Now by (i), we get dx
300 – 4x = 2 or, 4x = 298 or, x = 74.5 = 74.
5.78
MATHS
(as the number cannot be fraction and also x ¹ 75 as x > 74. 5) / 12. The demand function for a particular commodity is y = 15e–x/3 for 0 £ x £ 8 where y is the price per unit and x is the number of units demanted. Determine the price and the quantity for which the revenue is maximum. Revenue (R) = xy = x. 15e–x/3 = 15x. e–x/3 For maximum ì ü dR æ 1ö = 15 íx.e  x / 3 ç ÷ + e  x / 3 ý = 5xe  x / 3 + 15e  x / 3 dx è 3 ø î þ
For or,
dR = 0, we get – 5xe–x/3 + 15e –x/3 = 0 dx
5e–x/3 (3 – x) = 0, either e–x/3 = 0, or, 3 – x = 0 i.e., x = ¥ (absurd) or x = 3
Also
ì ü d2R æ 1ö æ 1ö =  íx.e  x / 3 . ç  ÷ + e  x / 3 ý + 15e  x / 3 .ç  ÷ 2 3ø dx è è 3ø î þ
x = 3, d 2R < 0, it is maximum. dx 2
x/3
For
Hence the maximum profit is obtained by putting x = 3 in the revenue equation R = 15xe– = 15.3.e– 1 = =
45 = 16.54. 2.72
13. For a certain establishment, the total revenue function R and the total cost function C are given by R = 83 x – 4x2 – 21 and c = x3 – 12x2 + 48x + 11 where x = output. Obtain the out put for which profit is maximum. Profit (p) = Revenue – Cost = 83x – 4x2 – 21 – (x3 – 12x2 + 48x + 11) = – x3 + 8x2 + 35x – 32 For max. or, or, Again
dp d = 0. i.e.,  x 3 + 8x 2 + 35x  32 = 0 dx dx
(
)
– 3x2 + 16x + 35 = 0 (x – 7) (3x + 5) = 0
or, 3x2 – 16x – 35 = 0 or, x = 7, – 5/3
d 2p d =  3x 2 + 16x + 35 = 6x + 16 2 dx dx
(
)
For x = 7,
d 2p = 6.7 + 16 = 42 + 16 = 26 < 0, maximum dx 2
\ the profit is maximum at x = 7. 15. The production function of a commodity is given by Q = 40x + 3x2 x3 , where q is the total output and x is the unit of input. 3
MATHS
5.79
(i) Find the number of units input required to give maximum output.
FUNCTION
(ii) Find the maximum value of marginal product. (iii) Verify that when the average product is maximum, it is equal marginal product. (i) or,
dQ = 406xx. + dx
2
For maximum or minimum we have 40 + 6x – x2 = 0 d 2Q = 6  2x dx 2
(x – 10) (x + 4) = 0 or, x = 10, – 4. Again
For
x = 10,
d 2Q = 6  2.10 = 6  20 = 14 < 0, max. dx 2
x = 4,
d 2Q = 6 – 2 (– 4) = 6 + 8 = 14 > 0, min. dx 2
So for input of 10 units, output is maximum. (ii) Marginal product (MP) = Now
dQ = 40 + 6x – x2 dx
d (MP ) = 6  2x. For max. or min. 6 – 2x = 0 or, x = 3 dx
Again
d 2 (MP ) =  2 < 0, max. dx 2
So maximum value of marginal product = 40 + 6 × 3 – 32 = 40 + 18 – 9 = 49 (iii) Average product (A. P.) = dA.P. ( dx Q 40 x + 3x 2  x 2 / 3 x2 = = 40 + 3x x x 3
For max. or min.,
)=
d æ x2 ö ç 40 + 3x  ÷ = 0 dx è 3 ø
or,
3
2 9 d 2 (A.P.) 2 x = 0 or, x = . Again =  < 0 max. 3 2 3 dx 2 æ9ö ç ÷ = 46.75 è2ø
2 2
9 1 So maximum value of A.P. = 40 + 3. 2 3 9ö 9 1 æ Again M.P. ç forx = ÷ = 40 + 3. 2ø 2 3 è
æ9ö ç ÷ = 46.75 è2ø
Problems regarding positive numbers and plane figures : 17. Find two positive numbers whose product is 64 having minimum sum. Let the two positive numbers be x and y. By question xy = 64 or y = Let s be the sum of numbers of that s = x + y
64 . x
5.80
MATHS
or, i.e., 1 
s=x+
64 ds 64 ds . Now diff. w.r.t.x, we get, = 1  2 . For maximum =0 x dx dx x
64 = 0 or, x 2 = 64 or x, = 8, – 8. x2
d 2s 2.64 d 2 s 2.64 = 0 + 3 . At x = 8, = 3 > 0, minimum dx 2 x dx 2 8
\ s is minimum for x = 8, the other number y = \ reqd. positive numbersare 8 and 8.
64 64 = =8 x 8
18. The sum of two numbers is 12. Find the maximum value of their product. Let the two numbers be x and y, so that x + y = 12. Product (P) = xy = x (12 – x) = 12x – x2 dP = 12  2 x. For product max. dx
d 2P dP = 2 < 0, max. = 0 i.e., 12 – 2x = 0 or, x = 6. Again dx dx 2
\ reqd. product = x (12 – x) = 6 (12 – 6) = 6.6 = 36 19. A wire of length 16 cm is to form a rectangle. Find the dimensions of a rectangle so that it has maximum area. Let length be x, breadth be y so that 2x + 2y = 16 or, x + y or, y = 8 – x Area (A) = length × breadth = xy = x (8 – x)
dA = 8  2x. For max. area we have dx
2 dA dy = 0 or, 8 – 2x = 0 or, x = 4 ; = 20, < dx dx 2
max.
For x = 4, y = 8 – 4 = 4. So the area is maximum for length = breadth is 4 cm. i.e., rectangle is a square. SELF EXAMINATION QUESTIONS : 1. Find for which values of x the following functions are maximum and minimum : (i) x (12 – 2x)2 (iii) x3 – 6x2 + 9x – 8 (v) x3 – 9x2 + 24x – 12. (ii) x3 – 3x2 – 9x + 5. (iv) x2 + x +1 x2  x +1 [Ans. (i) 2, 6 ; (ii) – 1, 3 ; (iii) 1, 3 ; (v) 1, – 1 (v) 2, 4]
2. Find the maximum and minimum values of the above example.
MATHS
5.81
5.82
FUNCTION
MATHS
MATHS
5.83
FUNCTION
)
2
5.84
MATHS
MATHS
5.85
In general, if d f (x) = f(x), then d [ f (x) + c) ] = f (x) dx dx
FUNCTION
ò f(x) dx = f (x) + c, where c is a constant. (c is also known as constant of integration) General Theorems concerning Integration : (A) The integral of the algebraic sum of a finite Number of functions is equal to the algebraic sum of their integrals. In symbols, ò (u1 ± u2 ± u3 ……..± u n) dx = ò u1dx ± ò u2dx ±….. ± ò un dx. Where u1, u2 ……, un are all functions of x or constants. Example. ò (x4 ± x) dx = ò x4 dx ± ò xdx (B) A constant factor may be taken out from under the sign of integration and written before it. In symbols, ò Audx = A ò udx Example : ò 4x2 dx = 4 ò x2 dx (C) ò (A1u1 ± A2 u2 ±………..± An un) dx = A1 ò u1 dx ± A2 ò u2 dx ± ….. ± An ò len dx. Where A1 A2,………An are constants and u1, u2……..un are all functions of x. Example . ò (x ± 3x2) dx = ò xdx ± 3 ò x2. dx. Table of some fundamental integrals. The knowledge of differentiation will be employed now to find the indefinite integral of number of function. The constant integration will be understood in all cases. Farmulae : 1. 2. 3. ò xndx = ò dx = x;
x n +1 d æ x n +1 ö ç ÷ = xn , (n ¹ –1) as n+1 dx è n + 1 ø
ò xn ò
dx
=
1 (n  1)x n 1
, ( x ¹ 1)
(corr. Of formula 1)
4. 5. 6.
dx = log x x e mx (m ¹ 0) corr, ò ex dx = ex m
mx ò e dx =
òa
òa
x
dx =
a x , (a > 0, a ¹ 1) log e a
a mx , m log e a
7.
mx
dx =
(a > 0, a ±1)
Standard Methods of Integration. The different methods of integration aim of reduce the given integral to one of the above fundamental of known integral, Mainly there are two principle processes: (i) The method of substitution, i.e , change of independent variable.
5.86
MATHS
MATHS
5.87
5.88
FUNCTION
MATHS
MATHS
5.89
5.90
MATHS
(iv) e3x (v) e x
x
MATHS
5.91
Now, dI = dI . dx = f (x). f ¢ (z) = f [ f (z)]. f ¢ (z) dz dx dz
FUNCTION
\ by def. I = ò f [f (z)] f ¢ (z) dz if x = f (z). The idea will be clear from the following example : Integrate. ò (2 + 3 x)n dx. or, dx = 1 dz 3 Now, I = ò zn. 1 dz, f [ f (z) = zn. 3 1 ò zn dz = 1 . z n +1 = 1 (2 + 3x) n +1 + c. (putting z =2 + 3x) 3 3 n + 1 3(n + 1)
Note. It may be noted that there is no fixed rule for substitution in solving these types of problems.
Let 2 + 3 x = z \3 dx = dz (i.e. here f ¢ (z) = dx = 1 ) dz 3
5.92
MATHS
4 1. ò (ax + b)3 dx = 1 ò u 3du = 1 . u = 1 (ax + b )4 + c. a a 4 4a
Let ax + b = u, adx = du, dx = 1 du. a Let similarly 2.
ò (2x + 5) dx = 8 (2x + 5)
3
1
4
+ c.
ò ax = a ò
dx
1 du = 1 log u = 1 log(ax ) + c; taking ax = u, adx = du. u a a
Now ò dx = 1 log 5x + c. 5x 5 3.
ò a  x = 1 . ò
dx
dx
dz =  log z = log (a – x) + c. z
Let a – x = z, –dx = dz.
Now 4.
ò 3  x =  log (3  x) + c.
dx 1 dz = 1 log z = 1 log(a + bx ) + c. z b b dx 1 dx Let a + bx = z, bdx = dz. is similar to
ò a + bx = b ò
Similarly, 5.
ò 2 + 5x = 5 log(2 + 5x) + c; ò ax + b
ò a + bx .
dx
ò ax 2 + bx + c dx = ò
2ax + b
dz = log z + c = log(ax 2 + bx + c) + c . 1 1 z
Let ax2 +bx + c = z, (2ax + b) dx = dz. Note : Numerator is derivative of denominator. Now,
ò 2x 2 + 3x + 4 dx = log(2x
3
4x + 3
2
+ 3x + 4) + c.
ò x 3 + 2x 2 + x  1 dx = log(x
SOLVED EXAMPLES : Integrate 1.
3x 2 + 4 x + 1
+ 3x 2 + x  1) + c.
òx
2
1 + x 3 dx.
Let 1+ x3 = u2 (here u2 is taken to avoid radical sign of square root). or, 3 x 2 dx = 2 udu I = 2 ò u. udu 3 or, x2 dx = 2 udu 3 æ ö 3 2 ç as 1 + x = u = u ÷ è ø
3
3 33/2 /2 æ ö c. = 2 ò u 2du = 2 . u = 2 ç 1 + x 3 ÷ = 2 11+x3 + x3 + c. 3 3 3 9è 9 ø
) ( (
MATHS
5.93
9.
ò
e x (1 + x log x ) dx, x > 0. x I = ò e x æ log x + 1 ö dx ç ÷ 2ø è
Let ex log x = u
æ e x . 1 + e x . log x ö dx = du ç ÷ x è ø
= ò du = u = ex log x + c. 10.
or. e x æ 1 + log x ö dx = du ç ÷ èx ø Let 2x – 1 = u 2, 2 dx = 2 udu, dx = udu
ò
3x dx 2x  1
Again 2x = 1 + u2, x = 1 1l+ u 22 , +u 2
( ( )
3x = 3 1l+ u 22 +u 2
( ( )
3 (1 + u 2 ) u I= 3ò du = 3 ò du + 3 ò u 2du = 3 u + 3 . u 2 u 2 2 2 2 3 3 = 3u + u = 3 2x  1 + 1 ( 2x  1) 3 / 2 + c. 2 2 2 2
MATHS
5.95
5.96
FUNCTION
MATHS
MATHS
5.97
5.98
FUNCTION
MATHS
MATHS
5.99
31.
ò
FUNCTION
dx x +1 + x + 2
é ù 2 3/ 2  ( x + 2) 3 / 2 ú êAns.  3 ( x + 1) ë û
Standard Integrals : (A) x ò x 2  a 2 = 2a log x + a , ( > a ) dx 1 x a
dx dx 1 ì 1 1 ü
ò x 2  a 2 = ò ( x + a ) ( x  a ) = 2a ò í x  a  x + a ýdx î þ
ì ü = 1 íò dx  ò dx ý = 1 {log(x  a )  log(x + a )} 2a î x  a x + a þ 2a = 1 log x  a 2a x+a (B)
ò a 2  x 2 = 2a log x  a , (x < a ) ò
æ ö = logç x + x 2 ± a 2 ÷ ç ÷ è ø x2 ± a2 dx Let x 2 ± a 2 = u  x or, u = x + ö ÷ ÷ dx. = ÷ ø
u x ± a2
2
dx
1
x+a
)Proof is as before)
(C)
x2 ± a2
or,
æ ç 2x du = ç1 + ç 2 x2 ± a2 è
dx.
æ ö Now I = ò du = log u = logç x + x 2 ± a 2 ÷ u è ø
(D)
ò ax 2 + bx + c dx
px + q
and
ò
px + q æ ax 2 + bx + c ödx ç ÷ è ø
.
write px + q = l × derivative of (ax2 + bx + c) + m where l and m are constants to be determined by comparing coefficients. (E) I= ax + b dx. Rationalise the numerator. cx + d ax + b
(cx + d )(ax + b)
dx
dx and proceed as before
dx ( px + q ) ax 2 + bx + c
(F)
ò (ax + b) (cx + d )
and
ò
In the first part, put cx + d = u2 and in the second part, put px + q = 1 . u
5.100
MATHS
Worked out Examples : 1. 2.
ò x 2 1
3dx
Now I = ò
dx3x1 = x12x1  2
2
log
+c +
(by(A) here a = 1)
ò x 4 1
xdx
Let x2 = u, then 2xdx = du
2 \ I = 1 ò du = 1 . 1 log u  1 (by) = 1 log x  1 2 2 2 u 1 2 2 u +1 4 x +1
3.
ò 4  x2
ì 1 ü dx =1 + 1 dx = 1 ò dx + 1 ò dx (2 + x )(2  x ) 4 ò í 2 + x 2  x ý 4 2+x 4 2x î þ
dx
I=ò
= 1 log ( + x ) 1 log(  x )= 1 log 2 + x 2 2 4 4 4 2x
Alternative Way. 4. x
ò 2 2  x 2 = 4 log 2  x (by B)
Let x2 = u, 2 xdx = du
dx
1
2+x
[C.U.B. ’95]
ò 2x 4  3x 2  2 dx
du du I=1ò =1 2 2u 2  3u  2 2 ò (u  2)(2u + 1) 2 du ì ü = 1 . 1 ò í 1  2 ýdu = 1 ò du  1 ò 2 5 î u  2 2u + 1 þ 10 u  2 10 2u + 1 = 1 log(u  2)  1 log(2u + 1) = 1 log(x 2  2)  1 log(2 x + 1) + c 10 10 10 10 5.
ò
x 3dx x8 ± 1
I= x 3dx æx4 ö ±1 ç ÷ è ø
2
Let x4 = u or, 4x3 dx = du
= 1ò 4
du (u ) ± 1
2
= 1 log (u + u 2 ± 1) 4
(by C)
æ ö = 1 log ç x 4 + x 8 ± 1 ÷. 4 è ø
6.
ò
dx x  7 x + 12
2
MATHS
2.101
FUNCTION
x2 – 7x + 12 =
I=ò dx
æ 7ö 49 + 12 + 12 = æ x  7 ö  æ 1 ö çx  ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷ 2ø 4 2ø è2ø è è
2 2
2
2
2
=ò
du u a
2 2
æ æ1ö 7ö çx  ÷  ç ÷ 2ø è è2ø
taking u = x – 7 , then du = dx and a = 1 2 2
æ ö æ ö = logç u + a 2  a 2 ÷ ( C )= log ç x  7 + x 2  7 x + 12 ÷ by 2 è ø è ø
7.
ò
(4x  15)dx
x 2  7 x + 12
Let 4x – 15 = l × (2x – 7) + m. Now comparing co efficients of x, we get 4 = 2 l, l=2, Again for constants – 15 = – 7l + m or m = – 1
\ I = 2ò 2x  7 x  7 x + 12
2
dx  ò
dx x  7 x + 12
2
For the first integral, put x 2 – 7x + 12 = u2 so that (2x – 7) dx = 2 u du Hence
ò
2x  7 x  7 x + 12
2
dx = 2 ò udu = 2ò du = 2u = 2 x 2  7 x + 12. u
For the Second part see Ex. 6 above and hence find I. 8.
ò x (x + 3)dx
2x + 1
I = ò 2x + 3  2 dx = ò 2 x + 3 dx  2ò dx x 2 + 3x x 2 + 3x x 2 + 3x = log (x2 + 3x) –2
x+ 33 2 2 = log ( x 2 + 3x )  2. 1 log ò 2 2 23 x+3+ 3 æ æ3ö 3ö 2 2 2 çx + ÷  ç ÷ 2ø è è2ø dx
= log (x2 + 3x) – 2 log x 3 x+3 9.
ò 2 + x  x2
–x2) + m or, 2x = l (1 –2x ) + m coefficients coefficients of x, comparing comparing of x,
2x dx
Let 2x = l × derivative (2 + x 2 = –2l , l = –1.
\ Constant terms, 0 = l +m or, m = –l = 1 \I = ò  (  2 x )+ 1 1 2+x x
2
dx =  ò
1  2 x dx + dx ò 2 + x  x2 2 2+x x
= – log (2 + x – x2) + I1
2.102
MATHS
I1 =  ò
du æ 1ö 3 2 ç x  ÷  ( / 2) 2ø è
2
=
du , u=x1 2 2 u  (3 / 2 )
2
=  1 log u  3 / 2 = 1 log x  2 3 u + 3/ 2 3 x +1 \ I =  logæ 2 + x  x 2 ö  1 log x  2 + c ç ÷ x +1 è ø 3
SELF EXAMINATION QUESTIONS : Evaluate : 1.
ò x 6 1
ò 2x 2 + 3x  1 ò
ò
xdx a +x
dx 16 x  9
2 4 4
x 2 dx
é 1 x 3  1ù êAns. log 3 ú 6 x + 1ú ê ë û
2.
ò (log x) 2  9 . x .
1
dx
é log x  3 ù 1 êAns. 6 log log x + 3 ú ë û [Ans. 1 17 log 4x + 3  17 4 x + 3 + 17 ]
3.
dx
4.
[Ans.
1 log æ x 2 + a 4 + x 4 ö ] ç ÷ è ø 2 1 log æ 4 x + 16 x 2  9 ö ] ç ÷ è ø 4
5.
[Ans.
dx
6. (i)
ò x 2 + 2x  1
dx
[Ans. 1
1 2 2
log
x +1 2 x +1+ 2
]
(ii)
ò 2x 2  4x  7 ò x 2  3x + 1 ò 21 + 4x  x 2
x2 + x 1 dx
[Ans.
ì ü ï 2 (x  1) 3 ï log í ý] ï 2 (x  1)+ 3 ï 6 2 î þ [Ans. 1 5 log 2x  3  5 2x  3 + 5 ]
(iii)
dx
(iv)
[Ans.
1 3+ x log ] 10 7x
[Hints : 21 + 4x – x2 = 21 – (x2 – 4x) = 21 – (x2 – 2.2x + 4 – 4) = 25 – (x – 2)2 & etc.] (v)
ò x 2 + x  6 dx
[Ans. x + log
x2 ] x+3
[Hints : I = ò 7.
(x
2
+x 6 +5 5 dx = ò dx + ò dx & etc.] x2 + x  6 (x + 1 / 2)2  (5 / 2)2 ìæ [Ans. log íç x + îè 3ö ÷+ 2ø
)
ò
dx x + 3x + 3
2
(x
2
ü + 3x + 3 ý ] þ
)
MATHS
2.103
2.104
FUNCTION
{(
x_1 + x 2 2x+5 + (
{[
MATHS
e3x 2 æ d ö ò x 2 e3x dx = x 2 ò e3x dx  ò ç x 2 ò e3x dx ÷ dx = x 2  ò xe3x dx dx 3 3 è ø e3x 1 3x 1 1 æ d ö Again ò xe3x dx = x ò e3x dx  ò ç x ò e3x dx ÷ dx = x e dx = xe3x  e3x dx 3 3ò 3 9 è ø
… (i)
1 2 ì1 1 ü Now from (i), I = x 2 e 3x  í xe 3x  e 3x ý = e 3 x 3 3 î3 9 þ 3. Evaluate : ò x log ( + x )dx 1 I = ò x log ( + x ) dx = ò log ( + x ) xdx 1 1 .
æ x2 2 2 ö ç ÷ ç 3  9 x + 27 ÷ + c è ø
x2 1 x2 æ d ö = log( + x )ò xdx  ò ç 1 log ( + x )ò xdx ÷ dx = log ( + x ) 1 1 ò dx 2 1+ x 2 è dx ø
x2 x2 1+1 1 ö æ (x + 1)(x  1) dx = ò dx = ò ç + ÷ dx ò x +1 x +1 x +1 x +1ø è
… (i)
= ò (x  1)dx + ò Now from (i) I =
dx x2 =  x + log (x + 1) x +1 2
ü x2 1 ì x2 log ( + x ) í  x + log ( + x )ý 1 1 2 2î2 þ
4. ò log x dx = ò log x. 1. dx
ìd ü = log x ò dx  ò í log x ò dx ý dx î dx þ
æ1 ö = log x.x  ò ç .x ÷ dx = x log x  ò dx = x log x  x + c. èx ø 5. Evaluate :
ò
log x 2 dx
ìd ü I = ò log x 2 .1. dx = log x 2 . ò 1.dx  ò í log x 2 . ò 1 dx ý dx î dx þ
æ 2x ö = log x 2 .x  ò ç 2 .x ÷ dx = x log x 2  2 ò dx = x log x 2  2x + c èx ø 6. Evaluate : ò e x ( + x ) l log xe x dx. 1 Let xex = u, (ex + xex) dx = du or, ex (1 + x) dx = du. Integral (I) = ò log u du = u log u  u (See Ex. 4) = xex log (xex) – xex + c. 7. Evaluate : ò x 2  2x + 5 e  x dx. I = ò x 2 e  x dx  2 ò xe  x dx + 5 ò e  x dx
( )
(
)
MATHS
2.105
2.106
FUNCTION
MATHS
Transposing, ò e x { (x )+ f ' (x ) dx = e x f (x ) f } . 11. Evaluate :
ò
ex (x log x + 1)dx x
æ1 ö I = ò e x ç + log x ÷ dx = e { ' (x )+ f (x ) dx , if f (x ) = log x f } x è ø = ex f(x) (by Ex. 9 above) = ex log x + c. Standard Integrals : 1.
ò
x 2 + a 2 dx =
x x2 + a2 a2 + log æ x + x 2 + a 2 ö ç ÷ è ø 2 2 x x2  a2 a2  log æ x + x 2  a 2 ö. ç ÷ è ø 2 2
2. ò x 2  a 2 dx = 12. Find the value of
I=ò =ò
(
)
ò
25x 2 + 16 dx dx. Let 5x = u, 5dx = du
(5x )2 + 4 2
1 2 1 u + 4 2 du = 5 5
ò
u 2 + 4 2 du
=
1 5
1 5
ì u u 2 + 42 42 ü ï ï + log æ u + u 2 + 4 2 öý (by formula 1) ç ÷ í è øï 4 2 ï î þ
é 5x 25x 2 + 16 16 ù ê + log æ 5x + 25x 2 + 16 öú ç ÷ è øú 2 2 ê ë û
=
=
x 25x 2 + 16 8 + log æ 5x + 25x 2 + 16 ö + c. ç ÷ è ø 2 5
SELF EXAMINATION QUESTIONS : Integrate : 1. x2ex. [Ans. x2ex + 2ex – 2xex, c is added in every case]
2. xe4x
[Ans.
e4x (4x  1)] 16 x2 x2 log x ] 2 4
3. xeax. 5. x3 ex. [ICWA. Dec. 1989]
[Ans.
e ax (ax  1)] a2
4. x log x 6. (log x)2. 7. x (log x)2.
[Ans.
[Ans. x3 ex – 3x2ex + 6xex – 6xx] [Ans. x (log x)2 – 2x log x + 2x] [Ans.
2 2 x2 (log x )2  x log x + x ] 2 2 4
MATHS
2.107
2.108
FUNCTION
MATHS
MATHS
2.109
FUNCTION
n n +1 ü n n +1 ì = lim h ína + h. ý ; as 1 + 2 + … + n = h® 0 î 2 þ 2
(nh )(nh + h )ü = lim ìa (b  a )+ (b  a )(b  a + h )ü ì = lim ía (nh )+ ý h®0 í ý h®0 î 2 2 þ î þ
= a (b  a )+
= (b  a )´
(b  a )2 = (b  a )æ a + (b  a )ö ç ÷
2 è 2 ø
2 2
(b + a ) = 1 ( 2  a 2 ) b .
1
3. By the method of summation, find the value of Here, f(x) = (3x + 5) ; a = 0, b = 1 ;
ò (3x + 5) dx
0
f(a + rh) = 3 (a + rh) + 5 = 5 + 3rh, nh = b – a = 1 – 0 = 1.
1
\
ò (3x + 5) dx = hlim0 h å f (a + rh) = hlim0 h å (5 + 3rh ) ® ®
0 r =1 r =1
n
n
n (n + 1)ü ì } = lim h { n + 3h ( + 2 + 3 + .... + n ) = lim h í5n + 3h. 5 1 ý h®0 h® 0 î 2 þ 3 3 ì ü ì ü = lim í5. nh + (nh )(nh + h )ý = lim í5.1 + .1. ( + h )ý 1 h®0 î 2 2 þ h ®0î þ
3 3 10 + 3 13 = 5.1 + .1.1 = 5 + = = . 2 2 2 2 SELF EXAMINATION QUESTIONS :
b b
1.
ò
a b
dx.
[Ans. b – a]
1 4 b  a4 ] 4
2.
ò 10 dx.
a 1
[Ans. 10 (b – a)]
3.
ò
a 1
x 3 dx.
[Ans.
(
)
4.
ò dx.
0
[Ans. 1]
1 ] 2 1 ] 3
5.
ò x dx.
0 1
[Ans.
6. ò x 2 dx.
0 2
[Ans.
35 ] 3
1
7.
ò
1
5x 2 dx.
[Ans.
8.
ò (2x + 5) dx
0
[Ans. 6]
Definite Integral :
2.110
MATHS
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