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The Songs of John Lennon: The Beatles Years John Stevens Analysis of “A Hard Day’s Night”

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it was released on single in America and on single and LP in England. but verse 1—as well as the title—repeats a total of three times: A Verse 1 12 bars A Verse 2 12 bars B 8 bars A 12 bars B 8 bars A 12 bars c h a p t e r 2 • a h a r d d ay ’s n i g h t Primary Bridge Verse 1 Primary Bridge Verse 1 51 . The film had recently been renamed A Hard Day’s Night. 1964 4/4 G Mixolydian and G major AABA Verse (A): aabbc Primary Bridge (B): abc A Hard Day’s Night 1964 EMD/CAPITOL Lennon wrote “A Hard Day’s Night”—with some assistance from Paul McCartney—by request of Walter Shenson. changed from the original title. who was the producer of the Beatles’ first film. Lennon managed to churn out a pop classic! The composition of “A Hard Day’s Night” must have been one of the turning points in Lennon’s own realization of just how good a writer he was becoming. This repetition is critical because only the first verse contains the title. Both the first and third A’s have the same lyrics. The primary bridge repeats once.BACKGROUND Title Recording Date Meter Key Song Form Phrasing Recording A Hard Day’s Night April 16. In performance. Overnight. STRUCTURE Song Form Still in the early days of his songwriting career. Lennon once again stuck with the tried-and-true AABA song form. the song form is AABA/BA. A few weeks later. but with a twist: there are only two verses of lyrics. The song was recorded on April 16. Beatlemania. United Artists was pressing Shenson to get the group to write a title song for the movie. on demand. Lennon decided he was up for the challenge. 1964 and was released on the soundtrack album in America in late June.

The second verse does not contain the title of the song. This combination of stable and unstable tones creates just the right atmosphere for a song about having a hard day: J O H N LE N N O N .” And home is where he can hold his baby “tight. he’s home with her. to say the least. Everything at home just seems to feel “right. while verse 1 is sung three times during the course of the song.Lyric Content In two short verses and one primary bridge. and he’s going to feel alright. Further. it also contains two extremely unstable notes. C (the 4th) and F n (b 7th). but well-turned here in this driving bridge section. Verse 2 is only sung once. the listener becomes aware of the singer’s desire to provide for his beloved. G7sus4 does contain the tonic note G. the verse feels a bit like a chorus. Because the title is repeated twice in this opening verse. which gives it a certain stability. The next two rhyming couplets let the listener know that the singer is speaking to his girlfriend.” Classic pop romance lyric. PHRASING Verse ◗ Harmonic Phrasing 52 TH E S O N G S OF “A Hard Day’s Night” begins with an unsettling—and now famous— G7sus4 chord with a D in the bass. The chord is struck and held by the three guitarists as well as the piano—a very unusual beginning. His workday has ended. The first verse exploits two clichés: “working like a dog” and “sleeping like a log.” By preceding these two clichés with the title of the song. With the mention of the word “money” in verse 2. Lennon successfully presents the form and substance. Lennon transforms these phrases into most of the first verse. The primary bridge lyric focuses entirely on the wonderful feeling he has at home and away from work. The chord immediately captures that feeling of “hitting the wall” when one has gone beyond one’s limits. However. he indicates that being with her makes all his hard work worthwhile.

The only difference between G major and G Mixolydian is the F. 2. G) at first reflect the key of G major. B b. Note that the following example has two different analyses: aaa and aabbc (as shown in fig. while the G Mixolydian needs an F n to fully establish the Mixolydian mode. The G major needs an F # to fully establish the major mode. we find that Lennon has chosen to set the song in the key of G Mixolydian. C. But with the introduction of F major at bar 3. With its bluesy b 7th.V #4U & 4| & | & | # IV C G7sus4/D I G IV C I G b VII F I G | IV C I G | | b VII F | I G | | # | | V7 D7 | I G IV7 C7 I G | | | | Fig. The verses establish an atmosphere reflecting the monotony of the workaday world. Lennon retains the bluesy edge by sneaking a C7 chord (bar 11) into the final cadence. the Mixolydian mode actually flattens out the sweetness normally associated with the major mode. which contains the competing F #. which contains the also bluesy note. ◗ Melodic Phrasing c h a p t e r 2 • a h a r d d ay ’s n i g h t The phrasing of the verse is a study in asymmetry. Verse harmonic phrasing The opening three verse chords (G. 53 .31. 2. The more droning sound of the flatted 7th works well with the import of Lennon’s verse lyric about a hard day at work. The mode shifts back to a straight-ahead G major at bar 10 with the introduction of the D7 chord.32).

Three. Set in the darker minor mode. It creates an alternate analysis of aabbc. Primary bridge harmonic phrasing . beat 1 with the word “dog. The first 4-bar phrase ends on bar 4. But Lennon has a clever twist to keep that from happening: internal rhyme. Verse melodic phrasing Lennon goes for longer phrases in the verses. not four? That’s asymmetry. 2. the section feels resolved. By the time we hear the last 2-bar phrase after the two short 1-bar bits. 2. ending with “log” in the same place. This creates an aaa analysis.#4 & 4 & # V a ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ a ∑ ∑ a œ Œ Ó dog œ Œ Ó log & # b · b · c ∑ œ Œ Ó right you do Fig. With the missing fourth phrase. the form is aa. it is a seemingly ironic setting for such a positive lyric. This works well because over the course of the bridge.33. So far.” It’s not unexpected to hear a companion 4-bar phrase next. The internally rhyming “you” and “do” breaks up the third 4-bar phrase into a 1 + 1 + 2 combination that deflects the asymmetry and focuses attention on the rhymes. Primary Bridge J O H N LE N N O N ◗ Harmonic Phrasing OF The 8-bar bridge introduces contrast. the harmony moves from the implied B minor tonality to a straight-ahead G major tonality: TH E S O N G S #4 & 4| PB III– B– VI– E– | III– B– | | I G | VI– E– | IV7 C7 | V7 D7 | 54 Fig. The asymmetry comes with the third and final 4-bar phrase.32. the verse should seem unbalanced or unresolved rhythmically.

35: 55 c h a p t e r 2 • a h a r d d ay ’s n i g h t . the bridge would come off as a somewhat lackluster. as seen in fig. That would definitely work. ◗ Melodic Phrasing The primary bridge offers a square 8-bar section. This propels the progression forward into the final D7–G cadence. which brings us back into the verse. Primary bridge melodic phrasing Were it not for that last lyrical punctuation of “tight. 2. except for brief excursions. 2. yeh!” in the eighth bar. In the first two lines. It adds just a little jet propulsion toward the beginning of the next verse. the lyric and the melody divide the second phrase and create an accelerating 1-bar phrase as the section closes: PB #4 & 4 & # ∑ a ∑ b ∑ ∑ ˙ ˙ Ó Ó Ó ∑ c right ˙ tight yeah Fig.34. the melody rarely leaves the D.The bridge ends with a well-placed and familiar harmonic progression: a classic I-VI minor-IV-V progression. PROSODY Melody: Verse The verse melody is somewhat static. On some levels it is divided into 4-bar units. with “right” and “tight” rhyming together at their respective third bars. hohum affair. but as you see below. but the creation and insertion of that last 1-bar phrase.

Mini transitional bridge 56 TH E S O N G S OF J O H N LE N N O N Referring back for a moment to the first line in the verse.35. forward-moving melody soon resolves to tonic at bar 3. 2. # 4 œ b œ œ œ ‰n œ œ # œ & 4 get home to you. there is a cadence from C to D. .” Using melisma (singing many notes for a single syllable) emphasizes the lyric. Verse structural tones The first two bars of the third line of the verse form a mini transitional bridge. 2.37. shown in fig. the unstable. 2. Lyrically.V # & w & & # w # w IV C I G IV C I G b VII w w I G nw b VII F w w IV7 C7 I G w I G IV C nw I G F w I G V7 D7 w w w w bw Nw Fig. IV C V D œ nœ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ J œ. Harmonically.36. Melodically. the answering phrase at the third and fourth bars opens with a jerky but totally prosodic setting of the lyric “working. This upward motion creates and supports all the forward momentum in the lyrics. will make me feel I G I find the things that you do. there is internal rhyme in those two bars.” It concludes with a frantic melisma on the word “dog. Refer to the example below and notice that the melody and chords move up in the second bar. Fig.

2.37. ˙ I G IV C œ.#4U & 4| #G & ˙ I G7sus4/D Ó ‰ œ œ œ It’s been a .” “working. J œ œ œ œ œ G Œ œ like a dog. These four words alone are enough to conjure up a sense of urgency that supports the title. is a dramatic move that carries the listener to a whole new musical plane. 2.” ◗ Melody: Primary Bridge The melodic range of the bridge is much higher. 57 .ing Fig. But to select the least stable note from the G major tonality. which was exploited in the verse sections. “It’s Been a Hard Day’s Night. Melisma in “Hard Day’s Night” Placing the lyrics “hard. because it supports the tonality of G major rather than of G Mixolydian. The screaming high A at the end of the section was so high that McCartney had to sing the bridge while Lennon sang the verses: PB III– B– VI– E– III– B– & & # w # w I G w w w w ∑ V7 D7 VI– E– w IV7 C7 w w c h a p t e r 2 • a h a r d d ay ’s n i g h t Fig. hard day’s b VII ‰ œ œ œ and I’ve been F œ nœ. providing contrast and release from the verse melody. I œ J night.” “night.. The change is so dramatic it just takes your head off! Lennon did a little foreshadowing of it in the last part of the verse. Primary bridge structural tones The F # that begins the primary bridge comes as a surprise.38. after totally inundating the listener with F n s in both the melody and harmony during the verses.” and “dog” on beat 1 gives them the greatest lyrical emphasis. work .

the lyric title is set with long notes encompassing a half bar per word. “A Hard Day’s Night” truly exemplifies his ability to distill the everyday issues of life and successfully present them in the pop song idiom. however. From the very beginning. which begins a half step higher on the tonic G. suggesting an image of a plodding. Two dramatic and extremely unstable A’s finish off the bridge melody. SUMMARY The marriage of melody to this lyric showcases Lennon’s ability to musically capture the experience of a difficult day (or night). 58 TH E S O N G S OF J O H N LE N N O N . it is obvious as we explore his songs that he certainly knew how musical notes communicate. dealing with people all day. This anticipation gives a sense of the urgency of getting the job done.The static melody of the bridge builds tension perfectly toward the climax at the word “home” in the second line. away from the world. anticipating the second bar of the verse by a half a beat. While later in his development Lennon explored avant-garde vehicles for song. waiting patiently for a return to euphoric isolation with the one you love. The song hits a nerve with most listeners: a hard day at work. routine day at work. At the same time. the rhythm pushes forward. Though John Lennon never learned to read music. Lennon doesn’t let the G resolve the bridge. It is an excellent musical portrait of mundane life. Capturing it so perfectly is the essence of what makes a great pop song.

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