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× Climate Change  
× Conservation  
× 9estoration  
× xiodiversity  
× ¬nvasive ecies c
× ¬nfectious disease/arasites  c
× 9oads, imact of c
× 0ildfires c

× ^orests  c
× Œrasslands 
× oil  
× •and cosystems  

× 9iarian cosystems 

× ^reshwater cosystems  


× ºarine cosystems  
× Ñydrology 
× Ã uatic wildlife, other than fish 
× ^reshwater ^ish  
× ºarine ^ish  
× almonoids 
× 0ildlife 
× xirds  
× lants/xotany
× Œeneral ¬nterest 
× Ñistory

× nvironmental •aw  olicy 

× Disitor se

× nvironmental ducation 

× 9eviews 

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chuldt, onathon ,ara Ñ onrath and orbert chwartz cc ‘ ‘‘  ‘‘‘
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¬n ublic discourse and survey research, global climate change is sometimes referred to as global
warming͟ and sometimes as climate change͟ Ãn analysis of web sites of conservative and liberal think
tanks suggests that conservatives refer to use the term global warming͟ whereas liberals refer
climate change͟ Ã uestion wording exeriment g   illustrates the ower of these frames
9eublicans were less likely to endorse that the henomenon is real when it was referred to as global
warming͟ 

 rather than climate change͟ , whereas emocrats were unaffected by uestion
wording    vs 
 Ãs a result, the artisan divide on the issue droed from
 ercentage
oints under a global warming͟ frame to  ercentage oints under a climate change͟ frame
heoretical and methodological imlications are discussed
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Ãlthough ozonedestroying chemicals have been in decline for a decade now, researchers have long
rojected that they will not glimse the first signs that the Ãntarctic ozone hole is healing until well ast
 xut for the first time, a grou of researchers claims they can already see the ozone hole slowly
recovering ºany others, however, say the aer, now in ress in Œ    

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out critical information needed to clinch the case

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^orest ervice, uébec, C ŒcD§
C Canada]

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art à ^orest ervice, orthern 9esearch tation, urham, ew Ñamshire  
! Ã ^orest ervice,
orthern 9esearch tation, t aul, ºinnesota c ! Ã ^orest ervice, acific orthwest 9esearch tation,
ortland, regon ]

he  eartment of Ãgriculture ^orest ervice ^ manages onefifth of the area of forestland in
the nited tates he ^orest ervice 9oadma for resonding to climate change identified assessing and
managing carbon stocks and change as a major element of its lan his study resents methods and
results of estimating current forest carbon stocks and change in the nited tates for ublic and rivate
owners, consistent with the official c  greenhouse gas inventory, but with imroved data sources
for three states 9esults are resented by ational ^orest ystem region, a major organizational
management unit within the ^orest ervice, and by individual national forest ^ forestland in the
nited tates is estimated to contain an average of c  ºg C/ha megagrams carbon er hectare on 

million ha, for a total of cc,


g C teragrams C in the year  rivatelyowned forestland averages
c ºg C/ha on c  million ha, with forestland of other ublic owners averaging c ºg C/ha on
c
million ha ¬n terms of change, rivate and ^ ownershis each se uester about a net c g C/yr,
but an additional  g C/yr is stored in roducts from rivate harvests comared to about g C/yr
from harvest on ^ land missions from other disturbances such as fires, as well as corresonding area
estimates of disturbance are also imortant, but the needed datasets are not yet available
9ecommendations are given for imroving the estimates


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xiology, 0ashington niversity, t •ouis, ºissouri  c ! eartment of nvironmental cience and olicy,
niversity of California, avis, California c!  Œeological urvey, ational 0etlands 9esearch Center, 
Cajundome xoulevard, •afayette, •ouisiana ]

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ociety, regon tate niversity, Corvallis, 9]

he concet of sustainable resource management can be alied at multile scales ºonitoring is an
essential comonent of sustainable natural resource management schemes, and as we begin to confront
the need to manage natural resources at the global scale, the imortance of monitoring at the global scale
is also growing he combination of satellite remote sensing, in situ measurements, and simulation
modeling has the otential to deliver an annual assessment of status and trends for several measures of
terrestrial bioshere structure and function relevant to sustainability Ñowever, there is, as yet, no
internationally coordinated effort in lace to erform that analysis ynthesis activity of that kind would
suort the develoment of global environmental governance institutions, including both non
governmental organizations and international bodies

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cosystems rovide multile benefits to eole, including climate regulation revious efforts to uantify
this ecosystem service have been either largely concetual or based on comlex atmosheric models
Ñere, we review revious research on this toic and roose a new and simle analytical aroach for
estimating the hysical regulation of climate by ecosystems he roosed metric estimates how land
cover change affects the loading of heat and moisture into the atmoshere, while also accounting for the
relative contribution of windtransorted heat and moisture Ãlthough feedback dynamics between land,
atmoshere, and oceans are not modeled, the metric comares well with revious studies for several
regions 0e find that ecosystems have the strongest influence on surface climatic conditions in the boreal
and troical regions, where temerature and moisture changes could substantially offset or magnify
greenhouseforced changes his aroach can be extended to estimate the effects of changing land
cover on local, hysical climate rocesses that are relevant to society

ºumby , eter , 9oberto ¬glesiasrieto, Ãnthony  Ñooten, eter ^ ale, ve ÑoeghŒuldberg, Ãlasdair  dwards,
C rew Ñarvell, dgardo  Œomez, ancy nowlton, ºarea Ñatziolos, ºargareth  yewalyanga, and yawira
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olicies that encourage greenhousegas emitters to mitigate emissions through terrestrial carbon C
offsets " C se uestration in soils or biomass " will romote ractices that reduce erosion and build soil
fertility, while fostering adatation to climate change, agricultural develoment, and rehabilitation of
degraded soils Ñowever, none of these benefits will be ossible until changes in C stocks can be
documented accurately and costeffectively his is articularly challenging when dealing with changes in
soil organic C C stocks recise methods for measuring C in soil samles are well established, but
satial variability in the factors that determine C stocks makes it difficult to document change
0idesread interest in the benefits of C se uestration has brought this issue to the fore in the


develoment of  and international climate olicy Ñere, we review the challenges to documenting
changes in C stocks, how olicy decisions influence offset documentation re uirements, and the
benefits and drawbacks of different samling strategies and extraolation methods

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^orestry " including afforestation the lanting of trees on land where they have not recently existed,
reforestation, avoided deforestation, and forest management " can lead to increased se uestration of
atmosheric carbon dioxide and has therefore been roosed as a strategy to mitigate climate change
Ñowever, forestry also influences landsurface roerties, including albedo the fraction of incident
sunlight reflected back to sace, surface roughness, and evaotransiration, all of which affect the
amount and forms of energy transfer to the atmoshere ¬n some circumstances, these biohysical
feedbacks can result in local climate warming, thereby counteracting the effects of carbon se uestration
on global mean temerature and reducing or eliminating the net value of climatechange mitigation
rojects Ñere, we review ublished and emerging research that suggests ways in which forestry rojects
can counteract the conse uences associated with biohysical interactions, and highlight knowledge gas
in managing forests for climate rotection 0e also outline several ways in which biohysical effects can
be incororated into frameworks that use the maintenance of forests as a climate rotection strategy

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treams, rivers, lakes, and other inland waters are imortant agents in the couling of biogeochemical
cycles between continents, atmoshere, and oceans he deiction of these roles in globalscale
assessments of carbon C and other bioactive elements remains limited, yet recent findings suggest that
C discharged to the oceans is only a fraction of that entering rivers from terrestrial ecosystems via soil
resiration, leaching, chemical weathering, and hysical erosion ºost of this C influx is returned to the
atmoshere from inland waters as carbon dioxide C or buried in sedimentary deosits within
imoundments, lakes, floodlains, and other wetlands Carbon and mineral cycles are couled by both
erosion"deosition rocesses and chemical weathering, with the latter roducing dissolved inorganic C
and carbonate buffering caacity that strongly modulate downstream Ñ, biological roduction of
calciumcarbonate shells, and C outgassing in rivers, estuaries, and coastal zones Ñuman activities
substantially affect all of these rocesses

awson, erence ,tehen  ackson, oanna ¬ Ñouse, ¬ain Colin rentice, and Œeorgina º ºace cc !'‘
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Climate change is redicted to become a major threat to biodiversity in the cst century, but accurate
redictions and effective solutions have roved difficult to formulate Ãlarming redictions have come
from a rather narrow methodological base, but a new, integrated science of climatechange biodiversity
assessment is emerging, based on multile sources and aroaches rawing on evidence from
aleoecological observations, recent henological and microevolutionary resonses, exeriments, and
comutational models, we review the insights that different aroaches bring to anticiating and
managing the biodiversity conse uences of climate change, including the extent of secies natural
resilience 0e introduce a framework that uses information from different sources to identify
vulnerability and to suort the design of conservation resonses Ãlthough much of the information
reviewed is on secies, our framework and conclusions are also alicable to ecosystems, habitats,
ecological communities, and genetic diversity, whether terrestrial, marine, or fresh water

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, orthern Ãrizona niversity, ^lagstaff,
Ãrizona cc! Ãà arth ystems 9esearch •aboratory,  xroadway, xoulder, Colorado  ! •awrence
•ivermore ational •aboratory and niversity of California, ºerced, California
! Ã ^orest ervice, 9ocky
ºountain 9esearch tation, ºissoula, ºontana   ]

he future distribution of the oshua tree  ! " # is rojected by combining a geostatistical
analysis of thcentury climates over its current range, future modeled climates, and aleoecological
data showing its resonse to a ast similar climate change Ãs climate raidly warmed cc§ years
ago, the range of oshua tree contracted, leaving only the oulations near what had been its
northernmost limit ¬ts ability to sread northward into new suitable habitats after this time may have
been inhibited by the somewhat earlier extinction of megafaunal disersers, esecially the hasta ground
sloth 0e alied a model of climate suitability for oshua tree, develoed from its thcentury range
and climates, to future climates modeled through a set of six individual general circulation models ŒCº
and one suite of  models for the late cst century Ãll distribution data, observed climate data, and
future ŒCº results were scaled to satial grids of c km and
km in order to facilitate alication
within this toograhically comlex region Ãll of the models roject the future elimination of oshua tree
throughout most of the southern ortions of its current range Ãlthough estimates of future monthly
reciitation differ between the models, these changes are outweighed by large increases in temerature
common to all the models nly a few oulations within the current range are redicted to be
sustainable everal models roject significant otential future exansion into new areas beyond the
current range, but the secies' historical and current rates of disersal would seem to revent natural
exansion into these new areas everal areas are redicted to be otential sites for relocation/assisted
migration his roject demonstrates how information from aleoecology and modern ecology can be
integrated in order to understand ongoing rocesses and future distributions


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 ccccc ivision of arth ystems cience, eartment of ^orest cosystems and
ociety, regon tate niversity, Corvallis, 9]

he concet of sustainable resource management can be alied at multile scales ºonitoring is an
essential comonent of sustainable natural resource management schemes, and as we begin to confront
the need to manage natural resources at the global scale, the imortance of monitoring at the global scale
is also growing he combination of satellite remote sensing, in situ measurements, and simulation
modeling has the otential to deliver an annual assessment of status and trends for several measures of
terrestrial bioshere structure and function relevant to sustainability Ñowever, there is, as yet, no
internationally coordinated effort in lace to erform that analysis ynthesis activity of that kind would
suort the develoment of global environmental governance institutions, including both non
governmental organizations and international bodies

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eed banks must shift from being stamcollections͟ of secies to collections that can rovide tons of
seeds and the exertise to imrove restoration efforts!

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P     art   eartment of ¬ntegrative xiology, niversity of California,
xerkeley, xerkeley, California
!eartment of xiological ciences, nion College, chenectady, ew ork
c  ! eartment of •and, Ãir, and 0ater 9esources, niversity of California, avis, avis, California c]

9estoration ecology can benefit greatly from develoments in traitbased ecology that enable imroved
redictions of how the comosition of lant communities will resond to changes in environmental
conditions lant functional traits can be used to guide the restoration of degraded habitats by closely
tailoring treatments to the local secies ool 0e tested this aroach in two heavily invaded coastal
California grasslands 0e asked whether native lant abundance and lant community trait comosition
resond to c exerimental soil fertility reduction in the form of twiceyearly carbon C amendments and
 disturbance in the form of mowing 0e measured height, secific leaf area, leaf thickness and leaf
density from individuals of secies in the control and C addition lots, and sulemented these trait
values with database information on growth form, lifesan, nitrogenfixing ability and seed mass ‘
Consistent with theoretical redictions, C addition favored short, largeseeded and nitrogenfixing secies,
while mowing benefitted short secies with high secific leaf area Ñowever, native and exotic secies did
not differ in any of the measured traits, and neither grou benefitted generally from the treatments
Carbon addition led to large intrasecific trait shifts, with individuals in C addition lots having smaller,
denser leaves and shorter stature ecies' trait lasticity, however, was not related to the community
comosition resonse to C addition ‘ ur study indicates that traitbased ecology is sufficiently mature
to rovide useful redictions in the realm of restoration ecology rait screening at a site can hel redict
the success of a articular restoration measure in that community

rawchuk,ºeg à and teve Œ Cumming cc $


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cience, olicy, and ºanagement, c  ºulford Ñall, ºC number cc
, niversity of California, xerkeley, California

! éartement des ciences du xois et de la ^orêt, ^aculté de ^oresterie et de Œéomati ue, avillon Ãbitibi
rice, xureau c
Ã, niversité •aval, uébec City, uébec Œc§
Canada]

redictions of future fire activity over Canada's boreal forests have rimarily been generated from climate
data following assumtions that direct effects of weather will stand alone in contributing to changes in
burning Ñowever, this assumtion needs exlicit testing ^irst, areas recently burned can be less likely to
burn again in the near term, and this endogenous regulation suggests the otential for selflimiting,
negative biotic feedback to regional climatedriven increases in fire econd, forest harvest is ongoing, and
resulting changes in vegetation structure have been shown to affect fire activity Conse uently, we tested
the assumtion that fire activity will be driven by changes in fire weather without regulation by biotic
feedback or regional harvestdriven changes in vegetation structure in the mixedwood boreal forest of
Ãlberta, Canada, using a simulation exeriment that includes the interaction of fire, stand dynamics,
climate change, and clear cut harvest management
0e found that climate change rojected with fire weather indices calculated from the Canadian 9egional
Climate ºodel increased fire activity, as exected, and our simulations established evidence that the
magnitude of regional increase in fire was sufficient to generate negative feedback to subse uent fire
activity 0e illustrate a  c fold increase in fire initiation and
 c
fold increase in area
burned when climate and stand dynamics were included in simulations, yet
 c
fold and c
ccfold increases, resectively, when climate was considered alone hus, although biotic feedbacks
reduced burned area estimates in imortant ways, they were secondary to the direct effect of climate on
fire 0e then show that ongoing harvest management in this region changed landscae comosition in a
way that led to reduced fire activity, even in the context of climate change Ãlthough forest harvesting
resulted in decreased regional fire activity when comared to unharvested conditions, forest comosition
and age structure was shifted substantially, illustrating a tradeoff between management goals to
minimize fire and conservation goals to emulate natural disturbance

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(eartment of
xiology and ºuseum of outhwestern xiology, niversity of ew ºexico, Ãlbu uer ue, ew ºexico c c à ]

à uatic and terrestrial ecosystems are linked through lateral interactions that suort and maintain
biodiversity in both regions Ñowever, in many laces, river regulation and channelization have isolated
rivers from surrounding riarian areas 0e evaluated the effects of channelization on the linkages


between a uatic and terrestrial invertebrate assemblages in the 9io Œrande, ew ºexico via comarison
of uantitative macroinvertebrate survey data and analyses of carbon and nitrogen isotoes to test for
changes in nutrient flow between channelized and nonchannelized reaches of this highly regulated
system à uatic and terrestrial macroinvertebrates were surveyed in summer  at channelized and
nonchannelized reaches Ãverage densities of a uatic macroinvertebrates were  lower in the
channelized reaches axonomic richness and densities of macroinvertebrates in the transition zone
between the river and forested floodlain were also lower in channelized reaches and this effect was
esecially ronounced for redatory macroinvertebrate secies Carbon isotoe ratios in consumers
indicated that instream ie, benthic algae roduction served as the major source of carbon for
redaceous arthroods in the transition zone ur results indicate that river regulation that leads to
channelization can reduce diversity and macroinvertebrate densities at the landscae scale by severing
linkages between the a uatic and riarian communities hese effects aear esecially acute for
redaceous macroinvertebrates, erhas because referred rey density is lowered 9estoration of
natural flow regimes is vitally imortant to reduce channelization and maintain connectivity between the
a uatic and terrestrial environments to conserve the uni ue assemblage of macroinvertebrates in the
transition zone

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^ort Collins, Colorado ]

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Cruz, California 
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Coral 9eef tudies, ames Cook niversity, ownsville, ueensland
cc Ãustralia! illiman niversity Ãngelo ing
Center for 9esearch and nvironmental ºanagement, illiman niversity, umaguete City, , hiliines]

wanson, ºark , erry ^ ^ranklin, 9obert • xeschta, Charles º Crisafulli, ominick à ellaala, 9ichard • Ñutto,
avid x •indenmayer, and ^rederick  wanson cc ‘ ‘
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arlysuccessional forest ecosystems that develo after standrelacing or artial disturbances are diverse
in secies, rocesses, and structure ostdisturbance ecosystems are also often rich in biological legacies,
including surviving organisms and organically derived structures, such as woody debris hese legacies and
ostdisturbance lant communities rovide resources that attract and sustain high secies diversity,
including numerous earlysuccessional obligates, such as certain woodeckers and arthroods arly
succession is the only eriod when tree canoies do not dominate the forest site, and so this stage can be
characterized by high roductivity of lant secies including herbs and shrubs, comlex food webs, large
nutrient fluxes, and high structural and satial comlexity ifferent disturbances contrast markedly in
terms of biological legacies, and this will influence the resultant hysical and biological conditions, thus
affecting successional athways ºanagement activities, such as ostdisturbance logging and dense tree
lanting, can reduce the richness within and the duration of earlysuccessional ecosystems 0here
maintenance of biodiversity is an objective, the imortance and value of these natural earlysuccessional
ecosystems are underareciated

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Œrowing demand for alternative energy sources has contributed to increased biofuel roduction, but the
effects on biodiversity of landuse change to biofuel cros remain unclear sing a metaanalysis for cros
being used or considered in the , we find that vertebrate diversity and abundance are generally lower
in biofuel cro habitats relative to the noncro habitats that these cros may relace iversity effects
are greater for corn than for ine and olar, and birds of conservation concern exerience greater
negative effects from corn than secies of less concern et conversion of rowcro fields to grasslands
dedicated to biofuels could increase local diversity and abundance of birds o minimize imacts of
biofuel cros on biodiversity, we recommend management ractices that reduce chemical inuts,
increase heterogeneity within fields, and delay harvests until bird breeding has ceased 0e encourage
research that will move us toward a sustainable biofuels economy, including the use of native lants,
develoment of robust environmental criteria for evaluating biofuel cros, and integrated cost"benefit
analysis of otential landuse change

awson,erence , tehen  ackson, oanna ¬ Ñouse, ¬ain Colin rentice, and Œeorgina º ºace cc !'‘
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Climate change is redicted to become a major threat to biodiversity in the cst century, but accurate
redictions and effective solutions have roved difficult to formulate Ãlarming redictions have come
from a rather narrow methodological base, but a new, integrated science of climatechange biodiversity
assessment is emerging, based on multile sources and aroaches rawing on evidence from
aleoecological observations, recent henological and microevolutionary resonses, exeriments, and
comutational models, we review the insights that different aroaches bring to anticiating and
managing the biodiversity conse uences of climate change, including the extent of secies natural
resilience 0e introduce a framework that uses information from different sources to identify
vulnerability and to suort the design of conservation resonses Ãlthough much of the information
reviewed is on secies, our framework and conclusions are also alicable to ecosystems, habitats,
ecological communities, and genetic diversity, whether terrestrial, marine, or fresh water

arwani,Ãnita and Ãsit ºazumder cc   '‘$ 


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 0ater and à uatic ciences


9esearch rogram, eartment of xiology, niversity of Dictoria,  xox , tation CC, Dictoria, xritish
Columbia D 0§  Canada]

he effect of secies diversity on ecosystem function is commonly studied within a single trohic level,
but less is known about how resource diversity affects secies interactions between trohic levels 0e
conducted a grazing exeriment to determine how resource secies diversity affects rates of consumtion
by three secies of freshwater zoolankton consumers 0e measured the effect of resource diversity on
rates of consumtion for several resource community comositions hese comositions varied in terms
of alatability for the consumers he effect of resource diversity on consumtion rates deended on the
diet breadth of the consumer secies from secialist to generalist and the community comosition of
resources verall, high resource diversity commonly caused a decline in consumtion rates of
consumers he most selective grazer showed reduced consumtion for nearly all community
comositions, whereas the most generalist grazer showed accelerated consumtion when all resource
secies were alatable ur results demonstrate that resource secies diversity can modulate rates of
consumtion through the action of multile different mechanisms


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0P      art  eartment of xiology,
ºcŒill niversity, ºontreal, uebec, Canada Ñ Ã cxc, ºcŒill chool of nvironment, ºcŒill niversity, ºontreal,
uebec, Canada Ñ Ã Ã, eartment of xiology, ork niversity, oronto, ntario, Canada º  c ]

redicting establishment of exotic secies is a central goal of invasion biology, and is deendent uon
roagule ressure and oulation rocesses 0e introduced invading siny water fleas, 

 
  ! at different roagule ressures into c exerimental enclosures, following oulations over
asexual generations, resting egg roduction, and emergence in the following year 0e integrated
exerimental results with field data to generate a stochastic oulation model, redicting establishment
in relation to roagule ressure and introduction date ur results suggested that Ãllee effects are
oerational at higher densities or smaller volumes than reviously redicted, that stochasticity lays an
imortant role in establishment, and demograhic stochasticity may be correlated between individuals
^urther, our novel theoretical derivations suggest that organisms should modify their sex ratios to reduce
Ãllee effects he functional form using adative sexratios was consistent with both mesocosm and field
data esite the occurrence of Ãllee effects and stochasticity, there was still no date during the growing
season where we redict lakes to be entirely safe from 

 invasions à single roagule had
aroximately a c establishment robability in our mesocosms, if introduced early in the season!
roagule ressures of c had $  robability, regardless of introduction date

Corbin,effrey  and Carla º 'Ãntonio cc ,$‘‘$ % '‘   ‘ %‘$
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oil nitrogen  transformations have been shown to be influenced by lant community comosition
¬dentifying secies traits that control nitrogen dynamics is more straightforward when secies
dramatically differ in  inut via litter eg, fixing invaders in a nonfixing community or in litter
carbon or lignin ratios Cases where invaders and residents are more similar for such traits are more
challenging to evaluate ¬n these settings, a secies' relative abundance and its contribution to overall
ecosystem roductivity are likely to contribute significantly to the develoment of effects on  availability
and cycling
0e comared soil  dynamics in exerimental grassland communities dominated by native erennial
grasses , exotic annual grasses  Ã, and exotic erennial grasses  , as well as mixtures of the
native erennial grasses with each exotic grass grou  % Ã and  %  hese grous differ from
each other in subtle ways in traits likely to influence soil  cycling including annual roductivity, allocation
to roots versus shoots, litter roduction, litter chemistry, and degree of summertime activity 0e found
that ecosystem  dynamics were significantly different between the various secies grous with the
greatest differences occurring between à lots and other community tyes soils in à lots had
significantly lower rates of net  mineralization, net nitrification, and microbial biomass comared to
either  or  % Ã lots, and lower extractable nitrate in the sring comared to either  or  lots
he higher the roortion of roductivity in a lot that derived from exotic secies, articularly exotic

c
annual secies, the lower were the measured rates of net  mineralization tewise regression analysis
showed that vegetation roductivity was the best redictor of  cycling metrics the higher the
roductivity, the higher the rates of net mineralization and nitrification, and microbial biomass
0e conclude that secies' abundance and roductivity were strong controlling factors in the develoment
of differences in ecosystem  dynamics between our exerimental treatments ¬nclusion of relative
roortion of roductivity contributed by community members in models of the develoment of secies
effects will likely aid in redicting when and where invasive secies will alter ecosystem  dynamics

0arren,9obert  ¬¬, Dolker xahn, imothy  ramer, aya ang, and ºark à xradford cc * $‘‘
$ ‘‘‘2 $‘ %‘$

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P     art c
 chool of ^orestry
and nvironmental tudies, ale niversity, ew Ñaven, Connecticut cc Ã, eartment of xiological
ciences, 0right tate niversity, ayton, hio

 Ã ]

0idesread colonization by invasive secies often obscures their underlying niche re uirements à robust
inference into habitat re uirements demands direct measures of invasive secies erformance linked
with associated environmental conditions ¬n the context of general ecological theory, we investigated the
niche re uirements of & 
! !, an invasive grass in the  that overruns native
vegetation in forest understories 0e examined & !'s erformance and reroduction as a
function of environmental drivers across forested and unforested habitats along a ckm regional and
climatic gradient in the southeastern  from the southern Ãalachian ºountains to the Œeorgia
iedmont 0e then measured & ! erformance and reroduction in resonse to direct
environmental drivers diffuse light, litter cover, soil moisture, herbaceous cover, soil Ñ, clay content and
temerature in aired invaded and uninvaded lots •astly, we exerimentally investigated recruitment
in the context of exerimental and natural disturbances 0e find that all habitats are not e ually suitable
for & !&even those within which it occurs&and that the environmental conditions associated
with roadsides and waterways are most suitable for & ! ersistence and sread & 
!
 !'s soil moisture, light and leaf litter re uirements may delineate the boundaries of suitable
habitat for the exotic invader ignificant decreases in & ! recruitment, erformance and
reroduction along these environmental gradients suggest its otential niche limitations evertheless,
we also find significant disersal limits on & ! oulations not subject to consicuous overland
water flow 0e discuss our findings in the context of sread, imact and management of invasive secies

andel, x,  Corbin, and º rua cc 


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P     art   eartment of ¬ntegrative xiology, niversity of California,
xerkeley, xerkeley, California
!eartment of xiological ciences, nion College, chenectady, ew ork
c  ! eartment of •and, Ãir, and 0ater 9esources, niversity of California, avis, avis, California c]

9estoration ecology can benefit greatly from develoments in traitbased ecology that enable imroved
redictions of how the comosition of lant communities will resond to changes in environmental
conditions lant functional traits can be used to guide the restoration of degraded habitats by closely
tailoring treatments to the local secies ool 0e tested this aroach in two heavily invaded coastal
California grasslands 0e asked whether native lant abundance and lant community trait comosition
resond to c exerimental soil fertility reduction in the form of twiceyearly carbon C amendments and
 disturbance in the form of mowing 0e measured height, secific leaf area, leaf thickness and leaf
density from individuals of secies in the control and C addition lots, and sulemented these trait
values with database information on growth form, lifesan, nitrogenfixing ability and seed mass ‘
Consistent with theoretical redictions, C addition favored short, largeseeded and nitrogenfixing secies,
while mowing benefitted short secies with high secific leaf area Ñowever, native and exotic secies did
not differ in any of the measured traits, and neither grou benefitted generally from the treatments
Carbon addition led to large intrasecific trait shifts, with individuals in C addition lots having smaller,
denser leaves and shorter stature ecies' trait lasticity, however, was not related to the community
comosition resonse to C addition ‘ ur study indicates that traitbased ecology is sufficiently mature

cc
to rovide useful redictions in the realm of restoration ecology rait screening at a site can hel redict
the success of a articular restoration measure in that community

ulhanek, tefanie Ã, Ãnthony 9icciardi, and xrian •eung cc ¬


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xiology, ºcŒill niversity, ºontreal, uebec Ñ Ã§cxc Canada]

ulhanek, tefanie Ã, xrian •eung, and Ãnthony 9icciardi cc 


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he sread of emerging infectious diseases  ¬s in natural environments oses substantial risks to
biodiversity and ecosystem function Ãs ¬s and their imacts grow, landscae to regionalscale models
of disease dynamics are increasingly needed for uantitative rediction of eidemic outcomes and design
of racticable strategies for control Ñere we use satiotemoral, stochastic eidemiological modeling in
combination with realistic geograhical modeling to redict the sread of the sudden oak death athogen
,

   ! through heterogeneous host oulations in wildland forests, subject to
fluctuating weather conditions he model considers three stochastic rocesses c the roduction of
inoculum at a given site!  the chance that inoculum is disersed within and among sites! and   the
robability of infection following transmission to suscetible host vegetation 0e arameterized the
model using ºarkov chain ºonte Carlo ºCºC estimation from snashots of local and regionalscale
data on disease sread, taking account of landscae heterogeneity and the rincial scales of sread ur
alication of the model to Californian landscaes over a
year eriod c " , since the
aroximate time of athogen introduction, revealed key arameters driving the satial sread of disease
and the magnitude of stochastic variability in eidemic outcomes 9esults show that most disease sread
occurs via local disersal ' m but infre uent longdistance disersal events can substantially
accelerate eidemic sread in regions with high host availability and suitable weather conditions ¬n the
absence of extensive control, we redict a tenfold increase in disease sread between c and  
with most infection concentrated along the north coast between an ^rancisco and regon •ongrange
disersal of inoculum to suscetible host communities in the ierra evada foothills and coastal southern
California leads to little secondary infection due to lower host availability and less suitable weather
conditions Ñowever, a shift to wetter and milder conditions in future years would double the amount of
disease sread in California through   his research illustrates how stochastic eidemiological models
can be alied to realistic geograhies and used to increase redictive understanding of disease dynamics
in large, heterogeneous regions

c
este, ^rançois , Dictor  •ieffers, and imon º •andhäusser cc Ê‘
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  c cc eartment of 9enewable
9esources, niversity of Ãlberta, dmonton, Ãlberta Œ§Ñc Canada]
here are concerns that largescale stand mortality due to mountain ine beetle ºx could greatly
reduce natural regeneration of serotinous 9ocky ºountain 9º lodgeole ine , !  

 var

# because the closed cones are held in lace without the fire cue for cone oening 0e selected 
stands five stands each of live control], years since ºx yrºx],  years since ºx yrºx], and
years since ºx yrºx] mortality in north central xritish Columbia, Canada he goal was to
determine artial loss of serotiny due to fall of crownstored cones via breakage of branches and in situ
oening of canoy cones throughout the  and  growing seasons 0e also uantified seed release
by the oening of forestfloor cones, loss of seed from rodent redation, and cone burial rees killed by
ºx three years earlier droed  times more cones via branch breakage comared to live stands
Ãfter six years, ºxkilled stands had released
 of their canoy seed bank through cone oening,
cone fall due to breakage, and s uirrel redation ^urther losses of canoy seed banks are exected with
time since we found yrºx stands had  more oen canoy cones his was countered by the
develoment of a modest forestfloor seed bank  of the original canoy seed bank from burial of
cones! this seed bank may be ecologically imortant if a fire or anthroogenic disturbance reexoses
these cones ¬f ade uate levels of regeneration are to occur, disturbances to create seedbeds must occur
shortly after tree mortality, before the seed banks are lost ur findings also suggest that the sustained
seed rain over at least nine years after ºx outbreak may be beneficial for oulation growth of
groundforaging vertebrates ur study adds insight to the seed ecology of serotinous ines under a
otentially continentalwide insect outbreak, threatening vast forests adated to regeneration after fire

xrinkerhoff+‘9 ory, Corrine º ^olsom'eefe, imberly sao, and ºaria à iuk0asser cc‘#‘ 
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•and managers and ark scientists examine the comlex scientific and social issues surrounding the how,
when, and where of brucellosis transmission

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$P     art c xiology and 0ildlife eartment, niversity of Ãlaska, ^airbanks, Ãlaska 
Ã, nvironmental ciences and Œeograhy rogram, niversity of Ãlaska outheast, uneau, Ãlaska c Ã]

he roadeffect zone is the area in which ecological effects extend outward from a road isersed off
highway vehicle ÑD! eg, fourwheelers and snowmachines activity on rural road networks creates a
disturbance that reduces the effective amount of wildlife habitat and therefore has the otential for an
extensive roadeffect zone Conse uently, land managers must consider the tradeoffs between rural road
develoment and the conservation of habitat for secies of concern 0e conducted a satiallyexlicit
study of moose,     , occurrence in relation to rural roads and ÑD routes in rural Ãlaska, Ã
0e used logistic regression and ìC model selection criterion to develo resource selection functions
9^s for male and female moose at three satial scales  m,  m, and c m in two seasons
summer and fall o evaluate an ecological disturbance threshold from increasing route activity on the
robability of animal occurrence, the 9^s were lotted against an index of route activity derived from
interviews with ÑD users, and fit with logarithmic functions he variable for route activity imroved the

c
fit of 9^ models for both sexes at all satial scales and in both seasons à negative relationshi was found
between moose occurrence and routes or areas in which routes were in close roximity to rimary
forage, with the excetion of male moose at the cm scale in the fall herefore, among the satial
scales of analysis, the roadeffect zone for male moose was determined to be between  m and c

m, and $c m for female moose ^urthermore, route activity ' km of vehicle travel/km /day was a
threshold value at which moose sustained a high robability of occurrence  to  c he results of
our study suggest that the disersed ecological effect of rural roads and ÑD routes should be considered
in transortation and landmanagement lanning efforts 9elatively low levels of vehicular activity may
create extensive roadeffect zones for sensitive secies

ociolek, ÃD, Ã Clevenger, et al cc $


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^orest ervice, uébec, C ŒcD§
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^inn C illsbury, ames 9 ºiller, iane º ebinski, avid º ngle cc Ãnother tool in the toolbox? sing fire
and grazing to romote bird diversity in highly fragmented landscaes P    

ames ^ aracco, 9odney x iegel, and 9obert • 0ilkerson cc /$$$'‘  ‘‘!$)$‘
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he xlackbacked 0oodecker ,  
 !  has been designated by the à ^orest ervice as a
management indicator secies for snags in burned conifer forests of the ierra evada of California, Ã
Ñowever, little is known about the characteristics that affect betweenfire and withinfire habitat
selection by the secies in the region Ñere we reort on the first broadscale survey of xlackbacked
0oodeckers on wildfireaffected forests of the ierra evada 0e imlemented a xayesian hierarchical
model to c estimate xlackbacked 0oodecker occuancy robability in fire areas burned within a time
window of c"c years!  identify relationshis between occuancy robability and habitat covariates fire
age, change in canoy cover retoost fire, and snag basal area, elevation, and latitude! and  estimate
detection robability and relate it to survey interval length and survey tye assive v broadcast 0e
included random firearea effects in our model of occuancy robability to accommodate clusters of non
indeendent oints surveyed within the larger set of fire areas ºean occuancy robability was
estimated to be   levation after controlling for latitude had the strongest effect on occuancy
robability higher occuancy at higher elevation followed by latitude higher occuancy at northerly
sites ^ire age was also imortant! occuancy robability was about
( higher on the youngest comared
to oldest fires Ãlthough the direction of regression coefficients were in the exected direction ositive,
snag basal area and canoy cover change were of minor imortance in affecting occuancy robability
here was some indication, however, that the imortance of snag basal area increased with fire age
0eak links between occuancy and canoy cover change suggested the secies uses a range of burn

severities, and such heterogeneity may romote habitat longevity ur estimate of overall detection
robability across all survey intervals was  0e found strong effects of survey interval length
higher for longer interval and, esecially survey tye higher for broadcast survey on detection
robability ur modeling framework and imlementation illustrates the flexibility of the xayesian
hierarchical aroach for handling comlexities such as estimating derived arameters and variances
and modeling random effects, and should rove generally useful for occuancy studies

^ranco xiondi, •eia  amieson, cotty trachan, and ason ibold, cc #$ $‘ 
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Œeograhy, º c
, niversity of evada, 9eno, evada ! nvironmental ciences Œraduate rogram,
niversity of evada, 9eno, evada ! eartment of Ãnthroology, Colorado tate niversity, ^ort Collins,
Colorado  ]

¬n the Œreat xasin region of western orth Ãmerica, records of ast climate and wildfire variability are
needed not only for fire use, but also for understanding the mechanisms behind the centurylong
exansion of iñonjunier woodlands he ºt ¬rish area •incoln County, southeastern evada is a
remote mountain ecosystem on the hydrograhic boundary between the Œreat xasin and the Colorado
9iver xasin onscarred onderosa ines , !     C •awson var ! ! ngelm and
singleneedle inyons , !   orr  ^rém were used to develo a treering reconstruction
of drought mean ¬ for ºay"uly from D Climate ivision  from c  to   Ã hyothetical fire
regime was obtained from the ¬ reconstruction and from exlicitly assumed relationshis between
climate and wildfire occurrence à census of firescarred trees was then samled at the study area, and
crossdated firescar records were used to generate the fire history, indeendently of the reexisting
yroclimatic model ut of  collected firescar wood sections, c  could be crossdated about 
from onderosa ines, covered the eriod from cc
 to , and contained
 fire scars,  of which
could be dated to a single year umerical summaries were comuted for the eriod c", when
recorder trees ranged from c to c , using a total of  fire scars on c sections  to c , the time
of uroÃmerican settlement, fires that scarred at least two trees were very fre uent minimum fire
interval c year, mean
, median , 0eibull median , maximum c , while fires that scarred at least
c of the recorder trees were relatively rare minimum fire interval
 years, mean , median ,
0eibull median  , maximum c  ^ire fre uency remained high during the c "c
 eriod, when
fire was reduced or absent in other areas of the western nited tates xoth the exected͟ and the
observed͟ fire history showed lower fire fre uency after uroÃmerican settlement, which most likely
dislaced ative eole and any deliberate use of fire, but did not introduce ublicly organized
suression in the area herefore, less favorable climatic conditions, not ostsettlement fire
management, were resonsible for reduced wildfire occurrence in the modern era

Ãkira  ºori cc   $‘%   '‘ 


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‘P    c Œraduate chool of nvironment and ¬nformation ciences, okohama
ational niversity,   okiwadai, Ñodogaya, okohama, anagawa 
 c, aan]

rought occurrence and wildfire activity in subaline forests in ootenay ational ark  of the
Canadian 9ockies are studied by focusing on the interannual and multidecadal variations in climate
atterns of the acific cean he uestion addressed is whether broadscale climate atterns can
regulate both large fire occurrence and firefree eriods causing fuel buildus his study comared years
of large wildfire outbreaks for the subaline forests of  during the last three centuries using indices of
climate atterns of the acific ecadal scillation  and l iñoouthern scillation   
and  were correlated with drought and fire occurrence in  Ã ositive "ositive 
combination created extreme drought conducive to crown fires, indicating that the occurrence of high
severity wildfires in these generally moist/cool forests is strongly determined by climatic anomalies •arge
fire activity is chiefly modulated by  comared to , because a negative  hase greatly
decreased fire activity in the midtwentieth century Ãlthough this firefree eriod is seemingly matched
with a firesuression eriod, it may be attributable to a negative , which increased reciitation in

c
the region his midcentury fire ga contributed to the accumulation of old forests serving as loaded
fuels within the landscae and ultimately led to occurrences of crown fires as the  shifted to the
ositive hase hus, in addition to the fundamental imortance of interannual variations in the acific
that initiates a currentyear severe drought, multidecadal scale climate variability also influences the
extent and severity of subse uent fires by modulating refire landscae conditions ^or fire management
in subaline areas of the 9ockies, although drought occurrence is a rimary concern and there are still
uncertainties in the detailed changes in fire risk through the successional rocess, it is worth aying
attention to fuelloads of older forests in the landscae, which may lead to extensive large fires xecause
the climatic teleconnection attern is one of the main drivers of crown fire occurrence in the region in
terms of creating current summer drought, and also for constructing a landscae structure rone to larger
fires, more of a focus on short to longterm variations in the climate for wildfire management is needed in
highelevation forested landscaes

aul 9 Œagnon, Ñeather à assmore, 0illiam  latt, onathan à ºyers, C  imothy aine, and yle  Ñarms
cc oes yrogenicity rotect burning lants? P c

ason  ^ield, avid  xreshears, effrey  0hicker, and Chris x #ou cc‘¬ $ %‘$
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  c   chool of atural 9esources and the nvironment, niversity of Ãrizona, ucson,
Ãrizona c! eartment of cology and volutionary xiology, niversity of Ãrizona, ucson, Ãrizona c!
nvironmental rograms, •os Ãlamos ational •aboratory, •os Ãlamos, ew ºexico 
! eartment of atural
9esource cology and ºanagement, klahoma tate niversity, tillwater, klahoma 
 ]

9angelands are globally extensive, rovide fundamental ecosystem services, and are tightly couled
human"ecological systems 9angeland sustainability deends largely on the imlementation and
utilization of various grazing and burning ractices otimized to rotect against soil erosion and transort
¬n many cases, however, land management ractices lead to increased soil erosion and sediment fluxes
for reasons that are oorly understood xecause few studies have directly measured both wind and water
erosion and transort, an assessment of how they may differentially resond to grazing and burning
ractices is lacking Ñere, we reort simultaneous, colocated estimates of wind and waterdriven
sediment transort in a semiarid grassland in Ãrizona, Ã, over three years for four land management
treatments control, grazed, burned, and burned % grazed ^or all treatments and most years, annual rates
of winddriven sediment transort exceeded that of water due to a combination of ongoing small but
nontrivial wind events and larger, less fre uent, wind events that generally receded the monsoon
season ediment fluxes by both wind and water differed consistently by treatment burned % grazed $
burned grazed ) control, with effects immediately aarent after burning but delayed after grazing until
the following growing season otably, the wind©§water sediment transort ratio decreased following
burning but increased following grazing ur results show how rangeland ractices disroortionally alter
sediment fluxes driven by wind and water, differences that could otentially hel exlain divergence
between rangeland sustainability and degradation

ohanna  ^reeman and •eda  obziar cc $ ‘


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% '‘ P  &    c c
 chool of ^orest 9esources and
Conservation, niversity of ^lorida,  ewins#eigler Ñall, Œainesville, ^lorida cc Ã]

¬n order to develo management strategies that maintain native biodiversity in lant communities
adated to highseverity fire, an understanding of natural ostfire succession in the target ecosystem is
essential etailed information on fire effects is lacking for the sand ine , !  !  Cham ex
ngelm] Dasey ex arg scrub of the southeastern nited tates, limiting our ability to decide how and
when to aly rescribed fire in this ecosystem 0e studied the effects of fireseverity heterogeneity on
sand ine scrub following a
ha wildfire in ^lorida's unier rairie 0ilderness Ãrea à 0e
identified four levels of fire severity unburned, low, moderate, and high and three reburn stand
conditions saling, mature, and senescent tudy lots were established in each severity"standclass

c
combination, and were samled at one and two years following fire onmetric multidimensional scaling
º ordination was alied in order to identify differences in community comosition and successional
trajectories in each of the standclass"fireseverity combinations º analyses indicated a shift in
dominance between the dominant understory oak secies, from ù! ! 
# 0illd to ù! ! 
 
 mall, as sand ine basal area increases ur ordination and regression results showed that ù

# was the most aggressive colonizer of ostfire oen sace, which is an imortant structural and
habitat comonent of a sand ine scrub uccessional trajectories were heavily influenced by ù! ! 

# 0illd and were more uniform in the mature class than in the senescent class, robably due to
more consistent overstory basal area ¬n both mature and saling stands, herbaceous secies cover was
highest in moderateseverity lots 0oodydebris load varied significantly with stand age, fire severity
level, and time and ine seedling recruitment was highest in mature stands burned at high severity,
while saling and senescent stands exhibited much lower sand ine seedling recruitment rates at all levels
of fire severity he observed differences in seedling recruitment are exected to influence the
rogressive develoment of vertical structure and comosition in the sand ine forest, leading to
community differences that will ersist and influence the effects of subse uent disturbances

ºeg à rawchuk and teve Œ Cumming cc $


‘‘  $‘$‘‘%
‘   ‘‘‘

‘ ‘$ % '‘‘$  ‘$‘P   
 cc cc  eartment of nvironmental
cience, olicy, and ºanagement, c  ºulford Ñall, ºC number cc
, niversity of California, xerkeley, California

! éartement des ciences du xois et de la ^orêt, ^aculté de ^oresterie et de Œéomati ue, avillon Ãbitibi
rice, xureau c
Ã, niversité •aval, uébec City, uébec Œc§
Canada]

redictions of future fire activity over Canada's boreal forests have rimarily been generated from climate
data following assumtions that direct effects of weather will stand alone in contributing to changes in
burning Ñowever, this assumtion needs exlicit testing ^irst, areas recently burned can be less likely to
burn again in the near term, and this endogenous regulation suggests the otential for selflimiting,
negative biotic feedback to regional climatedriven increases in fire econd, forest harvest is ongoing, and
resulting changes in vegetation structure have been shown to affect fire activity Conse uently, we tested
the assumtion that fire activity will be driven by changes in fire weather without regulation by biotic
feedback or regional harvestdriven changes in vegetation structure in the mixedwood boreal forest of
Ãlberta, Canada, using a simulation exeriment that includes the interaction of fire, stand dynamics,
climate change, and clear cut harvest management
0e found that climate change rojected with fire weather indices calculated from the Canadian 9egional
Climate ºodel increased fire activity, as exected, and our simulations established evidence that the
magnitude of regional increase in fire was sufficient to generate negative feedback to subse uent fire
activity 0e illustrate a  c fold increase in fire initiation and
 c
fold increase in area
burned when climate and stand dynamics were included in simulations, yet
 c
fold and c
ccfold increases, resectively, when climate was considered alone hus, although biotic feedbacks
reduced burned area estimates in imortant ways, they were secondary to the direct effect of climate on
fire 0e then show that ongoing harvest management in this region changed landscae comosition in a
way that led to reduced fire activity, even in the context of climate change Ãlthough forest harvesting
resulted in decreased regional fire activity when comared to unharvested conditions, forest comosition
and age structure was shifted substantially, illustrating a tradeoff between management goals to
minimize fire and conservation goals to emulate natural disturbance

^onda, 90, xinney,  5  ‘



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aracco, ames ^, 9odney x iegel, and 9obert • 0ilkerson cc/$$$'‘  ‘‘!$)$‘
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0arren,9obert  ¬¬, Dolker xahn, imothy  ramer, aya ang, and ºark à xradford cc * $‘‘
$ ‘‘‘2 $‘ %‘$

‘   ‘
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‘P     c
 chool of ^orestry and
nvironmental tudies, ale niversity, ew Ñaven, Connecticut cc Ã, eartment of xiological ciences,
0right tate niversity, ayton, hio

 Ã ]

0idesread colonization by invasive secies often obscures their underlying niche re uirements à robust
inference into habitat re uirements demands direct measures of invasive secies erformance linked
with associated environmental conditions ¬n the context of general ecological theory, we investigated the
niche re uirements of & 
! !, an invasive grass in the  that overruns native
vegetation in forest understories 0e examined & !'s erformance and reroduction as a
function of environmental drivers across forested and unforested habitats along a ckm regional and
climatic gradient in the southeastern  from the southern Ãalachian ºountains to the Œeorgia
iedmont 0e then measured & ! erformance and reroduction in resonse to direct
environmental drivers diffuse light, litter cover, soil moisture, herbaceous cover, soil Ñ, clay content and
temerature in aired invaded and uninvaded lots •astly, we exerimentally investigated recruitment
in the context of exerimental and natural disturbances 0e find that all habitats are not e ually suitable
for & !&even those within which it occurs&and that the environmental conditions associated
with roadsides and waterways are most suitable for & ! ersistence and sread & 
!
 !'s soil moisture, light and leaf litter re uirements may delineate the boundaries of suitable
habitat for the exotic invader ignificant decreases in & ! recruitment, erformance and
reroduction along these environmental gradients suggest its otential niche limitations evertheless,
we also find significant disersal limits on & ! oulations not subject to consicuous overland
water flow 0e discuss our findings in the context of sread, imact and management of invasive secies

ºeentemeyer,9oss , ik  Cunniffe, Ãlex 9 Cook, oao à  ^ilie, 9ichard  Ñunter, avid º 9izzo, and
Christoher à Œilligan cc    $‘  ‘‘ %
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c
he sread of emerging infectious diseases  ¬s in natural environments oses substantial risks to
biodiversity and ecosystem function Ãs ¬s and their imacts grow, landscae to regionalscale models
of disease dynamics are increasingly needed for uantitative rediction of eidemic outcomes and design
of racticable strategies for control Ñere we use satiotemoral, stochastic eidemiological modeling in
combination with realistic geograhical modeling to redict the sread of the sudden oak death athogen
,

   ! through heterogeneous host oulations in wildland forests, subject to
fluctuating weather conditions he model considers three stochastic rocesses c the roduction of
inoculum at a given site!  the chance that inoculum is disersed within and among sites! and   the
robability of infection following transmission to suscetible host vegetation 0e arameterized the
model using ºarkov chain ºonte Carlo ºCºC estimation from snashots of local and regionalscale
data on disease sread, taking account of landscae heterogeneity and the rincial scales of sread ur
alication of the model to Californian landscaes over a
year eriod c " , since the
aroximate time of athogen introduction, revealed key arameters driving the satial sread of disease
and the magnitude of stochastic variability in eidemic outcomes 9esults show that most disease sread
occurs via local disersal ' m but infre uent longdistance disersal events can substantially
accelerate eidemic sread in regions with high host availability and suitable weather conditions ¬n the
absence of extensive control, we redict a tenfold increase in disease sread between c and  
with most infection concentrated along the north coast between an ^rancisco and regon •ongrange
disersal of inoculum to suscetible host communities in the ierra evada foothills and coastal southern
California leads to little secondary infection due to lower host availability and less suitable weather
conditions Ñowever, a shift to wetter and milder conditions in future years would double the amount of
disease sread in California through   his research illustrates how stochastic eidemiological models
can be alied to realistic geograhies and used to increase redictive understanding of disease dynamics
in large, heterogeneous regions

Deakomma,dayalakshmi, xenoit tnge, and aniel neeshaw cc 



‘‘‘‘
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cc ¬nstitut des ciences de l' nvironnement, niversité du uébec * ºontréal, Case ostale uccursale
Centreville, ºontréal, uebec Ñ C§  Canada]

xiondi, ^ranco, •eia  amieson, cotty trachan, and ason ibold, cc #$ $‘ 
‘‘ ‘
'$  $‘' 

‘ ‘ ‘$ ‘ ‘!
+‘(%+‘Ê,‘P   c art  endro•ab, eartment
of Œeograhy, º c
, niversity of evada, 9eno, evada ! nvironmental ciences Œraduate rogram,
niversity of evada, 9eno, evada ! eartment of Ãnthroology, Colorado tate niversity, ^ort Collins,
Colorado  ]

¬n the Œreat xasin region of western orth Ãmerica, records of ast climate and wildfire variability are
needed not only for fire use, but also for understanding the mechanisms behind the centurylong
exansion of iñonjunier woodlands he ºt ¬rish area •incoln County, southeastern evada is a
remote mountain ecosystem on the hydrograhic boundary between the Œreat xasin and the Colorado
9iver xasin onscarred onderosa ines , !     C •awson var ! ! ngelm and
singleneedle inyons , !   orr  ^rém were used to develo a treering reconstruction
of drought mean ¬ for ºay"uly from D Climate ivision  from c  to   Ã hyothetical fire
regime was obtained from the ¬ reconstruction and from exlicitly assumed relationshis between
climate and wildfire occurrence à census of firescarred trees was then samled at the study area, and
crossdated firescar records were used to generate the fire history, indeendently of the reexisting
yroclimatic model ut of  collected firescar wood sections, c  could be crossdated about 
from onderosa ines, covered the eriod from cc
 to , and contained
 fire scars,  of which
could be dated to a single year umerical summaries were comuted for the eriod c", when
recorder trees ranged from c to c , using a total of  fire scars on c sections  to c , the time
of uroÃmerican settlement, fires that scarred at least two trees were very fre uent minimum fire
interval c year, mean
, median , 0eibull median , maximum c , while fires that scarred at least
c of the recorder trees were relatively rare minimum fire interval
 years, mean , median ,

c
0eibull median  , maximum c  ^ire fre uency remained high during the c "c
 eriod, when
fire was reduced or absent in other areas of the western nited tates xoth the exected͟ and the
observed͟ fire history showed lower fire fre uency after uroÃmerican settlement, which most likely
dislaced ative eole and any deliberate use of fire, but did not introduce ublicly organized
suression in the area herefore, less favorable climatic conditions, not ostsettlement fire
management, were resonsible for reduced wildfire occurrence in the modern era

Ñeath, •inda , ames  mith, Christoher 0 0oodall, avid • Ãzuma, and aren • 0addell cc ‘

$
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+‘ ‘ 

‘‘Ê#,‘^
‘Ê% $‘
 P    c art
 Ã ^orest ervice, orthern 9esearch tation, urham, ew Ñamshire  
! Ã ^orest ervice,
orthern 9esearch tation, t aul, ºinnesota c ! Ã ^orest ervice, acific orthwest 9esearch tation,
ortland, regon ]

he  eartment of Ãgriculture ^orest ervice ^ manages onefifth of the area of forestland in
the nited tates he ^orest ervice 9oadma for resonding to climate change identified assessing and
managing carbon stocks and change as a major element of its lan his study resents methods and
results of estimating current forest carbon stocks and change in the nited tates for ublic and rivate
owners, consistent with the official c  greenhouse gas inventory, but with imroved data sources
for three states 9esults are resented by ational ^orest ystem region, a major organizational
management unit within the ^orest ervice, and by individual national forest ^ forestland in the
nited tates is estimated to contain an average of c  ºg C/ha megagrams carbon er hectare on 

million ha, for a total of cc,


g C teragrams C in the year  rivatelyowned forestland averages
c ºg C/ha on c  million ha, with forestland of other ublic owners averaging c ºg C/ha on
c
million ha ¬n terms of change, rivate and ^ ownershis each se uester about a net c g C/yr,
but an additional  g C/yr is stored in roducts from rivate harvests comared to about g C/yr
from harvest on ^ land missions from other disturbances such as fires, as well as corresonding area
estimates of disturbance are also imortant, but the needed datasets are not yet available
9ecommendations are given for imroving the estimates

ºori, Ãkira cc   $‘%   '‘ 


‘ ‘$$$‘‘2  ‘‘‘ 
‘ ‘ ‘
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‘
‘ ‘ ‘$ 
P    c art  Œraduate chool of nvironment and ¬nformation ciences,
okohama ational niversity,   okiwadai, Ñodogaya, okohama, anagawa 
 c, aan]

9awchuk, ºeg à  and teve Œ Cumming cc $


‘‘  $‘$‘‘%
‘   ‘‘‘

‘ ‘$ % '‘‘$  ‘$P   
 cc cc  eartment of nvironmental
cience, olicy, and ºanagement, c  ºulford Ñall, ºC number cc
, niversity of California, xerkeley, California

! éartement des ciences du xois et de la ^orêt, ^aculté de ^oresterie et de Œéomati ue, avillon Ãbitibi
rice, xureau c
Ã, niversité •aval, uébec City, uébec Œc§
Canada]

redictions of future fire activity over Canada's boreal forests have rimarily been generated from climate
data following assumtions that direct effects of weather will stand alone in contributing to changes in
burning Ñowever, this assumtion needs exlicit testing ^irst, areas recently burned can be less likely to
burn again in the near term, and this endogenous regulation suggests the otential for selflimiting,
negative biotic feedback to regional climatedriven increases in fire econd, forest harvest is ongoing, and
resulting changes in vegetation structure have been shown to affect fire activity Conse uently, we tested
the assumtion that fire activity will be driven by changes in fire weather without regulation by biotic
feedback or regional harvestdriven changes in vegetation structure in the mixedwood boreal forest of
Ãlberta, Canada, using a simulation exeriment that includes the interaction of fire, stand dynamics,
climate change, and clear cut harvest management
0e found that climate change rojected with fire weather indices calculated from the Canadian 9egional
Climate ºodel increased fire activity, as exected, and our simulations established evidence that the
magnitude of regional increase in fire was sufficient to generate negative feedback to subse uent fire
activity 0e illustrate a  c fold increase in fire initiation and
 c
fold increase in area


burned when climate and stand dynamics were included in simulations, yet
 c
fold and c
ccfold increases, resectively, when climate was considered alone hus, although biotic feedbacks
reduced burned area estimates in imortant ways, they were secondary to the direct effect of climate on
fire 0e then show that ongoing harvest management in this region changed landscae comosition in a
way that led to reduced fire activity, even in the context of climate change Ãlthough forest harvesting
resulted in decreased regional fire activity when comared to unharvested conditions, forest comosition
and age structure was shifted substantially, illustrating a tradeoff between management goals to
minimize fire and conservation goals to emulate natural disturbance

este, ^rançois , Dictor  •ieffers, and imon º •andhäusser cc Ê‘
‘ ‘
 
‘‘ ‘


‘ ‘   ‘ ‘ ‘ P   
 cc cc eartment of 9enewable
9esources, niversity of Ãlberta, dmonton, Ãlberta Œ§Ñc Canada]

here are concerns that largescale stand mortality due to mountain ine beetle ºx could greatly
reduce natural regeneration of serotinous 9ocky ºountain 9º lodgeole ine , !  

 var

# because the closed cones are held in lace without the fire cue for cone oening 0e selected 
stands five stands each of live control], years since ºx yrºx],  years since ºx yrºx], and
years since ºx yrºx] mortality in north central xritish Columbia, Canada he goal was to
determine artial loss of serotiny due to fall of crownstored cones via breakage of branches and in situ
oening of canoy cones throughout the  and  growing seasons 0e also uantified seed release
by the oening of forestfloor cones, loss of seed from rodent redation, and cone burial rees killed by
ºx three years earlier droed  times more cones via branch breakage comared to live stands
Ãfter six years, ºxkilled stands had released
 of their canoy seed bank through cone oening,
cone fall due to breakage, and s uirrel redation ^urther losses of canoy seed banks are exected with
time since we found yrºx stands had  more oen canoy cones his was countered by the
develoment of a modest forestfloor seed bank  of the original canoy seed bank from burial of
cones! this seed bank may be ecologically imortant if a fire or anthroogenic disturbance reexoses
these cones ¬f ade uate levels of regeneration are to occur, disturbances to create seedbeds must occur
shortly after tree mortality, before the seed banks are lost ur findings also suggest that the sustained
seed rain over at least nine years after ºx outbreak may be beneficial for oulation growth of
groundforaging vertebrates ur study adds insight to the seed ecology of serotinous ines under a
otentially continentalwide insect outbreak, threatening vast forests adated to regeneration after fire

ike, avid Ã, onathan  0ebb, and 9ichard hine‘cc % ‘


‘$'‘$%‘

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 cc 
  chool of xiological ciences à , niversity of ydney, 0
 Ãustralia]

wanson, ºark , erry ^ ^ranklin, 9obert • xeschta, Charles º Crisafulli, ominick à ellaala, 9ichard • Ñutto,
avid x •indenmayer, and ^rederick  wansoncc ‘ ‘
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arlysuccessional forest ecosystems that develo after standrelacing or artial disturbances are diverse
in secies, rocesses, and structure ostdisturbance ecosystems are also often rich in biological legacies,
including surviving organisms and organically derived structures, such as woody debris hese legacies and
ostdisturbance lant communities rovide resources that attract and sustain high secies diversity,
including numerous earlysuccessional obligates, such as certain woodeckers and arthroods arly
succession is the only eriod when tree canoies do not dominate the forest site, and so this stage can be
characterized by high roductivity of lant secies including herbs and shrubs, comlex food webs, large
nutrient fluxes, and high structural and satial comlexity ifferent disturbances contrast markedly in
terms of biological legacies, and this will influence the resultant hysical and biological conditions, thus
affecting successional athways ºanagement activities, such as ostdisturbance logging and dense tree
lanting, can reduce the richness within and the duration of earlysuccessional ecosystems 0here

c
maintenance of biodiversity is an objective, the imortance and value of these natural earlysuccessional
ecosystems are underareciated

Ãnderson, 9ay Œ, ose Œ Canadell, ames  9anderson, 9obert x ackson, xruce à Ñungate, ennis  xaldocchi,
Œeorge à xan0eiss, Œordon x xonan, en Caldeira, •ong Cao, oah  iffenbaugh, evin 9 Œurney, •ara º
ueers, xeverly •aw, ebastiaan •uyssaert, and homas • 'Ñalloran! '
$‘$
 
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'‘‘
$  ‘ $ ‘^ 
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c 

^orestry " including afforestation the lanting of trees on land where they have not recently existed,
reforestation, avoided deforestation, and forest management " can lead to increased se uestration of
atmosheric carbon dioxide and has therefore been roosed as a strategy to mitigate climate change
Ñowever, forestry also influences landsurface roerties, including albedo the fraction of incident
sunlight reflected back to sace, surface roughness, and evaotransiration, all of which affect the
amount and forms of energy transfer to the atmoshere ¬n some circumstances, these biohysical
feedbacks can result in local climate warming, thereby counteracting the effects of carbon se uestration
on global mean temerature and reducing or eliminating the net value of climatechange mitigation
rojects Ñere, we review ublished and emerging research that suggests ways in which forestry rojects
can counteract the conse uences associated with biohysical interactions, and highlight knowledge gas
in managing forests for climate rotection 0e also outline several ways in which biohysical effects can
be incororated into frameworks that use the maintenance of forests as a climate rotection strategy

Œoodwin,arah  and Œregory hriver cc $


‘‘  $‘
‘‘$$$'‘ 
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cc

^onda, 90, xinney,  Degetation 9esonse to rescribed fire in ouglas ^ir forests, lymic ational ark
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Corbin, effrey  and Carla º 'Ãntonio cc ,$‘‘$ % '‘   ‘ %‘$
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0hite,   and 9ick • 0allen cc Ê   (   ‘'$  ‘ 
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andel, x,   Corbin, and º rua cc 


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P       eartment of ¬ntegrative xiology, niversity of California,


xerkeley, xerkeley, California
!eartment of xiological ciences, nion College, chenectady, ew ork
c  ! eartment of •and, Ãir, and 0ater 9esources, niversity of California, avis, avis, California c]

9estoration ecology can benefit greatly from develoments in traitbased ecology that enable imroved
redictions of how the comosition of lant communities will resond to changes in environmental
conditions lant functional traits can be used to guide the restoration of degraded habitats by closely
tailoring treatments to the local secies ool 0e tested this aroach in two heavily invaded coastal
California grasslands 0e asked whether native lant abundance and lant community trait comosition
resond to c exerimental soil fertility reduction in the form of twiceyearly carbon C amendments and
 disturbance in the form of mowing 0e measured height, secific leaf area, leaf thickness and leaf
density from individuals of secies in the control and C addition lots, and sulemented these trait
values with database information on growth form, lifesan, nitrogenfixing ability and seed mass ‘
Consistent with theoretical redictions, C addition favored short, largeseeded and nitrogenfixing secies,
while mowing benefitted short secies with high secific leaf area Ñowever, native and exotic secies did
not differ in any of the measured traits, and neither grou benefitted generally from the treatments
Carbon addition led to large intrasecific trait shifts, with individuals in C addition lots having smaller,
denser leaves and shorter stature ecies' trait lasticity, however, was not related to the community


comosition resonse to C addition ‘ ur study indicates that traitbased ecology is sufficiently mature
to rovide useful redictions in the realm of restoration ecology rait screening at a site can hel redict
the success of a articular restoration measure in that community

^ield, ason,  avid  xreshears, effrey  0hicker, and Chris x #ou cc ¬ $ %‘$
‘‘& ‘‘
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  c   chool of atural 9esources and the nvironment, niversity of Ãrizona, ucson,
Ãrizona c! eartment of cology and volutionary xiology, niversity of Ãrizona, ucson, Ãrizona c!
nvironmental rograms, •os Ãlamos ational •aboratory, •os Ãlamos, ew ºexico 
! eartment of atural
9esource cology and ºanagement, klahoma tate niversity, tillwater, klahoma 
 ]

9angelands are globally extensive, rovide fundamental ecosystem services, and are tightly couled
human"ecological systems 9angeland sustainability deends largely on the imlementation and
utilization of various grazing and burning ractices otimized to rotect against soil erosion and transort
¬n many cases, however, land management ractices lead to increased soil erosion and sediment fluxes
for reasons that are oorly understood xecause few studies have directly measured both wind and water
erosion and transort, an assessment of how they may differentially resond to grazing and burning
ractices is lacking Ñere, we reort simultaneous, colocated estimates of wind and waterdriven
sediment transort in a semiarid grassland in Ãrizona, Ã, over three years for four land management
treatments control, grazed, burned, and burned % grazed ^or all treatments and most years, annual rates
of winddriven sediment transort exceeded that of water due to a combination of ongoing small but
nontrivial wind events and larger, less fre uent, wind events that generally receded the monsoon
season ediment fluxes by both wind and water differed consistently by treatment burned % grazed $
burned grazed ) control, with effects immediately aarent after burning but delayed after grazing until
the following growing season otably, the wind©§water sediment transort ratio decreased following
burning but increased following grazing ur results show how rangeland ractices disroortionally alter
sediment fluxes driven by wind and water, differences that could otentially hel exlain divergence
between rangeland sustainability and degradation

Ê ‘
Corbin, effrey  and Carla º 'Ãntonio cc ,$‘‘$ % '‘   ‘ %‘$
‘‘
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regitzer, urt , onald 9 #ak, Ãlan ^ alhelm, Ãndrew  xurton, and ennifer 9 ikenberry cc ( ‘
%‘ ‘ ‘‘ ‘‘ ‘
‘‘
‘ P c

 College of atural
9esources, niversity of ¬daho, ºoscow, ¬daho

! chool of atural 9esources and nvironment, niversity of


ºichigan, Ãnn Ãrbor, ºichigan
c ! chool of ^orest 9esources and nvironmental cience, ºichigan
echnological niversity, Ñoughton, ºichigan
c Ã]

amschen, llen ¬, usan Ñarrison, and ames x Œrace, cc   ‘$‘$
‘‘‘ $) $‘ $‘
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%' ‘ ‘"‘ -
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‘./+‘Ê,0P c   c  eartment of
xiology, 0ashington niversity, t •ouis, ºissouri  c ! eartment of nvironmental cience and olicy,
niversity of California, avis, California c!  Œeological urvey, ational 0etlands 9esearch Center, 
Cajundome xoulevard, •afayette, •ouisiana ]

ecies with relatively narrow niches, such as lants restricted endemic to articular soils, may be
esecially vulnerable to extinction under a changing climate due to the enhanced difficulty they face in
migrating to suitable new sites o test for communitylevel effects of climate change, and to comare
such effects in a highly endemicrich flora on unroductive serentine soils vs the flora of normal diorite
soils, in  we resamled as closely as ossible c sites originally studied by ecologist 9obert Ñ
0hittaker from c
to c c in the iskiyou ºountains of southern regon, Ã 0e found shar
declines in herb cover and richness on both serentine and diorite soils eclines were strongest in
secies of northern biogeograhic affinity, secies endemic to the region in serentine communities


only, and secies endemic to serentine soils Consistent with climatic warming, herb communities have
shifted from c
c c to  to more closely resemble communities found on xeric warm, dry south
facing sloes he changes found in the iskiyou herb flora suggest that biotas rich in narrowly distributed
endemics may be articularly suscetible to the effects of a warming climate

eay, abir Œ, ºatteo Œarbelotto, and homas  xruns cc % $‘‘

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eartment of nvironmental cience, olicy and ºanagement, niversity of California, xerkeley, California

! eartment of lant and ºicrobial xiology, niversity of California, xerkeley, California
]

Conant, 9ichard , tehen º gle, ldor à aul, and eith austian ccº
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olicies that encourage greenhousegas emitters to mitigate emissions through terrestrial carbon C
offsets " C se uestration in soils or biomass " will romote ractices that reduce erosion and build soil
fertility, while fostering adatation to climate change, agricultural develoment, and rehabilitation of
degraded soils Ñowever, none of these benefits will be ossible until changes in C stocks can be
documented accurately and costeffectively his is articularly challenging when dealing with changes in
soil organic C C stocks recise methods for measuring C in soil samles are well established, but
satial variability in the factors that determine C stocks makes it difficult to document change
0idesread interest in the benefits of C se uestration has brought this issue to the fore in the
develoment of  and international climate olicy Ñere, we review the challenges to documenting
changes in C stocks, how olicy decisions influence offset documentation re uirements, and the
benefits and drawbacks of different samling strategies and extraolation methods

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  c c nvironmental tudies eartment, cc Ñigh treet, niversity of California, anta
Cruz, California 
]

huster, avid •, urt º Cuffey, ohnny 0 anders, and Œreg xalco cc  $  '‘%
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ennedy, homas • and homas ^ urnercc  %‘$ & ‘$


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xiology and ºuseum of outhwestern xiology, niversity of ew ºexico, Ãlbu uer ue, ew ºexico c c Ã]

ºerritt, avid º, Christer ilsson, and 9oland anssonc 


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ational 0atershed, ^ish, 0ildlife, Ãir, and 9are lants,  ^orest ervice, atural 9esource 9esearch Center,
^ort Collins, Colorado ]

Ãufdenkame, Ãnthony , etalcc  % ‘$ ‘‘ $ $‘$'$


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c   troud 0ater 9esearch Center, Ãvondale, Ã!
Ãlied hysics •aboratory, niversity of 0ashington, eattle, 0Ã! xren chool of nvironmental cience and

ºanagement, niversity of California, anta xarbara, CÃ! acific ºarine nvironmental •aboratory, ÃÃ, eattle,
0Ã]

treams, rivers, lakes, and other inland waters are imortant agents in the couling of biogeochemical
cycles between continents, atmoshere, and oceans he deiction of these roles in globalscale
assessments of carbon C and other bioactive elements remains limited, yet recent findings suggest that
C discharged to the oceans is only a fraction of that entering rivers from terrestrial ecosystems via soil
resiration, leaching, chemical weathering, and hysical erosion ºost of this C influx is returned to the
atmoshere from inland waters as carbon dioxide C or buried in sedimentary deosits within
imoundments, lakes, floodlains, and other wetlands Carbon and mineral cycles are couled by both
erosion"deosition rocesses and chemical weathering, with the latter roducing dissolved inorganic C
and carbonate buffering caacity that strongly modulate downstream Ñ, biological roduction of
calciumcarbonate shells, and C outgassing in rivers, estuaries, and coastal zones Ñuman activities
substantially affect all of these rocesses

ºaier, Œ, oft, , imenstad, Cà 5   '‘‘


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almon are distributed around the acific 9im from California to orea, and the carcasses of salmon
returning to their native streams to sawn rovide substantial nutrient inut to the surrounding riverside
vegetation Ñocking and 9eynolds  c  show that these subsidies cause detectable shifts in lant
communities along streams ¬n a largescale study of  watersheds in xritish Columbian rainforests, the
imact of subsidies led to a simlification of lant communities and a shift toward nutrientdemanding
lant secies hus, interactions across ecosystem boundaries can change ecological community structure
and function, which will imact ecosystembased management of salmon and their habitats

^
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almon are distributed around the acific 9im from California to orea, and the carcasses of salmon
returning to their native streams to sawn rovide substantial nutrient inut to the surrounding riverside
vegetation Ñocking and 9eynolds  c  show that these subsidies cause detectable shifts in lant
communities along streams ¬n a largescale study of  watersheds in xritish Columbian rainforests, the
imact of subsidies led to a simlification of lant communities and a shift toward nutrientdemanding
lant secies hus, interactions across ecosystem boundaries can change ecological community structure
and function, which will imact ecosystembased management of salmon and their habitats

Dersoor, an , ouglas C xraun, ºorgan º tubbs, and ohn  9eynolds cc *

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‘P     art c  arthcean
9esearch Œrou, eartment of xiological ciences, imon ^raser niversity, niversity rive, xurnaby,
xritish Columbia Dçc Canada]


ulsed resource subsidies can have ecological effects that ersist over time hese subsidies can be
articularly imortant in a uatic ecosystems, which are often resourcelimited Ãnadromous salmon
â   ! s deliver annual nutrient ulses to many freshwater ecosystems around the orth
acific he ersistent ecological conse uences of this nutrient subsidy are oorly understood across the
range of acific salmon and likely deend on stream habitat, background nutrient dynamics, and the
abundance of sawning salmon sing a model selection aroach, we examined relationshis among
sawning salmon density, stream habitats, and the abundance and diversity of stream invertebrates ten
months after salmon sawning, across c streams in central xritish Columbia, Canada otal invertebrate
abundance increased with salmon density and with higher stream temeratures ¬nvertebrate diversity
was more closely related to stream habitat characteristics than to salmon density hese results suggest
that salmon nutrients have a greater imact on stream invertebrate oulation sizes than on the variety
of taxa that inhabit these streams he three most common invertebrate families&grazing mayflies
Ñetageniidae, redatory stoneflies Chloroerlidae, and chironomid midges Chironomidae&all
increased in abundance with salmon density tream habitat variables temerature, Ñ, and substrate
size also exlained significant variation in the abundances of the three grous hese results suggest that
salmon nutrients retained in the watershed from revious years hel suort greater abundances of
some invertebrate taxa hus the ulsed nutrient subsidy rovided by sawning salmon may have
ecological effects that ersist many months, or even years, after it is delivered

0alters,Ãnnika 0 and avid º ost cc "‘‘$‘'‘‘¬ $


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$‘‘ $‘

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P   
  c c c
 eartment of cology and volutionary xiology, ale
niversity,  xox  c, ew Ñaven, Connecticut  c Ã! resent address ational ºarine ^isheries
ervice, orthwest ^isheries cience Center,  ºontlake xoulevard ast, eattle, 0ashington cc ]

he natural hydrology of streams and rivers is being extensively modified by human activities 0ater
diversion, dam construction, and climate change have the otential to increase the fre uency and
intensity of lowflow events ^low is a dominant force structuring stream a uatic insect communities, but
the imacts of water diversion are oorly understood Ñere we reort results of an exerimental stream
flow diversion designed to test how a uatic insect communities resond to a lowflow disturbance 0e
diverted
 to  of the water in three relicate streams for three summers, leading to summer flow
exceedance robabilities of u to   hifts in habitat availability aeared to be a major driver of
a uatic insect community resonses 9esonses also varied by habitat tye total insect density decreased
in riffle habitats, but there was no change in ool habitats verall, the total biomass of a uatic insects
decreased sharly with lowered flow Collectorfilterers, collectorgatherers, and scraers were esecially
suscetible, while redatory insects were more resistant esite extremely low flow levels, there was no
shift in a uatic insect family richness he exerimental water withdrawal did not increase water
temerature or decrease water uality, and some wetted habitat was always maintained, which likely
revented more severe imacts on a uatic insect communities

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ºadin, lizabeth º,  teven  Œaines, and 9obert 9 0arner cc ^ ‘% $‘‘%
%‘  $ ‘$
‘
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xiology, niversity of California, anta xarbara, California c! eartment of xiological ciences, ºac uarie
niversity, ydney, ew outh 0ales c Ãustralia! ºarine cience ¬nstitute, niversity of California, anta
xarbara, California c! xren chool of nvironmental cience and ºanagement, niversity of California, anta
xarbara, California c Ã]

he indirect, ecosystemlevel conse uences of ocean fishing, and articularly the mechanisms driving
them, are oorly understood ºost studies focus on densitymediated trohic cascades, where removal of
redators alternately causes increases and decreases in abundances of lower trohic levels Ñowever,
cascades could also be driven by where and when rey forage rather than solely by rey abundance ver
a large gradient of fishing intensity in the central acific's remote northern •ine ¬slands, including a nearly
ristine, baseline coral reef system, we found that changes in redation risk elicit strong behavioral


resonses in foraging atterns across multile rey fish secies hese resonses were observed as a
function of both shortterm +acute+ risk and longerterm +chronic+ risk, as well as when rey were
exosed to model redators to isolate the effect of erceived redation risk from other otentially
confounding factors Comared to numerical rey resonses, antiredator behavioral resonses such as
these can otentially have far greater net imacts by occurring over entire assemblages and oerate
over shorter temoral scales with otentially instantaneous resonse times in transmitting todown
effects à rich body of literature exists on both the direct effects of human removal of redators from
ecosystems and redators' effects on rey behavior ur results draw together these lines of research and
rovide the first emirical evidence that largescale human removal of redators from a natural
ecosystem indirectly alters rey behavior hese behavioral changes may, in turn, drive reviously
unsusected alterations in reef food webs

9uss,Œarry 9 and Ãngel C Ãlcala‘cc$‘  %


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c chool of ºarine and roical xiology   Ã9C Centre for
Coral 9eef tudies, ames Cook niversity, ownsville, ueensland
cc Ãustralia! illiman niversity Ãngelo ing
Center for 9esearch and nvironmental ºanagement, illiman niversity, umaguete City, , hiliines]

Ñowarth, 9obert, etalcc ‘ $ $‘$'$


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c c  eartment of cology and
volutionary xiology, Cornell niversity, ¬thaca, ! eartment of #oology, regon tate niversity, Corvallis, 9]

utrient fluxes to coastal areas have risen in recent decades, leading to widesread hyoxia and other
ecological damage, articularly from nitrogen  everal factors make  more limiting in estuaries and
coastal waters than in lakes desortion release of hoshorus  bound to clay as salinity increases,
lack of lanktonic  fixation in most coastal ecosystems, and flux of relatively rich, oor waters from
coastal oceans into estuaries uring eutrohication, biogeochemical feedbacks further increase the
suly of  and , but decrease availability of silica " conditions that can favor the formation and
ersistence of harmful algal blooms Œiven sufficient  inuts, estuaries and coastal marine ecosystems
can be driven to  limitation his switch contributes to greater farfield  ollution! that is, the  moves
further and contributes to eutrohication at greater distances he hysical oceanograhy extent of
stratification, residence time, and so forth of coastal systems determines their sensitivity to hyoxia, and
recent changes in hysics have made some ecosystems more sensitive to hyoxia Coastal hyoxia
contributes to ocean acidification, which harms calcifying organisms such as mollusks and some
crustaceans

^eary, avid Ã, oshua  Cinner, et al cc‘$


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à large fraction of atmosheric aerosols are derived from organic comounds with various volatilities Ã
ational ceanic and Ãtmosheric Ãdministration ÃÃ 0  research aircraft made airborne
measurements of the gaseous and aerosol comosition of air over the eewater Ñorizon 0Ñ oil sill
in the Œulf of ºexico that occurred from Ãril to Ãugust c à narrow lume of hydrocarbons was
observed downwind of 0Ñ that is attributed to the evaoration of fresh oil on the sea surface à much
wider lume with high concentrations of organic aerosol $ micrograms er cubic meter was attributed
to the formation of secondary organic aerosol à from unmeasured, less volatile hydrocarbons that


were emitted from a wider area around 0Ñ hese observations rovide direct and comelling evidence
for the imortance of formation of à from less volatile hydrocarbons

Coe, Ñugh cc ,
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¬n arth's atmoshere, articles smaller than c ,m, known as aerosols, scatter incoming solar radiation
and act as sites for condensation of water during cloud formation Ñuman activities can alter this
oulation of articles, thereby affecting climate and air uality c,  ur inability to accurately redict
the comosition and mass of atmosheric aerosols, however, is inhibiting rogress in both areas
nderstanding the formation of organic aerosols, a large class of submicrometer articles  , has roven
to be a challenge! laboratory exeriments have reviously not been reconciled with field measurements

,  9ecent theoretical frameworks oint to the imortance of semivolatile organic comounds DCs
and organic comounds of intermediate volatility ¬DCs as recursors , , but investigators have
lacked observational evidence n age c  of this issue, de Œouw et al   hel to clarify the role of
DCs and ¬DCs in forming organic aerosols sing airborne measurements taken downwind of the oil
slick resulting from the c eewater Ñorizon 0Ñ accident in the Œulf of ºexico, they reveal that
the oxidation of ¬DCs and DCs in the atmoshere lays a dominant role in forming organic articles

"''‘
onrad, C, et al, cc ‘' $
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 cology, cc  "   eartment of xiology, 0oods Ñole
ceanograhic ¬nstitution, 0oods Ñole, ºassachusetts 
! ^riday Ñarbor •aboratories,  niversity 9oad,
^riday Ñarbor, 0ashington ! eartment of ºolecular Œenetics and Cell xiology, niversity of Chicago,
Chicago, ¬llinois  ]

0alters,Ãnnika 0 and avid º ost‘cc‘"‘‘$‘'‘‘¬ $


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$‘‘ $‘

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  c c c
 eartment of cology and volutionary xiology,
ale niversity,  xox  c, ew Ñaven, Connecticut  c Ã! resent address ational ºarine
^isheries ervice, orthwest ^isheries cience Center,  ºontlake xoulevard ast, eattle, 0ashington cc
 ]

he natural hydrology of streams and rivers is being extensively modified by human activities 0ater
diversion, dam construction, and climate change have the otential to increase the fre uency and
intensity of lowflow events ^low is a dominant force structuring stream a uatic insect communities, but
the imacts of water diversion are oorly understood Ñere we reort results of an exerimental stream
flow diversion designed to test how a uatic insect communities resond to a lowflow disturbance 0e
diverted
 to  of the water in three relicate streams for three summers, leading to summer flow
exceedance robabilities of u to   hifts in habitat availability aeared to be a major driver of
a uatic insect community resonses 9esonses also varied by habitat tye total insect density decreased
in riffle habitats, but there was no change in ool habitats verall, the total biomass of a uatic insects
decreased sharly with lowered flow Collectorfilterers, collectorgatherers, and scraers were esecially
suscetible, while redatory insects were more resistant esite extremely low flow levels, there was no
shift in a uatic insect family richness he exerimental water withdrawal did not increase water
temerature or decrease water uality, and some wetted habitat was always maintained, which likely
revented more severe imacts on a uatic insect communities

‘
^
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ulhanek, tefanie Ã, xrian •eung, and Ãnthony 9icciardi‘cc 
‘$ $‘ $‘ 
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c  eartment of xiology, ºcŒill niversity, ºontreal, uebec Ñ Ã§cxc Canada]

º ‘

Clark, •ora º, tehanx ºunch, imon 9 horrold, and avid  Conover cc " ‘$$ % '‘ ‘$'‘
 ‘ 
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Ãtmosheric ciences, tony xrook niversity, tony xrook, ew ork cc
!xiology eartment, º ,
0oods Ñole ceanograhic ¬nstitution, 0oods Ñole, ºassachusetts 
]

ºadin, lizabeth º ,teven  Œaines, and 9obert 9 0arner cc ^ ‘% $‘‘%
%‘  $ ‘$
‘
‘
 ‘‘'‘ ‘% P c   ceartment of cology, volution, and ºarine
xiology, niversity of California, anta xarbara, California c! eartment of xiological ciences, ºac uarie
niversity, ydney, ew outh 0ales c Ãustralia! ºarine cience ¬nstitute, niversity of California, anta
xarbara, California c! xren chool of nvironmental cience and ºanagement, niversity of California, anta
xarbara, California c Ã]

he indirect, ecosystemlevel conse uences of ocean fishing, and articularly the mechanisms driving
them, are oorly understood ºost studies focus on densitymediated trohic cascades, where removal of
redators alternately causes increases and decreases in abundances of lower trohic levels Ñowever,
cascades could also be driven by where and when rey forage rather than solely by rey abundance ver
a large gradient of fishing intensity in the central acific's remote northern •ine ¬slands, including a nearly
ristine, baseline coral reef system, we found that changes in redation risk elicit strong behavioral
resonses in foraging atterns across multile rey fish secies hese resonses were observed as a
function of both shortterm +acute+ risk and longerterm +chronic+ risk, as well as when rey were
exosed to model redators to isolate the effect of erceived redation risk from other otentially
confounding factors Comared to numerical rey resonses, antiredator behavioral resonses such as
these can otentially have far greater net imacts by occurring over entire assemblages and oerate
over shorter temoral scales with otentially instantaneous resonse times in transmitting todown
effects à rich body of literature exists on both the direct effects of human removal of redators from
ecosystems and redators' effects on rey behavior ur results draw together these lines of research and
rovide the first emirical evidence that largescale human removal of redators from a natural
ecosystem indirectly alters rey behavior hese behavioral changes may, in turn, drive reviously
unsusected alterations in reef food webs

^eary, avid Ã, oshua  Cinner, et al cc $


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 ‘$ $‘$
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P     art c  arthcean
9esearch Œrou, eartment of xiological ciences, imon ^raser niversity, niversity rive, xurnaby,
xritish Columbia Dçc Canada]

ulsed resource subsidies can have ecological effects that ersist over time hese subsidies can be
articularly imortant in a uatic ecosystems, which are often resourcelimited Ãnadromous salmon
â   ! s deliver annual nutrient ulses to many freshwater ecosystems around the orth
acific he ersistent ecological conse uences of this nutrient subsidy are oorly understood across the
range of acific salmon and likely deend on stream habitat, background nutrient dynamics, and the
abundance of sawning salmon sing a model selection aroach, we examined relationshis among
sawning salmon density, stream habitats, and the abundance and diversity of stream invertebrates ten
months after salmon sawning, across c streams in central xritish Columbia, Canada otal invertebrate
abundance increased with salmon density and with higher stream temeratures ¬nvertebrate diversity


was more closely related to stream habitat characteristics than to salmon density hese results suggest
that salmon nutrients have a greater imact on stream invertebrate oulation sizes than on the variety
of taxa that inhabit these streams he three most common invertebrate families&grazing mayflies
Ñetageniidae, redatory stoneflies Chloroerlidae, and chironomid midges Chironomidae&all
increased in abundance with salmon density tream habitat variables temerature, Ñ, and substrate
size also exlained significant variation in the abundances of the three grous hese results suggest that
salmon nutrients retained in the watershed from revious years hel suort greater abundances of
some invertebrate taxa hus the ulsed nutrient subsidy rovided by sawning salmon may have
ecological effects that ersist many months, or even years, after it is delivered

liason, rika , imothy  Clark, ºerran  Ñague, •inda º Ñanson, #oë  Œallagher, en º effries, ºarika 
Œale, avid à atterson, cott Œ Ñinch, and Ãnthony  ^arrell cc # $
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nvironmental conditions encountered during migration shae cardioresiratory hysiology in sockeye
salmon

9osenberger, Ã, unham, x, xuffington, º, 0ifli, º, *



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hanley, Colin  and anjay yare cc % ‘ ‘)$ ‘&‘‘  ‘
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$‘P     art c xiology and 0ildlife eartment, niversity of Ãlaska, ^airbanks, Ãlaska 
Ã, nvironmental ciences and Œeograhy rogram, niversity of Ãlaska outheast, uneau, Ãlaska c Ã]

he roadeffect zone is the area in which ecological effects extend outward from a road isersed off
highway vehicle ÑD! eg, fourwheelers and snowmachines activity on rural road networks creates a
disturbance that reduces the effective amount of wildlife habitat and therefore has the otential for an
extensive roadeffect zone Conse uently, land managers must consider the tradeoffs between rural road
develoment and the conservation of habitat for secies of concern 0e conducted a satiallyexlicit
study of moose,     , occurrence in relation to rural roads and ÑD routes in rural Ãlaska, Ã
0e used logistic regression and ìC model selection criterion to develo resource selection functions
9^s for male and female moose at three satial scales  m,  m, and c m in two seasons
summer and fall o evaluate an ecological disturbance threshold from increasing route activity on the
robability of animal occurrence, the 9^s were lotted against an index of route activity derived from
interviews with ÑD users, and fit with logarithmic functions he variable for route activity imroved the
fit of 9^ models for both sexes at all satial scales and in both seasons à negative relationshi was found
between moose occurrence and routes or areas in which routes were in close roximity to rimary
forage, with the excetion of male moose at the cm scale in the fall herefore, among the satial
scales of analysis, the roadeffect zone for male moose was determined to be between  m and c
m, and $c m for female moose ^urthermore, route activity ' km of vehicle travel/km/day was a
threshold value at which moose sustained a high robability of occurrence  to  c he results of
our study suggest that the disersed ecological effect of rural roads and ÑD routes should be considered
in transortation and landmanagement lanning efforts 9elatively low levels of vehicular activity may
create extensive roadeffect zones for sensitive secies

ºaron, ohn •, ean  earson, and 9obert  ^letcher r cc     %‘$
‘‘)
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 Creel et al reorted a negative correlation between fecal rogesterone concentrations and elk§§wolf
ratios in greater ellowstone elk   ! !  herds and interreted this correlation as evidence that
regnancy rates of elk decreased substantially in the resence of wolves    !!  Ãarently, the
hyothesized mechanism is that decreased forage intake reduces body condition and either results in elk
failing to conceive during the autumn rut or elk losing the fetus during winter 0e tested this hyothesis
by comaring agesecific body condition ercentage ingestafree body fat and regnancy rates for
northern ellowstone elk, one of the herds samled by Creel et al, before c "c   and after "
 wolf restoration using indices develoed and calibrated for 9ocky ºountain elk ºean ageadjusted
ercentage body fat of female elk was similarly high in both eriods   -   rewolf!   -  
ostwolf stimated regnancy rates roortion of females that were regnant were  c rewolf and
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rewolf and
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evidence in these data to suort strong effects of wolf resence on elk regnancy 0e caution that
multile lines of evidence and/or strong validation should be brought to bear before relying on indirect
measures of how redators affect regnancy rates

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oulations of insectivorous bats in orth Ãmerica xats are voracious redators of nocturnal insects,
including many cro and forest ests 0e resent here analyses suggesting that loss of bats in orth
Ãmerica could lead to agricultural losses estimated at more than /  billion/year rgent efforts are
needed to educate the ublic and olicymakers about the ecological and economic imortance of
insectivorous bats and to rovide ractical conservation solutions

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Ã, nvironmental ciences and Œeograhy rogram, niversity of Ãlaska outheast, uneau, Ãlaska c Ã]

he roadeffect zone is the area in which ecological effects extend outward from a road isersed off
highway vehicle ÑD! eg, fourwheelers and snowmachines activity on rural road networks creates a
disturbance that reduces the effective amount of wildlife habitat and therefore has the otential for an
extensive roadeffect zone Conse uently, land managers must consider the tradeoffs between rural road
develoment and the conservation of habitat for secies of concern 0e conducted a satiallyexlicit
study of moose,     , occurrence in relation to rural roads and ÑD routes in rural Ãlaska, Ã
0e used logistic regression and ìC model selection criterion to develo resource selection functions
9^s for male and female moose at three satial scales  m,  m, and c m in two seasons
summer and fall o evaluate an ecological disturbance threshold from increasing route activity on the
robability of animal occurrence, the 9^s were lotted against an index of route activity derived from
interviews with ÑD users, and fit with logarithmic functions he variable for route activity imroved the
fit of 9^ models for both sexes at all satial scales and in both seasons à negative relationshi was found
between moose occurrence and routes or areas in which routes were in close roximity to rimary
forage, with the excetion of male moose at the cm scale in the fall herefore, among the satial
scales of analysis, the roadeffect zone for male moose was determined to be between  m and c
m, and $c m for female moose ^urthermore, route activity ' km of vehicle travel/km/day was a
threshold value at which moose sustained a high robability of occurrence  to  c he results of
our study suggest that the disersed ecological effect of rural roads and ÑD routes should be considered
in transortation and landmanagement lanning efforts 9elatively low levels of vehicular activity may
create extensive roadeffect zones for sensitive secies

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nvironmental education traditionally has focused on changing individual knowledge, attitudes, and
behavior Concern about environmental education's lack of effectiveness in instilling an understanding of
human's role within ecosystems has led us to an exloration of the relationshi of learning and education
to the larger socialecological systems in which they are embedded 0e draw from sociocultural learning
theory and from frameworks develoed by longterm ecological research, hierarchy theory, and social
ecological systems resilience to suggest an ecology of learning͟ and an ecology of environmental
education͟ ¬n so doing, we hoe to oen u new research and ractices that consider ossibilities for
environmental education to act in consort with other initiatives, such as local stewardshi efforts, to
foster social caital, ecosystem services, and other attributes of resilient socialecological systems

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eartment of #oology and hysiology, niversity of 0yoming, •aramie, 0yoming c, rogram in cology,
niversity of 0yoming, •aramie, 0yoming c! eartment of ^orest and 0ildlife cology, ºadison, 0isconsin
 ]

cience, and ecology, is fundamentally a social endeavor Ãs such, central asects of the scientific rocess,
like innovation or the exchange of ideas, can be influenced by the geograhic distribution of scientists and
resources onetheless, the satial atterning of ecological research within the nited tates has never
been measured xy using an aroach similar to that used to ma global biodiversity hotsots, we
uantified ecological research activity across the nited tates 0e assigned members of cological
ociety of Ãmerica, reciients of ational cience ^oundation grants, and authors of ublications in
leading ecological journals to the #¬ code of their home institution sing these data we maed the
density of ecologists, and the magnitude of their inuts and oututs, and uantified an ecological
activity͟ index to measure the satial intensity of ecological research within the nited tates 0e also
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ew ork c
 Ã]

nvironmental education traditionally has focused on changing individual knowledge, attitudes, and
behavior Concern about environmental education's lack of effectiveness in instilling an understanding of
human's role within ecosystems has led us to an exloration of the relationshi of learning and education
to the larger socialecological systems in which they are embedded 0e draw from sociocultural learning
theory and from frameworks develoed by longterm ecological research, hierarchy theory, and social
ecological systems resilience to suggest an ecology of learning͟ and an ecology of environmental
education͟ ¬n so doing, we hoe to oen u new research and ractices that consider ossibilities for
environmental education to act in consort with other initiatives, such as local stewardshi efforts, to
foster social caital, ecosystem services, and other attributes of resilient socialecological systems

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 &0 1 X! /
 kees readers abreast of ground breaking conservation research being
conducted around the globe selected from more than  eerreviewed journals on a variety of themes forests,
oceans, energy, climate, ecology, economics, genetics, ublic health, ublic olicy and more

× avid ºalakoff cc ournal 0atch # $$'‘F‘#


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deforestation/

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