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Given: ax 2 + bx + c = 0

− b ± b 2 − 4ac

Solve for x: x =

2a

Square of a Sum

(a + b) 2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 and

( a + b + c) 2 = a + b + c + 2ab + 2bc + 2ac

Series Formulas

Sum of first n terms (note: First n terms starts at r0 and goes to rn-1)

1−rn

a + ar + ar2+ ar3 + … + arn-1= a(1 + r + r2+ r3 + … + rn-1)= a ⋅

1−r

Infinite Convergent Series (-1 < r < 1)

1

a + ar + ar2+ ar3 + … = a(1 + r + r2+ r3 + …)= a ⋅

1−r

Arithmetic Series: a, a+d, a+2d, a+3d3, … ⇒ a + (a+d) + (a+2d) + (a+3d) + …

Sum of first n terms (note: First n terms starts at 0d and goes to (n-1)d)

n(n −1)

a + (a+d) + (a+2d) + (a+3d) + … + (a+(n-1)d) = na + d ⋅

2

Special Case for first n integers

n(n −1)

1+2+3+…+n=

2

Definition of ea

∞

an

∑

n =0 n!

= ea

∞

an

∑

n =0

e −a

n!

= 1 (This is the pdf for the Poisson distribution)

Limit Theorems: Let n be a positive integer, k be a constant, and f and g be functions

which have limits at c then:

lim k = k

x →c

lim x = c

x →c

lim kf ( x) = k lim f ( x)

x →c x →c

x →c x →c x →c

x →c x →c x →c

x →c x →c x →c

[ ]

x →c x →c x →c x →c

n n

x →c x →c

x →c x →c x →c

denominator at c ≠ 0

lim f ( x) = f (c)

x →c

Derivative

f (c + h ) − f (c )

f ' (c) = lim Provided this limit exists

h →0

h

Alternate Form

f ( x ) − f (c )

f ' (c) = lim

x →c

x −c

Rules of Differentiation

f ( x) f ' ( x)

c (a constant) 0

Power Rule cx n ( n ∈ℜ) cnx n −1

g ( x ) + h( x ) g ' ( x ) + h' ( x )

u ( x )v ( x ) w( x ) u ' vw + uv ' w + uvw '

g ( x) h( x ) g ' ( x ) − g ( x ) h' ( x )

Quotient Rule

h( x ) [ h( x ) ] 2

Chain Rule g ( h( x )) g ' ( h( x )) ×h' ( x )

e g ( x) g ' ( x ) ×e g ( x )

g ' ( x)

ln( g ( x ))

g ( x)

a x ( a > 0) a x ln( a )

ex ex

1

ln x

x

1

log b x

x ⋅ ln( b)

sin x cos x

cos x − sin x

′ cf ′(x )

(cf (x ) )

p( f ( x) )

p −1

× f ′( x)

L’Hopital’s Rule

If lim f ( x) = 0 & lim g ( x) = 0 or lim f ( x) = ∞ & lim g ( x) = ∞

x →c x →c x →c x →c

Then

f ( x) f ′( x) g ' ( x) ≠ 0

lim

x →c g ( x )

= lim

x →c g ′( x )

Provided lim

x →c

Note: Can be applied multiple times.

f ( x) ∫ f ( x )dx

g ( x ) + h( x ) ∫ g ( x)dx +∫h( x ) dx +c

x n +1

x n ( n ≠ 1) +c

n +1

1

ln( x ) +c

x

ex ex +c

ax

a x ( a > 0) +c

ln a

xe ax e ax

xe ax − 2 +c

a a

1 1 −ax 1

e −ax or e or

e ax a ae ax

sin x − cos x + c

cos x sin x + c

Additional integration rules:

∞ n!

For integer n ≥ 0 and real number c > 0 ∫ 0

x n e −cx dx =

c n +1

Integration by Substitution

To find ∫f(x)dx substitute u=g(x), g being differentiable then du =g′(x)dx then we

can rewrite ∫f(x)dx as an integral with respect to the variable u. So if this changes

f(x)dx to h(u)du and H is the antiderivative of h, then

∫ f ( x)dx = ∫ h(u )du = H (u ) + c = H ( g ( x )) + c

7 7

1 u 3 1 3

now the integral can be written as ∫u ∙⅓du = ⅓∫u du = ⋅

4/3

= u (+c) now

4/3

3 73 7

substitute back the u= x3-1 gives the final result ∫(x3-1)4/3x2dx = 1/7(x3-1)7/3(+c)

Integration by Parts

If you have an integral of the form ∫ f ( x) ⋅ g ′( x)dx then do integration by parts

∫ f ( x) ⋅ g ′( x)dx = f ( x ) g ( x ) − ∫ f ′( x ) ⋅ g ( x ) dx

For a definite integral

f ( x ) ⋅ g ′( x ) dx = [ f ( x ) g ( x )] a − ∫ f ′( x ) ⋅ g ( x) dx

b b

∫

b

a a

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