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Nuclear Security Summit


Adopted Communiqué and Plan of Work
By: Sant Prasad Gupta

A major international summit convened by Barack Two other countries whose presence ought to have
Obama to discuss ways of improving the security been considered essential to such an endeavour are
of nuclear materials got under way on April 12, 2010 Niger and Namibia, who together account for nearly
with the American President underlining the im- 18 per cent of the world's mined uranium. But the
portance of preventing terrorists from getting hold two African states, whose yellowcake drives much
of the ingredients for a nuclear bomb in Washing- of the world's nuclear programme, were not con-
ton. sidered important enough for the summit.
The two-day summit brought together 47 countries,
including the U.S., 37 of whom are being represented Laura Holgate, Senior Director, WMD Terrorism
by their heads of state or government. A final dec- & Threat Reduction at National Security Council,
laration, negotiated over the past few months by told that the idea was to get a representative set of
officials from participating countries has been re- countries. “We couldn't invite every single country
leased. that has any nuclear connectivity and so we were
looking for countries that represented regional di-
Romania has nearly 1500 MWe of nuclear generat- versity where we had states that had weapons, states
ing capacity and sources 20 per cent of its electric- that don't have weapons, states with large nuclear
ity from nuclear energy, Bulgaria's two reactors programs, states with small nuclear programs.”
account for 35 per cent of its national power grid,
and Hungary has four reactors generating one-third Both India and Pakistan has attended the summit at
of its power. All three countries also figure in the the prime ministerial level. Israeli Prime Minister
list compiled by the International Panel on Fissile Benjamin Netanyahu pulled out at the last minute,
Material with stocks of Highly Enriched Uranium opting to send his Foreign Minister instead.
in the 10-100 kg. range. Yet, neither country will
be at the Washington summit, even though Arme- Statement by Indian Prime
nia, with just 370 MWe of nuclear power has been
invited. Uzbekistan has also not been invited, de- Minister
spite holding HEU stocks in the 100-1000 kg range.
But Georgia, with no nuclear programme to speak Nuclear security is one of the foremost challenges
of, will be in Washington. we face today. I therefore wish to commend Presi-
dent Barack Obama for his initiative in convening
this Summit on Nuclear Security. We would like

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the Summit to lead to concrete outcomes which help dia. We must learn from past mistakes and institute
make our world a safer place. effective measures to prevent their recurrence.

The developmental applications of nuclear science The world community should join hands to elimi-
in areas such as medicine, agriculture, food preser- nate the risk of sensitive and valuable materials and
vation and availability of fresh water are by now technologies falling into hands of terrorists and il-
well established. Today, nuclear energy has emerged licit traffickers. There should be zero tolerance for
as a viable source of energy to meet the growing individuals and groups which engage in illegal traf-
needs of the world in a manner that is environmen- ficking in nuclear items.
tally sustainable. There is a real prospect for nuclear
technology to address the developmental challenges Global non-proliferation, to be successful, should
of our times. be universal, comprehensive and non-discrimina-
tory and linked to the goal of complete nuclear
In India we have ambitious plans for using nuclear disarmament.We welcome the fact that the world
energy to meet our growing energy needs. Our tar- is veering around to our view that the best guaran-
get is to increase our installed capacity more than tor of nuclear security is a world free from nuclear
seven fold to 35000 MWe by the year 2022, and to weapons.
60,000 MWe by 2032.
Starting with Jawaharlal Nehru over five decades
The nuclear industry’s safety record over the last ago, India has been in the forefront of the call for
few years has been encouraging. It has helped to re- global and complete nuclear disarmament. In 2006
store public faith in nuclear power. Safety alone, India proposed the negotiation of a Nuclear Weap-
however, is not enough. The challenge we face to- ons Convention. We have also expressed our readi-
day is that of ensuring nuclear security. ness to participate in the negotiation of an interna-
tionally verifiable Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty
The danger of nuclear explosives or fissile material in the Conference on Disarmament.
and technical know-how falling in to the hands of
non-state actors continues to haunt our world. India Former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi had put for-
is deeply concerned about the danger it faces, as do ward a concrete Action Plan in 1988 for the univer-
other States, from this threat. sal and non-discriminatory elimination of nuclear
weapons leading to global nuclear disarmament in
Since 2002, we have piloted a resolution at the a time-bound framework. I once again reiterate
United Nations General Assembly on measures to India’s call to the world community to work towards
deny terrorists access to Weapons of Mass Destruc- the realisation of this vision.
tion. We fully support the implementation of United
Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 and the We welcome the agreement between the United
United Nations Global Counter Terrorism Strategy. States and Russia to cut their nuclear arsenals as a
The primary responsibility for ensuring nuclear se- step in the right direction. I call upon all states with
curity rests at the national level, but national re- substantial nuclear arsenals to further accelerate this
sponsibility must be accompanied by responsible process by making deeper cuts that will lead to
behaviour by States. If not, it remains an empty slo- meaningful disarmament.
gan. All States should scrupulously abide by their
international obligations. It is a matter of deep re- We are encouraged by the Nuclear Posture Review
gret that the global non-proliferation regime has announced by President Obama. India supports the
failed to prevent nuclear proliferation. Clandestine universalisation of the policy of No First Use. The
proliferation networks have flourished and led to salience of nuclear weapons in national defence and
insecurity for all, including and especially for In- security doctrines must be reduced as a matter of
priority. The dangers of nuclear terrorism make the

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early elimination of nuclear weapons a matter of have entered into a Safeguards Agreement with the
even greater urgency. IAEA in 2008, and have decided to place all future
civilian thermal power reactors and civilian breeder
The Indian Atomic Energy Act provides the legal reactors under IAEA safeguards.
framework for securing nuclear materials and fa-
cilities, and the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board We will continue to work with the IAEA and our
ensures independent oversight of nuclear safety and partners in the United Nations as well as other fo-
security. We are party to the Convention on the rums such as the Global Initiative to Combat
Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and its 2005 Nuclear Terrorism to upgrade standards, share ex-
amendment. periences and ensure effective implementation of
international benchmarks on nuclear security.
India’s three stage nuclear power programme which
began sixty years ago is based on a closed nuclear we have decided to set up a “Global Centre for
fuel cycle. A direct benefit of this is that it ensures Nuclear Energy Partnership” in India. We visualize
control over nuclear material that is generated as this to be a state of the art facility based on interna-
spent fuel. At the same time, we are continually tional participation from the IAEA and other inter-
upgrading technology to develop nuclear systems ested foreign partners. The Centre will consist of
that are intrinsically safe, secure and proliferation four Schools dealing with Advanced Nuclear En-
resistant. We have recently developed an Advanced ergy System Studies, Nuclear Security, Radiation
Heavy Water Reactor based on Low Enriched Ura- Safety, and the application of Radioisotopes and
nium and thorium with new safety and prolifera- Radiation Technology in the areas of healthcare,
tion-resistant features. agriculture and food. The Centre will conduct re-
search and development of design systems that are
India has maintained an impeccable non-prolifera- intrinsically safe, secure, proliferation resistant and
tion record, of which we are proud of. As a respon- sustainable. We would welcome participation in this
sible nuclear power, India has and will not be the venture by your countries, the IAEA and the world
source of proliferation of sensitive technologies. We to make this Centre’s work a success.
have a well-established and effective export control
system which has worked without fail for over six Communiqué and Plan of
decades. We have strengthened this system by
harmonisation of our guidelines and lists with those Work
of the Nuclear Suppliers Group and the Missile
Technology Control Regime. Our commitment to The 47-nation Nuclear Security Summit ended with
not transfer nuclear weapons or related materials the adoption of a short final communiqué and seven
and technologies to non-nuclear weapon states or page work plan aimed at promoting the effective
non-state actors is enshrined in domestic law security of nuclear materials worldwide.
through the enactment of the Weapons of Mass
Destruction Act. We stand committed not to trans- The communiqué includes general commitments
fer reprocessing and enrichment technologies and while the more specific work plan constitutes a po-
equipment to countries that do not possess them. litical commitment by participating countries to
carry out applicable measures, on a voluntary basis,
As a founder member of the International Atomic in all aspects of the storage, use, transportation and
Energy Agency, we have consistently supported the disposal of nuclear materials.
central role of the IAEA in facilitating national ef-
forts to strengthen nuclear security and in fostering Unlike most nuclear documents springing from the
effective international cooperation. We have so far Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty system, the
conducted nine Regional Training Courses on Washington communiqué makes no legal distinc-
Nuclear Security in cooperation with the IAEA. We tion between nuclear weapon states and the rest. Nor

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is there any reference to the NPT. Instead, it reaf- Next Nuclear Security
firms the fundamental responsibility of States, con-
sistent with their international obligations, to main- Summit in the South Korea
tain effective security of all nuclear materials. These
materials are defined as including “nuclear materi- President Barack Obama announced that the next
als used in nuclear weapons, and nuclear facilities Nuclear Security Summit would be held in the Re-
under their control.” public of Korea (South Korea) in two years. He said
that this would help to “ensure that our progress is
The document calls for wider support for existing not a fleeting moment, but part of a serious and sus-
international instruments on nuclear security such tained effort.”
as the 1979 Convention on the Physical Protection
of Nuclear Material and its 2005 amendment, the Mr. Obama said the summits provided the nations
Convention on the Suppression of Nuclear Terror- with the opportunity to take specific and concrete
ism. national-level actions to secure the nuclear materi-
als, to strengthen the International Atomic Energy
There is no reference in the documents to U.N. Se- Agency, and to deepen international cooperation
curity Council Resolution 1887 on nuclear security aimed at preventing nuclear materials from falling
and non-proliferation, passed last year at the urging into the hands of terrorists.
or U.S. President Barack Obama. Indian officials say
the reference in that to NPT adherence meant it could
not be included in the communiqué.

But the communiqué and work plan have words of


support for the G8-led Global Partnership against
the Spread of Weapons of Mass Destruction. This
initiative includes the annual G8 statements on non-
proliferation, the last of which sought to prevent
India from accessing enrichment and reprocessing
technologies.

The work plan covers a wide range of issues from


nuclear detection and forensics to exchange of in-
formation to detect and prevent illicit nuclear traf-
ficking, and the promotion of nuclear security cul-
ture.

The document recognises that highly enriched ura-


nium (HEU) and separated plutonium — basic in-
gredients of a nuclear weapon require special pre-
cautions and that participating countries agree to
“promote measures to secure, account for, and con-
solidate these materials.” It also says that they agree
to encourage the conversion of reactors from HEU
to low-enriched uranium, a stated priority of the
U.S. in the run-up to the Summit.

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