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The First Celestial Globe of Willem Janszoon Blaeu

Author(s): D. J. Warner
Source: Imago Mundi, Vol. 25 (1971), pp. 29-38
Published by: Imago Mundi, Ltd.
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1150590 .
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went to the Danish island of Hven where Tycho was compiling his catalog. 321-3.as well as that of Blaeu. Washington. 1.ed. 115. According to standard accounts of the history of celestial cartography Willem Janszoon Blaeu (15711638). p.. and cited in HermanRichter. 127. Since globemaking was a difficult and time-consuming art. but a graphic representation of the best available catalog of star positions and magnitudes that is. OperaOmnia. however.2 This globe would be not merely a handsome parlor decoration. the great astronomical observer. Blaeu's globe was the first to show the Tychonic positions.C. if not very soon thereafter. In 1602 Blaeu published a pair of globes. what happened to it? What relation did Blaeu's work have to that of his contemporary compatriots? The little that is known of Blaeu's early life strongly suggests that he intended to publish a celestial globe in 1596. by WilhelmNorlind (Lund. at which time Tycho could write to Tobias Fischer recommending Blaeu's new globe made in accordance with his observations. and since cartographers were notorious for their plagiarism. 1602. of Tycho's great catalog6 . with a diameter of 34 centimeters. L.Tabulae Rudolphinae(Ulm. Frankfurt. However. was the first published account. E. Tycho approved of the project.As yet. by J. it must have been before 16 May 1600. 6. The following spring he returned to his native Alkmaar and proceeded to design his first celestial globe. The expandedcatalog of 1000stars.to the Van Langrens.presumablythe 777 star version. HermanRichter. op cit. E. did he begin again with a new and smaller edition? Did Blaeu intend to make a 34 centimeter celestial globe around 1599? If so. Tycho's star catalog was both more accurate and 1 LeopoldiniLuzio. andhis mapof the island:some newfacts.ed. L.1957).a fact often overlooked by scholars more at home with books than with artifacts. the first completely new stellar catalog since that included in Ptolemy's Almagest more than fourteen centuries earlier.since both incorporatedhis starpositions.THE FIRST CELESTIAL GLOBE OF WILLEM JANSZOON BLAEU By D. Dreyer(Hauniae.had gone to Tycho's observatoryto obtain a copy of the star catalog for use on a new celestial globe. J. All previous celestial globes and charts were based on the Ptolemaic list of stars. WARNER.Blaeu withTychoBraheon Hven.Tycho sent a copy of the catalog . they would not be published in book form until 1602. 1963).See PierreGassendi. was dated 1599.the well known Dutch cartographer. Why. he produced a second celestial globe. 1627). was apparently to be paired with the earlier earth. WillemJansz.4 Another fact worthy of note is that although Tycho's observations were circulated in manuscript form as early as 1598. a model of the earth 34 centimeters in diameter. therefore. p. it representedthe state of the catalog at the time of Blaeu's visit to Hven. In the autumn of 1595 Blaeu. 1610).no examplesof this Van Langren celestial globe are known. in 1595. we can still wonder why Blaeu waited four years to publish the celestial mate to his first terrestrial globe. both terrestrial and celestial.but insistedhe wait until the catalogwas completed. son of Jacob Van Langren. it is not surprising that globe-makers issued globes immediately upon completion. 3 Tycho Brahe. Smithsonian Institution. 4 In 1590 Arnold Van Langren. Tycho recommendedthe globe of Van Langren. this. 1925)VIII. Be that as it may. (Florence. was firstpublishedin JohannesKepler. TychoBrahe (New York. or that the two halves of a pair of globes often bore different dates. I GlobiBlaviani.' Blaeu's first globe.TychoBrahe. Although the date of publication is unknown. III. (1939). albeit graphical rather than numerical. in 1603.3 This feature was significant. The catalog of 777 stars was published in Tycho Brahe. then aged 24. during this period. 2 29 . In this he was successful.Catalogo dei globi antichiconservatiin Italia.54. 53-4. That is. In the above mentionedletterof 16 May 1600 to Tobias Fischer. volume 1.5 Blaeu's globe. According to Gassendi. p . Then. of 23 centimeters diameter. 5 The history of Tycho's star catalogs is detailed in J. Imago Mundi.circulatedin manuscriptform from 1598. unawareof any examples of Blaeu'sfirst celestialglobe. and did not show the stars added during the second half of 1596 and early in 1597. two terrestrial and two celestial. Richtererroneouslycommentedthat this statement of Tycho's 'mustnot be taken to mean that Blaeuhad alreadyput any celestialglobes on the market'. facs.Five yearslater. D. 1951)pp. AstronomiaeInstaurataeProgymnasmata(Prague. issued four distinct globes. Dreyer. during his first few years as a cartographer. Blaeu's primary objective at Hven was to obtain a copy of Tycho's observations. it would depict the stars as charted by Tycho Brahe.

cit. the same size as Blaeu's terrestrial globe of 1599 and his celestial globe of 1603.'10 These sheets are now housed in Houghton Library at Harvard University. The author of the gores signed his name in two places . Ellis Stromgrenand Bengt Stromgren(Copenhagen. but not elaborated on. Description of His Instruments and Scientific Work. it has often been noted. for instance. 30 . in the northern constellations Tycho catalogued many stars unnoticed by Ptolemy. Johannes Keuning has called attention to. Consequently. and its Arabic revisions. (Figures 1. 9 Tycho. op. Dreyer. Antinous. The Liechtenstein gores are made for a globe 34 centimeters in diameter . and often in bastardized Arabic as well. merely paraphrasesKeuning's comments. this important item. E. 8 J. See Tycho Brahe. 2. and the two polar caps are missing. as precise as naked eye instruments could be.8 This is indeed true.9 Assuming then that Blaeu did publish a celestial globe some time between 1596 and 1600. cit. p. Aquarius. Nevertheless. Three sheets with 9 segments of it are in the Liechtenstein Library at Vienna. was so new that precession was of little consequence. and Pisces. Dictionary of ScientificBiography(New York. on the other hand.1946).more extensive than that of Ptolemy. Ptolemy'sCatalogueof Stars (Washington.p.. The only constellations drawn are the Ptolemaic ones plus Coma Berenices. p. op. Imago Mundi. but the implication that Tycho's catalog was somewhat less than Ptolemy's is not. which first appeared on Mercator's celestial globe of 1551. Doris Hellman. each constellation and many of the brighter stars on the Liechtenstein gores is named in Latin and Greek. L. and the equinoctial colure are drawn. Tycho.. 411. the other Mercator constellation. and C. the figures are shown from the back. he had a much better view of the northern skies. However accurate the Ptolemaic star positions may originally have been. both the ecliptic and the equator are drawn and graduated into degrees.) Because these Liechtenstein gores are important. TychoBrahe. and although the phenomenon of precession was known. Luzio. where Blaeu lived from 1596 to 1599. XVIth century cartography in the Netherlands. IX (1952).madejust this point when explainingthe extent and precisionof his stellarobserva- tions in his Astronomiae Instaurate Mechanica of 1598. E.e. Historians usually neglect to mention that Ptolemy at latitude 31ONcould see a much greater part of the heavens than could Tycho. rounded out his catalog by hastily observing 223 more. numerous details to be discussed below indicate they were made before 1600. p. and may be unique.in the dedicatory cartouche north of Auriga and Perseus. 2 & 3. far north at latitude 56?. Knobel. F. and 'Comparisonof Tycho Brahe's positions of standardstars with modern results'. He noted that at Alkmaar. the value of its constant was in doubt. would appear on one of the missing gores. after painstakingly measuring 777 stars.e.. translatedand edited by Hans Raeder.i. gave the positions and magnitudes of 1028 stars (three of which were repeats) visible to the unaided eye. Dreyer. At the time Blaeu worked there was no consensus as to the one proper name for each star or constellation. in J. 1970) II.7 Ptolemy's star catalog. and since the globe presents the stars as seen from outside our universe. he 'made his first celestial globe. The globe's celestial coordinates are typical of those shown on globes and charts of the period: the edges of the gores define the zodiacal signs. 227. 10Johannes Keuning. p. these ancient positions were no longer true.. 112-113. Peters and E.1915). As a result. Following tradition the constellation figures face the earth. were about one order of magnitude better. H. op cit. and extends from latitude 700 north to 700 south. L. Tycho's catalog. B. Tycho observed 26 stars in Cassiopea where Ptolemy saw only 13. Each gore covers one sign. whereas Ptolemaic positions were generally read to within 10' of arc. and the Arctic and Antarctic circles. at least one partial copy. The nine extant gores represent the nine zodiacal signs Aries through Sagittarius (i. the constellations Pisces through Scorpio). although Tycho could not observe many of Ptolemy's southern stars. and on the scroll south of I C. a detailed description of them is in order. The Liechtensteingores are undated. 387-388. the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. Tycho's instruments. do any copies of it still exist? Yes. owing to the precession of the equinoxes. Furthermore.. dedicated to the Prince Maurice. Accordingly. the slow but constant rotation of the vernal equinox around the heavens. the gores for the signs Capricornus. and indeed many different names were used for the same object. with his customaryreticence. p. 56.

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15 The Liechtenstein gores represent a totally new tradition. Saenredam (15651607).'6 Three of the constellation figures show this independence particularly clearly. 14 A copy is at the National MaritimeMuseum. by Albrecht DUrer's great woodcut star charts of 1515.were bound in ClaudiusPtolemaeus. who heretofore had a canine head with closed mouth. In their early work Blaeu's two serious competitors.Geographia excepta (Basel.Dessinateurset Graveurs(Paris. and the Germanisches Nationalmuseumin NUrnberg.ArchivesInternationales d'Histoire des Sciences. The stars are so well positioned that they can easily be identified. 'lohan Sanredam figuras fecit'." His signature appears at the foot of the constellation Eridanus. 18 Herman Richter.quaeextant. opera.'3 The third tradition is derived from Mercator's celestial globe of 1551. are signed Guilielmus Janssonius Blaeu. the plates of which were engraved by Hondius. they are clearly graduated according to magnitude. 99). page 54. Presumably. Although Blaeu was the author of the globe. for instance. 15 The two known copies are in the Libraryof MiddleTemple. though by no means originated. p. the same name he used on the 1599 terrestrial globe. The 1602 globes.AstronomiaeInstaurataeMechanica. Although to accommodate the star positions constellation figures always hold the same poses. In the history of celestial cartography. and fleshed out with careful shading. XXII (1969). In sixteenth century Europe three cartographic traditions account for all known star maps.entitled'ImaginesConstellationum Borealium(Australium)'.12 The second tradition. op. followed the Mercator tradition. 1541& 1551). warm cloak and high boots. Greenwich. See Deborah Jean Warner. The first. Where did this style originate? Perhaps with Tycho. is typified. The artistic style of the globes is also worth noting. artistic conventions have been both strong and long lived. In his observatory was a large (almost 6 feet diameter) brass globe on which he marked star positions as he observed them. Omnia. This work was done by Jan Pietersz. On these consciously Renaissance charts most of the figuresare naked. (Warsaw. which might be called the Vienna school.England (catalogueG. (1955).Sculpteurs.Bootes and Orion . 463. In both places he called himself Guilielmus (or Guilhelmus) Janssonius Alcmarianus.noted the dependenceof both Van Langrenand Molyneux on Mercator. 1660 and later).London.p.'7 Blaeu followed suit. a well-known painter.Thefirst modernsky mapsreconsidered. p. on several star charts in Andreas Cellarius'beautifulHarmoniaMacrocosmica(Amsterdam. 304-311. Working together Blaeu and Saenredam produced a very beautiful globe. Helen Wallis. Here two of the male figures .south of Cetus.1959). 1962). Orion carries a metal shield rather than a lion's skin.They werelater issuedby Jean de Gourmont. their features and clothing can differ from one map to another. Furtherlight in the Molyneuxglobes.DictionnaireCritiqueet Documentairedes Peintres. here has wide gaping jaws.Guillaume Morel and Jean Bienn6in Paris. or at least begun. and while at Hven copied the star positions onto a manuscript globe. 1540). one that would be immensely popular with Dutch cartographers throughout the seventeenth century. however.Eridanus. trans. he did not actually engrave the plates. and on a finished globe the stars observed by Tycho would be overlaid with gold. The picture of the globe accompanyingthe description shows only constellationswhich did not vary greatlyfrom one style to another. 13 These geocentricmaps. Cetus. Bootes is dressed for a northern European winter. Of the many latermaps in this style two famous ones are the planisphereby Peter Apian in his AstronomicumCaesarium(Ingolstadt.appear in Roman dress. GeographicalJournal. and the globes by FranciscusDemongenet (1552 and later). following the woodcut maps made by Johann Honter in 1532. by AndrzejPotocki. 17 Tycho Brahe. cit. The signatureof Hondius as engraverappearsbelow the dedicationto QueenElizabeth. and his head is covered by a metal helmet surmounted by a bird.CXXI. 103-105. VII. 263-6. in fur hat.'8 It is tantalizing to think that in so doing he transmitted the style as well as the content of Tycho's globe. while Blaeu was still at Alkmaar. both these globes were made. clothes the figures in contemporary styles. Van Langren and Hondius. therefore. and their classical attributes are correctly drawn. Perhaps Blaeu himself 11EmmanuelBenezit. The constellation figures are all well drawn. 12 DUrer'spredecessorsare discussedin Zofia Ameisenowa. made after Blaeu's move to Amsterdam. engraver and mapengraver. The Globeof MartinBylica of Olkusz and Celestial Maps in the East andin the West. 16 This style was used. as can clearly be seen on the celestial globe made by Van Langren in 158914 and on the Molyneux celestial globe of 1592. 34 .p..

10-12. 20 Hinze. auctiorem. op. p. months. L. 22 This statementslends confirmationto that of Tycho himselfthat the durationof Blaeu's stay at Hven was a half a year. MAURITIO. Drei Globendes 16. created the style. D. This the Dutch in victorious battles against the Spanish. seventeenth century globes designed for the epoch 1600. According to Hinze. et Flissingae. that Blaeu obtained the style from Hondius. the cannot now be answered. stellari arte coelo directly on his globe of 1600. that this was quite often 19eoyovtag 1600 accommodanot the case is obvious from the many early tis. the globe.Imago Mundi. globe drawn by Petrus Plancius. 53-54. 19Hondius' controversywith the Van Langrensis discussedin JohannesKeuning. the questions of priority and plagiarism The epoch need not be. (1933). appears in the southern hemisphere. E. et speculo quodam firmamenti. the other half of the chart. Dreyer. housed been increasedby the recent observationsof the Noble Lord Tycho Brahe more than anyone thus far.eanumerum. for more than six NASSAU. Triangulum and Musca.D. and engraved and published by Hondius around 1598. 366.O. having accoin the Gymnasium at Zerbst. In either case Hondius.19 copied it Hoc astriferi. quam antehac. Gel. Jahrhunderts.22 (Figure 1. It is also possible deductarum. He does not clearly indicate which authority was followed SPHAERA STELLIFERA for the northern star positions. 35 . XIII. 1927-1932. Although the globe In qua. reads: A partial text south of Eridanus (the remainder _ ILLUSTRISS is on the missing south polar cap) tells that in PRINCIPI AC DOMIO preparation for this work Blaeu worked at UraniD. ac Stellarumordinem. Since the extant evidence is am. Half is below The dedication.20 a celestial Alcmarianus. with greatercare than heretofore. and the numberof them. was and the order of the stars. p. accuratissimedispositum.quam hacrumque And Australe. In his description of this globe (Figure 2): Hinze presents three serious ambiguities. many years at the University of Copenhagen. Tycho's observatory. and very often was not. (1956). Hinze argues that since the epoch of the globe is observationibusrecens a No1600. as a kind of mirror of the firmament. having copy of the 1598 Plancius/Hondius globe. intueri liceat.) The extant part of the text MarchioniVeriae.. COMITI DE borg.C. let it be attentively World War II. PRINCIPI AURAICO.21 and the one known has been accuratelyshown..Transisulanaeet inferiorisTraiecti etc. See Herman Richter. is on a missing gore. p. below Sagittarius. locis ad annum made prior to that date. which appears in a cartouche the constellation Ara. north of Auriga and Perseus (Figure 1). Phoenix tenus unquam. Bericht des NaturwissenschaftlichenVereinszu Zerbst. In any case.the universeof stars has been ornamented. must have been bili Viro D. ratherthan two years as claimed by Gassendi. Interspersed among the stars and constellations same as the year in which a globe was made.' a gentleman worthy of implicit belief. Tycho's brass globe housed for Translated:Star-bearingspherein which. neglecting completely Crux. & C. p. mentions only nine of the new southern conmaiori. op. TYCHONE BRAHE habitis. to find the exact star informative texts. 21 J.Gratus M. who was then leading correlating minutes of arc and years of time. not always Domino suo Clementiss.coelui. reads: GubernatoriHollan. Zeld. Blaeu includes a table of Nassau. cit.Q. like a calendar. Columba. destroyed by fire in 1728. Prince of Orange.universumSijderi shows the southern stars as seen by Keyser. To of the Liechtenstein gores are several splendidly correct for precession. rather Guilielmus Ianssonius than vice versa. Hinze ornatum.The VanLangrenFamily. cit. The globe is dedicated to Maurice positions for any given year. was lost during modated the places to the year 1600.contemplated. 103-104. did not show The title of the globe appears in a cartouche significant stylistic differences from the Hondius between the heads of Gemini and Ursa Major globe of 1600. industria stellations. biguous.

vol. were ignorantof Oriental observationsof the supernovaof 1054which producedthe CrabNebula in Taurus (M-1). Translated:Those stars markedout in gold are of the Lord Tycho. since the Cygnus gore of the Liechtenstein set is missing. 1600 Blaeu discovered a third magnitude new star in the constellation Cygnus. qua insolito praealijs fulgore. 36 . whether by report of the extent of their brilliancesor by the annals of writers. partim instrumentaAstrorumTheorys accommodatoexornando. Pieter Dirksz. and only later in books. would not have been made after 1600. C.. the remainingones correspondto those observedby the Ancients. magnitudineBoreali plagae in haerentibus non minus insignes. however. is the most revealing of all: Stellardauratus D. a 1572. Incidentally. and then faded to about fifth magnitude. The Liechtenstein gores. Once their results were known they were accepted as true. SpraeckendewoordboeckInde Maleyscheende MadagaskarscheTalenmet vele Arabischeende Turkschewoorden(Amsterdam.Quum GUILHELMUS IANSSONIUS Alcmarianus Uranopyrgumperveniens. TYCHONIS.1603). Almost every star chart and globe between 1572 and the end of the seventeenth century showed where the new star had appeared. this nova cannot be used to date the globe. 'Nova et Exacta TerrarumOrbis Tabula Geographicaac Hydrographica'. working sometimes together. MonumentaCartographica. are not less remarkable for their magnitudethan those lying in the northernregion. Wieder. although true. as expressedin his AstronomiaeInstaurataeMechanica. as with Tycho's catalog.first used on Blaeu's globe of 1602 were then published in Houtman. 26 After appearingon Hondius' globe of 1600. Henceforth celestial globes and charts regularly showed at least 64 constellations: the ancient 48. Unfortunately. reappeared in 1657-59.ibi plus quam semestrehaerens. the supernova which flared up in 1604 in the right foot of Ophiucus appeared regularly on celestial maps. encouraging astronomers to watch for its return. Certainstars nearerto the AntarcticPole.. This new star. Uranometria (Augsburg. noting only the brightest and most curious objects like the Southern Cross and the Magellanic Clouds. 25 The starmaps arein rondelson Plancius'worldmap. 24 In this Blaeu is echoing the sentimentsof Tycho Brahe. and fourteen new ones in the southern hemisphere. south of Centaurus (Figure 3). and were widely quoted. 1627).eaq mechanicaindustriaapposite delineado partim etiam stellarum observ. reliquas Antiquorumobservatisresponderenotato. After remaining visible for several years it faded from sight. turn scriptorummonumentis tamen delineationemut incertam. The final text of the Liechtenstein gores.23stirred a great deal of interest in observational astronomy.we have here omitted the measuringof them.p. made the first systematic attempt to organize and catalog the southern stars. those of Keyser and Houtman were published first on globes. Blaeu's interest in this star is apparent from the lengthy descriptions of its brightness and position which he included on his later celestial globes. such as the above mentioned Van Langren globe of 1589 and the Petrus Plancius planisphere of 1592. On August 18. At the very end of the century. do not show it. The new star which appeared in 1572 in the constellation Cassiopea is duly noted: Stella mirabilis. the first one known to appear since the one which had inspired Hipparchus sixteen centuries before. two Dutchmen.24 This statement..26 Much to Blaeu's misfortune the first publication 23 Europeans.25 show clearly what Blaeu chose to exclude from his exceedingly accurate globe. made well before 1604. 2. turn tractus lustratorumrelatu. TabulaeRudolphinae(Ulm. During the sixteenth century European navigators carefully exploring the southern oceans merely glanced at the southern skies. 113114. Keyser and Frederick de Houtman.See F. quasdam Antarctico vertici propiores. Coma Berenices and Antinous in the north. and later in JohannesKepler.of course. Likewise.nulliq dimensam hic omisimus.neverthelesshaving delineationas uncertain. Contemporary maps of the southern skies. Houtman'sobservations. or as true as could be with crude instruments. nostrumq aspectum fugientes. Keyser'scatalog was publishedin JohannesBayer. 1603). per annei et triente circa Cassiopeae sedem fuit conspicua.. and avoiding our sight.

Hondius quoted Tycho as authority for the northern star positions. his observations returned to Holland in August 1597. Its diameter was only 23 centimeters. and his celestial planisphere of 1628 was depicted in Metius' Astrolabium. to Sumatra in 1598-1601. Knobel stated that the southernconstellationswere first publishedin Houtman'scatalog. LXXVII (1916-1917). 42-47.XIII (1929). see Knobel. and the origin of the southern constellations. as presented by Hondius. On Frederick de Houtman's catalogue of southern stars. There was nothing to do but withdraw it from the market and begin again. Keyser as chief pilot. Knobel. instead saw it become obsolete just a short time after publication. Jansz. is not strictlytrue. Houtman kept his copy. Both men had copies of their own versions of the catalog. the one generally considered the mate to the terrestrial globe of 1599. Royal AstronomicalSociety. op. and Houtman as a sub-commissioner. on the latter the texts and constellation and star names are much reduced. the 1603 globe is identical to the Liechtenstein gores. Although the figures on the two globes are quite similar. In the southern hemisphere. and on his next voyage. Blaeu Conservjes a la Bibliotheque Communale d'Anvers (Antwerp. Blaeu dedicated his celestial globe of 1606 to Metius.. Houtman worked on it as well. and doubtless observed together. professor of mathematics at the University of Franeker. The similarities between Houtman's and Keyser's catalogs were so striking. Thus Knobel's suggestionthat 'thereis no recordof [Houtman] being an astronomeror of his having any mathematicalability'. Hondius drew fourteen new constellations according to the observations of Keyser. P. and on Blaeu'sglobe. J. See also R. in order not to copy from Hondius doubtless sought an independent catalog of southern stars. both men sailed on the 1595-97 voyage of the Hollandia. Keyser had observed the southern skies from the Dutch East Indies in 1595-6. in Johann Bayer's Uranometria. 419.27In brief. De Hemelglobe van Jodocus Hondius van 1600. The 1602 globe does. and both studied with Tycho on Hven.Althoughboth Steinand Dermul discussedthe Hondius globe of 1600. as to promote a lengthy discussion about the relation between the two men. Both men were born in Alkmaar in 1571. The connection between Blaeu and Metius has long been apparent. describe the new star in Cygnus and the newly charted southern skies.of the new southern observations was on Jodocus Hondius' celestial globe of 1600. substance and design. Considering all this it is not inconceivable that Metius would relay new celestial cartographic information to Blaeu. Stein. So Blaeu. the alteration proceeded in at least two distinct stages. and his constellation drawings were practically indistinguishable from Blaeu's.1624). these southern stars and constellations had recently been observed by Frederick de Houtman. all of 1603.p. cit. It may well have been that Keyser was the prime mover behind the southern catalog. In 1603 Blaeu issued yet another celestial globe. Keyser's copy returned to Amsterdam. Nevertheless. Plancius. and fell into the hands of Hondius. neithertook notice of the Blaeu celestial globe of 1602. The connection between Houtman and Metius. Except for a very few. and yet the differences too notable for simple plagiarism. however. Blaeu's second celestial globe. The two men obviously knew each other. but significant. published four years later.28 Therefore. Rather. was one of pupil and teacher. as Keyser had his observations sent to his teacher. A navigator instructed in mathematics and astronomy by Plancius. however. 414-432. Furthermore. who doubtless expected his first celestial globe to be widely acclaimed and distributed. 28 Metius spoke of Houtman as 'quondam meo discipulo' in his De Genuino Usu Utrisque Globi Tractatus (Franeker & Amsterdam.p. This globe was almost identical to Blaeu's in size. The collaboration between Blaeu and Houtman may well have been effected by Adrian Metius.Les Globes Terrestres et Celestes de W. were corrected. Upon his return to Amsterdam Houtman gave a copy of his observations to Blaeu who. as Blaeu explains in a cartouche on the globe.Apparentlyignorantof the 1600 Hondius globe and the 1602 Blaeu globe. he reobserved some of the stars. Dermul. p. Obviously the original engraved plates. and new gores were printed therefrom. and was used by Hondius. 37 . Monthly Notices. The origin of Blaeu's southern constellations was not the catalog of Keyser. was less elaborate than the first. heretofore unrecognized. slightly erroneous but much too valuable to be discarded. and Am. differences. Both globes were 34 centimeters in diameter. In the first stage Blaeu added the 27 E. VereenigingNederlandschHistorischScheepvaartMuseum. Although Keyser died at sea. so Houtman communicated his to Metius. which appeared in 1602. B.1940).

dated 1602. earumq numerum multo. and some ancient constellations . in Tycho Brahe. in the BibliotecaAngelicain Rome was describedby Luzio. See Luzio.30Tycho's maternal ancestors. Alterations in the southern hemisphere were. it was at that time the most accurate and extensive globe available. (Figure 1. The table correlating precession and years was moved south of Eridanus. together with those of the Brahe family. 30 These arms. South of Cetus. industria a Guilielmo Janssonio. of course. ut speculo quodam firmamenti. who overlookedthis curious feature. appear at the top of the arch in the famous engravingof Tycho Braheby Jacob de Gheyn. EpistolarumAstronomicarum (Uraniburg. accuratissedispositum. a copy of whichwas bound. The fourteen new constellations and the Nubecula Major and Minor (Magellanic Clouds) were added. in the final state. Based on Tycho's star positions. auctiorem.Blaeu made his first celestial globe sometime between 1596 and 1600. 17. Tychone Brahe. he moved some of this information to the title text which.ad stellasa Tychonepositas factis. lacking information about the southern skies. ac stellarumordinem summa. op. on the Liechtenstein gores. There were only two other changes in the northern hemisphere. appears on the extant Aries gore. but does show the new southern constellations. had revised the original engraved plates so as to produce his now justly famous 34 centimeter globe of 1603. deprompta. qua fieri potuit. One was the addition of information on the nova in Cygnus. but left his signature in the dedicatory cartouche as before. read: SPHAERA STELLIFERA In qua. magni Tychonis.) In the latter version this was replaced by a picture of Tycho. Blaeu's second celestial globe. probably with a portrait of Tycho: only a corner. cit. 29 One intermediatestate globe. p. 56. maiori studio et accommodatioribusinstrumentis. trecentas et plures Antarctico mundi vertici viciniores stellas.expanded. ex observationibus secundum iam a Frederico Houtmanno. Astronomo incoparabilihabitis. Astrorum studiosi. is an escutcheon. quam hactenus.'Vermutlichist dies die altereFassungund damit der HG 34 cm in Nordlingen das frtihesteExemplardieserGlobenartin Bayern'. auctiorinumeroet accuratioridispositione. more extensive.new astronomical information. it was superceded by the Hondius globe of 1600.vestro commodo et delectationidepictas. However.uniuersumSijderti ornatum. no doubt eager to salvage what he could of his first globe. 1596). Alois Fauser discoveredan intermediatestate globe in the StadtgeschichtlichesMuseum in Nordlingenand commented. depromptas.AltereErd-undHimmelsglobenin Bayern(Stuttgart. During this brief period Blaeu must have sold only a few copies of the globe. 1964). The other was the title text.Argo Navis and Eridanus . By the following year Blaeu. 29 in the final stage he changed his signature to 'Guilielmus Ianssonius Blaeu'. quondam discipulo.See Alois Fauser. bearing the arms of Bille. among other places. and a text attributing the southern observations to Houtman: Habetis hic. Because the new southern constellations overran the text south of Eridanus in which Blaeu discussed his work with Tycho. viro D.. et quo deinceps seculo. p. accomodata intueri liceat.probablycorrectly. 38 . annoq: 1600. A' 1603 To recapitulate. is smaller and less elaborate than the first. which explains why only one partial copy is known today. ex observationibrecens a Nob.