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(Question B1 continued)

Current electricity

A cell of electromotive force (e.m.f.) E and internal resistance r is connected in series with a
resistor R, as shown below.

E r

The cell supplies 8.1×103 of energy when 5.8 ×103 of charge moves completely round the
J C
circuit. The current in the circuit is constant.

(c) (i) Calculate the e.m.f. E of the cell. [2]

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(ii) The resistor R has resistance 6.0 . The potential difference between its terminals
is 1.2 V. Determine the internal resistance r of the cell. [3]

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(iii) Calculate the total energy transfer in the resistor R. [2]

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(Question B1 continued)

(iv) Describe, in terms of a simple model of electrical conduction, the mechanism by which
the energy transfer in the resistor R takes place. [5]

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SECTION A

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

A1. Data based question. This question is about change of electrical resistance with temperature.

The table below gives values of the resistance R of an electrical component for different values of
its temperature T. (Uncertainties in measurement are not shown.)

T/ °C 1.2 2.0 3.5 5.2 6.8 8.1 9.6


R/ 3590 3480 3250 3060 2880 2770 2650

(a) On the grid below, plot a graph to show the variation with temperature T of the resistance
R. [3]
Show values on the temperature axis from T = 0 °C to T = 10 °C .

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(Question A1 continued)

(b) (i) Draw a curve that best fits the points you have plotted. Extend your curve to cover
the temperature range from 0 °C to 10 °C . [1]

(ii) Use your graph to determine the resistance at 0 °C and at 10 °C [2]


.

Resistance at 0 °C = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Resistance at 10 °C = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(c) On your graph, draw a straight-line between the resistance values at 0 and at 10 °C . This
°C
line shows the variation with temperature 0 an 10 °C ) of the
(between assuming a linear change. °C d resistance, [1]

(d) (i) Assuming a linear change of resistance with temperature, use your graph to
determine the temperature at which the resistance is 3060 . [1]

Temperature = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . °C

(ii) Use your answer in (d)(i) to calculate the percentage difference in the temperature for a
resistance of 3060 that results from assuming a linear change rather than the
non-linear change. [3]

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(e) In a particular experiment to measure the variation with temperature of the resistance, each
measurement of resistance has an uncertainty of ! 30 and the uncertainty in the
°
temperature measurements is ! 0.2 C .

(i) On your graph in (a), show the uncertainties in the values of R and of T
for temperatures of 1.2 °C, 5.2 °C and 9.6 °C . [2]

(ii) State and explain whether, within the experimental uncertainties, the relationship
between resistance and temperature could be linear. [2]

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A3. This question is about a filament lamp.

(a) On the axes below, draw a sketch-graph to show the variation with potential difference V
of the current I in a typical filament lamp (the I–V characteristic). (Note: this is a sketch-
graph; you do not need to add any values to the axes). [1]
V

0
0 I

(b) (i) Explain how the resistance of the filament is determined from the graph. [1]

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(ii) Explain whether the graph you have sketched indicates ohmic behaviour or non-
ohmic behaviour. [1]

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A filament lamp operates at maximum brightness when connected to a 6.0 V supply. At maximum
brightness, the current in the filament is 120 mA.

(c) (i) Calculate the resistance of the filament when it is operating at maximum brightness. [1]

.....................................................................

(ii) You have available a 24 V supply and a collection of resistors of a suitable power
rating and with different values of resistance. Calculate the resistance of the resistor
that is required to be connected in series with the supply such that the voltage across
the filament lamp will be 6.0 V. [2]

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(Question B1 continued)

part 2 Heating water electrically

The diagram below shows part of the heating circuit of a domestic shower.

insulated wire
water pipe
240 V
supply

cold water 14 °C hot water 40 °C


insulated heating element

Cold water enters the shower unit and flows over an insulated heating element. The heating
element is rated at 7.2 kW, 240 V. The water enters at a temperature of 14 °C and leaves at a
3 −1 −1
temperature of 40 °C. The specific heat capacity of water is 4.2  10 J kg K .

(a) Describe how thermal energy is transferred from the heating element to the water. [3]

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.
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.
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.
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.

−1
(b) Estimate the flow rate in kg s of the water. [4]

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(Question B1, part 2 continued)

(c) Suggest two reasons why your answer to (b) is only an estimate. [2]

1. ..................................................................
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2. ..................................................................
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(d) Calculate the current in the heating element when the element is operating at 7.2 kW. [2]

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(e) Explain why, when the shower unit is switched on, the initial current in the heating
element is greater than the current calculated in (d). [2]

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(Question B1, part 2 continued)

(f) In some countries, shower units are operated from a 110 V supply. A heating element
operating with a 240 V supply has resistance R240 and an element operating from a 110 V
supply has resistance R110.

(i) Deduce, that for heating elements to have identical power outputs

R110 [3]
=
R240 0.21.

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(ii) Using the ratio in (i), describe and explain one disadvantage of using a 110 V
supply [2]
for domestic purposes.

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a3. This question is about an electric circuit.

A particular filament lamp is rated at 12 V, 6.0 mA. It just lights when the potential difference
across the filament is 6.0 V.
A student sets up a electric circuit to measure the I-V characteristics of the filament lamp.

In the circuit, shown below, the student has connected the voltmeter and the ammeter into the
circuit incorrectly.

100 kΩ
12 V S
V

The battery has e.m.f. 12 V and negligible internal resistance. The ammeter has negligible
resistance and the resistance of the voltmeter is 100 kΩ.

The maximum resistance of the variable resistor is 15 Ω.

(a) Explain, without doing any calculations, whether there is a position of the slider S at
which the lamp will be lit. [3]

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(b) Estimate the maximum reading of the ammeter. [2]

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(Question A3 continued)

(c) Complete the circuit diagram below showing the correct position of the voltmeter and of
the ammeter in order to determine the I-V characteristics of the filament lamp. [2]

12 V

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b3. This question is about electric current and the effects of electric current.

Electric current

(a) The diagram below shows the circuit used to measure the current-voltage (I-V)
characteristic of an electrical component X.

On the diagram above,

(i) label the ammeter A and the voltmeter V. [1


]
(ii) mark the position of the contact of the potentiometer that will produce a reading
of zero on the voltmeter. Label this position P. [1
]

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(Question B3 continued)

(b) The graph below shows the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of two different conductors
X and Y.

0.50

0.45

0.40

0.35

0.30
Y
0.25 X
I/
A 0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
V/V

(i) State the value of the current for which the resistance of X is the same as the
resistance of Y and determine the value of this resistance. [2]

Current: ........................................................

Resistance: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
........................................................

(ii) Describe and suggest an explanation for the I-V characteristic of conductor [3]
Y.

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(Question B3 continued)

(c) The two conductors X and Y are connected in the circuit as shown below.

12 V

The cell has e.m.f. 12 V and negligible internal resistance. The resistor Z has resistance R
and the potential difference across the conductors X and Y is 5.0 V.

(i) Use the graph in (b) to determine the total current in the circuit. [2]

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.
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.
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.

(ii) Determine the resistance R of the resistor Z. [2]

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(iii) Determine the total resistance of the parallel combination of X and Y. [2]

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b3. This question is in two parts. part 1 is about electrical conduction and part 2 is about
thermodynamics.

part 1 Electrical conduction

In a copper wire the number of conduction electrons is equal to the number of copper atoms in
the wire.

(a) State what is meant by conduction electrons. [1]

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3 –3
(b) (i) The density of copper is 8.93 ×10 kg m and its molar mass is 64 g. Deduce
3 5
that the number of moles of copper in a volume of 1.0 m is 1.4 × 10 . [2]
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3
(ii) Estimate the number of conduction electrons in 1.0 m of copper. [1]

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(c) The diagram below shows some of the conduction electrons in a copper wire. The
arrows represent the random velocities of some of the electrons.

copper wire

Explain, by reference to the motion of the electrons, why there is no current in the wire. [2]

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(Question B3, part 1 continued)

(d) An electric field is established inside the copper wire directed as shown in the
diagram below. The dots represent electrons. The random velocities of the electrons are
not shown.

On the diagram below, draw an arrow to indicate the direction of the drift velocity of
the electrons. [1]

electric field

copper wire

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(Question B3, part 1 continued)


–3 –1
(e) A typical value for the electron drift velocity in a copper wire is 10 m s . In the
circuit below, the length of the copper wire joining the negative terminal of the battery to
the lamp is 0.50 m.

0.50 m

(i) The switch S is closed. Calculate the time it would take for an electron to move
from the negative terminal of the battery to the lamp. [1]

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(ii) The lamp lights in a time much less than that calculated in (e)(i). Explain this
observation. [2]

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(iii) Discuss, in terms of the movement of the electrons, the energy transformations
taking place in the filament of the lamp. [4]

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(Question B3, part 1 continued)

(f) The diagram below shows part of a circuit that may be used to determine the
current - potential difference (I-V) characteristics of a lamp.

An ammeter and a voltmeter are required. On the diagram above, draw symbols to show
the correct positions of the ammeter and the voltmeter. [2]

(g) The I-V characteristics for one lamp are shown below.

I / A 0.50

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.00
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60
V/V

(i) State a range of values of the current I for which the lamp may be considered to
show ohmic behaviour. [1]

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(ii) The potential difference across the lamp is 0.80 V. Calculate the resistance of
the lamp at this potential difference. [2]

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a2. This question is about electric circuits.

(a) Define e.m.f. and state Ohm’s law. [2]

e.m.f.: ...........................................................
...........................................................

Ohm’s law: ...........................................................


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(b) In the circuit below an electrical device (load) is connected in series with a cell of
e.m.f. 2.5 V and internal resistance r. The current I in the circuit is 0.10 A.

e.m.f. = 2.5
V

I = 0.10 A

load

The power dissipated in the load is 0.23 W.

Calculate

(i) the total power of the cell. [1]

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(ii) the resistance of the load. [2]

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(iii) the internal resistance r of the cell. [2]

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(Question A2 continued)

(c) A second identical cell is connected into the circuit in (b) as shown below.

I = 0.15 A

load

The current in this circuit is 0.15 A. Deduce that the load is a non-ohmic device. [4]

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from the proton.

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b3.. . .This
. . .question
. . . . . .is. in
. .two
. . .parts.
. . . .Part
. . . 1. is
. .about
. . . .aspects
. . . . .of. .electric
. . . . .fields
. . . .and
. . electric
. . . . . charge
. . . . . and
......
Part 2 is about thermodynamics.
..................................................................
Part 1 Fields and electric charge associated with atoms
..................................................................
(a) A proton may be considered to be a point charge. For such a proton

(i) sketch the electric field pattern. [2]

(ii) calculate the magnitude of the electric field strength at a distance of 5.0 ×10−11 m
[2]

(This question continues on the following page)

(i)
Using your answer to (a)(ii) deduce that the magnitude of the electric force between
the electron and the proton is . *10?8 N.
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(ii)
(Question B3, part 1 continued)
Deduce that the kinetic energy of the electron is 2. *10 ?18 J.
(b) In a simple model of the hydrogen atom, an electron orbits the proton. Both electron and
proton are regarded as point charges. The orbital radius of the electron is 5.0 ×10−11 m .

..................................................................
[1]

..................................................................
[3]

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(c) The electron in (b) also has electrostatic potential energy.

. . . . . . . . . (i)
. . . .Define
. . . . electrostatic
. . . . . . . . .potential
. . . . . .at. a. point.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [2]

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(ii) Calculate the electrostatic potential energy of this electron. [2]

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(Question B3 part 1 continued)

(d) Using your answers in (b)(ii) and (c)(ii) determine the energy required, in electron volt,
to completely remove the electron from the influence of the proton. [2]

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Fields and electric charge in conductors

(e) Define electromotive force (e.m.f.). [1]

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(f) A filament lamp is operating at normal brightness.

The potential difference across the lamp is 6.0 V. The current in the filament is 0.20 A.
For the filament of this lamp, calculate

(i) the resistance. [1]

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(ii) the power dissipated. [1]

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(Question B3 part 1 continued)

(g) The lamp in (f) is connected in the circuit below. The lamp is still operating at normal
brightness.

B
R

The battery B has an internal resistance of 5.0  and the resistance R of the resistor
15 .

(i) Calculate the current in the resistor R. [1]

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(ii) Determine the e.m.f. of the battery. [4]

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SECTION B

This section consists of four questions: B1, B2, B3 and B4. Answer two questions.

B1. This question is in two parts. Part 1 is about electrical circuits and Part 2 is about the physics
of cooling.

Part 1 Electrical circuits

Andrew is set the task of measuring the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of a filament
lamp. The following equipment and information are available.

Information
Battery e.m.f. = 3.0 V, negligible internal resistance
Filament lamp marked “3 V, 0.2 A”

Voltmeter resistance = 30 kΩ, reads values between 0.0 and 3.0 V


Ammeter resistance = 0.1 Ω, reads values between 0.0 and 0.5 A
Potentiometer resistance = 100 Ω

(a) For the filament lamp operating at normal brightness, calculate

(i) its resistance. [1]

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.
................................................................
.

(ii) its power dissipation. [1]

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.
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.

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(Question B1, part 1 continued)

Andrew sets up the following incorrect circuit.

(b) (i) Explain why the lamp will not light. [2]

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.
................................................................
.
................................................................
.

(ii) State the approximate reading on the voltmeter. Explain your answer. [2]

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(c) On the circuit diagram below, add circuit symbols to show the correct position of the
ammeter and of the voltmeter in order to measure the I-V characteristics of the lamp. [2]

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(Question B1, part 1 continued)

(d) On the axes below draw a sketch graph to show the I-V characteristics for this filament
lamp. [4]

I/A

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 V/V

(e) Explain the shape of the graph that you have drawn in (d). [2
]
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a3. This question is about electrical circuits.

The graph below shows the I-V (current-voltage) characteristic of an electrical component T.

150

100

I / mA

50

0
0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0
V/V
(a) On the graph above, draw the I-V characteristic in the range V 0 to V 6.0V for a resistor
R having a constant resistance of 40 Ω. [1]

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(Question A3 continued)

(b) The component T and the resistor R are connected in parallel as shown below.

40 Ω

A B

When a battery of constant e.m.f. E and negligible internal resistance is connected


between the terminals A and B, the current in the resistor R is 100 mA.

(i) Calculate the e.m.f. E of the battery. [1]

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(ii) Use the graph to determine the current in T. [1]

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(iii) Calculate the power dissipation in T. [2]

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(Question A3 continued)

(c) In order to reduce the power dissipation in component T, a second resistor R of


resistance 40 Ω is connected in series with T. The circuit is shown below.

T R

40 Ω

40 Ω

A B

The battery connected between A and B is unchanged.

Use the graph to determine

(i) the current in resistor T. [2]

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(ii) the power dissipation in T. [2]

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(Question B4 continued)

Part 2 Electricity

Static electricity

(a) A positively charged particle hangs from a vertical insulating string. The particle is
brought above an electrically neutral metallic sphere that rests on an insulating support.

insulating string

positively charged particle

metallic sphere

insulating support

By considering the distribution of charge on the sphere, state and explain whether the
tension in the string holding the charged particle will be less than, equal to or greater
than the weight of the particle. (Assume that the mass of the string is negligible.) [3]

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(Question B4, part 2 continued)

(b) Diagrams A, B and C show a sequence of events in which:


• A: the sphere in (a) is earthed (grounded),
• B: the earth is then removed while the charged particle remains in place,
• C: finally the charged particle is taken away.

A B C

(i) On each of the diagrams A, B and C draw the distribution of charge on the sphere. [3]

(ii) Explain why work has to be done on the charged particle to move it away
from [2]
the sphere.

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(Question B4, part 2 continued)

Current electricity

(c) Define electromotive force (e.m.f.). [1]

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.......................................................................

(d) In the circuit below the battery has an e.m.f. of 12 V and an internal resistance of 5.0 Ω.

e.m.f. 12 V

60 Ω 30 Ω
X

30 Ω 60 Ω
Y

Calculate the

(i) total resistance of the circuit. [3]

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(ii) current in the internal resistance. [1]

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(Question B4, part 2 continued)

(iii) total power dissipated in the circuit. [2]

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(iv) potential difference between points X and Y. [3]

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(e) A real (i.e. non-ideal) voltmeter is connected across points X and Y in the circuit in
(d). Explain why the reading of this voltmeter will not be the same as your answer to (d) [2]
(iv).

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