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H.

Ralph Rawls
Biomaterials
UTHSCSA Dental School
Uses of Ceramics in
Dentistry

PFM crowns, bridges & fixed


partial dentures
Ceramic denture teeth

All-ceramic crowns, inlays,


onlays and veneers
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Other Ceramic Materials
- Grinding Wheels

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Ceramic Glass
 Highly reacted  Ceramic
 Inert compounds  Amorphous
 Oxides such as  Non-crystalline
 SiO2, MgO,  Single phase
Al2O3, Gypsum
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CERAMICS

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PORCELAIN

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Porcelain - Raw Ingredients
• Feldspar–the main raw ingredient
K2O – Al2O3– 6SiO2 (potash feldspar)

Na2O– Al2O3– 6SiO2 (soda feldspar or


albite)
K 2O Na2O Al2O3 SiO2
Potash Soda Alumina Silica

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Composition of Dental
Porcelain

Porcelains
Clay (Kaolin) Silica (Quartz) Feldspar Glasses

70 Quartz
60
is a binder
50 that lacks adequate
40 translucency.
30
– naturally
20 occurring substances
10 e.g. potassium and
0 sodium aluminosilicate
Domestic
Porcelain
High-fusing
Porcelain
Low-fusing
Porcelain
Pigments
The constituents are mixed together and fused to form a frit – this is
broken up (by dropping into cold water) and ground into a fine powder.
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Crystalline Amorphous

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COMPOSITION
2-Dimensional
Silicate Structure Quartz

Glass

Si Various ions can


replace Si:
• Mg, Al, Ca
• Na, B, K
For example,
replacing with:
• Na reduces melt
range
• Al increases
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Dental Ceramics
Processing Methods
SINTERING OF PORCELAIN
The thermochemical reactions
between the porcelain powder
components are virtually completed
during the original manufacturing
process

The purpose of firing is to


sinter - FUSE TOGETHER -
the particles of powder to
form the prosthesis

Richard Van Noort: Introduction to Dental Materials, 2nd edition


UTHSCSA Biomaterials Dental Ceramics http://www.fleshandbones.com/readingroom/ 11
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Production
of porcelain jacket crowns
•  High- (1200-1400°C) &
•  Medium- (1050 – 1200°C)
•  Low-fusing (800 – 1050°C)
porcelains
•  Opaque, dentine & enamel
porcelains
•  Compaction
•  Firing  sintering
•  Glazing

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PFM - Fabrication

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Castable glass
ceramic

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Hot Pressing
Leucite-reinforced glass ceramic
• Leucite-reinforced ceramic Indications
• Crowns
• Based on a glass containing • Inlays
• Onlays
latent nucleating agent • Veneers
• Pressing heated ceramic Empress®
material
• Permits precise
reproduction of full-contour
waxed restorations

• IPS Empress® :

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Mechanical Performance
Necked region
•  Metals usually undergo
plastic deformation
•  Ceramics exhibit brittle
fracture
Brittle behaviour

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Surface Defects
• Theoretical strength of a glass is
approximately 100 times greater than
its measured strength.
  This is due to surface defects
  voids
  scratches
  microcracks
  Known as Griffith's flaws.
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•  When a tensile load is applied ….
•  Flaws act as stress concentrators
•  This produces cracks
•  Cracks propagate and cause fracture failure
Propagation
Load of cracks

Glass

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Fracture of ceramics
and glasses
•  Max strain that glass can
withstand is 0.1%
•  Glass is extremely sensitive to the
presence of surface microcracks
•  Tiny flaws in the interior of the
crown act as initiating sites for
catastrophic failure
•  Two solutions
  provide support using a
stronger substrate
  Produce ceramics that are
stronger and tougher
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Methods of strengthening
porcelains

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Stronger substrates to
support the porcelain
•  Reinforced ceramic
core systems –
support is provided
by another ceramic
material

•  Metal-ceramics – the
ceramic is supported
by a strong and tough
metal

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Crack propagation
Crack propagation in an non-reinforced glass

Crack propagation in a reinforced glass

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Strengthening Mechanisms

  Glazing/overglazing
  Glazing/overglazing

    Application to metal
   Dispersion strengthening
Dispersion strengthening
   Ion exchange
Ion exchange
   Transformation toughening
Transformation toughening
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Glazing/Overglazing
  Glazed porcelain is significantly
stronger than unglazed porcelain.
  Glazing minimizes the number and
size of surface flaws.
  This limits crack propagation within
the porcelain.
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Surface Glaze and Vacuum
Removal of Defects
Firing Surface Modulus of
Atmosphere Condition Rupture (psi)
Material

Porcelain Air Ground 11,000


Glazed 20,465

Vacuum Ground 11,547

Glazed 19,187
Glazing almost doubles strength
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Application of
Porcelain to Metal

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Ion Exchange
  Small ions are replaced by large ions
  Introduces compressive stress into the surface
  Closes surface defects and increases strength
K+ K+

K+ K+
Compression

Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+


K+ K+
Na+ Na+
K+ Na+
K+

Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+


Na+ Na+
Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+
Na+ Na+

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Flexural
Type of ceramic Brand name strength
(MPa)

Feldspathic porcelain 65-85


Alumina core 92-124
Glass-ceramic DICOR 90-124
Non-shrink alumina ceramic Cerestore 105-114
Leucite-reinforced ceramic Optec 105-120
Aluminous core porcelain Hi-Ceram 140-141
Heat-pressed reinforced ceramic Empress 160-180
Glass-infiltrated alumina ceramic In-Ceram 400-446
High alumina, 98% purity 420-520
Gold alloy (yield strength) 350-600
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CAD/CAM
•  Ceramics that can be milled
(machined) to form inlays,
onlays, and veneers.
•  The CEREC [chair-side]
system
•  CAD/CAM
  Computer Assisted Design /
Computer Assisted Machining
•  Can produce restorations in one
office visit.
•  Quick turn-around from a lab
(Craig, Robert G.. Restorative Dental Materials, 11th Edition.
Elsevier, 2002. 18.5.3).

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The CEREC™ Chair-
Side CAD-CAM system
Advantages:
  Single session restoration

  No need to make impressions

  Lab is not necessarily involved

  Restorations have natural appearance

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Computer-Controlled
Milling Machine

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All-Porcelain Application
Pure Alumina Core
•  Procera AllCeram
•  99.5% sintered alumina
•  Digitized scan of die sent to Sweden
•  Coping returned usually w/in 24 hrs
•  Veneered with feldspathic
•  Flexural Strength…around 700 MPa
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All-Porcelain Application
Glass-Infiltrated Ceramic Core
•  In-Ceram Spinel / Alumina / Zirconia
•  Not Slip-cast…dry-pressed into blocks
•  Machined / CAD-CAM
•  Cerec or Celay
•  Flexural Strength…
even >700 MPa!
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Other Advantages of
CAD/CAM Systems
•  Bonding ceramic restorations with
resin cement helps to compensate for
the problems of poor marginal fit.
•  Fracture of ceramic restorations can
be prevented if the preparation has
adequate thickness to resist occlusal
forces.
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Disadvantages of
CAD/CAM Systems
•  Marginal accuracy can be poor, with values of 100
to 150 µm
•  Longevity less than PFM crowns.
•  Durability excellent for inlays; however, full posterior
crowns tend to break within 4 years.
•  Color match limited — Ceramic blocks difficult to
color match
•  Technically challenging: Assistants often
intimidated by CEREC technology
•  High cost CEREC System is ~ $100,000.
•  This cost is transferred to the patient making the cost of a
CEREC inlay $500 - $1,500.
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APPEARANCE
(a review from Biomaterials-1)
• Light Scattering
Due to reflections at surfaces
and refractions at interfaces
between phases.

 Rough surfaces produce a "dull” appearance


 Porosity, inclusions, and crystalline regions
produce translucency or opacity
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• Translucency –
  Transmission of light via an indirect
path through a material
  Pores or crystalline regions reflect
and refract a light beam
 Causing it to be scattered in many
directions as it passes through

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• Opacity – Zero light transmission.
A large amount of scattering can
cause opacity.
  Color (hue): Blue and violet are
scattered more than yellow and red.
  Therefore scattering results in a weak
change in color shade (hue).
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• ABSORPTION Removal of a portion of
light (at certain wavelengths) passing
through a material by electron interaction
  Principal cause of color
  Portion not absorbed is perceived as
color
reflected
scattered
or
transmitted
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• Color Space — Has three dimensions:
  HUE — Dominant wavelength (blue, etc.)

  VALUE — Grey scale ( → → black)


(high value → low value)
 CHROMA - Color saturation, or color intensity

Pastels have low chroma:

is low in chroma
but

HUE
• Figure 2.A color wheel showing complementary colors.

is high in chroma. Component of Color Space


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Questions?