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Concept of Client Teaching

The teaching learning process- (Marites Corsino)


Type of learning- (Joy Anne Lumbres)
Professional and Legal responsibilities of teaching- (Kris Petalver)
Nursing Process- (Dolly Gay Manaligod)
Imogene King’s Theory- (Jocel Paguican)
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THE TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS


Learning
- is a change in human dispositions or capability that persist and that cannot be
solely accounted for by growth.
- defined as the addition of skills and knowledge resulting in mental activity and
behaviour change.
Teaching-learning process
- is a system of activities intended to produce learning.
- involves dynamic interaction between teacher and learner.

CLIENT TEACHING
-Is done for a variety of reasons:
 To promote wellness
 To prevent illness
 To restore health
 To facilitate coping abilities
Teaching Clients and Their Families
- Nurses may teach individual clients in one-to-one teaching episodes.
Teaching in community
-Nurses are often involved in community health education programs.
Teaching Health Personnel
-Nurses are also involved in the instruction of professional colleagues.

Types of learning
Learning
-An experience that occurs inside the learner.
-The discovery of the personal meaning and relevance of ideas.
-A consequence of experience.
-A collaborative and cooperative process.
-A process that is both intellectual and emotional.
Adherence
-ability to maintain Health-promoting regimen
-determine largely and by a health care
Andragogy
- is the art and science of teaching adults
Pedagogy
- The discipline concerned with helping children learn.
Geragogy
- Term used to describe the process involved in stimulating and helping elders to
learn.
Three DOMAINS or Types of Learning
1. Cognitive domain
- The “thinking” domain
-It include six intellectual abilities and thinking process beginning with
knowing, comprehending, and applying to analysis, synthesis and
evaluation.
2. Affective domain
-The "feeling” domain
- It is includes feelings, emotions, interests, attitudes and appreciations.
3. Psychomotor domain
- The “skill” domain
-It includes motor skills such as giving an injection.
Nurses should include each of these three domains in patient teaching plans.

LEARNING STYLES
Visual learners
-learn by processing information visually.
Auditory learners
-learn by listening to the words.
Kinesthetic learners
-learn by experiencing the information or by touching, feeling, or doing.

Selecting Teaching Strategies


-Consider the different teaching strategies during the planning stage and choose a
method of teaching
- that is suited to the individual being taught, for the taught, for the material to be
material to be learned and for you, the teacher.

A consider the following in matching sources of content information with a


suitable strategy for the individual learner and for you, the nurse-teacher.

• A person who cannot read needs a source of content material in other than printed
form. Use of games and role-play are popular and fun ways for children to learn.
• Discussion is not the best strategy for teaching a psychomotor skill. Demonstration of
techniques using a practice model is an effective way of teaching someone to give an
injection.
• Some people are visually oriented and learn best through seeing. Others learn best
through hearing; an explanation or one-on-one discussion may be the most suited
method.
• The nurse-teacher must be a competent group leader to use group discussion as a
teaching strategy.

Some methods are better suited to certain learning objectives than others.
See Table 1-1 for selected teaching strategies for the three types of learning and
characteristics of each strategy.

SEQUENCING THE LEARNING EXPERIENCES


a. Whether formal or informal, teaching requires a plan or it becomes haphazard and the
patient's need for information goes unattended. The following guidelines are helpful in
sequencing or ordering the learning experiences.
(1) Learning is facilitated when there is some personal interest.
 Start with something the learner has identified as a need or concern.
(2) Start with what the learner knows and proceed to the unknown.
 If you do not know the patient's knowledge or skill level, illicit this information by
asking questions or having the patient complete form.
(3) Teach an area that is anxiety provoking first.
(4) Teach the basic concepts first when there are variations or adjustments in a procedure,
then proceed to the variations or adjustments.
 Learners may become confused if they have to consider variations and adjustments
before understanding the basic concepts of a procedure.

STRATEGY TYPE OF CHARACTERISTICS


LEARNING

Explanation or description Cognitive Teacher controls content and pace.


(for example, lecture) Feedback is determined by teacher.
May be given to individual or group.
Encourages retention of facts.

One-on-one discussion Affective, Encourages participation by learner.


Cognitive Permits reinforcement and repetition at
learner's level.
Permits introduction of sensitive subjects

Answering questions Cognitive Teacher controls most of content and


pace.
Teacher must understand question and
what it means to learner.
Can be used with individuals and groups.
Teacher sometimes needs to confirm
whether question has been answered by
asking learner, "Does that answer your
question?"

Demonstration Psychomotor Often used with explanation.


Can be used with individuals, small
groups, or large groups.
Does not permit use of equipment by
learners.

Group discussion Affective, Learner can obtain assistance from


Cognitive supportive group.
Group members learn from one another.

Practice Psychomotor Allows repetition and immediate


feedback.
Permits "hands-on" experience.

Printed and audiovisual Cognitive Forms include, books, pamphlets, films,


materials programmed instruction, and computer
learning.
Learners can proceed at their own speed.
Nurse-teacher can act as resource person.
Need not be present during learning.

Role playing Affective, Permits expression of attitudes, values,


Cognitive and emotions.
Can assist in development of
communication skills.
Involves active participation by learner.

Modeling Affective, Nurse sets example by attitude,


Psychomotor psychomotor skills.
Table 1-1 Selected Teaching strategies

The Professional and Legal responsibilities of teaching


 Nurse as Educator
-being an educator is an important role for the nurse.
-is in a position to promote Lifestyles through the application of health
knowledge, the change process, Learning Theories, and the Nursing and
teaching process when teaching clients and their families.
 Required function in most states.
 One of the truly independent functions of nursing practice.
 Required by several accrediting bodies.
 Supports behavioural changes in the client.
 SELF-AWARENESS
-An all-important first step in teaching.
-Staying both current in knowledge and proficient in skills is first step to
maintaining efficacy and credibility as a teacher.
-Effective teaching is based on nurse’s ability to establish rapport with the client.

The Nursing Process


• Is a systematic, rational method of planning and providing Nursing care
• Its goal is to identify a client’s health status, and actual or potential health
problems, to establish plans to meet the identified needs and to deliver
specific nursing interventions to address those needs.
• It is a G O S H approach (goal-oriented, organized, systematic and
humanistic care) for efficient and effective provision of nursing care.
1. ASSESSING
-is the systematic and continuous collection, organization, validation
and documentation of data.
Activities
 Establish a database:
• Obtain a nursing health history
• Conduct Physical assessment
• Review client records
• Consult support persons
• Consult Health professionals
 Update data as needed
 Organize data
 Validate data
 Communicate/document data
2. DIAGNOSING
-refers to the reasoning process, whereas the term diagnosis is a
statement or conclusion regarding the nature of a phenomenon.
Activities
 Interpret and analyse data
• Compare data against standard
• Cluster or group data (generate tentative hypothesis).
• Identify gaps and inconsistencies.
 Determine client’s strength, risks, diagnoses and collaborative
problem statements.
 Formulate nursing diagnoses and collaborate problem
statements.
 Document nursing diagnoses on the care plan.
3. Planning
-is a deliberative, systematic phase of the nursing process that
involves decision making and problem solving
-Nursing Intervention- is any treatment, based upon clinical
judgement and knowledge, that a nurse performs to enhance patient
and client outcomes
Activities
 Set priorities and goals/outcomes in collaboration with client.
 Write goals and desired outcomes.
 Select Nursing strategies /interventions.
 Consult other health professionals.
 Write nursing orders and nursing care plan.
 Communicate care plan to relevant health care providers
4. Implementing
-is the phase which nurse implements the Nursing intervention
-consist of doing and documenting the activities that are specific
nursing actions needed to carry out the interventions
Activities
 Reassess the client to update the database
 Determine the need for nursing assistance
 Perform planned nursing interventions
 Communicate what nursing actions were implemented.
• Document care and client responses to care
• Give verbal reports as necessary
5. Evaluating
-is a planned, ongoing, purposeful activity in which client and health
care professinals determine
a) The client’s progress toward the achievement of
goals/outcomes, and
b) The effectiveness of the Nursing plan
Activities
 Collaborate with client and collect data related to desired
outcomes
 Judge whether goals/outcomes have been achieved
 Relate nursing actions to client outcomes
 Make decisions about problem status
 Review and modify the care plans as indicated or terminate
nursing care
 Document achievement of outcomes and modification of the
care plan
Documenting

Comparison of the TEACHING Process and the NURSING Process

STEP Teaching Process Nursing Process

1 Collect data; analyze client’s Collect data; analyze client’s strengths


learning strengths and deficits. and deficits.
2 Make educational diagnoses. Make nursing diagnoses.
3 Prepare Teaching plans: Plan Nursing goals/desired outcomes
• Write Learning outcomes and select interventions.
• Select content and time frame.
• Select Teaching strategies.
4 Implement teaching plan. Implement nursing strategies.
5 Evaluate client learning based on Evaluate client outcomes based on
achievement of learning outcomes achievement of goal criteria.