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SENSORY ORGANS  Sense of smell – nose  Sense of taste – tongue  Sense of hearing – ears  Sense of sight – eyes  Sense

of touch – skin PATHWAY FROM STIMULUS TO RESPOND STIMUL US RESPO NSE SENSE OF TOUCH RECEPT ORS EFFECT ORS NER VES NERV ES BRAI N

Structure of human skin Two factors that affect the sensitivity of skin  The thickness of the epidermis • The thicker the epidermis, the more the sensitivity

 The number of receptors

• The more the number of receptors. the more the sensitivity SENSE OF SMELL The position of sensory cells in the nose How the sense of smell works? • • • Chemical substances that dissolve in the mucus stimulates cells that are sensitive to smell The smell-sensitive cells send impulses through the nerve to the brain The brain interprets the smell SENSE OF TASTE Areas of the tongue that respond to different tastes How sense of taste works? • • • Chemical substances in the food dissolves in the saliva and stimulates the taste buds The taste buds send impulses to the brain The brain interprets the taste .

filled with fluid • Contains receptors Eustachian tube • A tube that connects the middle ear to the throat Auditory nerve FUNCTION Collects and directs sound wave to the ear canal 2 3 4 5 6 Directs sound to the eardrum Vibrates when sound wave hit it Amplify vibrations Transfer vibrations to the oval window Transfer vibrations of the ossicles to the cochlea Detects vibrations Converts vibrations into nerve impulses 7 Equalises air pressure on both sides of the eardrum Preventing it from damage Carries nerve impulses to the brain 8 .SENSE OF HEARING Structures of human ears NO. thin membrane Cochlea • A coiled tube. lined with hairs Eardrum • A thin membrane Ossicles • Three small bones Oval window • A small. 1 PART OF EARS Pinna • Made of cartilage and skin • Shaped like a funnel Ear canal • A long tube.

transparent FUNCTIONS • Protects and maintains the shape of eyeball Choroid • • • • • • • • • Retina Conjunctiva Aqueous humour Cornea Absorbs light and prevent internal reflection of light Supplies nutrients and the oxygen Detects light and produces nerve impulses Cones detect colours in bright light Rods detect shades of grey in dim light Protects the cornea Helps in refracting light Maintains the shape of the eyeball Refracts light onto retina . tough and opaque • Middle layer of the eyeball • Has black pigments and a lot of blood vessels • Innermost layer of the eyeball • Has many photoreceptors (cones and rods) • • • Thin.9 Nerve fibres that connect to the brain Semicircular canal • Three semicircular canals situated at right angles to each other • Detect position and movement of head to help us to keep our balances SENSE OF SIGHT Parts of eye PARTS OF EYE Sclera CHARACTERISTICS • Outer layer of the eyeball • White. transparent membrane in front of cornea Watery fluid between cornea and iris Curved.

maintains the shape of the eyeball Hold the lens in its position Contracts and relaxes to change the thickness of the lens Detects light or any images that fall on it Blind spot Optic nerve • • • • • Spot where optic nerve leaves the eyeball Carries nerve impulses from the retina to the brain How the eyes work? . elastic disc Jelly-like substance found between lens and retina Strong fibres Made up of strong muscles Most sensitive spot on the retina Located at the centre of the retina Consists of only cones A spot with no photoreceptor Made of nerve fibres from the rods and cones on the retina • • • • • • • Controls the amount of light that enters the eye Controls the size of pupil Focuses light onto retina Helps in refracting light.Pupil Iris Lens Vitreous humour Suspensory ligaments Ciliary body Yellow spot • • • • • • • • layer of the sclera found in front of eye Hole in the centre of the iris Coloured part of the eye which is continuous with the choroid A transparent.

SHORT-SIGHTEDNESS 1) Person can see near objects clearly. so image is blur 3) Occurs because : a) Lens too thick b) Eyeball too long 4) Can be corrected by using concave lens 5) The lens diverges the light before it enters the eye. cannot focus on distant objects 2) Light from distant object focused in front of retina. so image is formed exactly on the retina .REFLECTION OF LIGHT Occurs when light bounces off the surface of an object REFRACTION OF LIGHT • • The bending of a light ray when it enters a medium of different density When light travels from one medium to another. its speed changes.

so image is blur 3) Occurs because: a) Lens too thin b) Eyeball too short 4) Can be corrected by using convex lens 5) The lens converges the light before it enters the eye.LONG-SIGHTEDNESS 1) Person can see distant objects clearly. cannot focus on near objects 2) Light from near objects converges to a point behind retina. so image is formed exactly on the retina ASTIGMATISM 1) Caused by the irregular surface of the cornea 2) Can be corrected using special lenses or through surgery OPTICAL ILLUSIONS – Confusion of brain BLIND SPOT – When images fall on the blind spot. they cannot be seen because there are no photoreceptors on it .