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A Spreadsheet So!lution
page 62 A Chemical WeekM8()Ciate8 Publieation

voluntary testing of cnemicals threatening children· Bush to review Clirrlon "or-pollution rule {pp.. e~panding the use of powder coatings m fl£'W markets. r 7) • Electrolyzer recovers chlorine from HCI • Thermophilic bacteria yield fertilizer from waste' Onboard distillation targets vehicle emiSSions • ucnen-besed herb icides· Ammonia from urea (p.VOLUME 108...."!lngs offer a 'cure' in many applicationlS lmproved chemistries and novel curIng technologies are. _. and manage your business dealings with Uncle Sam 37 Newsfront 78 ~ngineering Practice: Varied'appreaches for eliminating NOx This article compares the various options for NO...ing the best choice FEBRUARY 2001 43 New. Presented here IS a mathemaocal spreadsheet that can be . _.CIiECOM 3 . 211 • DOE to invest $33 million In 80 research proJects.used to manage the InterrelatlOn.lkall processes. U.S.pe~d... 271 54 Chemicals: Powder ". particularly these looking to eliminate solvent-based paints EERING 70 feature Report: Part 1. but they're still power hogs.Hectrve approach Pradice: Optimizing pneLImatic-conveying 'systems NOl all air movers are suitable for pneumatic conveying. trus han~y desktop tool can help engineers to streamline the tricky task of designing and specifyi'l9 mixers Flow NEWS 17 Chementator: " High-punty butadiene route.md eliminate dependence on mercury has led to improvements In chlor . taking Into account the Impact of surface roughness on iluid flow UM'D White lpedfying rmxers Is simpler for low-viscoSity fluids than It IS lor luqh-vecosrty 0l16.. PUtting li!chnology transfer to work Whethef you're the buyer or the seller.. and streamline the 01/eI~ all ml~r-speclfiallion process The desire to trim energy use . due to the many em"r..'--!-l The methodology discussed here helps enqineers determine pipe diameter. some refillers are considering cutting back on produc1ion of diesel fuel for on-road vehides.. 19) • Anaerobic process makes methane from waste • A vibratory mixer for rnulnphase reactions • Soil fumigant replaces methyl bromlde • A hybrid approach to deSIfoylng waste • BP. Methyl meti1acralate deal· Treat1119 cooling water without ci1emicals (p. mercury research' EPA proposes mandatory testing or 37 chemicals. a f:--+--+~:_. mercury-free processes to split brine I into chlorine and causnc soda are possible. flUId agitation and Unit d. government laboratores offer a treasu re trove of technology-licenslng opportunines for the private sector. Today.. ProdUCing all from wood waste' Nanoporous 'spooges' offered for license' Sne(emediatlon market (p. 25.front Heat exchangers seekcrcssover appeal Rising prices for oil and gas lire giving SOme energy~effioent plate-and-frame deSIgns an edge over therrdorntnant 83 Engineering shell-and-tube coumernarts CHEMICALENGINEERING WWW.such as rruxer .Novel vi5CoU5~ Huids mIXer' Propylene OXide route..ECIFYING MIXERS .zer ~gns A HANDY TOOL FOR SP. thanks to the recent commerdaliza1ion of improved electrodes. 62 IN THIS MODERNIZING ISSUE CHlOR-AlKALI TECHNOLOGY 31 COVER STORY 62 Feature Rep<>rt: Use this spreadsheet approach to simplify mixer spedfication By managing the complex Interrelationships among key va(jables. Mining the 'Federal Reserve' of technology U.. are helping operators trim electricity use. NO. 23) • 'Non-regulatory solutions' now part of EPA policy. mixer specification Is SlIII a complex underta lng.men<tonsthat must be balanced to ellsure the desired mixer performance. This article woll help you locate technologies of inler5t.fllps of Ihe key variables. follow these tips to get the most from your techrology-Iitensmg and commercialization efforts 31 Newsfront: Improved chlor-alkali processes trim energy consurnption Chlor-alkali plants are runnrng more cleanly today than they cld 20 or 30 years ago. _. This could [eoparidize supply 15 Feature Report: Part 2. control. and phase out mercury use New d/esel-desulfurization rules put refiners in i! quandary faced with stricter threshold limits on sulfur. Koch setile with EPA· Fungus degrades bispheno' A • Guarding against Legionna"e's disease (p. membranes and eleClroly.a . and offers guidance for choosing the most cost. Recent developments. including bipolar memo branes jlnd other IYPe5 of saltsplitting celts.S. Read on to review the key aiterla for ma1<....

Moreover. is quite COIDpler. luiils milcing has lang been considI ered an art that ~q~:h:esthe diUcafe balandng or 1lliIrer speed.i. wgnificant percentage of fluid-mixing applications in the ebemleal proceea indutrias (CPO deal with lewviscasity fluids.tluid velocity it. the program illustrates the interrelationships of mixer-performance criteria. TJUs spreadsheet. 36 and 54 ftlmin.le simpler thM f(lr . All terms are defined in the. mathsmsbical spreadsheet Ihat can be used bo streamline mixer speei:ficatiDll. ft/min. divided by the tank'.36 36 54 54 ft/min.s artiCle demonstrates toot.35 0. v. other design parameters will vary in 'Ways that are not neees- .dea directly fromwww . D/. the specifi- INOMENCLAliURE· cation or fluid mixers for 19w-visccsity applications. including bow-these criteri~.sulids are encauutered.i"9 Bvlk-~ui. ncmenclature box.A. ft/min. o/r DiT OjT ].=g A FEBRUARY 2DD1 m necessary in this exercise as 8 starting point for other calculations.Joeil)' "ebdly IB 18 . TABL'E 6. medium or violent miring: 81'S the only materia specified. ft/min.. medium and violent mixing have lion: (l) as the pri:tqary pumping cabeen cited. in the literature and are pacity of the mrpeller in ftSlmin (Q). here is ..at inevitably occur wben high-eiseosity fluids or . the reader WiU he able to handle the tnore-wmpficated situations Ih. T. Since these mixing .ing: Violenl mixing: Mild !1'Il><.ing.35 6. However. Drnry Sharpe Mixers.. ftlmin.COM the authol1l a:i:bitrinily define mild.t of average bulk-flald velocities (VOl of 19. dne t<> the many critcri!l that CllJl be =00 to define mixer perfbnnance . in the mixed tank is defined in Eq)1n. in ft2 fA). illiorpre.tiOll is understeed for low-viscosit:y llWds.15 0. where mild. Gales ReyNo. TABLIE 5. fu. Average.)/T Ii)IT 0. Once zuixer Specifiea. ~. horizontal tanoll is usually left: !o the user. Iluid agitation.sbarpembnracom. mediUJn and mlent mixing' !IS the "qui. Presented.d Bvlk-nuid Bulk-"uid aul~-Aui" Bolk-Auid Bvlk-Auid -elO:cily ""Iocllr velocity ""Iooi]y ". 6:1 CHEMICAl.35 vl!I'iaoles..Cover Story Mixler S e.BLE 4. M~d mi.bulk. Inc. ENGlN5'ERING WWW. crcss-aectienal area. cilO be ilownlb. Medi.m mixing. T:ABLE 3. Here.um m.tion Steven F. regardless of the characteristic chosen as the basis :For mixer spec:l:licatiOll and scaleup. batch dimensions. The bulk-fluid vel<lcity Quantified values for mild. Designed for low-viscosity·fluid applications. tewis E.CHE.. wm.nuids of hlgb visccslty. and otlllV 'TABLE TABlE5IJMMARY t. va(y with scaleup. above."i"9: Vialenl mi.. Inc.25 0. respectively.25 0.valen. TABLE 2.regimes haee no standard ilefinition. h/m/n.peed UPI milerspecifica.cificali:on ilia Sp ~eadsheel· fry this spreadshut's logic to simplify and s.

Newtonian behavior also increases. If i1uid vi . the selection tables should Dot be used. Z Newtoruan fluids requires considerable expertise and should be avoided by Shalt Balf!e Impeller or c t-----T----i FIGURE·1. the end user should describe the mixing requirements in his OTher lection charts sbould be used with great eantio or not at all.. 63-68) were generated using' a Microaofl. The basic mixer dimensions.y is greater than 100 cP. The spreadsheets (Tables 1-{j) emplov orr ratles. shown (B.3510 demonstrate the Imp. because an accurate and complete def· inition mixing requirements is vital. 0.nrore than miniscule concentr a tions. Ail viscositiea increase.ng in ten i~y When cansulting WWl an equipment desiCJler.Bnd Z) are defined In lila nomencl<!lIJre box (1'. To further complicate matters. This step in the design and pecificati.5cantly heavier. thereby exceeding Lh.thin the mix. thelikelibood thatIluids will exhibit non.eT may limit cerl:Jtin change . a larger motor may exceed tbe capability ofthe drive (also known" the gear redueerl or the mixer shaft. T. should jointly fill out a mixing-data sheet that methodically defines all the important aspects of mixer performance. the designer and use. 01) the othor band. 0 new mixer might besigni. Excel preadsheet uuderthe pretense that most fluid applications involve low-viscosity liquids.ses: lujected or formed in situ.. gases tlutt are present i.Ud.e.3 . If gases are present in . For instance.in. In addttton.~.j to SlltislY process need . As illustrated in this sketch. slow setilillg Tate. then a completely new mixer would be required. which drives the impeller. left). 0 process fluid: complicates mixer design. C.on proce mWil not be rushed or oversimplified. aile may use the tables to design mixers that contain solids with. and ruay hamper the ur efulnes of !. If that is the ca e. '!'bis assumptio» is necessary in order fur the data generated by the tabl to be accurate.fu some instances. '01 0. then the se- Equipment description The basie mixer eonfiguratton recommended for simple applications is shown in Figure 1 (above. No one characteristic can be singled out for selection and scaleup in all cases. i1. Complicating factor Viscosi~: Tables 1-6 (pp. components .ty of the process vessel or the building structure. Fluids with rapidly settling aHde may require mere that are mODY times larger than those suggested by the tables.25 . it is difficult for changes to be made to the unit without re_roaving it and retuming it to the lacWry • . Defining m. The design or mixers fur bigh-viscosity applications or for non- own wards.be selection tables.sarily imuitive to the engineer.nd 0. the batch has a Iiquid-depth-to-tank-diameter ratio CHfMICAl ENGINEffiING WWW.1I a liquid medium pose a major problem in mixer specification. on mixer operalins parameters of varying this ·rallo those with limited experience:· Solids': Tile presence of solids .. It i during this recital that the designer forms judgments about the intensity of mixing reqru. G". Once a mixer is manufactured and installed. 62).e cIIpaci.CHECOM FEBRUARV 200 I 6.

" rsBp]:in Colo. of mixer size.. cansilevered shaftsl in de. select tanks with aZI Taraboot 1. by multiplying by 2. while the second mixer n:tight weigh 1. by &peci('~c. For the examples 'provided. (2) can be solve<! for R 1. the t!U)k diameter iT). 'lil. gal.4.1wge1' baille' dt) notnecessarily One way to avoid 'this seeoario is to i. A design ratio of ztr » 1 usuCriticll11 designpueameters ally danntas lONg.dSheet Ill". calculates tim batch bmiwnJ:al crcss-scetinnal !Im!l 1Al linm the tank diam'ltilr (T) listed in ColumnB ria Equatioll (3). Motor borsepower an. and reqWJ:ed tank diameter are opti· mized.when the impeller experiences flnctnpeller cannot form in the batch apace...me the.. Howe".000.o mosL-criticalparameters involved ers long. Th. with DO bottom bearing) to drive aDD eaWi appl'O'<iJnately 113 01 the liquid depth (Z) from the bottOm Qftbe tank. they are more diflicult to specify than a mixer'. thereby producing II bending Ratios of impeller diameter to tank diameter (D/Tl normally range from .l may.r may requtre multiple impellers. chanical C!lIlfigll". Tbe ratio of bafile width l'O 'Operating speed. p. ~hOWJl in 111. as repm. The re&u:lts are generaeed in Column B and copied into Column C.seleeted. As previously stated. the designer mhet deme 1 depicts one of four antiswirllmf· fl.0.c.EqlJati<l.~al dimensions. iII tbat eell for relative caleulations done ill snbsequent rows.. . e Once Q ismolVn. T<>furtber explain the spoci:ficatil1I1.OijO gel has heen.igu of a wi'el' from Cokrrm . '!'be liquid depth (Zl if! equal to twioe the diameter (2ft). interfennoith it. Q.spaed are tb. 'impeller diameter rDJ: The :impeller diameter CD) is calculated in inches. stresses. for each ofthe batch volumes input into CoIUDUI A. $haft and impeUe'r system Iall measured in rpm}.k1}1 fatigue tho mixershaft tor other major componeuts)..Inlll@.r rapos sig:n:lfi=tly fI't'Iate. batches withZ. Furthermore.' tJopi>E6 as $E$6to . by the ratio of impellar di ameter to tank diameter (D'I. Wrt. of conditions. whic..JWlj!. Six "ebi. a batch shape with UT=l. the sl'~ U5IlS bulk-fluid velocity (lI'} from Cell 12 Iinput. ''rhe sh.e (V): A range ofusru"-s:~'f.". AB a precauti.. E'l'JaI to 1112.sj1Q~[Ly fluand ensure that they dliJIJ1' from the ids from swirling due In the i'mpel1er rotefum.fgh 600 lb and cost $5. 62. The eomplete des. shaft tp the lowost bilaring ill.xtend evsr the lenglih of the llli.>eDsl~·e.OO0--2Q. Most fluid A batch. ecmplicated med~li"er a certain level of lle.bio practical limits.l. the gear reducer. as shown.abion inten"sity impmed by the mixer and also cO. oneIll"!I.as Cell $1$2]. the spreadsheet logic should not be .b i$ lnputinto Cell E6. these tables can be gnnerllted for n wid .. than 1. the Br. .Q!iXer performance ""c. and then sol .rlmnd. range or parameters.[1. by multiplying tho diameter oCthemi>:.ese forres On the othe.W hf)'w jhe bulk mIld velocity (V') and DIT ratio impact mixer iIlput at the top (If the spreadsheet. must first be fuund in fill per minute.!led for ""I· UlD"S greatar than 10.scos.haIt speed before it can caleulate shalt pow".It.epted as ""' industry derd for low. tions.ity·fll. the resultant vi. in Column A. If the tank diameter. or BIT. WJ:ren designing the spreadsheet equations. where they 9. B. Baffles designed tn this bratirm will 'lui.."..d batch tTl from'ColuJDIlB. of this shape 'is easy to mix using a single hydrofoil impeller. volume. ating horizontal forees that piISli it towards the vessel!! wails.(defined as ZITI of approximately 1.>.:in order fo.500 lb and cost $lO'.pecifioatimru.S.. Columll. agitati<m. the basis for the caleulafions in.10mixers use a c!lll~il''''j}''''iI.4.onazy measure. program c". bratitm of tile drive.F.. Tables 1--6 were generated uaing the equations and calculations tllat foUow. whiob.. (3) ""til Unfortunately. "astly piece of machinery.TJ. At this mtio. top right) tb.'ery heavy. La a manufacturer.rliJrmaace. Bending moments occur mal flnw patterns produead by tit" im. of the system.. reratio are ".0. ih. a mechanical standpcini an Important but complicated task.. first mixer runs at the actual motor speed and does not nflj!{) a gear re.. .ill U..mpro ve .11e This distance is defined ~ C!Z~ll4. With this asswnptiOf.nJmuWllaW the mL""r's si".hihte.0 yield the radius of a eylinderin .000 gal Columns Band C.~.fix the value.1$0repreeDt ]jquid depth.fini:Qg the mixer's capability to whiilh are e:"I. ideal for mix:ing and. are the bending momenta.lid applicaducing its 1if00ycle to min utes.ied "."" deCcrro.Butto ca]cu]ateN. es well as tios signifi=Uy less than 1.ented below: Vgo1 = (ilE~)'(2R) (7. infermation Iisted in ColumnsB thr. batch "oJ"..A. t". When these values are ducer.nm. ea1"uiateci. gen. ~ required pumpingrate. in the table insert (p. while arbitrary. by multiplying by 12. column. m aretypical oFmoat miring applications.. F becomes the dimensionless pumping number IVII as $bawn in Equation (4): . s Equaeion (1) for Q..t the second . it will require a gear reducer. the canliilevered·shaft lellgtb in fact. i :input 'into Cells Al3 through AS3. such as a specified buls-fluid velocity.750 rpm and S4 rpm.. .m:i:xer to operate at II lower shaft speed.d Dlscusslen of ealeulatdons mtser shaft speed de£ioe the <lgit.t mixer might ".! being ideal. Dr those With ZI'rTa~ stresses p:roduoed by terque.. with OJ¥.:lO.wment that adds to the tcrque-In0.aft IIIU~t be of suilicient diameter 1Q keep i..es positioned at a 90·deg angles re.25 to 0. impelLer. Thas. ing finer graduations ofDIT and Y'.n' to the taJlk cil'll1lmt<). should be frequencies coincide.termine the natural frequencies of vispeeti. diooU!ter ('1:) and liquid depth (Z). witlrln accept· mum difficult 10 mix because the norable limits.0 .. consid e r two different lO·hp misers with respective shaft speeda or 1. These baffles preveat low·vi.l!~~ ) [2} stan- The spreadsheet automatiepJly converts the radius to diameter. Fig· duced Shall.ough It.tioos.. is II! .. calculated 'in inches using til. C(llumn D. tahl~ summary (ilQx. support Lb.holt( a shaft. range of 25().halhpeed (N): The sproa. slender vessels unixHorsepower and shail: . and inches to feet.. (2) were choselJ to delllOrulLr.".1'1 it. These volumes. 5. 8hooo batches.OOO. To do this.

COM FEBRUARY 2001 65 .OHEMICAloNGINEERING WVO"<'I.CHE.

$ have been "fixed" to render N dimensionless. expressed in units of rhcusanda of galion'S. or from oilier types motion. 2. N R. :D"Np !' FalAUAAY 2001 (7) Column ll~ lurn.on. or N". by dividing by 12 injJt and ilia acceleration of gravity mllst be input as 32 IlIs2. and to illustrate the effect or scale 00 N!W. wben analyzing mixer performanee. and N is obtained from Column F. Nl'r decreases with increasing volume. Froude number (N~: The Fronde number. Colu-mn r.Cover Story Column H. Therefore. When the :SllreaiL.t N!W increases with volume for a fixed bulk-fluid velocity.8 tha same for any volume listed in atabl e.wIl. As hewn in Column R. J{. from Cell $E$5. has just been generated in Oelunm F using Equal:ion (41. torque per noiume IT Torque: per volume can. for P. the density as specific gravi1. Notice that the TQI V reQuJred for mixers delivering " constant bulk-fluid velQcity . D must be converted to f!.g more turbulent. Co111. Column E. TIli i the value used to specify mi xe r performance because it accounts for' variations in fluid properties. Ln order {or the equations in the spreadsheet to be valid. N.helf. For example. the Froude number is not significant. which i not available off the .~ calmer surface conditions as the volume iaereasea. divide the minimum motor horsepower from Column G by the mixed volume from Column A divided by 1.ted . you would b. uch as 1. is calculated by dividing the value in Colwnn. But baJlles do not prevent the surface of the fluid from surging.beet calculates SHp. Notice lha. P is actually a form of HI' whose' UIUI. and is calculated using Equation [6). The Reynold number i~ a ratio.A by 1. 1>6 CHEMICAl ENGJN~RlNG WWW. and aha:!'!. Turnover is calculated by di- . and Is used mora frequeatly than.is required on the right hand side of the equation to make the units dimensionless. Rather. a manufacturer may rightly encourage you to purcha e a. expresses the ratio of' inarbial to grm. calculated via EqUlltion (8). Column Cul. it incorporates this correction factor.CHE. it Js helpful La see bow it varia with volume. sess. The valuesjn Column I are generated by dividing torque (Column Hl by the batch vel"me (VI. say. torque (T qi: Torque is • significant characteristic or property used to specify a mixer. A constant 10.-e.-(6l (4) The.t.haft power (SHp): The shaft horsepower i shown in Column E. to minimize the purehase cost over that of" nonstandard motor. required 'to produce the pumping rate (Q).COM J. The higher the Froude number. speed. tendard motors do no~ come in the ratings calculated in thiS column. potoer per volume (H_pIV): To build this column. and 3 hp. ilie lprque required for mixers providing a constant bulk-fluid velocity increase with volume.ler to the process fluid. (8) In order (or N I'r to be dimensionless. The user hould purchase the nextlarger standard motor.. [f YOIl order II motor with a L23·hp rating. Bl!(lause this article eonsiders only fully baIDed appllcations (where a surface vortex is not produced).smnt. Cotumn 1. t Batch turnovers per minute is a common cbaracteriatle considered by mixer designers. minimum..= K is expressed iu scientific notation. 53. rearranged to !!OI". horsepower of the motor (Hpj: The minimum molor horsepower is cal¢ul<>ted by dividing the haft power in Column E hy O.5. given the impeller diameter mHi:om Column D. However. 'otic" that the required horsepower per volume decrease with volume for mixers that deliver B constant bulk-fluid velocity. The latter. This gives units of hp per thousands of gall')ns. a V· haped surface.. while the bulkfluid velocity remains r. lL is well known that as the Reynolds Dumber increases. (5) This equation must be. the greater the surface deformation of the mixed fluid. which would probably be in stock. must be above 10.025·Hp TQ=--N-.000. as well a for power losses through gears.with tbe bottom tip of the V at th mixer shall) because they prevent the fluid from rotating horizontally and centrifugnlly towards the outer edge of Columll G. in the correlations discussed. 5. be used to scale up a mixer. N must be converted to revls by dividmg by 60 Blolin. -preadsheel then ealeulates the shaft speed tNJ. and the dimensionles pumping number uVqi from Cell $E$8. Lb-hp motor.lltiotull Inrces imparted by an impel. motors come in standard sizes. In this equation. l:/p is ~he 11I1mmUD) horsepower obtained from Column G. Column K serves to "erify that turbulent conditions exist. a sbown inEqu~tion (5) below. bearings and seal . The basis for the calculation ofSHp i tho power number. liquid density (p) is calculated u ing' the specific gravity from Cell impeller diameter (D) is known from Column D. the flow regime is beconrin. .): The Reynolds number is calculated in Equation (7) using tbe impeller diameter from Column D. in rpm.ouers per minu . the mixed Ilow must be turbulent (in other words. provided OM wants to maintain a similar bulkfluid velocity in the lat'gAr tank a in the smaller 00e. ltV). of inertial to viscous forces. calcula. the tank. ch ar ged a high price ror eustomieation of the nonstandard motor. 'In this equntiou. for the sake of minimizing operating costs. and fluid viscosity from Cell 5E$<l. the user can e.). torque per vol· ume. 1. R'ey"old$ number (NR. inee the user of !:bese selection charts is usually more concern ed with the overall magnitude of NR<' rather than Its exact valne. All other terms are knO\\1I1: Np j dsfined in Cell $E$7. Baflle!linhibiHheformation ofa surface vortex (in oilier words.(100).000 gal when writing the equaticn in Cell 113. shall peed from Column F.

Ct!~.H~MIC.AL ENGINEERING WWW.COM FEBRUARY 2001 67 .C.

k (13) Impeller diameter and shaft. and then raised to the third power. Col- lations of the beat transfer lid in Column R. respectively.NG1N~RING WWW. with the given heat-exchange S\lJ"· Coll. It is calculated in Column Q to facilitate subsequent calcu- Column 0.viding tho pumping capacity of the impeller lQ) in galIroin by the botch volume in gaUOIlS from Column.CQM fEBRUARY 2Q01 . U. heat eepacity. $L 9 and S1$10. umn 111. which is used to cal6. = rJ) 12 (9) This correlation predicts that the blend time for a batch increases with volume for 8 fixed bulk-fluid velooity . 'Ihe result is lImin or turnovers per minute.)' P~II (12) blend number includes the effect ofDI'l'. as defined in Cell.CIiE. D is first divided by 12 to convert-to It. Although these values ofQ ars shown in Column 0.impeller tip speed (U. where the agitated film healtransfer coefficient emerges as k on the lett hand side: ColURm .$I.8. the ral:io fluid visco$ities frtlm cells E$4 and Cell $L$4. The Prandtl number is a function of fluid properties such all viscosity. and.(J:!.N~. hT= K . agitated-film heattransfer coefficient (h): The ngitated-film beat-transfer coefficient is required to estimate the ability to add or remove heat from a IlI'OC~SS ve el. HGWe\'eT. 'I'hls correlation predicts that the agitated-film tank diameter (T) Irom Column. 'Cl!pectively. is fixed under conditions of increasing batch vul ume and constant bulk-fluid velocity. A. pIlmping capacity (Q): T!)e impeller pumping capacity (gallons per minute). the shaft speed in rpm tfrom Column FI. and thermal conductivity. In this instance. Below is the standard correlation from which the heat-transfer coefficient i~ calculated: NN. The pumping number from CcllES7.8 stanf (k"J from Cell $L$7..): The impeller tip speed is calculated by Equation 191: U. 8. wbich bo" that the number of tumevers per minute decreases with volume. $L 5 and $LS6. p". the heat-transfer-equation eon- In Column R. calculated using or Cf-{EMICALfi. respectively. This rnore-cornplex form of the ~N.lm"P. N Pr tl-om C01= Q. and lhe expo. thermal conductivity (k) from Cell SL86. Dents 11.time (9): Blend time lin minutes) can be calculated using Equation 1101. peed are obtained from Columns D and F.constant velocities take longer to traverse the larger tanks. the mathemabioal equation is fneorpcrated directly into Column M. 'ii. coefficient Column R. blend. o~ !··(~t N._ (11) This dimensionless ccrrelariee can be expanded a shewu in Equation (13).. NRr from Column K. impeller diameter (from Column DI are multiplied. The entire result is multiplied by 7. $E$4. The values have been cerreeted to render NPr dimensienle s. Prandtl nwnber (Np). is listed in Co1w:nn 0 to illustrate its variation with volume at a fixed bulk-fluid valoeity. b and c from Cells . where No is the blend numberfmm CeUSE$9andNis thecaleulated shaft speed from COlumn F: N. Q is calculated using EqyBtion (4).=N9 nOI faces. Column Q. for a fixed bulk·fluid velocity.4S to <anvert from ft3/min to galI~ culata turnovers per minute in.[D"Ne)a(GpIJ)~(J1_)' p /.Equation [lllisthe basis for caloulating blend time as shown in Column "P.

.25 and 0.or O. Napta.""nL t~rthe rithm. RJ. Asing" i 8 uitable description of the urns-that one identifies the ccnditicns. N.Gale:Si:iatn P">~ WWW. The same observations hold true when comparing Table 3 with Table 4 (where V' 36 ftJminJ and Table 5 with Ta ble 6 rwhere V 54fiJminJ.Y.bard w" LUt· 'Cud agitAtion refresbee eedee.\mil]1rm.li'luid·pbase mixing applieatiau in whieh the mixer is performing satisractoriJy. D.4quirro 'Olber Readinp TABI. lor medium mixing and a DIT !If 0.JI Clu!m. respectively.000 5. lflhe motor is larger than specified by th. while .~~~~ Algo- .2 h 1!tuJ(h)(ft2j('f) 35. TQ.. which reflect 11 constant bulkfluid velocity of 1ll NOlin.8. next-latger available motor is sIigjilly less than that specified by Table 4 will perform similarly to the ex. which is clos enoug h to the 1. Suppose a mixer is required for a Jiq. the resulting torque will be much higher than the 1.W' Yor:k. standard CO ufigurabion). Brodltey.52. "j-r111id 1'1'10008 T"'lthnolom-: McGraw-Hill Nl!. Andre.. have D IT ratios of 0.at Table 4 recommends a Furlherlllore.-lb specified in Table 4. and h decrease.e table. 19911 Another use for these selection tables is to facilitate mixer scaleup. "Facing tb. H. R'Dd B(IIkker.66 Hp V' it/min 11 18 A m'in 1.a. 1 1.8 in-lb. n '8. The first step involves examination of Predicttng proce re ults the six. 69 CHEMICAL ENGlN. and thai the term "mild blendpredueed by this mixer-motor duo.35. th. FManD. This: mixer has a l-hp motor and a ahaft peed of' 190 rpm.New'i ork. Notice th.3 1.OOO'gal bedding light on the mixing jn~ tank.946. pro:u:b. and is • inth».n.. 8 designer must provide additional surface area or larger ternperature-driving [0""_ to get the required heat transfer in larger vessels.ERING .o.9 1. as shown sspatwo tables for mild mixing at 10.E 7.. Os ~["{[QdSIm:rp<. bulk-Iluid velocity.4 332 1.r.l i:atiom. Olrlah = ue. The user should seJecl a gear redueer that yields the next-lower available shaft speed. th. Kodacsbe.000 183 190 107 100 J89.OOO.tpc. .es the higber horsepower and lower shatt peed." McC ruw-Hill. the mixer manufacturer should adjust ilie impeller diameter so that it that fully utili ..000 0. Using a 3-hp motor at 100 rpm will al· most eertainl )' be adequate for the I).QOO. and the gear reducer aeleeled gives a shaft speed lower than the one in Table 7.3. Motor tlo"epowar N rpm 117 42 TABLE V gal Tumovers per min SpeelffcaHon V gal IMOO 10.in this case a 3·bp or a 314-hp. 6.4 a Table 4 InformaHon fxlsllng appnCOfiOA Tabl .Y... t. Ad l~lIIliquid agi . Tokyv and tiOti. Tables 1 and 2. Scalaup MoforH hp 1. Compnrfsen among tables A general observatien of Ibe selection cllartsreveals several dynamiQll oceurring alllong the tables.OOO·galapplication.L.890. PriDcip~eB"and Appllca S. 3S!l-$9.13 1 3. The most-important data are the motor l.• aruI Ricks. Julia..S SO.·5 1.52 0. va:ncei. BplV.pecilied byTaWe 4 fur prod ueing a bulkfluid velocity QF36 flImin.galmixerwbose torque shelf. F"m"w:)' 197 6.llrst row aCTable 4..000 gal. hp 2.31 1. The operatar wants to specify a mixer that will perform just a well in 8 5.S heat-transfer coeJIicient decreases with increasing volume. isting llliNer in the l"OOO-gal pplieatien. ~c:. Dkki!. E:ng:.that d~y 'res~mble those of valuable during' seiactlon mbiars. or .946.-Ib rec• ommended by the table. If on e vinere se the motor horsepower to 5 hp (the next-higher. Rl. 19S3.S .66-hp motor off the 5umetlwt a 5.""" ~ mte U. Ssr..-eby uid-phase process in a lO. In practice.• ~ltsy 201)0.6 SIl 401' N rpm InT~b V' tl/m.porl Phenomena.iy. The tmljue delivered by the existing recapitulated in Table 7 (above).9 in. Dic:u." H. R" NEr.he Ad. . 1i"8" 1994. that an operator bas II 1. ra~y in TableS (abovel. E ditedbyRil. elrl'm. £mpell er geomet.000-gal. C:d~i:~~.000 5. ince one: eannob readily purchase a 2.rid. I = Authors . W"lIey.e~h91Ien~ ormix. 9.a.CHE.COM FEBRUARY 200. David S.Tif"'.fW ~Ji lee ~ bolhBS..~ uLh P ce:Gb. Dn.9 in. EDI! •• 2.ry Ch.OOCl-gal.olo>nO 6.AUg'llaL u. E'lg .a90. "T..Cover Story achieve a \r 0 f 36 ftlmin in 8 5.· uidi. Mol.il RamI!!Sh.QOO.the LOOCl-gal ng ~ applicaticn.r':l)urt. It is safe to asspeed. it may !lot be posaible 3.rryC_ A Unified Ap'"I"nI. 4lntormoHon Possible recommenc:loHon Recommended 1.gal i= is slightly less than that m horsepower (Hpl and he mixer ~h1'l:1t s. New York~ 19~ pp.'~~Q.5 8.35.. mixer. eliml. Using the th. and Heinr~an. for instance. 3. be values cfHp. drive.'ld iogpn>l. L975. .. ItoOOrt "and H~"l)(ty.6 5 3 100 3..150..Ylw of CatUnr:nw Ul A1QbE.e!l".. for a constant.31·hp motor operating aL 107 rpm to to purchase a ll?-rpm or 42·rpm ~.n 36 36 min 0. '2000. New York.m.000 0 In. Assume. bled Press.Il!iliy.. MJm:h ealeupi impIified S.ca1 BPP licahlon because it produces a torqu e of 1.redueing til" speed to 100 rpm.David 1I. selection tables to lind opemting The tables presented prove to b~ inrendition. ror Duid arWc.g.946. a should be selected.000 5.. BcrJinslci. When DIT increases.~l:la-.1\ II'lt. J.D'.in miring intensity required. one extracts the following data.