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French I 1. Some Basic Phrases 2. Pronunciation 3. Alphabet 4. Nouns, Articles and Demonstratives 5.

Useful Words and General Vocabulary 6. Subject Pronouns 7. To Be and to Have 8. Question Words 9. Numbers / Ordinals 10. Days of the Week 11. Months of the Year 12. Seasons 13. Directions 14. Color and Shapes 15. Weather 16. Time 17. Family and Animals 18. To Know People and Facts 19. Formation of Plural Nouns 20. Possessive Adjectives 21. To Do or Make

22. Work and School 23. Prepositions and Contractions 24. Countries and Nationalities 25. Negative Sentences 26. To / In and From places 27. To Come and to Go 28. Conjugating Regular Verbs 29. Pronominal (Reflexive) Verbs 30. Irregularities in Regular Verbs 31. Past Indefinite Tense 32. Irregular Past Participles 33. Etre Verbs 34. Food and Meals 35. Fruits, Vegetables, Meats 36. To Take, Eat or Drink 37. Quantities 38. Commands 39. More Negatives 40. Holiday Phrases French National Anthem Canadian National Anthem

French II 41. Imperfect Tense 42. Places 43. Transportation 44. To Want, to Be Able to, to Have to

45. House 46. Furniture 47. Comparative and Superlative 48. Irregular Forms 49. Clothing 50. To Wear 51. Future Tenses 52. Preceding and Plural Adjectives 53. Adjectives: Feminine 54. Adjectives: Plurals 55. More Adjectives 56. Rendre plus Adjective 57. C'est vs. Il est 58. Sports and Hobbies 59. Nature 60. To Live 61. Object Pronouns 62. Parts of the Body 63. Asking Questions 64. Interrogative Pronouns 65. Forms of Lequel 66. Relative Pronouns 67. Demonstrative Pronouns 68. To Read, to Laugh, to Say 69. Disjunctive Pronouns 70. Y and En

Shopping 84. and pendant in past contexts 83. Depuis. To Write. More Useful Words 79. Animals 73.71. Adverbs 80. Direct / Indirect Discourse 90. Infinitives followed by Prepositions 87. False Cognates 78. To Drive . Colloquial Expressions 77. Indefinite Pronouns Déjeuner du matin Le corbeau et le renard French III 76. To Follow 88. Passive Voice 82. Post Office and Bank 85. il y a. Faire Causative 89. Office / School Supplies 91. Plaire and Manquer 74. Forms of Tout 81. Conditional Tenses 92. to Believe 72. Parts of a Car / Gas Station 93. to See. To Receive 86. Pluperfect 75.

In the Ocean 101. Travelling / Airport 95. To Die 102. Make-Believe Stuff 107. Possessive Pronouns 105. Some Basic Phrases Bonsoir / Bonne nuit (bohn-swahr/bun nwee) Good evening / Good night (only said when going to bed) Bonjour (bohn-zhoor) Hello / Good day Au revoir! (ohr-vwah) Goodbye! Merci beaucoup (mair-see boh-koo) S'il vous plaît (seel voo pleh) Please Je vous en prie / de rien (In Canada: Bienvenu) (zhuh voo zawn pree/duh ree-ahn/bee-awn-vuh- .94. Simple Past 106. Cosmetics / Toiletries 97. Abbreviations / Slang 99. Present participle 98. Subjunctive Mood 104. Special Uses of Devoir 96. Quebec French 1. Past Infinitive 100. In Space 103.

S. mah-dahm. Mademoiselle (muh-syuh. Vous êtes d'où? (voo zet doo) Where are you from? (formal) Où habitez-vous? (ooh ah-bee-tay voo) Where do you live? (formal) Je suis des Etats-Unis / du Canada..Thank you very much new) You're welcome. mahd-mwah-zell) Mister.... Misses.. / Canada. Parlez-vous français? Parles-tu anglais? .. Monsieur. (zhuh swee day zay-tahz-ew-nee/dew kah-nahdah) I am from the United States / Canada. (zhuh mah-pell) I am called. Madame. (zhay ____ awn) I am ____ years old.. Tu as quel âge? (tew ah kell ahzh) How old are you? (informal) Oui / non (wee/nohn) Yes / no Comment allez-vous? (koh-mawn tahl-ay voo) How are you? (formal) Je vais bien (zhuh vay bee-ahn) I'm fine Je suis fatigué(e) (zhuh swee fah-tee-gay) I'm tired J'ai faim (zhay fawn) I'm hungry Comment vous appelez-vous? (koh-mawn voo zah-play voo) What's your name? (formal) Je m'appelle. Vous avez quel âge? (voo za-vay kell ahzh) How old are you? (formal) J'ai ____ ans. (mohn nohm ay) My name is. Tu es d'où? (tew ay doo) Where are you from? (informal) Où habites-tu? (ooh ah-beet tew) Where do you live? (informal) J'habite aux Etats-Unis / au Canada.. Miss Ça va? (sah vah) How are you? (informal) Ça va bien / mal / pas mal (sah vah bee-ahn/mahl/pah mahl) I'm good / bad / not bad Je suis malade (zhuh swee mah-lahd) I'm sick J'ai soif (zhay swahf) I'm thirsty Comment t'appelles-tu? (koh-mawn tah-pell tew) What's your name? (informal) Mon nom est. (zhah-beet oh zay-tahz-ew-nee/ oh kah-nah-dah) I live in the U.

o. et. y) ç (before a. shee-nwah) Russian. ais i. à. Je (ne) sais (pas) (zhuhn say pah) I (don't) know Je regrette / Je suis désolé(e) (zhuh re-gret/zhuh swee day-zoh-lay) I'm sorry Salut (sah-lew) Hi / Bye Je vous aime (zhuh voo zem) I love you! (plural) 2. o) g (before a.(par-lay voo frahn-say) Do you speak French? (formal) Italien. ei... o. ai. â e. o.. u) g (before e.. Je (ne) comprends (pas) (zhuh nuh com-prawn pah) I (don't) understand Excusez-moi / Pardonnez-moi (eg-scew-zay mwah/par-dohn-ay mwah) Excuse me / Pardon me A tout à l'heure / A bientôt (ah too tah luhr/ah bee-ahn-toh) See you later / See you soon Je t'aime (zhuh tem) I love you (singular) (parl tew on-glay) Do you speak English? (informal) Russe. Pronunciation French letter(s) a. (zhuh parl) I speak. Japonais. u) c (before a.. German. u) gn English Sound ah eh ee oh shorter and more open than aw in bought oo wah ew wee s s k zh zh g nyuh é. zhah-po-neh. (zhuh nuh parl pah) I don't speak.. Chinese Je ne parle pas.. Allemand. y o o ou oy. i. and final er and ez ay . Espagnol (ee-tahl-ee-ahn. ê. Spanish Je parle. Chinois (rooss. ahll-uh-mawn. è. oi u u + vowel c (before e. Japanese. es-pahn-yol) Italian. i.. y) ge (before a.

mon. ces. Two sounds that are tricky to an American English speaker are the differences between the long and short u and e. as in hoot. pas d(e). It is always made: • • • • • • after a determiner (words like un. if a word ends in C. The short e is more closed. dans un livre) after some one syllable adverbs (très. The short u does not exist in English though. The long and short e are relatively easy to pronounce.. • • • • • • rapid(e)ment.h j qu. bien) after est It is optional after pas. as in play. les. The long u is pronounced oooh. 2. lent(e)ment. or plew duh) je n(e). The French slur most words together in a sentence. Sometimes the e is dropped in words and phrases. F or L (except verbs that end in -r) you usually pronounce the final consonant. not eel ee ah duh. 4. de n(e) (zhuhn. not eel ah duh bohn ko-pahn) il y a d(e). plewd. To pronounce is correctly. and soixante in liaisons. shortening the syllables and slurring more words. pah duh.note the change of the pronunciation of the j as well) 3. like ay. not ra-peed-uh-mawn) sous l(e) bureau. The "slurring" that I mentioned is called liaison. . plus. intonation only rises for yes/no questions. and the forms of être.. not soo luh bewr-oh) il a d(e) bons copains (eel ahd bohn ko-pahn. trop fort. slur the two together as if it were one word. round your lips as if to whistle. except as s in six. final q r s (between vowels) th x silent zh k rolled z t ekss. Their vowels tend to be shorter as well. duhn. but sometimes it is difficult to hear the difference. c(e) que (shtuh. it goes down at the end of the sentence. pahd. petits enfants) after one syllable prepositions (en avion. quels) before or after a pronoun (vous avez. not zhuh tuh or suh kuh . skuh... plus d(e). like z Note: French pronunciation is tricky because it uses nasal sounds which we do not have in English and there are a lot of silent letters. and then say eee. However. chez l(e) docteur (pronounced sool bewr-oh. In general. but it is never made after et. as in bed. and pronounced like eh. . . je les ai) after a preceding adjective (bon ami.. not zhuh nuh or duh nuh) j(e) te.. (eel yahd. and all other times. des. so if a word ends in a consonant that is not pronounced and the next word starts with a vowel or silent h. dix. More about Pronunciation 1. The long e is pronounced openly. R. sauv(e)tage (pronounced ra-peed-mawn.

For the most part. and -ette are usually feminine. -té. Here are the orthographical representations. Otherwise. ein. oin. en. aim. aon. yn. Articles and Demonstrative Adjectives All nouns in French have a gender. -tion. an. yen. My Representation ahn awn ohn Pronunciation an apple on the desk my own book Orthographical Representation in. and you may have to repeat the article in some cases. either masculine or feminine. 3. Nouns. but there are some endings of words that will help you decide which gender a noun is. -ence. as are nouns ending with a consonant. you must memorize the gender. And of course. oint. eim. Demonstratives are like strong definite articles. éen en. the inprefix is pronounce een before a vowel. oing. em. im. Nouns ending in -age and -ment are usually masculine. Nasal means that you expel air through your nose while saying the words. and approximate pronunciations. eng. aen on. um. Nouns ending in -ure. ien. so don't actually pronounce the n fully. un. the nasals. Definite Articles (The) Masculine Feminine Before Vowel Plural . These are what present the most problems for English speakers. om In words beginning with in-.6. ain. Articles and adjectives must agree in number and gender with the nouns they modify. -sion. ym. Alphabet a b c d e f g h i ah beh seh deh uh eff zheh ahsh ee j k l m n o p q r zhee kah ell em en oh peh koo air s t u v w x y z ess teh ooh veh doo-blah-veh eeks ee-grek zed 4. And articles have to be expressed even though they aren't always in English. -ance. a nasal is only used if the next letter is a consonant. am.

An. 5. That. ce lit-ci is this bed. Some) Masculine un lit a bed Feminine une pomme an apple Plural des gants some gloves Demonstrative Adjectives (This. it means ago. comme ça kohm see kohm sah late friend (masc) un ami un homme une fille un garçon une femme ewn fawn Note: When il y a is followed by a number. and -là to the end of the noun for that and those. ce lit this/that bed Masc. Useful Words and General Vocabulary It's / That's and but now especially except of course so so not bad book pencil pen paper dog cat c'est et mais maintenant surtout sauf bien sûr pas mal le livre le crayon le stylo le papier le chien le chat say vwah-lah ay may mahnt-nawn sir-too sohf bee-ahn sir pah mal leevr krah-yohn stee-loh pah-pyaya shee-ahn shah There is/are il y a Here is/are always often sometimes usually also. Subject Pronouns Subject Pronouns . Those) Masc. Before Vowel cet oiseau this/that bird Fem. while ce lit-là is that bed. too again almost friend (fem) woman man girl boy voici toujours souvent d'habitude aussi encore en retard presque une amie eel-ee-yah vwah-see too-zhoor soo-vawn dah-bee-tewd oh-see awn-kore awn-ruh-tar presk ew nah-mee ah-nah-mee ah-nohm feey gar-sohn There is/are voilà quelquefois kell-kuh-fwah comme ci. you can add -ci to the end of the noun for this and these.le lit the bed la pomme the apple l'oiseau the bird les gants the gloves Indefinite Articles (A. For example. These. 6. cette pomme this/that apple Plural ces gants these/those gloves If you need to distinguish between this or that and these or those. Il y a cinq minutes means five minutes ago.

) ell They (fem. On can be translated into English as one.to be I was (being) j'étais zhay-teh ay-teh We were (being) You were (being) nous étions ay-tee-ohn vous étiez ay-tee-ay You were (being) tu étais He was (being) il était ay-teh She was (being) elle était ay-teh One was (being) on était ay-teh They were (being) ils étaient ay-teh They were (being) elles étaient ay-teh Note: Je and any verb form that starts with a vowel (or silent h) combine together for ease of pronunciation. or you. Present tense of avoir . the people.to be (eh-truh) I am Je suis zhuh swee We are tew ay You are Nous sommes noo sohm Vous êtes voo zett eel sohn ell sohn You are Tu es He is She is One is Il est eel ay Elle est ell ay On est ohn ay They are Ils sont They are Elles sont Past tense of être . To Be and To Have Present tense of être . Future Tense of être .) Note: Il and elle can also mean it when they replace a noun (il replaces masculine nouns. they. we. Notice there are two ways to say you.to have (ah-vwahr) I have You have j'ai zhay We have as ah You have avons ah-vohn avez ah-vay . Vous is used when speaking to more than one person. but I will leave them out of future conjugations. or close friends and relativs.to be I will be je serai suh-reh We will be You will be nous serons suh-rohn vous seriez suh-ree-ay You will be tu seras suh-rah He will be il sera suh-rah She will be elle sera suh-rah One will be on sera suh-rah They will be ils seront suh-rohn They will be elles seront suh-rohn Note: You must use the subject pronouns. Tu is used when speaking to children. animals. and elle replaces feminine nouns) instead of a person's name. 7.Je Tu Il Elle On zhuh I tew eel ell ohn Nous noo We You (informal) Vous voo You (formal and plural) He She One Ils Elles eel They (masc. Ils and elles can replace plural nouns as well in the same way. or to someone you don't know or who is older.

They were afraid yesterday.to be thirsty avoir sommeil . It is Monday.to be hungry avoir soif .to be wrong avoir faim . Il aura sommeil ce soir. On est de retour.to be in agreement être sur le point de .to be cold avoir peur . She will agree. They were about to leave. Elle a de la chance! She's lucky! Nous aurons faim plus tard. We/you/they/the people are back. Ils seront en train d'étudier. Elles étaient sur le point de partir. Question Words Who What Why When Where How How much / many Which / what Qui Quoi Pourquoi Quand Où Comment Combien Quel(le) kee kwah poor-kwah kawn ooh kohn-mawn kohn-bee-ahn kehl .to be right avoir tort . Nous sommes lundi. I'm cold. Elle sera d'accord. You had a cold.to be back être en retard . We will be hungry later. Vous étiez enrhumé.to be late être en avance . You were early. He will be tired tonight.to be (a day) Je suis en retard! I'm late! Tu étais en avance.to feel like avoir de la chance . They are hot.to be about to être en train de .to have I will have You will have j'aurai zhoh-reh auras oh-rah oh-rah We will have You will have aurons oh-rohn aurez oh-ray He/she will have aura They will have auront oh-rohn Avoir and être are used in many common and idiomatic expressions that should be memorized: avoir chaud . You were wrong. They will be (in the act of) studying.to need avoir l'air de . Elles avaient peur hier. Vouz aviez tort. You were right.to be afraid avoir raison .to be lucky J'ai froid. seem avoir envie de .to be sleepy avoir honte .to look like.to have a cold nous + être (un jour) . Ils ont chaud. être de retour . Tu avais raison.to be hot avoir froid .to have I had You had j'avais zhah-veh avais ah-veh ah-veh We had You had avions ah-vee-ohn aviez ah-vee-ay He/she had avait They had avaient ah-veh Future tense of avoir . 8.to be early être d'accord .He/she has a ah They have ont ohn Past tense of avoir .to be ashamed avoir besoin de .to be in the act of être enrhumée .

Numbers / Les numéros Zero One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen Fifteen Sixteen Seventeen Eighteen Nineteen Twenty Twenty-one Twenty-two Twenty-three Thirty Thirty-one Thirty-two Forty Fifty Sixty Seventy Seventy-one Seventy-two Eighty Eighty-one Eighty-two Ninety Zéro Un Deux Trois Quatre Cinq Six Sept Huit Neuf Dix Onze Douze Treize Quatorze Quinze Seize Dix-sept Dix-huit Dix-neuf Vingt Vingt et un Vingt-deux Vingt-trois Trente Trente et un Trente-deux Quarante Cinquante Soixante Soixante-diz Soixante et onze Soixante-douze Quatre-vingts Quatre-vingt-un Quatre-vingt-dix zay-roh ahn duh twah kat sahn seess set weet nuhf deess ohnz dooz trehz kah-tohrz kanz sez dee-set deez-weet deez-nuhf vahn vahn tay ahn vahn duh vahn twah trawnt trawnt ay uhn trawnt duh kuh-rawnt sank-awnt swah-ssawnt swah-ssawnt deez seh-tahnt swah-ssawnt ay ohnz swah-ssawnt dooz ka-truh vahn weet-ahnt ka-truh vahn tahn ka-truh vahn deez noh-nahnt (Belgium & Switzerland) Septante (Belgium & Switzerland) Huitante Quatre-vingt-deux ka-truh vahn duh (Belgium & Switzerland) Nonante .9.

10. But if a number ends in an e. After a q. Ordinal Numbers first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth twentieth thirtieth premier. première deuxième troisième quatrième cinquième sixième septième huitième neuvième dixième onzième douzième vingtième trentième twenty-first vingt et unième Note: The majority of numbers become ordinals by adding -ième. 6. Belgian and Swiss French use septante. when the numbers 5.00 would be 1. you must add a u before the -ième. 1.Ninety-one Ninety-two One Hundred Two Hundred Thousand Two Thousand Million Quatre-vingt-onze Cent Deux cents Mille Deux mille Un million ka-truh vahn ohnz sawnt sawnt ahn duh sawnt duh sawnt ahn meel duh meel ahn meel-ee-ohn Quatre-vingt-douze ka-truh vahn dooz One Hundred One Cent un Two Hundred One Deux cent un Note: French switches the use of commas and periods. And an f becomes a v before the -ième. 80. their final consonants are not pronounced. 8. Days of the Week / Les jours de la semaine Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday lundi mardi mercredi jeudi vendredi lahn-dee mahr-dee mare-kruh-dee zhuh-dee vahn-druh-dee . Also. huitante and nonante in place of the standard French words for 70. and 90. you must drop it before adding the -ième. and 10 are used before a word beginning with a consonant.00 in English.

the ordinal numbers are not used." With dates. such as "in May. Directions / Les directions . Months of the Year / Les mois de l'année January February March April May June July August September October November December Month Year janvier février mars avril mai juin juillet août septembre octobre novembre décembre le mois zhan-vee-ay fay-vree-ay marz ah-vril may-ee zhwahn zhwee-ay oot sep-tawm-bruh ahk-toh-bruh noh-vawm-bruh day-sawm-bruh luh mwah l'an / l'année lawn/law-nay Note: To express in a certain month." (you would use le before the day.Saturday Sunday day week today yesterday tomorrow samedi dimanche le jour la semaine aujourd'hui hier demain sahm-dee dee-mahnsh luh zhoor lah suh-men oh-zhoor-dwee ee-air duh-mahn Note: Articles are not used before days. 12. except to express something that happens habitually on a certain day. Also note that days of the weeks and months of the year are all masculine and not capitalized in French. except for the first of the month: le premier mai but le deux juin." use en before the month as in "en mai. Seasons / Les saisons Summer l'été Fall Winter Spring l'automne l'hiver lay-tay loh-tohn lee-vair in the summer en été in the fall in the winter en automne en hiver awn ay-tay aw noh-tohn aw nee-vair le printemps luh prahn-tawn in the spring au printemps oh prahn-tawn 13. as in "le lundi") 11. such as "on Monday.

as well as colors that are modified with the words clair-light and foncé-dark) and most are placed after the noun. Almost all adjectives agree in gender and number with the noun they modify (except marron and orange. verte is the feminine form. 15. bad cool cold warm. Un carré brun would be a brown square and une boîte noire would be a black box. Il fait mauvais Il fait frais Il fait froid Il fait chaud Il fait nuageux Il fait beau Il fait doux Il fait orageux eel fay bohn moh-vay fray fwah shoh noo-ah-zhuh boh dooh oh-rah-zhuh . Weather / Le temps What's the weather like? Quel temps fait-il? kell tawn fay-teel It's nice. hot cloudy beautiful mild stormy Il fait bon. Colors and Shapes / Les couleurs et les formes Red rouge roozh oh-rahnzh zhohn vehr/t bluh poo-pruh vee-oh-leh/lett square circle triangle le carré le cercle le triangle kah-ray sair-kluh tree-awn-gluh Orange orange Yellow jaune Green Blue Purple White Brown Black Pink Gold Silver Gray vert/e bleu/e pourpre violet/te rectangle le rectangle ruhk-tawn-gluh oval cube sphere cylinder cone octagon box l'ovale le cube la sphère le cylindre le cône l'octogone une boîte loh-vahl kewb sfair see-lahn-druh kohn ok-toh-gohn bwaht blanc/he blawn/sh brun/e marron noir/e rose doré/e brahn/brewn mah-rohn nwahr roze doh-ray argenté/e ahr-zhawn-tay gris/e gree/z Note: In French. nouns and adjectives have a gender.North le nord luh nor South le sud luh sewd East l'est lest West l'ouest lwest 14. Ex: vert/e = vert is the masculine form of green.

... In Canada. du is often not said. maman la belle-mère le père. Time / Le temps What time is it? It is. but in France it is common. Family and Animals / La famille et les animaux Family Relatives Grand-parents Parents Mom Stepmother/Mother-in-Law Dad la famille des parents les grands-parents les parents la mère. pa-pa . une heure deux heures midi minuit une heure précise quatre heures précises midi (minuit) et demi six heures et demie cinq heures vingt onze heures moins dix du matin du soir kell urr ay-teel eel ay oon urr duh zurr mee-dee meen-wee twa zurr ay car oon urr pray-sees ka-truh urr pray-sees meee-dee (meen-wee) ay duh-mee see zurr ay duh-mee sank urr vahn ohnz urr mwan dees doo mah-tahn duh lah-pray mih-dee doo swahr a quarter after three trois heures et quart sept heures moins le quart set urr mwahn luh car in the afternoon/PM de l'après-midi Note: Official French time is expressed as military time (24 hour clock.) 17. one o'clock two o'clock noon midnight one o'clock sharp four o'clock sharp twelve thirty six thirty a quarter to seven five twenty ten fifty in the morning/AM in the evening/PM Quelle heure est-il? Il est.. papa fah-mee pahr-awn grawn-pahr-awn pahr-awn mehr. 16. ma-ma bell-mehr pehr.sunny windy foggy snowing raining freezing Il fait (du) soleil Il fait du vent Il neige Il pleut Il gèle eel fay (dew) so-lay vawn eel nezh pluh zhell Il fait du brouillard broo-ee-yar Note: The du in "il fait (du) soleil" is optional.

Stepfather/Father-in-Law Daughter Son Sister Half/Step Sister Sister-in-Law Brother Half/Step Brother Brother-in-Law Stepson/Son-in-Law Twins (m) Twins (f) Uncle Aunt Grandmother Grandfather Cousin (f) Cousin (m) Wife Husband Woman Man Girl Boy Niece Nephew Grandchildren Granddaughter Grandson Distant Relatives Single Married Separated Divorced Widower / Widow Dog Cat Puppy Kitten Pig Rooster le beau-père la fille le fils la sœur la demi-sœur la belle-sœur le frère le demi-frère le beau-frère le beau-fils les jumeaux les jumelles l'oncle la tante la grand-mère le grand-père la cousine le cousin la femme le mari la femme l'homme la fille le garçon la nièce le neveu les petits-enfants la petite-fille le petit-fils célibataire marié(e) séparé(e) divorcé(e) veuf / veuve boh-pehr fee feess sir duh-mee-sir bell-sir bell-fee frehr duh-mee-frehr boh-frair boh-feess zhoo-moh zhoo-mell ohnk-luh tawnt grawn-mehr grawn-pehr koo-zeen koo-zahn fawn mah-ree fawn ohm fee gar-sohn nee-ess nuh-vuh puh-tee-zawn-fawn puh-teet fee puh-tee feez say-lee-bah-tair mah-ree-ay say-pah-ray dee-vor-say vuhf / vuhv Stepdaughter/Daughter-in-Law la belle-fille des parents éloignés pahr-awn zay-lwawn-yay le chien / la chienne shee-ahn / shee-enn le chat / la chatte le chiot le chaton le cochon le coq shah / shaht shee-oh shah-tohn koh-shohn kohk .

you usually add an -s. Ils savent nager. But there are some exceptions: If a noun already ends in an -s. of course. and un jeune homme (a young man) . I know your brother. To Know People and Places connaître-to know people (koh-net-truh) connais koh-neh connaissons koh-nezz-ohn connais koh-neh connaissez koh-nezz-ay savoir-to know facts (sahv-wahr) sais sais sait say say say savons savez savent sah-vohn sav-ay sahv connaît koh-neh connaissent koh-nezz Note: Connaître is used when you know people or places. savoir is used when you know facts. When savoir is followed by an infinitive it means to know how. Some nouns ending in -ou add an -x instead of -s. 19.des jeunes gens (young men). You know where Grenoble is located. le ciel (sky) . le bus le bateau le cheval le genou Plural les bus les bateaux les chevaux les genoux There are.des yeux (eyes). some weird exceptions: un œil (eye) . Tu sais où Grenoble se trouve. I know that your brother is named John. nous connaissons Grenoble. Formation of Plural Nouns To make a noun plural. If a masculine noun ends in -al or -ail. add an x. Je connais ton frère. we know (are familiar with) Grenoble. . They know how to swim. change it to -aux.les cieux (skies).Rabbit Cow Horse Duck Goat Goose Sheep Lamb Donkey Mouse le lapin la vache le cheval le canard la chèvre l'oie le mouton l'agneau l'âne la souris lah-pahn vahsh chuh-val kah-nahr shev-ruh lwah moo-tohn lon-yoh lon soo-ree 18. Yes. bus boat horse knee Sing. add nothing. Connaissez-vous Grenoble? Do you know (Are you familiar with) Grenoble? Oui. If a noun ends in -eu or -eau. Je sais que ton frère s'appelle Jean.

21. but our sister is single. His grandmother is a widow. This is my mother and my father.to do / study (subject) faire le ménage . C'est ma mère et mon père. n'est-ce pas? Your uncle is an architect. To Do or Make Faire-to do. Sa grand-mère est veuve.to take a walk faire une voyage . Ton oncle est architecte. When a feminine noun begins with a vowel. Ce sont vos petits-enfants? These are your grandchildren? Mes parents sont divorcés.to run errands faire des achats . Their cousins are Dutch. even though amie is feminine.to stand in line . Our brother is married. Notre frère est marié. ta sa votre leur Plural tes ses nos (noh) vos leurs (luhr) ma (mah) mes (may) His/Her/Its son votre leur (luhr) notre (noh-truh) notre Note: Possessive pronouns go before the noun.to do laundry faire la vaisselle .to exercise faire attention .20.to take a trip faire les courses . My parents are divorced.to do the cooking faire la lessive .to do the housework faire la cuisine . isn't he? Leurs cousines sont hollandaises.to pay attention faire la queue .to do the dishes faire une promenade .to act deaf / innocent faire le (subject in school) .to play (a sport) faire le sourd / l'innocent . mais notre sœur est célibataire.to go shopping faire de l'exercice . Ma amie is incorrect and must be mon amie. make (fair) fais fay faisons fezz-ohn fais fay faites fait fay font fett fohnt Faire is used in expressions of weather (il fait beau) and many other idiomatic expressions: faire de (a sport) . you must use the masculine form of the pronoun for ease of pronunciation. Possessive Adjectives Masc. My Your Our Your Their mon (mohn) ton Fem.

Work and School Masculine architect accountant judge business peron baker hair dresser computer programmer secretary electrician mechanic cook salesperson fire fighter plumber librarian police officer reporter factory worker banker lawyer postal worker carpenter engineer doctor nurse pharmacist psychologist dentist veterinarian taxi driver writer teacher l'architecte le comptable le juge l'homme d'affaires le boulanger le coiffeur le programmeur le secrétaire l'électricien le mécanicien le cuisinier le vendeur le pompier le plombier le bibliothécaire l'agent de police le journaliste l'ouvrier le banquier l'avocat le facteur le charpentier l'ingénieur le médecin l'infirmier le pharmacien le psychologue le dentiste le vétérinaire le chauffeur de taxi l'écrivain l'instituteur lar-shee-tekt kohn-tahbl zhoozh lohn dah-fehr boo-lawn-zhay kwah-fur proh-grah-mur suk-ray-tehr ay-lehk-tree-seeahn may-kah-neesyahn kwee-zee-nyay vawn-dur pohn-pyay plohn-byay bee-blee-oh-tehkehr lah-zhawnd pohleess zhoor-nah-leest loov-ree-ay bahn-kee-ay lah-voh-kah fah-tur shar-pawn-tyay lahn-zhay-nyur mayd-sawn lahn-feer-myay fahr-mah-see-ahn psee-koh-lohg dawn-teest vay-tay-ree-nehr shoh-furd tahksee lay-kree-vahn lahn-stee-tew-tur Feminine l'architecte la comptable la juge la femme d'affaires la boulangère la coiffeuse lar-shee-tekt kohn-tabl zhoozh fahn dah-fehr boo-lawn-zhay kwah-fur la programmeuse proh-grah-mur la secrétaire l'électricien la mécanicienne la cuisinière la vendeuse le pompier le plombier la bibliothécaire l'agent de police la journaliste l'ouvrière la banquière l'avocate la factrice le charpentier l'ingénieure la médecine l'infirmière le pharmacienne la psychologue la dentiste la vétérinaire le chauffeur de taxi l'écrivaine l'institutrice suk-ray-tehr ay-lehk-tree-seeahn may-kah-neesyenn kwee-zee-nyay vawn-dur pohn-pyay plohn-byay bee-blee-oh-tehkehr lah-zhawnd pohleess zhoor-nah-leest loov-ree-ay bahn-kee-ay lah-voh-kah fah-tur shar-pawn-tyay lahn-zhay-nyur mayd-sawn lahn-feer-myay fahr-mah-see-ahn psee-koh-lohg dawn-teest vay-tay-ree-nehr shoh-furd tahksee lay-kree-vahn lahn-stee-tew-tur .22.

I am a student (masc. I am a professor. Qu'est-ce que vous faites dans la vie? What do you do for a living? Je suis avocate. I go to the university of Michigan. (fem. Je fais mes études à l'université de Toronto. Math Algebra Calculus Geometry Economics les mathématiques l'algèbre le calcul la géométrie maht-ee-mah-teek lal-zheb kahl-kool zhay-oh-may-tree les sciences économiques see-awns ay-kon-oh-meek lawn zay-trawn-zhair lahn-gee-steek lee-tay-rah-tur fee-loh-soh-fee p-see-kol-oh-zhee see-awns poh-lee-teek ees-twahr zhay-oh-grahf-ee fees-eek bee-ol-oh-zhee shee-mee zoh-ol-oh-zhee boh-tah-neek zahr mew-zeek dahns duh-sahn pahn-tur ahn-for-mah-teek teck-no-loh-zhee lay-dew-kah-see-ohn fee-zeek Foreign Languages les langues étrangères Linguistics Literature Philosophy Psychology Political Science History Geography Physics Biology Chemistry Zoology Botany Art Music Dance Drawing Painting la linguistique la littérature la philosophie la psychologie les sciences politiques l'histoire (f) la géographie la physique la biologie la chimie la zoologie la botanique les arts la musique la danse le dessin la peinture Computer Science l'informatique Technology la technologie Physical Education l'éducation physique (f) Notice that you do not use an indefinite article before professions.professor student le professeur l'étudiant proh-fuh-sur lay-tew-dee-awn le professeur l'étudiante proh-fuh-sur lay-tew-dee-awnt Note: Notice that some professions are always masculine. even if the person is a woman. I am a lawyer. Je suis étudiant. unless they are preceded by an adjective.) Je suis professeur. I study at the University of Toronto.) Où est-ce que vous faites les études? Where do you study? Je vais à l'université de Michigan. There are also words that are always feminine (such as la victime) even if the person is a man. Qu'est-ce que vous étudiez? What do you study? .

With this child. I study/do math. tout est simple. everything is simple. He can read this book in a half hour. no extra word is used. En Dans is used to show the time when an action will begin. Chez Avec implies doing something or going along with someone.) à + les = aux oh dew of / from / about the de + les = des day of / from / about the (pl. les mains dans les poches.Quelles matières étudiez-vous? What subjects do you study? J'étudie les langues étrangères et la linguistique. A vs. I'm going to France with my sister. De vs. 23. With: Avec vs. She thanks me with a smile. and chez is used to mean "as far as (person) is concerned. Ma spécialization est la biologie. Je pars dans quinze minutes. Prepositions and Contractions among at / to / in at the house of between for parmi par-mee à chez ah shay entre on-truh pour poohr duh dawn sir ah-veck sawn from / of / about de in on with without à + le = au de + le = du oh dans sur avec sans Prepositional Contractions at / to / in the at / to / in the (pl. I'm leaving in 15 minutes. Chez cet enfant. Il peut lire ce livre en une demi-heure. I study foreign languages and linguistics. He walks with his hands in his pockets. L'homme aux cheveux roux est très grand. The man with the red hair is very tall. Countries and Nationalities / Les pays and les nationalités . My major is biology. Je vais en France avec ma sœur.) In: Dans vs. à is used when referring to someone's attributes. Il marche. Je fais des mathématiques. while en shows the length of time an action takes." To describe the way a person carries him/herself. de is used in phrases of manner and in many idiomatic expressions. 24. Elle me remercie d'un sourire.

And when you are replying "yes" to a negative question.) 25. and singular vs.) The masculine forms of the nationalities are also used to signify the language. And the definite article is not used before a language when it follows the verb parler (to speak. however. Je suis du Canada. they must agree with the subject of the verb (masculine vs. Negative Sentences To make sentences negative. In spoken French. but it cannot be omitted in written French. feminine. I am not Swiss. To make them plural.France Switzerland Italy Germany Spain Belgium Netherlands China England Russia Poland Canada Mexico Japan Portugal Brazil Sweden Norway Finland Denmark Greece Austria Australia Africa India Ireland la France la Suisse l'Italie l'Allemagne l'Espagne la Belgique les Pays-Bas la Chine l'Angleterre la Russie la Pologne le Canada le Mexique le Japon le Portugal le Brésil la Suède la Norvège la Finlande le Danemark la Grèce l'Autriche l'Australie l'Afrique l'Inde l'Irlande frahns sweess lee-tah-lee lahl-mawn-yuh leh-spawn-yuh bell-zheek pay-ee-bah sheen lawn-gluh-tair roo-see poh-lohn-yuh kah-nah-dah meks-eek zhap-ohn pore-tew-gahl bray-zeel ay-tah-zew-nee soo-ed nor-vehzh feen-lahnd dahn-mark grehs loh-treesh loh-strah-lee lah-freek lahnd leer-lawnd français/e suisse italien/ne allemand/e espagnol/e belge chinois/e anglais/e russe polonais/e mexicain/e japonais/e portugais/e brésilien/ne américain/e suèdois/e finlandais/e danois/e frawn-say/sez sweess ee-tahl-ee-awn/enn ahl-mawn/d es-pan-yohl belzh sheen-wah/wez bree-tahn-eek an-glay/ez rewss poh-lon-ay/ez mek-see-kahn/enn zhah-poh-nay/nez por-tew-gay/gez bray-zeel-ee-awn/enn ah-may-ree-kahn/kenn soo-ed-wah/wez feen-lan-day/dez dahn-wah/wez hollandais/e oh-lawn-day/dehz Great Britain la Grande-Bretagne grahnd bruh-tawn-yuh britannique canadien/ne kah-nah-dee-awn/enn United States les États-Unis norvègien/ne nor-vehzh-ee-awn/enn grec/grecque grek autrichien/ne oh-trees-ee-awn/enn australien/ne oh-strahl-ee-awn/enn africain/e indien/ne irlandais/e ah-free-kahn/kenn ahn-dee-ahn/enn eer-lahn-day/dez Note: When the nationalities are used as adjectives. just add an -s (unless it already ends in an -s. Je suis française. plural.) Je ne suis pas suisse. simply put ne and pas around the verb. I am not from Mexico. then add nothing. the ne is frequently omitted. (masculine or feminine) . I am French (feminine. I am from Canada. you use si and not oui.) The extra ending shown above is added to signify a feminine subject. Je ne suis pas du Mexique.

To / In and From places. we are from Brazil. w/ Consonant en à dans le From de de / d' du en / dans l' d' / de l' Californie. and Virginie are the feminine states. Floride. 27. Elle n'est pas danoise. state or province ends with an e.to come back. Prepositions with American States To / In Feminine Islands Masc. continent. They are from the United States.to hold. Je parle chinois et japonais. Vous n'êtes pas du Brésil? You aren't from Brazil? Si. Yes. le Zaïre and le Mozambique. and countries Places Masc.Il est australien. I don't speak Swedish. obtenir . Louisiane. 26. Pennsylvanie. cities. à la de la Vowel à l' de l' Plural aux des Cities à à à de de d' Countries au en en du de d' aux des aux des If the name of a country. To Come and to Go Venir-to come (vuh-neer) viens vee-ahn venons viens vee-ahn venez vuh-nohn vuh-nay Aller-to go (ah-lay) vais vay allons ah-lohn vas va vah allez vah vont ah-lay vohn vient vee-ahn viennent vee-enn Other verbs that are conjugated like venir: tenir . If it ends in anything else. Géorgie. it is masculine. au du Fem. Some cities have an article as well. They are not from Portugal. island. She is not Danish. . Je ne parle pas suèdois. w/ Vowel Masc. devenir . The exceptions are le Cambodge. Ils ne sont pas du Portugal. Caroline du Nord / Sud.to become. revenir . such as La Nouvelle-Orléans (New Orleans). I speak Chinese and Japanese. the gender is feminine. le Mexique. He is Australian. Elles sont des Etats-Unis. The exception to the masculine beginning with a consonant rule is Texas: in / to Texas is au Texas.to get. nous sommes du Brésil. le Maine.

They are going to go to England. -er -e -ons -re -s -ons -s -ez -ent 1st -ir -is -issons -is -issez -it -issent 2nd -ir* -s -ons -s -ez -t -ent -es -ez -e -ent Sample Regular Verbs aimer -to like. love j'aime zhem aimes em aime em aimons aimez aiment em-ohn em-ay em vendre .to sell vends vawn vendons vawn-dohn vends vawn vendez vend vawn-day vawn vendent vawn finir ." Ils vont aller en Angleterre. The verb before it is conjugated is called the infinitive. She's going to speak Russian. To conjugate verbs in the present tense. there are two other forms of the present tense in English: the progressive (I am writing. Removing the last two letters leaves you with the stem (aimer is the infinitive. or -ir. You're not going to Brazil this summer. Aller + an infinitive means "going to do something. these three English present tenses are all translated by the present indicative tense in French. I run. or habitual activity.to finish finis finis finit fee-nee finissons fee-nee-sohn fee-nee finissez fee-nee-say pars pars part partir . Aller is also used idiomatically when talking about health. etc.) However. Conjugating Regular Verbs in the Present Indicative Tense Verbs in French end in -er. 28. You just ate an apple. Comment vas-tu? How are you? Je vais bien. I'm fine. I do run. I see). Venir de + an infinitive means "to have just done something. etc. aim. Tu ne vas pas au Brésil cet été.is the stem. Elle va parler russe. Nous allons en Espagne. I come from the United States. -re. He just went to Finland.) and the emphatic (I do write." Il vient d'aller à la Finlande. general state. Je vais devenir professeur.Je viens des Etats-Unis.) The present indicative tense indicates an ongoing action. I am running. We're going to Spain. Il tient un crayon. He's holding a pencil. use the stem and add the following endings.to leave pahr partons pahr partez pahr partent pahr-tohn pahr-tay pahrt fee-nee finissent fee-neess Regular verbs -er -re . I'm going to become a professor. Besides the simple present tense (I write. Vous venez de manger une pomme.

Ex: Je réponds au téléphone. mentir (to lie). The pronouns are: me nous te vous se se Some Pronominal Verbs s'amuser se lever se laver se peigner s'habiller se marier to have fun to get up se reposer to rest se souvenir de to remember se coucher se brosser se maquiller se casser to go to bed to brush to put on makeup to break (arm. etc. dormir (to sleep). leg. sentir (to smell. Other verbs like partir are sortir (to go out). Je vais me coucher maintenant. love to sing to look for vendre attendre entendre perdre vawn-druh ah-tawn-druh awn-tawn-druh pair-druh to sell to wait for to listen to lose commencer koh-mawn-say to begin donner étudier fermer habiter jouer manger montrer parler penser travailler trouver dohn-nay to give répondre (à) ray-pohn-druh (ah) to answer descendre deh-sawn-druh 1st -ir bâtir finir choisir punir remplir obéir (à) réussir guérir bah-teer fee-neer shwa-zeer poo-neer rawn-pleer oh-bay-eer (ah) ray-oo-seer gay-reer to build to finish to choose to punish to fill to obey to succeed to cure.) to wash (oneself) s'entendre bien to get along well to comb to get dressed to get married se dépêcher to hurry Note: When used in the infinitive. heal to go down ay-too-dee-ay to study fehr-may ah-bee-tay zhoo-ay mawn-zhay mohn-tray par-lay pawn-say trah-vy-yay troo-vay to close to live to play to eat to show to speak to think to work to find Note: If a verb is followed by à (like répondre) you have to use the à and any contractions after the conjugated verb. * The 2nd -ir verbs are considered irregular sometimes because there are only a few verbs which follow that pattern. Pronominal (Reflexive) Verbs These verbs are conjugated like normal verbs. . but they require an extra pronoun before the verb.aimer chanter chercher em-ay shahn-tay share-shay to like. Most indicate a reflexive action but some are idiomatic and can't be translated literally. the reflexive pronoun agrees with the subject of the sentence. I'm going to go to bed. such as after another verb. feel) and servir (to serve.) 29.

couvrir-to cover. but commençons. Verbs that add or change to an accent grave: Some verbs add or change to an accent grave (è) in all the forms except the nous and vous. découvrir-to discover and souffrir-to suffer. ouvrir-to open. The c must have the accent (called a cedilla) under it to make the c sound soft. Verbs that end in -ger and -cer: The nous form of manger isn't mangons. The e has to stay so the g can retain the soft sound. For example: offrir-to offer. Verbs that end in -yer: Change the y to an i in all forms except the nous and vous. Verbs that are conjugated as -er verbs: Some -ir verbs are conjugated with -er endings. Examples: envoyer-to send (awn-vwah-yay). give.Sample Irregular Pronominal Verb s'asseoir . manger-to eat mange mawnzh mangeons mawnzhohn mawn-zhay mawnzh commence commences commence commencer-to begin kohmawnz kohmawnz kohmawnz commençons commencez koh-mawnsohn koh-mawnsay manges mawnzh mangez mange mawnzh mangent commencent koh-mawnz 2. nettoyer-to clean (nuh-twah-yay).to sit down je m'assieds mah-see-ay nous nous asseyons noo-zah-say-ohn tu t'assieds tah-see-ay vous vous asseyez il s'assied sah-see-ay ils s'asseyent vous-zah-say-yay sah-say-ee 30. offrir-to offer j'offre zhaw-fruh offrons aw-frohn offres aw-fruh offre aw-fruh offrez aw-fray offrent aw-fruh 4. but mangeons. Irregularities in Regular Verbs 1. The nous form of commencer isn't commencons. essayer-to try (ess-ah-yay) envoyer-to send j'envoie zhawn-vwah envoyons awn-vwah-yohn envoies awn-vwah envoie awn-vwah envoyez awn-vwah-yay envoient awn-vwah . acheter-to buy achètes ah-shet achète ah-shet achetez ahsh-tay espérer-to hope espères ess-pehr espère ess-pehr espérez ess-pay-ray j'achète zhah-shet achetons ahsh-tohn j'espère zhess-pehr espérons ess-pay-rohn achètent ah-shet espèrent ess-pehr 3.

Irregular Past Participles avoir to have eu (ew) connu cru had known believed ouvrir offrir pouvoir to open to offer ouvert (oovehr) offert opened offered was connaître to know croire to believe to be able to pu . Je n'ai pas aimé le concert. such as appeler-to call (ahp-lay). is happening. and jeter-to throw double the consonant in all forms except the nous and vous. I didn't like the concert. The Past Indefinite Tense or Passé Composé You have learned the present indicative so far.(zheh-tay) 5. or does happen now. Il a répondu au téléphone. or has happened. put the ne and pas around the conjugated form of avoir. 32. and as a result or consequence of another action. Verbs that double the consonant: Some verbs. The passé composé is used for actions that happened only once. Il n'a pas répondu. Regular Verbs: Formation of the Past Participle -er -é -re -u -ir -i Then conjugate avoir and add the past participle: J'ai aimé le concert. They didn't fill (or haven't filled) the glasses. Elles ont rempli les tasses. He answered (or has answered) the telephone. All you need to learn are the past participles of the verbs. You lived here? We finished (or have finished) the project. but if you want to say something happened. I liked the concert. Elles n'ont pas rempli les tasses. Tu as habité ici? Nous avons fini le projet. appeler-to call j'appelle zhah-pell appelons ahp-lohn appelles ah-pell appelle ah-pell appelez ahp-lay appellent ah-pell 31. They filled (or have filled) the cups. He didn't answer (or hasn't answered) . you have to use the passé composé. To make it negative. which expresses what happens. a specified number of times or during a specified period of time.

devenir-devenu.able to devoir dire écrire être faire lire mettre to have to dû to tell to write to be to do. Conjugation of an être verb Je suis resté(e) Nous sommes resté(e)s Tu es resté(e) Il est resté Vous êtes resté(e)(s) Ils sont restés Elle est restée Elles sont restées You add the e for feminine and s for plural. except venir-venu. The house verbs are: aller-to go arriver-to arrive entrer-to enter sortir-to go out partir-to leave tomber-to fall venir-to come devenir-to become revenir-to come back mourir-to die monter-to go up rester-to stay rentrer-to return home naître-to be born passer-to go by (pass) descendre-to go down Most have regular past participles. revenir-revenu. make to read to put dit écrit été fait lu mis (me) permis had to said written been made read put permitted promised prendre apprendre comprendre surprendre recevoir rire savoir voir vouloir to take to learn to understand to surprise to receive to laugh to know to see to want pris (pree) appris compris surpris reçu (rehsew) ri su vu voulu (voolew) taken learned understood surprised received laughed known seen wanted permettre to permit promettre to promise promis 33. and passer can sometimes be conjugated with avoir if they are used with a direct object. Conjugation of a Pronominal Verb Je me suis amusé(e) Nous nous sommes amusé(e)s Tu t'es amusé(e) Il s'est amusé Elle s'est amusée Vous vous êtes amusé(e)(s) Ils se sont amusés Elles se sont amusées . monter. Elle a rentré le livre à la bibliothèque. descendre. sortir. and they must agree in gender and number with the subject. rentrer. She returned the book to the library. And five of these verbs. mourirmort. and naître-né. Vous can have any of the endings. Etre Verbs Sixteen "house" verbs and all pronominal verbs are conjugated with être.

Food and Meals / La Nourriture et Les Repas Breakfast Lunch Dinner Cup Slice Bowl Glass Fork Spoon Knife Plate Napkin Ice cream Juice Fruit Cheese Chicken Egg Cake Pie Milk Coffee Butter Water Ham Fish Tea Salad Jam Meat French fries Beer Wine le petit déjeuner puh-tee day-zhew-nay le déjeuner le dîner la tasse la tranche le bol le verre la fourchette la cuillère le couteau l'assiette (f) la serviette la glace le jus le fruit le fromage le poulet l'œuf (m) le gâteau la tarte le lait le café le beurre l'eau le jambon le poisson le thé la salade la confiture la viande les frites (f) la bière le vin day-zhew-nay dee-nay tahss trawnsh bohl verr foor-shett kwee-yehr koo-toh ah-syett ser-vyett glahss zhew fwee froh-mawzh poo-lay luff gah-toh tart leh kah-fay burr loh zham-bohn pwah-sohn tay sah-lahd kon-fee-chur vee-awnd freet bee-ehr vahn Salt and Pepper le sel et le poivre luh sell ay luh pwahv-ruh . se demander. and se téléphoner. but elles se sont lavé les mains. such as se parler.There are only two cases with pronominal verbs where the past participle does not agree: 1. Compare: Elles se sont lavées. Ils se sont téléphoné. 2. se sourire. se dire. s'écrire. With verbs where the reflexive pronoun is an indirect object. When the pronominal verb is followed by a direct object. 34.

Sugar Soup le sucre le potage soo-kruh poh-tawzh 35. du bacon le bifteck un poulet un canard une chèvre le jambon l'agneau le foie des boulettes de viande une côtelette de porc un lapin une côte de bœuf la saucisse une dinde le veau un chevreuil mah-eez cohn-cohn-bruh oh-behr-zheen leh-tew shahm-peenyohn wawn-yohn pwah pee-mawn see-troo-ee reez ay-pee-nar koorzh to-maht nah-vay koor-zhett vee-awnd lar. Fruits. bah-kohn beef-teck poo-lay kah-nar shev-ruh zhahm-bohn awn-yoh fwah boo-lett duh veeawnd kote-lett duh pork lah-pahn kote duh buf so-seess dahnd voh shuv-ruh-ee nwah duh kohpeas koh daht feeg reh-zahn pahm-pluhmoos see-trohn lee-mohn mel-ohn oh-leev oh-ranzh pesh pwahr ah-nah-nah prewn proo-noh reh-zahn sek frez pah-stek leh-goom ar-tee-sho ahs-pehrzh bett-rahv broh-coh-lee shoo cah-roht shoo-flir pepper potato pumpkin rice spinach squash tomato turnip zucchini meat bacon beef chicken duck goat lamb liver meatballs pork chop rabbit T-bone steak sausage turkey veal venison une pomme de terre pohm duh tehr frwahm-bwahz ham strawberry une fraise watermelon une pastèque vegetable artichoke une légume un artichaut asparagus des asperges beet broccoli cabbage carrot une betterave le brocoli un chou une carotte cauliflower un chou-fleur . Vegetables and Meat fruit apple apricot banana blueberry cherry coconut date fig grape grapefruit lemon lime melon olive orange peach pear pineapple plum prune raisin raspberry un fruit une pomme un abricot une banane une myrtille une cerise une noix de coco une date une figue un raisin un pamplemousse un citron un limon un melon une olive une orange une pêche une poire un ananas une prune un pruneau un raisin sec une framboise fwee pohm ah-bree-koh bah-nahn meer-tee suh-reez corn cucumber eggplant lettuce mushroom onion le maïs un concombre une aubergine la laitue un champignon un oignon les pois un piment une citrouille le riz des épinards une courge une tomate un navet des courgettes une viande du lard.

Commands . To Take. I'm drinking some wine. 38. Je voudrais un morceau de tarte." the French translation is "Je prends du vin. Il prend de la viande. Est-ce que je peux prendre un verre de vin? May I have a glass of wine? Je prends du vin. l'. Je ne prends pas de vin. I eat chicken every Saturday.to learn. I would like one piece of pie. I drink wine all the time. So "je prends de la bière" literally means "I am having some beer" even though in English we would usually only say I am having beer." You must use de and le. such as Je mange le poulet tous les samedis. but no fruit. or les and the proper contractions (called partitives) because in French you must also express some. We are having some rice and broccoli. mais pas de fruit. Note: When you want to say "I am having wine. Nous prenons du riz et du brocoli. There is too much milk in the cup. many plus de a glass of un bouquet de Note: With quantities and negatives. 37. Eat or Drink Prendre-to take. Je bois du vin tout le temps. The construction is always de or d' + noun. comprendre .celery un céléri say-lay-ree 36. I would like to have some cheese.to surprise. I am not drinking any wine. He is eating some meat. Je voudrais prendre du fromage. you never use partitives. Quantities assez de une assiette de beaucoup de une boîte de enough (of) un morceau de a piece of a plate of a lot of a box of un peu de une tasse de a little (bit) of a cup of une douzaine de a dozen of un paquet de un panier de une poignée de a packet of a basket of a handful of more a bunch of une tranche de a slice of trop de un verre de une bouteille de a bottle of un kilo de a kilo of too much. Boire is literally the verb to drink and is also used in a general sense only." but manger is used in a general sense. Il y a trop de lait dans la tasse. la.to understand and surprendre . Manger is a regular verb meaning "to eat. eat or drink (prawn-druh) prends prends prend prawn prawn prawn prenons prenez prennent pruh-nohn pru-nay prenn Boire-to drink (bwahr) bois bwah buvons bew-vohn bois bwah buvez bew-vay boit bwah boivent bwahv Other verbs that are conjugated like prendre: apprendre .

plus ne.nor ne.pas..... Il n'aime plus travailler. You were not bored.. (Or: He doesn't like to work anymore) Nous ne voulons faire des achats que lundi. . but Je n'aime ni les chats ni les chiens.personne nobody ne... We want to go shopping only on Monday. Tu te dépêches becomes Dépêche-toi! And in negative commands..Use the vous.ni.ni. ne. Note: With using pronominal verbs as commands. tu and nous forms for commands.jamais ne... Je n'ai ni caméra ni caméscope. as in Ne nous reposons pas..plus.. Nous n'avons rien fait. We did nothing.que ne. so the verb and nouns must also be changed to the singular.ni no longer never nothing only neither.... More Negatives ne.) Negatives with Passé Composé 1.. Vous form Tu form Polite and Plural Same as verb form Familiar Restez! Stay! Same as verb form. Rien and personne may be used as subjects: Personne n'est ici. and ne.jamais. Irregular Command Forms être (be) tu sois swah tu avoir (have) aie ay tu savoir (know) sache sahsh nous soyons swah-yohn nous ayons ay-yohn nous sachons sah-shohn vous soyez swah-yay vous ayez ay-yay vous sachez sah-shay Ne sois pas méchant à ta sœur! Don't be mean to your sister! N'ayez pas peur! Don't be afraid! Sachez les mots pour l'examen demain! Know the words for the exam tomorrow! 39.. Elle ne déteste personne... (Or: She doesn't hate anyone.. ne. Vous ne vous êtes pas ennuyés. He no longer likes to work.rien ne..pas.rien Ne comes before auxiliary verb.......nulle part nowhere The negatives are used exactly like ne.aucun(e) not a single one ne. but Regarde! Watch! drop -s for -er verbs Same as verb form Allons! Let's go! Nous form Let's.. Ne. and the other part is between auxiliary and past participle.. Aucun(e) by definition is singular.. all articles are dropped except definite articles.... the pronoun is placed after the verb connected by a hyphen. With ni. She hates no one.que is placed directly before the noun it limits.... the pronoun precedes the verb. but que in ne.

l'étendard sanglant est levé. Negative: Je ne prends pas de pain ou de beurre.ni. que la victoire Accoure à tes mâles accents.. Il n'a écouté personne. but the other part is after the past participle. Marchons. * Use of ne .. Contre nous. L'étendard sanglant est levé. He listened to no one. vos compagnes. Sous nos drapeaux.. soutiens nos bras vengeurs. Liberté.nulle part. Negative: Je n'ai pas de chien. Amour sacré de la Patrie.. the partitives and indefinite articles become de before the noun (unless the verb is être. liberté chérie. Le jour de gloire est arrivé.personne. marchons! Qu'un sang impur Abreuve nos sillons. Holiday Phrases Merry Christmas Happy New Year Happy Thanksgiving Happy Easter Happy Halloween Happy Birthday Joyeux Noël Bonne Année Joyeuses Pâques Bonne Halloween Bon Anniversaire zhoy-uh no-ell bun ah-nay zhoy-uhss pawk bun ah-loh-ween bun sahnt-val-awn-tahn bohn ahn-nee-vair-sair Bonne Action de grâces bun ak-see-ohn de grahss Happy Valentine's Day Bonne Saint-Valentin The French National Anthem: La Marseillaise by Claude-Joseph Rouget de L'isle Allons enfants de la Patrie. and ne.. I have a dog.. I'm having some bread and butter.. Entendez-vous dans les campagnes Mugir ces farouches soldats. pas de: In negative sentences. Indefinite: J'ai un chien. then nothing changes. marchons! Qu'un sang impur Abreuve nos sillons. Ils viennent jusque dans nos bras égorger vos fils. 40..) Partitive: Je prends du pain et du beurre. Aux armes citoyens! Formez vos bataillons. He made not a single mistake. It's a brown cat..ni. ne..2. Verb is être: C'est une chatte brune.. ne. de la tyrannie. Negative: Ce n'est pas une chatte brune.. Combats avec tes défenseurs. I don't have a dog. Marchons... Que tes ennemis expirants Voient ton triomphe et notre gloire! Aux armes citoyens! Formez vos bataillons. I am not having any bread or butter. que Ne comes before the auxiliary verb. Ne. ne. .aucun. Il n'a fait aucune faute. Conduis. It's not a brown cat.

to arms. awake to glory. . ye brave! Th'avenging sword unsheathe! March on! March on! All hearts resolved on victory or death. de foi trempée. death defying. Protégera nos foyers et nos droits. Fight with Freedom on their side. we stand on guard for thee. With glowing hearts we see thee rise. Ton front est ceint de fleurons glorieux. Shall behold thy triumph. O sacred love of france. We stand on guard for thee. Ton histoire est une épopée Des plus brillants exploits. God keep our land glorious and free! O Canada. while peace and liberty lie bleeding? To arms. And thy dying enemies. undying. O Canada. Th'avenging arm uphold and guide Thy defenders. Hark. see their tears and hear their cries! Shall hateful tyrants mischief breeding with hireling hosts. Il sait porter la croix. amazed. great and glorious. Behold their tears and hear their cries.) The Canadian National Anthem: O Canada O Canada. To arms. hark. wives and grandsires hoary. what myriads bid you rise: Your children. O Canada. terre de nos aïeux. ye brave! Th'avenging sword unsheathe! March on! March on! All hearts resolved on victory or death. to arms. Et ta valeur.Ye sons of France. The True North strong and free! From far and wide. a ruffian band Affright and desolate the land. we stand on guard for thee. Translation by Percy Bysshe Shelley (1st verse) and Mary Elizabeth Shaw (2nd verse) (This is not a literal translation. Car ton bras sait porter l'épée. O Canada! Our home and native land! True patriot love in all thy sons command. Soon thy sons shall be victorious When the banner high is raised.