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Robes of the Sokoto Caliphate Author(s): Colleen Kriger Source: African Arts, Vol. 21, No. 3 (May, 1988), pp. 52-57+78-79+85-86 Published by: UCLA James S. Coleman African Studies Center Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3336444 . Accessed: 25/05/2011 18:57
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"robe of the elephant" (riga=robe. to foreign AND HIS FOLLOWERS. '?. Members of many ethnic groups contributed to their production in the Sokoto state. regardless of ethnic affiliation (Fig. A great deal of confusion has arisen in the literature from the various ethnic attributions .Perani 1979:53)rather than an official robe of the Caliphate. THE CHIEFOF PATEGI PHOTOTAKENBY THE REV A. They are. Consequently during the nineteenth century.A. 1903.W.Hausa. their most important feature was their use by the Muslim elite. made it critical to be identified not only as Muslim but as affiliated with the current regime (Lovejoy 1982:208-9). 1903. and questions concerning who could legally be enslaved. Moreover. were in increasing demand and became available in the marketplace." Like the epigraphic inscriptions on robes of honor elsewhere in the Muslim world. They were considered essential. 3). A?r_ :r?r 4 . the embroidery signified good fortune and victory in war. the garments changing hands at different stages in the process. The rigan giwa was used to signify representatives of the Caliphate administration. BANFIELDIN NUPE COUNTRYCA. 1810-1908. In the Sokoto Caliphate (ca.Robes of the Sokoto Caliphate is known in T he "robeof honor. THE REV. now northern Nigeria) this voluminous tailored vestment was referred to as the rigan giwa. though of lesser material and quality (Fig. 1. Nupe.1 For this reason. unclassifiable in these terms. Yoruba . According to other interpretations the rigan giwa is a garment indicating ethnic affiliation or social prestige (Heathcote 1972a:12. robes that looked like them. however. either the composition called "Two Knives" or the related "Eight Knives. The jihad. 1). W.14. the production and use of robes resembling the rigan giwa proliferated as the Caliphate expanded. BANFIELDWITHA NUPE MALAMIN PATEGI."as itan important the literature. : :: • • • i 71 1? rpm 2. for instance. It was distinguished by the color of cloth used to make it and by its embroidered imagery.that have been given to robes embroidered with Two Knives and Eight Knives imagery. contrary to Heathcote's suggestion that the reformers would have discouraged embroidered clothing (Heathcote 1972a:13). BANFIELDDID NOT USE HIS ROBE FOR PROSELYTIZING: HE WORE IT HERETO ESTABLISH RELATIONSHIP A WITHTHE SCHOLAR WHO TAUGHTHIMTHE NUPE LANGUAGE. giwa =elephant). has been COLLEEN KRIGER official garment in the Islamic world since the eighth century. THE MALAM WEARSA BLACKROBE OVERA WHITEONE. and over time it became an indicator of high status and prestige. 52 .

visitors. 1891:111. The robes may have appeared in parts of sub-Saharan Africa at very early dates. and high officials also presented them to their subordinates or to foreign ambassadors. They were certainly known to the early nineteenth-century Sokoto community. 274. governors. 4:frontispiece. The name of the current caliph was cited. Textile production 53 . 94. 85). 97. 'Abd alQadir (Martin 1976:20). 1: 513) and Nachtigal (1971.22. 3. which figured in his decision to wage holy war. 2:179-80) found wearing an embroidered robe to be a worthwhile though costly investment for their travels. Robes of honor during (Mayer this period featured hems or linings of rare and costly materials (Mayer 1952:57). Other Europeans were advised to don them in slave-raiding areas to insure safe passage. and the Western Arabian peninsula. princes. 182). included the presentation to him of such a robe by the founder of the Qadiriya order. vol. might also be included. with inscriptions woven or embroidered in silk or gold (Gervers & Golombek 1977:82. 23-24. thirteenthsixteenth centuries). The significance of tailored garments in Muslim culture and robes of honor in the administration of a Muslim state must have been a factor in the efforts to promote the textile industry in the Sokoto Caliphate. 265. That type was distinguished by a high quality of workmanship and precious materials.A.Ok ror IL. vol. and missionaries in Lokoja during the early 1890s adopted a policy of wearing them. representing signs of office. the caliph's principal minister. and were also awarded to officials upon their new appointments (Serjeant 1972:16. Robinson 1897:90). demonstrating their relationship or indicating the offer of protection. Before the thirteenth century they were primarily given by the caliph to his emirs.H. and dynastic changes were accompanied by changes in the inscriptions and colors of robes and banners. 188-89. Agadez. who usually was responsible for overseeing the manufacture of robes of honor (Pence-Britton 1938:20). Ser- jeant has called the inscriptions a propaganda for the ruling dynasty (1972:1820. 24). J. and to refuse one was considered an act of rebellion (Mayer 1952:62-63). as they believed these garments gave them greater authority among the upper classes (Fig. 303). blazons granted by the sultan.2 Not all inscribed gowns were robes of honor. 4L-? EMBROIDERY COMPOSITIONIN COTTONON A SILKAND COTTON ROBE. Both Barth (1965. For instance. 85. Arab geographers reported what seems to have been the official use of robes and turbans there from the eleventh century onward (Hopkins & Levtzion 1981:82. and sometimes the workshop location and date as well. Robes of honor became increasingly associated with military rank during the Mamluk period. It is possible that in the Central Sudan robes of honor were used in Kanem. Shaikj Usman dan Fodio's vision in a dream. vol. 2) (Nott 1896a:595. These garments were awarded by superiors to their subordinates. and the early Hausa states. Robes of honor in the greater Islamic world have varied over space and time and cannot be characterized precisely. textiles were often adorned with inscriptions praising Allah and wishing for blessings and victory. Robinson C. A TRADERIN THE NIGER DELTA TORONTO. The name of the vizier. 1896b:29. Before the thirteenth century. Syria. "EIGHTKNIVES" AREA FROM1862 TO 1898. Borno. MUSEUM FOR TEXTILES. but in the Mamluk Empire. Our sources for early Islamic textiles are mostly written descriptions of the general uses and characteristics of garments. Songhay. COLLECTEDBY COUNT CHARLESDE CARDI. historical supplanted inscriptions 1933:3-4). including this type. 260. Silk was often the ground cloth. 299. In the Mamluk Empire (Egypt.

1972b:123). embroidered robes. spinners out- numbered weavers by a ratio of over two to one (Meek 1925.000 cowries (Schon 1970:116).6 Further north. O'Hear 1983:136). The price range for robes was extremely wide. 2:214-15). Mason 1981:34. Kano. providing incentives for skilled freemen to immigrate to these areas (Shea 1975:43. MUSEUMFORTEXTILES.94).COLLECTED NORTHERN IN 1982.30.At the same time. a potential for organization did exist in the Quranic schools. vol. Cotton and indigo plantations. tailored garments were worn only by Muslims. Mason 1981:54.000 cowries. and in Katsina.54. Indigo dyeworks were at the belt's core. and Ilorin. vol. As we shall see. All over the Caliphate. "TWOKNIVES"EMBROIDERY COMPOSITION. in the textile-producing and -trad- 54 . Little research has been done on spinning. northern Zaria. which suggests a link with palace officials. for its own use or for use as tribute to the capitals of Sokoto or Gwandu. LATE 19THCENTURYULMERMUSEUM. where students could serve as apprentices. but the nineteenth century saw a dramatic change in the scale of production. Moreover. "TWOKNIVES" BECAUSETHEORIGINAL IN BLACK IS COMPOSITION. then such robes were probably not made to be traded out of the Caliphate but were part of a more local. rendered them unsuitable for bulk trading over long distances. setting up village schools or traveling between urban centers of learning (Nadel 1942:286.O'Hear 1983:126-30). even after the introduction of imported cotton thread from Europe. Heathcote 1972a:13-14. 1983:101. which involved more cloth and resulted in a heavier garment. 361. If a large scale of production indicates an orientation toward exporting. These were concentrated especially heavily in what Lovejoy has described as the "textile belt. as it most certainly was in Nupe country in the later nineteenth century. The earliest evidence of this comes from Clapperton. urban occupation of free men. when the British compiled their census reports. could easily have cost over 200. Perani 1977:9. while at the same time the Rev. 366-67. it can be assumed that a majority of the work was done by female slaves. Much of the production of thread was probably the work of slaves.An elaborately tailored example made of narrow strip cloth like a silk strip purchased in the town of Eggan on the 1841 expedition. Institutionalized slavery provided an important source of manpower for producing and processing raw materials and for spinning and weaving (Lovejoy 1982:201-7). Shea 1983:101-2. but such was not the case for elaborately tailored. Manufacturing centers were established for treadle loom weaving by both enslaved and free men. had been important in the region of the Hausa states long before the founding of the Caliphate around 1810. often owned by wealthy merchants and members of the aristocracy and worked by slaves. ON GLAZEDBLACKCLOTH... Lovejoy 1978:353-58. Ilorin and the Nupe emirates also developed into important textile manufacturing centers. Much of the urban textile production in Kano and Nupe emirates was destined for the palace (Shea 1983:101. vol 4:146).367). COLLECTEDBY FIRST LIEUTENANT PICHT. NIGERIA. As European travelers frequently noted. L. 2:224-26). For instance. a complex method of tailoring used for some robes. were established throughout the Caliphate. Processing and spinning cotton are extremely labor-intensive operations. despite the fact that the British listed it as the most important nonagricultural occupation for women in northern Nigeria in the early twentieth century. Reports of European travelers repeatedly referred to the thriving textile industry and trade. and cotton and grain cultivation in the outlying areas. was geared for export. The most significant factor in this rapid expansion was Sokoto labor policies. 94. Emirate policies set low rates of taxation on textile work in Kano. the numbers of people occupied in textile work were surpassed only by those in the agricultural sector (Meek 1925. Raw cotton was transported over distances up to 160 kilometers (Lovejoy 1978:356-58). including robes. Although some embroidered robes also appeared in the markets it does not mean that they were accessible to all. luxury operation.r SHOWN IN DIAGRAM 5.---- . this potential may have been developed in Sokoto.3 Although the practice of wife seclusion must have contributed to the huge female labor force necessary for thread production.L-- --- . two examples collected on the British 1841 Niger Expeditions were bought for 7. Sokoto. It was the part-time work of Quranic scholars who were often itinerant. The availability of certain robes was further restricted by their cost." consisting of southern Katsina. Much of this high-volume manufacture of textiles. Tailoring was an individual. with silk lining and imported-silk embroidery. Cloth production became particularly heavy from Kano southward into northern Zaria. In the second half of the nineteenth century. and Zamfara. as well as the areas around the Caliphate capitals of Sokoto and Gwandu (Lovejoy 1978:361. TORONTO.SHOWN IN DIAGRAMBECAUSE THE ORIGINALIS IN BLACKON BLACK INDIGOCLOTH. who reported that in 1824 male Nupe slaves were producing blue checked cloth in Sokoto (Denham & Clapperton 1831.4 Embroidery was not an occupation that was organized for high-volume production. and by the early twentieth century._ 4.000 cowries each. Sch6n reported meeting a malam near the Niger-Benue confluence who was wearing a robe that he claimed cost 30. What is important at this point is that both tailoring and embroidery tended to be concentrated in urban areas. large numbers of slaves were brought into the emirate capitals to weave strips that were sewn together into garments (Last 1967b:231-32.

8 and soldiers in military campaigns were also awarded robes (Hiskett 1973:185-86. Officeholders were invested with a robe and turban. Nadel 1942:379. WHICHALSO SHOW LESS THAN HALFTHE DENSITYOF THE EYELET STITCHESIN THIS EXAMPLE.000-20. "EIGHT KNIVES" COMPOSITION IN IMPORTED SILK ON SILK AND COTTON ROBE. MUSEUM OF MANKIND. Nachtigal listed prices for those manufactured in the Caliphate in the 1870s. Barth reported that a "good" embroidered robe of cotton cost 18. "elephant. Quranic scholars often supported themselves by embroidering robes (Heathcote 1974a:20. The vizier was also in a position to supervise embroidery work and select the finest examples for presentation. The vizier. which signified acceptance of the caliph's authority (Hiskett 1973:141. it was a greeting to important officials such as sarki and madaki. GIVEN TO COMMODORE A.and since the vizier was also in charge of the of promotion and encouragement Quranic teaching (Last 1967b:182). was only 2. vol. he said.000 cowries (1965. MOTIF FROM THE BY WEARER'SRIGHTSIDE OF THE EARDLEY-WILMOT ROBE.9 This suggests a link between the rigan giwa and holders of high office in the Caliphate as well. 1972b:123.000-80. garments from the treasury could have been embroidered according to high standards at relatively low cost. Evidence for this comes from the association of the rigan giwa with emirate office-holders. It would have been important for the rigan giwa to be identifiable as a robe ac- ''So r6~-. second in power to the caliph.000 cowries. I -w k 76' 6. was in charge of the treasury. which included thousands of robes acquired as tribute or booty.Last 1967b:234). n. 2:182-84). and he distinguished the class of buyer. 1974b:623. vol.1972c:166. or sent as "gifts" to the caliph or the vizier from their subordinates (Last 1967b:103. 55 . while those for the aristocracy cost 48. especially where robes of honor were concerned.rf." on the other hand.000-24. LONDON. to those in the civil and military nobility (Bargery 1934:382-83).7 Some robes were officially distributed by the state. 5). THE PLAITEDCORD AND BACKSTITCHUSED AS OUTLINEDEVICES ARE REPLACEDBY CHAIN STITCH IN LATERROBES. it is therefore likely that Sokoto also became an important embroidery center.and in Nupe. The price of a "poor man's shirt.Last 1967b:103). The term giwa. Because the early Sokoto community was so successful in developing the new capital into a center of Quranic learning.ing center of Kano in about 1850. The Sokoto Caliphate administration seems to have followed the customary Islamic practice of assigning this duty to the vizier.1:513).000 cowries. Some robes. more finely woven but apparently not of silk. Robes for the middle class.000 cowries (Nachtigal 1971. A similar pattern of official robe distribution probably also existed at the emirate level of government.000-4. He then distributed them in recognition of service.000 cowries. Perani 1979:96. P EARDLEY-WILMOT THE KING OF DAHOMEY IN 1862. LEFT 7. cost 12. cost up to 160." has been applied in both the Hausa and Nupe languages to these robes and also to highranking emirate authorities: in Hausa. 196-97).

IMPORTED WHITESILK ON WHITECOTTON ROBE. 1929. But if garments answering similar descriptions were available in the markets. Caliphate robes of honor were the best of their kind. and Eight Knives. Greenberg 1946:63. the official rigan giwa was further set apart by value. occurring on glazed indigo robes. that is. and density of the weave. the materials used in the embroidery. vol. the presence of lining.vol. WISBECHAND FENLANDMUSEUM. each specifying the color of the ground cloth. or red and white stripes. In the marketplace the highest priced robes could be purchased by only a very wealthy elite who would wear them. worn by pious and learned Muslims (Clapperton 1966:204.Robinson defined it in his Hausa dictionary as a glazed indigo robe (1914. CAMBRIDGESHIRE. for example.s5 In workmanship and materials it is clearly superior to all others I have analyzed. vol. In surveying examples of giwa-type robes. BANFIELD. While there were differences in the kind of cloth used. and Banfield in his Nupe dictionary said it was made of red and white striped cloth (1914:150). NORTHERN NIGERIA.TORONTO.quired from the state. appearing more often on blue and white checked and on red and white striped examples. Barth.W. We have several descriptions of the rigan giwa recorded at different times and places in the Caliphate. 2:183). The ground cloth shows an elaboration of the red and white striped 8. The robes themselves clearly reveal a complex hierarchy of value. those made of cloth of glazed indigo. A. described it as a black. THE EARLIESTKNOWN EXAMPLEOF THE "EIGHTKNIVES"COMPOSITION. The method and quality of the tailoring.11 The rigangiwa can therefore be characterized as a tailored robe of one of several colors of cloth. the garments shared a particular embroidered imagery. embroidered with a certain imagery. ROYAL ONTARIOMUSEUM. was there a way of distinguishing between the two? In accordance with the pattern elsewhere in the Islamic world.We do not know the historical reasons for this variation. "EIGHTKNIVES" COMPOSITIONIN COTTONAND SILKON A BLUE AND WHITESTRIPED COTTON ROBE. I found that two related embroidery compositions predominated:1? the Two Knives design. 1:293). 1:512).in the 1870s Nachtigal wrote that it was made of blue and white checked cloth (1971. thread quality.1841. An example of what I believe to be a Caliphate robe of honor is in the Museum of Mankind in London (Figs. Embroidered imagery and certain kinds of cloth probably served this function. 56 . COLLECTED BY THE REV. 9. Nicholas 1975:476).12 In the capital. W. there may be extreme differences in market worth for apparently similar roles. COLLECTEDBY DR. the material used for the lining and its quality. blue and white checks. Both were used on white robes.13 Hausa vocabulary indicates that distinctions in quality were made for certain patterns of weave and their variations. glazed (pounded with indigo) robe (1965. Because a range of choices in material and technical qualities is possible at each step in production. reporting from Kano in 1851. the vizier could select for distribution the finest of the thousands of robes available to him. My analyses of the textiles purchased on the 1841 Niger Expedition show that price was correlated with materials.7). 6. when they were acting as Caliphate representatives to establish trade relations with foreign rulers.14 It follows that similar distinctions were made for the final steps in the process of constructing embroidered robes. STANGERATTHE NIGERBENUE CONFLUENCE. and the density and detail of the embroidery are all factors that further affected value.

) Here. covering a period of ninety years. "EIGHTKNIVES" COTTON ROBE.r ~? :? ~li~i~:~ ~r'~ :j :?fl\ ?? .~.:?? ~'?? :ns ~~" ~'? ::??s:r: -:3~ . 9.16 It is lined at the hem with finely woven silk strips sewn together and cut on the bias.. The examples he showed were not dated. The most dramatic change takes place in a motif running vertically along the right-hand edge of the composition as it is viewed. The Hausa language has had different regional terms for this practice. Eight Knives seems to have been abruptly introduced.17It can be attributed as a Caliphate robe on the basis of the cloth used. It has occurred most often on black robes and white robes. The modifications over time parallel the sequence illustrated by von Luschan. method of tailoring. :.or early twentieth-century compositions representing intermediary stages. ?? ?jT~1? ?? ?-r. and there is no patterning to the couched embroidery of the two "knife" shapes. indicating its wide distribution in Hausaland prior to the establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate.??. Such transformations during Continued page78 on 57 .-::!'i:*?I~-~9-d~? i-~? ": *:: :.:? i.. however.22on later ones it has become a series of squares and rectangles containing knot forms.? ?:'? .? ?? ?? r-rrtr: '~?~":' -?-? ?.:. the embroidery is particularly dense and even.: .~--~:?:?Nn. adding to its weight and value. '? ia: .. and embroidered imagery.11). i.?. I .21 Its embroidery closely resembles that on a black robe collected in northern Nigeria in 1982 (Fig. The stability over time of the Two Knives imagery is the most convincing evidence of its antiquity. the roundel over the wearer's right chest is missing. the pattern of the silk strip cloth is similar to strip mentioned earlier that was purchased in Eggan in 1841. done in monochrome. however. I . selected eight robes decorated with the Eight Knives imagery whose dates could be reasonably established. On early robes (Figs. cloth referred to in Banfield's description of the rigan giwa.--~I~ ~ ?. .1862-66. ?c-~u hi ~?:~ ~I? ?-rr. interlaces. and scale. 8. MUSEUM FOR TEXTILES.??-! fi. from the King of Dahomey in December 1862. glossy silk.r '`t I:: ?' ???"' 5~`. . it was a gift to Commodore Arthur P. has been published as dating from the midseventeenth century (Fig. Evidence also indicates that although both types were used on Caliphate robes. "EIGHTKNWVES" COMPOSITION ON A BLUE AND WHITECHECKED COTTON ROBE. ROYALNAVYOFFICER OFF THE COAST OF WEST AFRICA. and we find references in the literature to a long tradition of wearing black robes with white robes.. The robe is an especially fine example of the complex tailoring method of folding each cloth strip to make a built-in lining. given the important trade relations between the two states (Manning 1982:45) and the role that costly robes played in affirming such relations. from 1841 to 1930.. COLLECTEDBY COUNT CHARLES DE CARDI BETWEEN1862 AND 1898. checkerboards. the British Senior Officer on the West Coast of Africa. Drawing from I have several museum collections. now in the Ulmer Museum.-~? ?. apparently imported.. (The magenta silk imported from Europe via Tripoli was often described as red. ROYALMUSEUMOF SCOTLAND. ~t!: ~ r~ i i.Y? ?cr :t ?. Eardley-Wilmot. ?I?? 10.. which was by far the most expensive textile in the Niger Expedition collection..c. In 1897 von Luschan illustrated what appeared to be a process of change in the imagery of twenty of these emin German collections broideries (1897:250).?. TORONTO.. A black robe embroidered with Two Knives. for there are no known examples of nineteenth. COLLECTEDBY COMMANDERCOLIN DUNDAS.~?r? ~~.19 A black robe and a white cotton and silk robe collected at Eggan market in 1841 on the Niger Expedition show abbreviated versions of the Two Knives composition. Eight Knives was more prevalent during the nineteenth century and could therefore be interpreted as signifying the new dynasty established at Sokoto. or crossed lozenges (Figs. although the latter may be more recent. In contrast Eight Knives transformed considerably during the nineteenth century.4). This garment was presented through high-level diplomatic channels.. The entire Eight Knives composition is done in a smooth. one on top of the other (Fig. garment form. apparently developing as an extension of the former..2o Nevertheless it remains an important piece. 2). I :C ?. 5) in stitches used.:r r~ :. that the robe dates from the late probably nineteenth century. ?:. and the workmanship is consistent and detailed. showing the consistency of the Two Knives design over time...10). Accession information shows.18 Although it is not certain how it came into the possession of the Dahomean king. it is shown as several parallel lines forming a curved band or arc. it is appropriate that he would have a Caliphate rigan giwa. composition. IN EMBROIDERY COTTON AND SILKON BLUE AND WHITECHECKED 11.1-? . EDINBURGH. The Two Knives and Eight Knives embroidery compositions share the same vocabulary of imagery..

On later Eight Knivescompositions. the phrase should be "morefrequenthuman warfare.9).another 15 pieces are fragmentsof EightKnivescomto positionsthatmaybe partners the pockets. Blakely Brigham Young University CONTEMPORARY IN GREENLAND ART Wordon arctic IverymuchenjoyedtheFirst art (Nov. numberswereplacedin eachcompartment so that the sum in any directionequaledfifteen. Further supportfora youngerage forEight Knivesimagerycomesfromevidencethatthe rigangiwa probably served as a model for workshop productionof embroideredrobes in the laternineteenthcentury. with five of them (the cornersand center)completely filled in with embroidery. howof ever. or Menzel 1972.suchas the crossed circleand the spiral. Yet in the Canadianarcticthe same does not apply.save for a few rareexceptions.1987). column 1. The motifon the wearer's right chest and backhas been repeatedlyreferred to as tambari. aroundthe 1930sand latershow this acquired motif changed beyond recognition and no longeractive(Fig.25 it may well be thatthe and title came to be associatedwith their robes."26 name and by By form.R.Prussin1976:16-19.2.including the strong influence of individual Europeans. A motifthatappearson the pocketedge of in TwoKnivesembroideries appears early also Knivescompositions. As for the "sense of aestheticplay"in the religions. the stages in But asproduction.served as protection "evil eye" in Moorishiconography(Westerin marck Its 1904:217). Of the 65 pieces thatarepockets.I feel that in documenting such representations. do not mean to suggest.D.and late-nineteenth-century robes.Nicolas 54. 76. I was in Greenlandlast summer and became familiar with Greenlandic art and the art school at Nuuk. I don't think thatthey do so only becausethey value ritual use for its own sake." Thomas Blakely Pamela D. 67. especially here in the U. vol. as John Povey pointed out.they are not imitators or copiers.Theremustbe thousandsof talented Africanartists imprisonedtoday in a cycle of sculpting copies from art books in orderto earntheirdailybread.27 Magic squares with numbers. Ritualuse is usuallyassociated with objects that are aesthetically superior(atleastin European eyes) compared to contemporarycopies.thatit is a directvisualrepresentation a drum. Such an overwhelmingdemand for this imagery by the end of the nineteenth century testifiesto its currencyin the Caliphate.and that this was the favoredof the two compositions. 2:356. I think. I'vegiven this much thoughtsince being in Greenland." offensive as Americanblacks find the word "negro. and variationsof magicsquareshave 78 . Only when the marketbegins to reject this type of art or independently makesa demandfor new Africangenres will changeoccur.I am simply updating the observations madeby Mr. However."Also.A transition workshopproduction be obto can served in the contrast of workmanshipbetween early. Even more important. Componentsof the motif.S. impedes the art emergence of contemporary and artists. Mischlich The 1942:116).pls. 3: no."Welearnedthis withinthe firsthour of being there. An iconographicalanalysis demonstrates associations motifswithofficialinsigniaand of protectivedevices. along with messages in Arabic script..then.. it refersto the numberfive. (You will have noticed by now that I've avoided using the find it as The Greenlanders word "Eskimo.The development of modern art there has followed much the same path as that in the Canadianarctic.. and guson1973:273) has beenincludedin emirate insignia (Harris 1932:105-6. Eight-pointedstars have been noted as talismanson Islamicbanners used both in war and on pilgrimage(Welch 1979:76-77).vol.showing the mainportionof the embroidery composition. The factthat there is a marketin the Western worldfor the imitationsandcopiessculpted in Africa in part.. Daniel I 1932:82-83). The 102examplesof embroidery collected by Frobenius in Nupe country around1910. the careful workmanshipsuggests the hand of a single embroiderer. and bends the artiststo its will in both subtleand forcefulways.Representingthe universe in Chinese iconography from the fourth century B. "king'sdrum"(e. which reads: "So'osociety member's mask(?). line 13. Angeles AKOPHOTOCORRECTION May I make a correctionto RobinPoynor's "AkoFiguresof Owo and Second Burialsin SouthernNigeria"in yourNovember1987issue? All three photographs on page 63 are mine." Retaining the next sentence. 1986:221). 1. in some cases.Theircontemporary art stands on its own merits. "Some so'o masks are kept inside members'houses and are not used in masqueradeperformance" would have made sense of the "?"That is.48 displayEight Knivesand only 17show TwoKnives. taincy(Smith1960:160. but unlikethe vast majority Afriof cans who sculpttoday.of prejudiced beliefs about the practice of Afro-Caribbean religionsheld by people outside the religions. Another motif appears twice on the wearer's left side. weapons. For the market serves as the patron. Theyarelimitedto exercising only theirtechnicalskills. 1968:175).a sentencewas omitaryFestival" ted fromthe captionforfigures3 and4. Donald Cosentino Los of University California. magic in squaresfirst appearedin Arabicliterature aboutA.it has been transformed into a crossedlozenge or interlaceform. and eyelet. or whatevertaxonomyof nouns and adjectives one chooses to apply to the stuff recently hackedout. sub-Saharan Africans have notyet producedthe kindsof contemporaryart one sees in the arctic. we thrashed out by others.Courlander and othersover the last decades.) The point madeaboutWesterners placinga high value on priorritualuse with regardto Africanart is an importantone.The double square.and the repertoryof stitcheshas been reducedto three main ones: patterned couching. 371. reproductions.Tambari also beena titleforHausa has and Tuareg leaders(Barth war 1965. 900. In written examples of the square. Two squaresof 3 x 3 cells appearon a talisto manicbowl attributed the Mamlukperiod (Ittig 1982:88-90). chain. Thereasonsforthis have all been Sokoto Robes Continued page57 from the nineteenthand early twentieth centuries was suggestthatthe EightKnivescomposition notyetafirmly established visualstatement and was probably morerecentthan Two Knives. Frank Willett TheUniversity Glasgow of ON CLARIFICATION SO'OMASKS In ourarticle"So'oMasksand HembaFuner(Nov.Early examplesshow denseandconsistent embroiderytechniques. widespread appearance the Islamicworld in Quranillumination and on tomb covers furtherindicates protective Safadi1978). or eightagainstthe pointedstar. 112. the capital. I agreethatthe statueof Darth Vader GuedethatI saw in a Bel-Airehounfor as last November was simply the latest transformation a religiousimpulsethatadopted of for chromolithographs analogous reasons in the last century.It is a squarediEight vided into nine equalsquares(3 x 3). noted as a charmagainstthe evil eye (Westermarck Tremearne 1904:212-15. Pascal James Imperato State New York Journal Medicine of are making a distinction between a "member's mask"and a "dancemask.Robes functions(James1980:21.1987)and secondJohnPovey's views. have appearedon pendants.24 their most remarkable pect is their homogeneity.Sufimysticsadoptedthe 3 x 3 square.C. The3 x 3 squarebelongsto a largefamilyof magicsquareswhose historyis ancient. and on palace and mosque facades across the Sahara region.Whileso doing they cannotachievethe freedomnecessaryto use theircreativity.It has not yet reachedthe degree of commercial success of Canadianarcticart. and Figure2 was takenin the Palacein Owo in late 1958. 379.g.154-55. These changes strongly suggest a scaleandorganization the embroidin greater ery process. Laterrobes lack such detail and consistency. Harris1932:105). 79. The only namerecordedforthis motifis "houseof bees" or "house of five.Yettheirsculptures and paintingsand sketchesoften depict now vanishedtraditions. on page 33. were drawn on sub-Saharancharm gowns.now in the Museumfir V61lkerkunde. tambari signified Hausa chiefFerNicolas1975:147. and A. Thusthereis stilla linkto the past. Munich.which to them representedperpetual motion. I really didn't mean that this was anythingnew.TheGreenlanders have in a sense made a breakwith their "traditional" representationalartforms. 1975.23confirm such workshop productionand. contexts that indicate protective properties (Gabus 1958:42.

like other legendary rainbow serpents. sword was thought to have magicalproperties. Museums as a whole.one of the state swords of KatsinaEmirate. imagery or inscriptions on robes served the importantideologicalfunctionof distinguishing between different regimes. since its visual elements.Thelong-standingmystique as regardsage seems to be one of the 79 . pairedwith a female thunder deity (Greenberg1946:40-41.with the two points used to put out the eyes of the enemy (Mittwoch1965. robesshow it as an interlace or series of crossed lozenges. Both have components that are included in a corpus of embroidery imagery whose Hausa name translates as "heads of lizards. as in otherIslamicstates.The evidence indicates that they looked like the garment described as the rigan giwa. and came into use in the Maghrebduringthe MamlukEmpire. and reports of the greaterIslamicworld frompilgrimsand traders . it is terminated by a three-tieredpointed form at each end. demonstrating religious and politicalaffiliationwith the Muslimbelieversof the Sokoto Caliphate."It may. 21). Gajimarimay have been associatedwith interlaceimagery. I have not been able to establish whether there is any numerologicalsignificance attachedto these numbers. of An obviousinterpretation the association of lizardswith interlaceformswould be thatit demonstratesa process by which abstractIslamic imagery was incorporatedinto a prior. 56).And. On early twentieth-century robes. Its appearancein the sky. Owing to the currentdearthof data on the collectionhistoriesof most Africanartworks. The conjunctionof reptilianand interlace imagery has a long and widespread history. adding that the design was known as laya The term (Heathcote 1974a:29. or "face.Moreover. embroideredrobes demonstrated a system of reward. and Islamic traditions. referred to leadershipand also offeredprotectivepowers in holy war. especially robes of honor."3' alterAn native would be to read the pointed shapes both horizontallyand vertically. however. knife-like shapes applied to a twentieth-centuryHausa leathermirrorcase. One hopes this will becomea standardpartof futureexhibitioncataloguesas well. Walker able to offerdetailedprovenanceinis formationfor only a few of the objects. Similarcontexts fn. The dragoninterlaceis believed to have been introducedinto Islamicart from CentralAsia via the Turkish dynasties. In each instance. 37-41). 1980:8). theremay well be a 379-80. the arc-shaped motif on the wearer's left side of the Eight Knives composition underwent substantial in transformation the nineteenth century.Its imagery is particularlyappropriate for representinga state established by jihad. is more accuratelytranslatedas "razor"than "knife. It is thereforereasonableto suggest that the production and use of embroideredrobes. Persian. or "rainbow.Whether such an association was is originallyintendedby the embroiderers not clear. 2 + 3 + 3=8. "robe of the elephant.g. 1986:76.30 It is also possible that the original Two Knives embroiderymotif was derived from representations of Dhu 'l-Fakar. alliance. the twopointed sword of the Prophet frequentlydeThe pictedin Islamiciconography. Pairs of dragons with interlacingtails represented the dragonor serpentthought to cause eclipses and naturaldisastersin Hindu.29 laya.for their model of an Islamicstate.Although they are knife-like. Heathcotehas illustrateda series of tapered.It therefore may have operatedas protectionagainst the evil eye.been noted as amulets (Meinhof1923-24:22426. with magical inscriptionson medicine bowls and on gates as protectionagainstthe entry of evil 1976:12pl. anthropological museums to date seem to have been more concerned than their fine arts museum counterpartswith obtainingand giving out pertinent informationon the earlycollectionhistoriesof their works. I have not found specific referencesto names foreitherof these vertical motifs."Thefinestexampleswerepresented as robes of honor. askarbeing an Arabic-derivedHausa term for soldier (Menzel1972.Heathcote 1974a:21.Walker to be commendedfor setting a precedent in this first catalogueof the National Museum of AfricanArt for both tracking down and including this information.since the em- broideryon the shoulderof the robeshas been referred to as bakan gizo.Formally and technically.and it may well be that it stems froma popular readingof the imagery.387-88).It has been describedas a rainbowin the sky and a double-headedsnake on earth. Gajimari" (Mischlich 1942:116. a numberused as protection against the evil eye." in which case the tapered shapes might be seen as distinguishingfacial markscalledaska(Ferguson1973:311. Gabus1958. The believers had waged holy war to reformIslamicpracticein the area.Azarpay1978:367. above all. non-Muslim veneration of reptiles. Among the earlierauthors who also have gone out of their way to provide such dataareWilliam SusanVogel Fagg(1968). the currentpractice in the literatureof classifyingthese garments by ethnic group is misleading.page85 books Continued page from 26 scholarship.it is not certain that they do indeed represent knives. and protectionin the Caliphate. vol.thus allowing it to be modified. Central Asian. The Eight Knives embroiderycould well have been introducedby the early Sokoto communityjust after the founding of the Caliphate around 1810. or "charm. Whetherbestowed on high officialsor awardedto clientsand followers in holy war. The taperedshapes that give the embroidery compositions the names TwoKnives and Eight Knives pose several problems in interpretation. Egypt and Morocco (e. Fletcher1912:79-81. 2:233).vol. these two vertical imageshave becomealmostindistinguishable from one another.classical texts.90-91. formed an essential componentof that model. are farmore forthcomingwith this data than privatecollectorsare. Bargery 1934:63). Aska. instead. the pair added to threewould makefive. 2: 1961:75. But such an interpretation would be misleading because it fails to take into account the wide range of Islamic iconography and the comsouth of the Sahaplexity of its incorporation ra. for example. 3: no.as for magic squares. 2. since Dhu 'l-Fakarhas been portrayedon pilgrims'bannersfrom at least the seventeenth century(Denny 1974:71-73). Prussin 1976:18. O Notes. for example. was associated with the presenceor absence of rainfall. popular history. and they looked to various sources . however. for the use of both reptilianand interlaceimagery have been noted in the formerSokoto Caliphate region and environs (Clapperton 1966:142. thatis. Ferguson 1973:320. and the reference to thunder correspond to attributes of the eclipse dragon.32It was by far the composition most frequentlyfound on robes produced in the Caliphate and was worn by its soldiers and elite.Kirk-Greene Prussin1976:16-19. Bargery1934:40). They later served as models for workshop production to meet the growing demand for Caliphaterobes. and most methodicallyMonni Adams (1981).Bravmann 1983:25. In all cases. Fletcher 1912:80.Bargery 1934:40). usually showing several cloverleafshaped protrusions. Its expansion into Eight Knives is achieved by the addition of two groupsof threepointed forms. It is probablethat. refer to users of the robes.the term for the taperedshape. Ibrahim 14.the blade has been dated to the early fourteenth century (Bivar1964:21). Schienerl 1979:30."28All of the "lizardheads" extend from interlaces or knot forms such as those appearingin the robe embroidery.for by wearing such a robe one was. bicephalous form."in conjunctionwith knifelike images parallels the use of sword and dagger forms as amulets in. As already mentioned. historical relationshipbetween eclipse dragon myths and sub-Saharantraditionsof the rainbow serpent. The Hausa Gajimari. Europeanmuseums seem to have been more systematic collectors (and disseminators) of this information than museums in America. Anotherverticalmotifin the lower pocket area.On the other hand. is (1982). The mythical sword might also have been known to Muslimswho made the pilgrimage to Mecca. I have shown that administrators of the Sokoto Caliphateformed policies promoting the production and regulating the distribu- tion of robes. 17 [1]). In a perusalof those entriesthatdo includerelated data. The motif could have retainedits magicalassociations while losing its precisereferent.fig. but there is some evidence that they may have been associated with various reptiles. In view of this.vol.the parallel lines of early examples becoming a vertical series of interlaces and crossed lozenges. which would correspond to its crucialposition over the heart of the wearer. spirits (Ittig1982:91-93.they have been the most stableelementsof the embroideries. Mischlich1942:116.It into the talismanicvocabuwas incorporated lary of Islamand was used. An image of Dhu 'l-Fakarwas engraved on the Bladeof Gajere. underwent a similar later transformation. male-femaleaspect. drawnfroma broad Afro-Islamic vocabulary. Yet another interpretation derives from the referenceto the robe embroideryas fuska. 114.

along with another portion of the Weickmann collection. The NEWPUBLICATIONS SongyeMasksand FigureSculpture Dunja by Hersak.sculptorsand traders are quickly learning to supply the burgeoning Europeandemand for old and used slingshots by carving and faking "instant ethnographicantiques. an Eardley-Wilmot.Menzel 1972. Travelsand Discoveries in Northern and Central Africa. L 976. 1914. hence the confusion.P. 1983-1986. Assistant Keeper." Journalof the AmericanOriental Society 98. San Franby cisco Craft and Folk Art Museum.. Museum.Basel: Museum fuirV61olkerkunde. 1978. 3: nos. 152pp. tween African-art By simultaneouslyarousinginterestin a class of objects previously unknown and undervalued by collectors of African art. London. first in line in Zaria (Bargery 1934: 738. 16. 100-2. or village. 10. bibliography. would require about eighty strips of the size strip purchased for 2. bibliography. Accession numbers 15-26-56 through 15-26-157. 122 (Jan. cited References Azarpay. New York. and -130 only have the eyelet and chain-stitch areas of the pocket embroidered. and came up with a sample of 53 robes with the Two Knives or Eight Knives embroidery composition. 14. comm. 20. It included the three-tiered pointed forms and each end of the arc motif as well as the cloverleaf shapes protruding from the other vertical motif (Heathcote 1972d:114-16. Accession number 1920. many of the fragments are pockets only.50cloth. 111. sary. Imam Imoru described "palace malams" wearing expensive and elegant clothing (Ferguson 1973:227). A. there has been very little research on tailoring. 5. the authors have createda potentially prosperous market with high demand and limited supply. London: Cass. Thames and Hudson. KRIGER.The collectionof Bauleand otherslingshots was started about four years ago by Scanzi from his Abidjanresidence. The robe does not correspond to the description by Renbe Boser-Sarivaxbvanis of "Dahomey robes. was called in Hausa ri'biye (Sokoto). Museum of Mankind. As he began showing interestin buying decoratedslingshots. The Anatomy of Architecture:Ontology and in Architectural Metaphor Batammaliba Expression by Suzanne Preston Blier.gansark'i is poor quality cloth like sak'i. An abbreviated version was presented at the Seventh Triennial Symposium on African Art. 31. For a discussion of the issue of who was a believer and who was not. from page 79 Research for this article was carried out in museums and archives in North America and Europe. The strips are folded in half and sewn so that the patterned part shows on the outside and the solidcolored half becomes a lining on the inside of the robe. Rene. 16 b/w & 46 color photos. From this sample. Washington. 12. There were ongoing debates among the Shaikh.who collect art from ruralareas for resale in Abidjan. Each strip in the body of the garment is half patterned. Guitty. An enlarged and expanded version of Two Knives has been depicted on twentieth-century robes. The black robe. Museum of Mankind. was collected by a First Lieutenant Picht. B. D. worked separately. now in the Berlin Museum fiir V61kerkunde. Mischlich 1942:116)..3 maps. Nadel 1942: 100-1). ha'di (Kano). perhaps by a different embroiderer. 1849-1855. vol. "Regalia of Katsina.C. For a discussion of facial markings and their association with commercial groups. bibliography. According to Imam Imoru.. This bowl (acc. 11 robes were selected according to their dates of collection and became the subjects of my technical analysis. Reprint. 13. Dagan. see Last and Al-Hajj 1965: 232-39. There is one entire robe. 4. England: Admiralty File 53/8428. 5 maps. however. 15-26-100. five is the number used most frequently in charms for protection against the evil eye (Westermarck 1904:212-15). I surveyed published and unpublished museum and field photographs.J. patterned couching would be later added. A case study of twentieth-century Kano deals mostly with tailors using sewing machines (see Pokrant 1982). 173. Lombard refers to the operation of an official "language" of colors (1978:117). but the weight of textiles was an important factor in the trade (Shea 1975:80-82. in Boser-Sarivaxevanis. 1987. London: Cass.and Burkinabe' dealersin Abidjanwho act as middlemen between the itinerant Hausa runners and the relatively large European expatriateclientele." Journalof the AfricanSociety21. for this and several other sources on Mamluk art. 18. 2: no. see Johnson 1976:97. a few costly robes were selected by the wealthy caravan leaders for presentation to foreign rulers (Lovejoy 1980:124). He became a Vice Admiral in 1876. deF. which consisted mostly of unfinished pieces. I have already mentioned the eight-pointed star as an Islamic talisman. 460. especially in the area around Katsina (Lovejoy 1980:84). which suggests close production relations between tailors and weavers. 24. London and New York. robes traded to Borno were made by the simple. The wearing of two robes simultaneously. in French and English. The number three is a significant number in Sufi belief and prayer repetitions (Schimmell11975:157). 26.95paper. The robe is registered with the following information: "Given to Vice Admiral Eardley Wilmsley by the King of Dahomey between 1836 and 1866" (pers. 6. 173 Text b/w photos. Nigeria: Federal Department of Antiquities. along with a white robe. 23. For example. or headman of a town. 1983. 1501. Distributed by the Universityof PennsylvaniaPress. 121b/w& 8 colorphotos. 3. 11. which I studied through photographs. vol. "The Eclipse Dragon on an Arabic Frontispieceminiature. The alkyabbawas a hooded cloak given only to emirs. Renee.startedbringingback from their buying trips greaterand greater quantities of these items. bibliography. 1987. thesis (York University. This version of the composition is also known on the robe collected by Barth between 1849 and 1855. 3:no. Distributedby the University of Michigan Museum of Art. 36 b/w & 102 color glosphotos. 1932. For a discussion of imported cotton and cotton yarns as well as magenta waste silk from Europe. This sample was the basis for my visual analysis. -129. I am very grateful to Dr.$24. Hugh Clapperton. but has not displaced the version illustrated here. A majorityof the pieces illustratedin the book were sold to Scanziby art Ivoirian. Mack. A. or "lion. bibliography. usually calligraphed. $45 cloth. gidan zuma andgidan biyar (Menze11972. London. map. Nigeria. and Capt.publishedexamplesof WestAfrican slingshotscouldbe countedon the fingers of one hand. 1965. I would also like to thank the Pasold Research Fund for partially supporting my research in Great Britain in June 1986. Cambridge UniversityPress. African Islam. I am grateful to Dr. Korhogo. B. which was developed from my M. vol. D. Barth.95paper.3-11.. 199 pp. zaki.index. Bouak&. 2. and gami (Katsina) (Bargery 1934:852)." Bringing to light a largely unexplored dimension of West African sculptural art. 361).34) is on long-term loan to the Royal Ontario Museum. In Hausa. lightweight method of tailoring. 1986. $14. Journal of a Second Expedition into the Interiorof Africa.) Denham. 120). Scanzi'sinterestin slingshots and the subsequent publicationof the book have caused the market for slingshots in Ivory Coast to catapult. 1. 3 maps. A Hausa-EnglishDictionary. Royal Ontario Museum. 32. madaki was a high office in the Sokoto Caliphate . 1934.1987. and their followers about the proper forms of acceptable protective magic and supernatural powers.Malian. $18paper.. Three robes from the Ulmer Museum have been published in Lamb 1975 and Lamb & Holmes 1980. H. vol.. A Nupe-English Dictionary. serves not only to introducea little-known category of artifactsbut also to make evident the dynamic relationship bebooks and the art market.they ones they had sold to Scanzi. however. Narrative of 85 . 9. Picht. Lisa Golombek. 64 pp.98paper.95cloth. There are no Eardley Wilmsleys or Wilmsleys listed in the British Navy for the years 1836-1866. At the time there was virtually no market for such objects in IvoryCoast. $44. Its publication. map. Sarkihas referred to the emir. In the textile trade to Asante. 1987. Clapperton.1. I have so far not been able to track down Lt. Banfield 1914:207). the hexagon is said to represent an image of Allah. Bivar. especially nineteenth-century methods of handtailoring. H. chief. 4 plans.index. Erwin Treu of the Ulmer Museum for his patience and generosity in helping me sort out this misunderstanding.22 and 43. My finds were corroborated by the 102 embroidery pieces collected by Frobenius. Smithsonian Institution. accession number III C 15288 (Menzel 1972. Textilhandwerk Westafrika.W. The rank of ndaeji or ndeji has been associated with the highest rank among the offices of the civil nobility. $43. 119. 27. no. Surrey. held at UCLA in April 1986. 1985). by Philadelphia Museum of Art. Galerie Amrad. strips are woven with configurations for this purpose. 22. 1986. 15. When I to showed PotomoWaka a number of the art in dealersin the open-airPlateaumarketplace each recognizeda few pieces as Abidjan. 1972. The robes exported from Kano to Borno have not been clearly described. but he may be the same Picht listed as a trader who gave two garments from Cameroon to the Berlin Museum fiir V61kerkunde early in the twentieth century (see Menzel 1972. Kew." was a term used to refer to the king (Ferguson 1973: 211). vol. Unfortunately.. who served as senior officer off the coast of Africa from 1862 to 1866. In sub-Saharan Sufism.third in the line of succession in Katsina and Hadejia.311. 73 b/w &22 colorphotos. Laya (pl. probably in the late nineteenth century They were given to the Ulmer Museum in 1910 by the Gewerbemuseum.: Bravmann. Bargery. Accession numbers 43. Prices have been converted into cowries according to Lovejoy (1974:584). 1985). My analyses of the 1841 Niger Expedition collection are currently being prepared for publication. 21. 1st ed. half solid color. notes. $15. 1831. and at least ninety of the fragments appear to be from robes. Ubandawakireferred to the second highest rank among the offices of the military nobility (Banfield 1914:354. 8.2-11. 276). Daniel. See Last 1967a:8-10.000 cowries. and absorbingfor themselves large quantitiesof the items. G. African Sculpture fromthe University of University Pennsylvania Allen Wardwell. 30. the authors attributed all three robes to the Weickmann collection (collected prior to 1653) although in fact only two of the robes belong to that collection. in Who'da ThoughtIt: Improvisation AfricanAmerican Quiltmaking Eli Leon.1500. guild. And. A robe measuring 130 x 245 cm. a more popuOn lar level. See Rubin 1984:67-70.53. in Sieber 1972:41). as with most other facets of the Africanart market.Those pieces that are available are being sold for increasingly higherprices. only the weft is black and not black and blue (Bargery 1934:117. I would like to thank Drs. 127. Nigerian Panoply. 28. The title has also been used to refer to important merchants. bibliography. Christopher Steiner Universite de Nationale Cite d'Ivoire Wood The ManandHis Vision: Traditional Sculpture of BurkinaFaso by Esther A. Northern Provinces. The Ulmer robes could have been collected in Adamawa or the Grassfields area. Alreadyit is difficultto find decoratedones in the marketplacesof Abidand jan. 19. Ethnographica. Further confirmation comes from the illustration of a late-nineteenth-century "royal costume" from Dahomey (Brooklyn Museum 22. In both cases. notes. -126. 3).so to say. Prussin 1986:93. Maria Kecskbsi and her staff for their generous assistance and encouragement.314pp. Banfield. Nos. 88 pp. Textiles theKingdom Shoowa from African Design: of Kubaby Georges Meurant. his son Bello. 1964. drawings. Potomo Waka an interestingaddition to any is collectionof books on Africanart. There is. glossary. 2:182). Shonga: Niger Press. 7. Montreal. London: Oxford University Press. the Hausa traders . 85 b/w illustrations. 206 pp. 25. 593). Zabakois poorer qualitysak'i cloth. one black and one white." which have a different garment form and are embroidered in polychrome (1972:34). Heathcote found evidence of twentieth-century Hausa embroiderers specializing in only one or two kinds of stitch (1972a:17-8). Public Record Office. 4. 1829. Zdenka Volavka and Paul Lovejoy for reading and commenting on earlier drafts of this paper. F. According to the illustration in Nachtigal's account (1971.A. 17. 29. lawaye) refers to charms. I am grateful to Dr. 1966. see Lovejoy 1980:79-80.

Nettleton 1984. 1958. 1982. Green & Co. J.). Ibrahim. and Economic Growthin Dahomey1640-1960. as well as my own fieldwork in Gazankulu and Bushbuck Ridge in 1979 and 1980. Nigeria. E. A Dictionary of the Hausa Language. "A Note on Attitudes toward the Supernatural in the Sokoto Jihad. Kamphandira Jere. Use of these basketry masks is described by Makumbi (1955).Gillon 1984. Leiris & Delange 1968. My husband and I were finally initiated into the society in an admittedly superficial ceremony.Oxford: Clarendon. Drawings of Kasiyamaliro and Chimkoko appear in a Chichewa publication published in Malawi called Maliro ndi myambo Acewa(Funeral customs of the Chewas) (Makumbi ya 1955). V. input 14. 1972. 1896b. "Calico Caravans: The Tripoli-Kano Trade after 1880. 1897. "Nupe Costume Crafts. Heathcote. Paris: Editions de l'Orante. 4. dissertation. 1978. 1891. "The Amuletic Significance of Swords and Daggers in Islamic Jewelry.F P and N. Qurans and Bindings. 1912. "Plantations in the Economy of the Sokoto Caliphate. University of Birmingham. 1976. FAULKNER. Mason. "Egyptian Zar-Amulets. 1965. Peter. The Ban of the Bori. Frankfurt's and Berlin's Museum fur V61olkerkunde. and of Jurgen Witt. 1975. 17-27. 1980. Los Angeles. David. M. who worked in development. 1972. It is interesting that there are a number of Tsonga headrests that include guns in . Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press. The Sokoto Caliphate. University of Pretoria. 1968. The ritual with the sacrificial chicken was described to me in personal interviews with members. Perani. and J." Ph. London: Longman Group. In order to document and study this culture freely. 1974a. Prussin. arts et symbols. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum. 1970. Scot Faulkner. "Aspects of Style in Hausa Embroidery. "Nupe Crafts: The Dynamics of Change in 19th Century Nupe Weaving and Brassworking. Meek.4:36-41. Perani. Johnson. Mayer. Paris: Mouton. J. 1975. PG. Lovejoy." in FromCraftto Industry. IslamicDesign in WestAfrica.Wessman 1908.A. M. yet in the Royal Scottish Museum. Reprint. London: Low." African Arts 5." in Ideologyof Slavery. Archibald.B. II." Journalof AfricanHistory 17. Heathcote. Mayer. AreaHandbook Malawi. to the idea that the blacks. Judith. Hausa Sayings and Folklore. notes. Calligraphyin the Arts of the Muslim World. De Rachewiltz 1966. Paul E. 1. ed. cited References Blackmun. Both the Nasionale Museum voor Ethnologie in Leiden and the Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale in Tervuren have accurate documentation of figures in their collections. See Fagg 1965. M. thropological Heathcote. Al-Hajj." African Arts 10. 3. London: Oxford University Press." Journalof the HistoricalSociety of Nigeria 4. Some even reject what little they do know as inevitably "primitive. West Germany. 1980. Reprint. 1961. AfricanTextiles Decorative Museum of Modern Art." in Studies in Textile History. 1975." in Studies in the History of Kano. The Foundation of the Bida Kingdom. S. Annette. V. 1967b.Travels and Discoveriesin Northern and CentralAfrica in the Years 1822. Harold D. The Sword of Truth. Leiden: Brill. Philip. 2. 1975. 10. 1952. and the Brighton Museum. pp. New York: Sieber.Vogel 1981. London: Sage.Tyrrell1968. D101. Paul E.g. tiberdie Kulturenim Mittel-Sudan. Ittig. J."Almost identical figures in the Musee de l'Homme and in Leiden were called Zulu and later "Shangaan. David. Religion. particularly the Nguni with their grass architecture. as well as in eastern Zambia and parts of western Mozambique." Journalof the HistoricalSocietyof Nigeria 3. Hiskett."JournalofAfricanHistory15." as they suspect interested whites of trying to foist an inferior status upon them. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie. Schoffeleers. Rubin. IslamicTextiles. obtained in an exchange with the Amsterdam Museum where it was recorded as having been bought at Marabastad in the Transvaal. MamlukCostume." pub. 1954 Af 23. 1979. The role of Njobvu was described to me in personal communication with members. E. 1897. See also my information from Tsonga informants in Gazankulu. 1973. Clark. "Hausa Embroidered Dress.G.S. Reprint. The Journalsof the Reverend JamesF Sch6n and Mr. It has been deduced that Nyau and the dance date back to the hunting and gathering cultures of the Late Stone Age (e. F.A.G.W. 1982. 5. I am preparing articles that will examine other masking forms in the Gule Wamkulu and provide insights into the Nyau society among the Chewa. Paulme 1%2. Nachtigal. Leuzinger 1972.). Brigitte. 2. Nott. Peter. London: Oxford University Press. West African Weaving. Heathcote. in Martin." Annales Is18. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ed. Briglal Pachai. C." AARP (Dec.Roxford. Lovejoy. Fletcher. Lovejoy. "Sudan and Upper Niger Mission.Austin: University of Texas Press. "Ein magisches Quadrat auf einem 14.Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.). "The Economic History of Ilorin in the 19th and 20th Centuries: The Rise and Decline of a Middleman Society. "Rock Art and Nyau. Robinson. 9. The whole question of the status of the ethnographic object as art is examined in Maquet 1979. Berkeley: University of California Press. Last. London: Murray. 1981. Hausa-Amulett.Distant 1892. This is now well documented in the literature but is still in evidence in most Southern African rural areas. D. Schiernerl." Textile Museum Journal4. 1925. 1942. 1978. Delange 1974. "Dragons on a Cairene Mosque. Clark 1972. Interviews with black artists in both Johannesburg and the ruralareas have revealed how little is actually known by South Africans about their artistic heritage. Being a Description by Imam Imoru of the Land." Ph. 3. backed up by our field research and other documentation. Au Sahara. Les musulmansd'AfriqueNoire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1st ed. 1933. V. London: Thames & Hudson. Van Warmelo 1932. Gule Wamkulu. 1974b. Mittwoch. L. they are classified as Zulu or Xhosa. After nearly one year in the country. Philip. Joseph. Last. Jean. R. Beitriage V61kerkunde deutschen Schutzgebiete. 1980. 2. Judson 1968." ChurchMissionaryIntelligencer(Feb. "Nineteenth Century Hausaland. R." 23. though precise usage of Chimkoko is unknown. N. SamuelCrowther. 1.D. Indiana University. 1979. dissertation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.M. where my husband and I filmed the new burlap Kasiyamaliro. to the idea that there was no suitable wood available.D. "Tiraz Fabrics in the Royal Ontario Museum. A. Documentation of the use of figures in these contexts is in Roberts & Winter 1915. The dating for Nyau is still inconclusive. The arbitrariness of attribution is to be found in the case of a figure in the British Museum (Museum of Mankind). Meinhof. B. Tsonga informants in Gazankulu.H. Pokrant. 1978. 1978. A. The fact that the Zulu and Swazi made among the most elaborate and bulky headrests and milk pails from very solid woods appears to have escaped notice altogether. Malawi Antiquities Dept. 4 vols. "A Hausa Embroiderer from Katsina. 4. Reprint. Venice and Judy Holmes. 2. Robinson. 1972c. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts. 1972. D." Lecture presented to the Society of Malawi. Paul E. Rev.S. B. Tzaneen Museum. NETTLETON. Nigerian Weaving. Nelson. Images resembling Chimkoko and Kasiyamaliro have been found in rock paintings dating back several centuries in Namzeze just north of Dedza in the central region of Malawi. 6. 7. 1972a. Lovejoy. Symbolism in Malawi. Carl. Lombard. I sought clearances and approvals from the Malawi Congress Party and regional and local chiefs to view the Nyau dance. 1965. "Prehistoric Malawi. R. Mischlisch. 1966. Esther Goody. "Interregional Monetary Flows in the Precolonial Tradeof Nigeria. Waiter. 1. "The Nyau Societies: Our Present Understanding. where research is presently in progress. 1975. were nomadic and therefore could not carry sculpture around with them. by my husband and me.R. Froelich. Muslim Brotherhoods WestAfrica." ZeitschriftfiurEingeborenen-Sprachen aus Berlin: Museum Menzel. Smith.D." Nigeria 68." Church MissionaryIntelligencer(Jan.3. Nancy 1938. Patrick. O'Hear. I received permission to videotape and study the traditional Nyau dances performed in the villages.H. Shea. African freestanding figurative sculpture has had the widest acceptance as "art" in Europe and America. David. Lamb. and Zulu informants in Johannesburg. London: Duckworth. 5. Gervers. Labelle. M. "Iron Age Sites in the Dedza District of Malawi. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press. frompage 51 1. Nairobi: Longman's. David. "The Upper Niger and Soudan." AfricanArts 5. The history reportedly dates from the first millennium A. ed. Levtzion. Nott. Hausalandor 1500Miles throughthe Central Sudan. Ferguson. "A Hausa Charm Gown. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 3. David. Annemarie. London: Cass. 1962. 300. "Layoyi: Some Hausa Calligraphic Charms. Heathcote. 1972. nos. Shea. ed. M. Welch. Dept. no. 1982. 1986." pub. Dynamiquesocialeet apprehension monde au sen d'une societt hausa. Detailed description of Kasiyamaliro is based on a basketry mask.A. and 1902-185.). that will be donated to the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. "Decorated Houses in Zaria. C. Kirk-Greene. 1980.A. Textilien Westafrika. "Notes on Drums and Musical Instruments seen in Sokoto Province. K. Ntara. 2.1974. and L. Laila. 1970. The Northern Tribes Nigeria." Man 9. SaracenicHeraldry. 1976. James." probably because it was finally realized that there were few Zulu-speakers residing in the rural Transvaalin the 1890s. "Insight into a Creative Process: A Rare Collection of Embroidery Drawings from Kano. 1891Af 5308. Westermarck. Lamb.O'Neill 1921. A Study of Some EarlyIslamicTextiles. Corpusof EarlyArabic Sources for West African History. "Approaching the Study of Production in Rural Kano." Encyclopediaof Islam. lamologiques James. 1942." Ph." Ph. in which the masks appear. Ransford. Desmond. zur der Luschan." Journalof the RoyalAnthropological Society34. dissertation.1.J. Burchell clearly records the making of decorated spoons among the Tlaping and Hottentots of the Northern Cape." Journalof the Royal AnInstitute 62. "Slavery in the Sokoto Caliphate. J. Christie Collection.D. Pence-Britton.S. and M. Junod 1929. 2. du Nicolas. Denny.the Dramaof Nyasa.notes. University of Wisconsin. Ransford 1966). U. Labelle. Paul E. "A Group of Silk Islamic Banners. London: World of Islam Festival Trust. in the Congo Basin. and Society of His People. 8. 1914. 1932. 16. England: Roxford Books. Robinson.E. 18.D. Embroidery 4. Tremearne. "Tailorsof Kano City. Michael. 1955.N. 1972d. Vol. Fagg & Plass 1968. Beirut: Librairiedu Liban. Nadel. University of California. Ann.H. and in contrast to the collections of the ethnological museum in Lubeck. 3. Venice. 1904. 1981. I resided in Lilongwe for two years with my husband." Journalof AfricanHistory 19. Sch6n.London: Oxford University Press. Van Warmelo published a photograph of a traditional healer with a variety of figurative objects among his paraphernalia without commenting on it at all. Malawi Antiquities Dept. "The Magic Origin of Moorish Designs. and also 1953 Af 8. Serjeant. 1983. no. but we had the advantage of access to members and openness among the villagers about the culture. C. New York:Augustin. 1972. Murray 1967a. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. frompage 31 1.S." Nigerian Field 37. Other mines of information include the V61kerkunde Versammlung in Luibeck. L." Savanna1. 1923-24. Safadi. Guy. 1973. Livingstone's Lake. Our interest in African art and culture evolved into research as we realized that a vibrant traditional culture virtually surrounded us.H. "Attempts at Defining a Muslim in 19th Century Hausaland and Bornu." in The Early History of Malawi. Barbaraand Matthew Schoffeleers. Samuel Yosiya." AfricanArts 17.D.J. ed. Prussin.2. 1946. Some of the reasons advanced for this supposed lack of figure sculpture in the literature range from the idea that black peoples do not have the ability to create any. Caravansof Kola. Hopkins. "Masks of Malawi. Governmentin Zazzau. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer. BlackByzantium. 9. Mbiriya Acewa. Barbara Blackmun and Matthew Schoffeleers (1972) have written about the Mang'anja Nyau association around Zomba and Chancellor College in southern Malawi. fir V61kerkunde.London: Cass. Paul E. David 1972b. London: Oxof ford University Press. We documented the change from woven maize leaves to burlap bags in a village dance and visit to the graveyard. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. "Fulani-Hausa Architecture. bringing the Iron Age and pottery-making with them. London: Longmans. New York:Oxford University Press. Beth: The Pitman Press. 1979 and 1980. 1944. Mystical Dimensions of Islam. Islamic Calligraphy.M. 1896a. Les textilesdans le mondemusulman. 1976.). 4. Robinson. Segy 1958. 8. R." Ornament4. See museum documentation on. "A Talismanic Bowl.. 1960. 1982. We have pieced together information to be included in future works. Gabus. Govfor ernment Printing Office. Roberts 1916.Saharaand Sudan. Makumbi. L. and 1824. Golombek. Gervers." AfricanArts 12. Slavery. for example. "The Development of an Export-Oriented Dyed Cloth Industry in Kano Emirate in the 19th Century. 22:550-172. A. 1974." ChurchMissionaryIntelligencer (Aug. Last. Schimmel. The Influenceof Islam on a Sudanese Greenberg. Schoffeleers. Marston & Co. 1 (Dec. 1975. of Anthropology. Harris. "Dhu 'l-Fakar. 1. 1977. 1979. Barkindo. Murray. David. It was later reclassified as Zulu and more recently reclassified again as "Transvaal. Wellcome Collection.69. and Arts. or possibly Nyau entered Malawi with Bantu-speaking people from the Congo area as early as A." Ornament 4. Judith.3.4. 1984. Maliro ndi myambo ya Acewa. Kundig. 1985. W.C. Lewis. "Some Hausa Lizard Designs. Weisbaden: Fran & Steiner Verlag. G. the figures in the Museum of Mankind (British Museum). dissertation. 1983." Savanna 3. November 25. Lindgren. 1972. 1973. Economy. 1971. Oliver. See also documentation and fieldnotes in the collections of Meno Klapwijk. Neuchatel:Bacconniere.. The Nyau society is found throughout the central and southern regions of Malawi.K. von. Heathcote. 1977. Arnold. Geneva: A. Anthony. Schienerl. Ibadan: Heinemann. Lovejoy. Colonialism. Hatumere: Berkeley: University of California Press.Christol 1897. 1823. brought to the U. "Journal. Manning. trans. 1976. 7. 6.