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CONTROL ENGINEERING BMCM 3733

INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEM

1. DEFINITION OF CONTROL SYSTEM


2. BASIC COMPONENTS OF CONTROL SYSTEMS
3. CLOSED LOOP VS OPEN LOOP CONTROL
4. CLASSIFICATION OF CONTROL SYSTEM
5. EXAMPLE OF CONTROL SYSTEMS

MOHD AZLI BIN SALIM INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEM

CONTROL ENGINEERING BMCM 3733

DEFINITION OF CONTROL SYSTEM


WHAT IS CONTROL SYSTEM?
A system is any collection of interacting elements for which there are cause and
effect relationships among the variables.

A control system is an interconnection of components forming a system


configuration which will provide a desired system response.

The objective of the control system is to control the output variables in some
prescribe manner using the input variables, through the elements of the control
system.

MOHD AZLI BIN SALIM INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEM

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CONTROL ENGINEERING BMCM 3733

BASIC COMPONENTS OF CONTROL SYSTEM


REPRESENTATION OF A SYSTEM
A system is NORMALLY represented using block diagram. Each/Every block diagram
has input which effects the output of the components.

A COMPONENT or SYSTEM may have more than one input.

An INPUT signal is represented by an arrow pointing into the block and an output
signals is represented by an arrow pointing away from the block.

Signal are also known as VARIABLES.

MOHD AZLI BIN SALIM INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEM

CONTROL ENGINEERING BMCM 3733

BASIC COMPONENTS OF CONTROL SYSTEM

Figure 1

Figure 2

MOHD AZLI BIN SALIM INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEM

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CONTROL ENGINEERING BMCM 3733

OPEN LOOP OF CONTROL SYSTEM


In an open loop control system, the output has NO EFFECT on the control action.
The block diagram contains one signal path from the input to the output with no
junctions.

A domestic oven is an example of an open loop control system. The temperature of


the oven depends on the setting as well as other quantities beyond the control of
the operator such as ambient temperature and efficiency of the heating element.

Figure 3

MOHD AZLI BIN SALIM INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEM

CONTROL ENGINEERING BMCM 3733

CLOSED LOOP OF CONTROL SYSTEM


A closed loop control system maintains a prescribed relationship between the
output and the reference input by comparing them and using the difference as a
means of control. The controlled signal (assume Y) is feedback and compared with
the reference input and an actuating signal is sent through the system to correct the
error. This system is known as FEEDBACK control system.

The speed control of a motor cycle by a rider can be considered as a closed loop
control system where the rider acts as the controller.

Figure 4

MOHD AZLI BIN SALIM INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEM

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CONTROL ENGINEERING BMCM 3733

CLASSIFICATION LOOP OF CONTROL SYSTEM


There are many types of system and there are:
1. Translational mechanical system
2. Torsional mechanical system
3. Electrical system
4. Servo mechanism system
5. Hydraulic system
6. And so on.

But the most importantly to know are:


1. Linear system
2. Non linear system

In BMCM 3733, we only to study the linear system.

MOHD AZLI BIN SALIM INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEM

CONTROL ENGINEERING BMCM 3733

BASIC TERMINOLOGY OF CONTROL SYSTEM


Controlled variable
Quantity or condition that is measured and controlled.
Manipulated variable
Quantity or condition that is varied by the controller so as to affect the value of the
controller variable.
Plant
To perform particular operation. It is the physical object to be controller such as
mechanical devices, heating furnace and etc.
Process
Is any operation to be controlled. Process can be chemical, economic and etc.
System
Is a combination of component that act together and perform certain objective.
Disturbance
Is a signal that tends to adversely affect that value of the output of a system. May
internal or external.
Feedback control
Refers to an operation that in the presence of disturbances, tends to reduce the
difference between the output of a system and some reference input.

MOHD AZLI BIN SALIM INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEM

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CONTROL ENGINEERING BMCM 3733

EXAMPLE OF CONTROL SYSTEM


COMPUTER NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED (CNC)

Figure 5

MOHD AZLI BIN SALIM INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEM

CONTROL ENGINEERING BMCM 3733

EXAMPLE OF CONTROL SYSTEM


SHIP AUTOPILOT CONTROL SYSTEM

Figure 6

MOHD AZLI BIN SALIM INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEM

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CONTROL ENGINEERING BMCM 3733

EXAMPLE OF CONTROL SYSTEM


FLUSH TANK WITH FLOAT

Figure 7

MOHD AZLI BIN SALIM INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEM

CONTROL ENGINEERING BMCM 3733

EXAMPLE OF CONTROL SYSTEM


HUMAN MANTAINING FLUID LEVEL

Figure 8

MOHD AZLI BIN SALIM INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEM

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CONTROL ENGINEERING BMCM 3733

END OF WEEK 1 LECTURE

MOHD AZLI BIN SALIM INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEM