3.4 For the Hep crystal structure, show that the ideal cia ratio is 1.633.

Solution A sketch of one-third of an HCP unit cell is shown below.

0,:
/ ~---I

MI
~

I

,,"L "

1

c

J

I

"

"

"

Consider the tetrahedron labeled as JKLM, which is reconstructed as

M

The atom at point M is midway between the top and bottom faces of the unit cello-that is MH = C/2. And, since atoms at points J, K, and M, all touch one another,

JM = JK = 2R

=

a

where R is the atomic radius. Furthermore, from triangle JHM,

or
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Now, we can determine the JH length by consideration of triangle JKL, which is an equilateral triangle,

cos 30° and JH

al2 -_- {3 JH 2

a

{3

Substituting this value for JH in the above expression yields

3

4

and, solving for cia c
a

~

=

1.633

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. and 2R. the unit cell volume is just the product of the base area times the cell height. This base area is just three times the area of the parallelepiped ACDE shown below. the base area is just 2 AREA (3)(CD)(BC) (3 )(2 R{ ~.J3 and since c = 1. The APF is just the total sphere volume-unit cell volume ratio.633a = 2R(l.f3 2 BC Thus.6 Show that the atomic packingfactor Solution for HCP is 0.S1) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. But CD is just a or 2R.f3 ) = 6R2 . there are the equivalent of six Now.3. \ \ \ \ \ \ - \ I I 1< a=2R - - - - - - - The area of ACDE is just the length of CD times the height BC. . c. and thus For Hep.633) (AREA)(c) (3.74. spheres per unit cell.

633)R3 Thus. APF 12.633) R3 0.(6R2-v'3)(2)(1.633)R = 12-v'3 (1. .74 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.f3 (1. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

Now. Solution We are asked to determine the radius of an iridium atom.36 x 10-8 em = 0..[i) = ]113 = l.4 g/cm3)(6.2 g/mol.8 Calculate the radius of an iridium atom.2 glmol) [ (16)(22. Any other reproduction or trans/at ion of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful .[i (4 atoms/unit cell) (192.4 g/cm'.022 x 1023 atoms/mol)(.fi (Equation 3. a density of 22. and VC = 16R3.136 nm Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-tor-profit basis tor testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. n = 4 atoms/unit cell. p And solving for R from the above expression yields R =( nAIr J1I3 16pN A... For FCC... and an atomic weight of 192.3. given that Ir has an FCC crystal structure. given that Ir has an FCC crystal structure.4).

13 l iD = 1. Any other reproduction or trans/afton of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United Slates Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.j3)R3 And from Equation 3.856.133 nm Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. we must use Equation 3.SI (from Problem 3.33 x 10-8 cm = 0. Compute the atomic radius for Zn.6) is as follows: In this case c = 1. a cia ratio of 1. the density is equal to nAZn And.856)(12{3)pNA ] And incorporating appropriate values for the parameters in this equation leads to R_ - [ (6 atoms/unit cell)(65. which means that (1.41 g/cm3)(6.13 g/cm'.5. Equation 3. as well as the expression which relates the atomic radius to the unit cell volume for HCP.856a. but. .. and a density of 7.022 g/mol) x 1023 atoms/mol) (1. solving for R from the above equation leads to the following: 113 R_ nAZn [ - (1.18 Zinc has an HC? crystal structure. a = 2R.3.5. Solution In order to calculate the atomic radius for Zn.856)(12. for HCP.856)(12{3)(7.

40 nm +x / 1 T -+y Solution (a) The unit cell shown in the problem statement belongs to the tetragonal crystal system since a om. and a = 13 = y = 90°.022 x 1023 atoms/mar) == 13. (a) To which crystal system does this unit cell belong? (b) What would this crystal structure be called? (c) Calculate the density of the material. n = 2 atoms/unit cell.20 Below is a unit cellfor a hypothetical metal. (b) The crystal structure would be called body-centered tetragonal. c = b = 0.5. given that its atomic weight is 141 g/mol. (c) As with BCC.0 g/cm3 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.0 x 10-8 cm) = 3. for this unit cell Vc (3.40 nm. using Equation 3.Crystal Systems 3. .30 = 0. +z t 0. Also.0 x 10-8 cm)2( 4. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or I()S of the 1976 United Stales Copyright ACI without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.60 x 10-23 cmJ/unit cell)(6. the density is equal to p = (2 atoms/unit cell)(141 g/mol) (3.60 x 10-23 cm3/unit cell Thus.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. and centers of both front and back faces need to be specified. Coordinates for other atoms in the bottom face are 100.22 List the point coordinates for all atoms that are associated with the FCC unit cell (Figure 3. and _!_ !_ . the atom located of the origin of the unit cell has the coordinates 000. 110. For the front and back-center face atoms. and 22 22 2 2 2 2 respectively./).) _O 22 For the top unit cell face. 22 Coordinates for those atoms that are positioned at the centers of both side faces. and _!_ !_ _ 1. 010. Solution From Figure 3. the coordinates are 1_!__!_ O_!__!_. 101. . the coordinates are 001.Point Coordinates 3. Ill. the respective coordinates are _!_O_!_ _!_ and 1_!_. 011.1 b. While for the left and right side center-face atoms. Any other reproduction or translation oj this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 oj the 1976 United Stales Copyright Acl without the permission oj the copyright owner is unlawful. (The z coordinate for all these points is zero.

Any other reproducllon or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United Stales Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner IS unlawful..- [110] I L _ --~ y x A I I z [122) I I __ _ ) I L .30 Within a cubic unit cell... --".. [133]. ---> y x Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.- z L. [012J A I I I I I I I I 1" . . The directions asked for are indicated in the cubic unit cells shown below. [121]. Solution (e) (f) [111]. sketch the/allowing (a) (b) (c) (d) [110]..3. directions: (g) [123]. [122]. [012]. (h) [ 103].

Using Equation 3.{i)= 0.1. similarly for d221 a ~ (2)2 + (2)2 + (1)2 0. aluminum has an FCC crystal structure and an atomic radius of 0.1 the lattice parameter. a.4047 nm d110 = = j2 = 0.14 as a ~ (1)2 + (1)2 + (0)2 0.3.1431 nm.60 Using the data for aluminum in Table 3.1431 nm)(. compute the interplanar spacings for the (J 10) and (22/) sets of planes.4047 nm d221 = = f9 = 0. may be computed as a= 2R.1349 nm Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-tor-profit baSIS for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner IS unlawful.4047 nm Now.2862 nm And. Solution From the table. the d110 interplanar spacing may be determined using Equation 3.{i = (2)(0. .

Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permilled by Sec/IOns 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copynght Act without lite permission of the copyright owner IS unlawful.1357 nm)({8) = 0. a.14. the interplanar spacing for the (220) nm (b) In order to compute the atomic radius we must first determine the lattice parameter.3. and then R from Equation 3.220 (first-order reflection) when monochromatic compute (a) the interplanar spacingfor Solution (a) From the data given in the problem. this set of planes. Therefore.1 j as = x-radiation having a wavelength of 0. . lfthe angle of diffraction for the (220) set of planes occurs at 69.1357 nm Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-far-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled In courses for which the textbook has been adopted.[2 = 0. and (b) the atomic radius for an iridium atom..1 a R = 2.22° set of planes for iridium may be computed using Equation 3.61 The metal iridium has an FCC crystal structure.[2 = 0. and realizing that 69. using Equation 3. 26. a = d220~ (2)2 + (2)2 + (0)2 = (0.3838 nm And.3838 nm 2.1542 nm is used.1 since Ir has an FCC crystal structure. from Equation 3..

41 g/moJ) (30)(63.55 g/mol) + (70)(65.7 What is the composition. of an alloy that consists of 30 wt% Zn and 70 wt% Cu? Solution In order to compute composition. we employ Equation 4. in atom percent.6 as x 100 = (30)(63.55 g/mol) + (70)(65.55 g/mol) (30)(63. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.41 g/mol) x 100 = 29.6 at% Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.41 g/mol) x 100 = 70. of a 30 wt% Zo-70 wt% Cu alloy.4 at% CCuAZn x 100 = (70)(65. .4. in atom percent.

Any other reproduction or translation oj this work beyond that permitted by Sections /07 or 108 of the 1976 United Slates Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner IS unlawful. while its atomic weight is 26.022 x 1023 atoms/mol)(2.05 x 1022 atoms/cm3 = 6.71 26. Solution In order to solve this problem.14 Calculate the number of atoms per cubic meter in aluminum.98 g/mol g/cm3) = 6.98 g/mol.71 g/cm '. Thus.05 x 1028 atoms/m3 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.2. . N The density of Al (from the table inside of the front cover) is 2. one must employ Equation 4.4. N = (6.

8 kg/rrr' Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.15 0.25 and 7.85 7.15 wt%. 0.15 wt% C-99. therefore C~ = + 99. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 oj the J 976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.87 g/cm ' = 11.85 wt% Fe alloy we must employ x 103 From inside the front cover. .15 2.15 The concentration of carbon in an iron-carbon alloy is 0.9 as C~ = Cc Cc + CFe Pc PFe in kg/rrr' of C in a 0. densities for carbon and iron are 2. respectively.4. What is the concentration in kilograms of carbon per cubic meter of alloy? Solution In order to compute the concentration Equation 4.25 g/cm ' and.87 g/cm '.

(b) The interfacial defect that exists within this FCC stacking sequence is a stacking fault. Within this region.4. cite the type of planar defect that exists: (a) (b) ABC ABC ABC ABC B A CB A B CAB C . . The stacking sequence on one side of this position is mirrored on the other side. which occurs between the two lines. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond thai permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. . which occurs at the indicated position. Solution (a) The interfacial defect that exists for this stacking sequence is a twin boundary. Now.31 For each of the following stacking sequences found in FCC metals. copy the stacking sequences and indicate the positionts) of planar defeats) with a vertical dashed line. the stacking sequence is HCP.

on which seven straight line segments. of Figure 4.32 (a) Using the intercept method. determine the average grain size. Solution (a) Below is shown the photomicrograph which is 60 mm long has been constructed. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted hy Sections /07 or /08 of the /976 Untied States Copvright Actwtthout the permisston of the copyright owner is unlawful. in millimeters.5 5 6 7 7 10 8 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors lor distribution on a not-lor-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. of the specimen whose microstructure is shown in Figure 4.Grain Size Determination 4. Grains Intersected 11 2 3 4 10 9 8. These data are tabulated below. . Line Number No.14(b). (b) Estimate the ASTM grain size number for this material. it is necessary to count the number of grains intersected by each of these line segments. use at least seven straight-line segments. 14(b). In order to determine the average grain diameter. each of these lines are labeled" 1" through "7".

The photomicrograph The total number of complete grains within this square is approximately 10 (taking into account grain fractions).1.16. on a side is shown below.16. it is first necessary to take logarithms as log N (n - I) log 2 From which n equals n == log N + I log 2 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-tor-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. the value of N is measured directly from the on which has been constructed a square 1 in. N.59 x 10-2 mm (b) This portion of the problem calls for us to estimate the ASTM grain size number for this same material. n. is ave. Inasmuch as the magnification is IOOx. in order to solve for n in Equation 4. is related to the number of grains per square inch.59 mm Hence. . at a magnification of IOOx according to Equation 4.59 mm 100 d == 6. line length intersected magnification 6.The average number of grain boundary intersections for these lines was 9. The average grain size number. the average grain diameter. d.1 Therefore. Any other reproduction or trans/at ion of this work beyond thai permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner IS unlawful. intersected is just 60mm 9. micrograph. Now. the average line length 6.

= log 10 + 1 = 4. . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.3 log 2 Excerpts from this work may he reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.

necessary to use Equation 4. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted hy Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 Unue d States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner IS unlawful.34 For an ASTM grain size of 8. approximately how many grains would there be per square inch at (a) a magnification of 100.4. solving for Nj. and therefore.000 grains/in.17: In order to solve this problem it is N (M)2 M~lOO = 2n-j where N M = the number of grains per square inch at magnification Without any magnification.16. N 1~100 (_1_)2 == 2 8-1 == 128 And. Nj = 1. M in the above equation is I.f (b) Now it is necessary to compute the value of N for no magnification. = 28-1 = 128 grains/ln. and n is the ASTM grain size number.280. All we need do is solve for the parameter N in Equation 4. . and (b) without any magnification? Solution (a) This part of problem asks that we compute the number of grains per square inch for an ASTM grain size of 8 at a magnification of 100x.f. inasmuch as n Thus = 8. M.

45.0.30 wt<'/o and the treatment is to be conducted at 1000 "C.5.0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. at 1000°C (1273 K) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.30 .30. Use the diffusion data for y-Fe in Table C.20 = 0. 0.2273 = 1 .7727 .0.20 wt% C.850 = 0.7727 By linear interpolation using data from Table 5.85 z 0.11 Determine the carburizing time necessary to achieve a carbon concentration of 0.2.7727 0.850 0.7707 0.900 .20 1.2.20.854 = x 2.5: wherein.0.7707 From which z = 0.90 z .7970 0.45 .2273 0. from Table 5. Thus. Co = 0.45 wt% at a is to be position 2 mm into an iron-carbon alloy that initially contains 0.7970 . and x = 2 rum = 2 x 10-3 m.0.JDi Now.0.0. Cs = 1. 5. .1 erf(z) 0. Cx = 0. The surface concentration maintained at 1.7707 0.erf (2 ~Dt) "V VI or erf (2ffi ) = 1 . Solution In order to solve this problem it is first necessary to use Equation 5.

K)(1273 K) Thus.! x 104s= 19.D = (2. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitled by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.3 x 10-5 m2/s) exp[ 148. .7h Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. 3 0.m (2)~(I.93 x 10-11 m2/s) (t) Solving for t yields t=7.000 J/mo! ] (8.31 J/mol.854 = 2 x 10.

700 llmol Now.5 1 x 10-16) -In(1. . we get R In D] . solving for Do from Equation 5.22 The diffusion coefficients for silver in copper are given at two temperatures: 650 900 (a) Determine the values of Do and Qd (b) What is the magnitude of D at 875°C? Solution 5.5.9a. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections /07 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.8 (and using the 650°C value of D) D o = D exp[ Qd) ] RT: ] Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.3 x 10-13 m2/s). we set up two simultaneous equations with Qd and Do as unknowns as follows: InD1 = InDO -_- Qd[ R 1J 1) Solving for Qd in terms of temperatures T1 and T2 (923 K [650°C] and 1173 K [900°C]) and D1 and D2 (5.3 x 10-13)] 1 ---923 K 1173 K = 196.In D2 1 1 Qd =_ = (8.5 x 10-16 and 1.31l/mol-K)~n(5.5 1.3 X ItT!6 ItT!3 x (a) Using Equation 5.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.. Click-and-drag cursor that is located at the top of the this cursor down the line to the point at which the entry under the "Temperature The value of the diffusion coefficient at this temperature is given under the (T):" label reads "1148" (i. 4.= (5. "923" (650°C) and "1173" (900°C).5 x 10-5 m2/s)ex p [_ 196. A log D versus liT plot then appears.K)(923 K) (b) Using these values of DO and Qd' D at 1148 K (875°C) is just D = (7. 875°C).31 Jzmol. To solve the (b) part of the problem we utilize the diamond-shaped line on this plot. Next. respectively 5. and then do the following: 1. label "DiffCoeff(D):".700 llmol ] (8. enter the corresponding diffusion coefficient values (viz.K)(1148 K) Note: this problem may also be solved using the "Diffusion" module in the VMSE software. "5. in the first two boxes under the column labeled "T (K)".3e-13"). Next. for this specific problem these values are 7. click on the "DO and Qd from Experimental Data" submodule.e.5e-16" and "1. click the "Plot data" button.5 x 10-16 m2/s)ex [ 196. . enter the two temperatures from the table in the book (converted from degrees Celsius to Kelvins) (viz. with a line for the temperature dependence for this diffusion system. this value is 8.9 x 10-14 m2/s. At the top of this window are give values for DO and Qd.70011mol ] p (8. at the bottom of this window. Open the "Diffusion" module.31 Jzmol.55 x 10-5 m2/s and 196 kl/mol. 3. In the left-hand window that appears. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or J08 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. For our problem.