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BY XAVIER BICHAT,
PHYSICIAN OF THE GREAT HOSPITAL OF HUMANITY AT PARIS, AND

PROFESSOR OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY.

Cranafateti from tje jTrenrin

BY GEORGE HAYWARD, M.D.
FELLOW OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, AND OF THE MASSACHUSETTS MEDICAL SOCIETY.

1
Jq

N

K
*

AX

DISTRICT OF MASSACHUSETTS,
BE

to

wit:

District Clerk's Office.
that on the seventeenth day of April, A. D. 1822, in the IT forty-sixth year of the Independence of the United States of America, Richardson Sr Lord, District, have deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof they of the said claim as proprietors, in the words following, to toit :

REMEMBERED,

" General Anatomy, applied to Physiology and Medicine by Xavier Bichat, Physician of the Great Hospital of Humanity at Paris, and Professor of Anatomy and Physiology. Translated from the French, by George Hayward, M. D. Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and of the Massachusetts Medical Society. In three Volumes.
;

Volume

I.

In conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, " An Act for the Encouragement of Learning, by securing the Copies of Maps, Charts and Books, to the Authors and Proprietors of such Copies, during the times therein mentioned :" and also to an Act entitled, " An Act supplementary to an Act, entitled, An Act for the encouragement of Learning, by securing the Copies of Maps, Charts and Books, to the Authors and Proand extending the Benefits prietors of such Copies during the times therein mentioned thereof to the Arts of Designing, Engraving and Etching Historical and other Prints."
;

JOHN W.

DAVIS,

Clerk of the District of Massachusetts.

PREFACE BY THE TRANSLATOR.

I

commenced the present

translation while pursuing the

study of medicine in Paris in the winter of 1813

14.
it

It

was

then

my

intention to

have completed and published
;

imme-

diately

upon

my

return to the United States
that a

but

I

learnt in

England

in the spring following,

translation of this

work was about
mation induced

to

appear from the London press.
to

This

infor-

me

abandon

my

undertaking, but after wait-

ing more than six years for the appearance of the English edition,

and finding from letters received from London, that there
little

was but
at all,
I

if

any expectation of
to
I

its

being published there

was led

pursue

my

original plan and complete the
public.

translation

which

now

offer to the
intrinsic

In doing this,

I

was influenced more by the

value of Bichat's
I

work

than by any and every other motive.

was unwilling that so

many

of

my

professional brethren should be any longer denied
it

access to this admirable production, because

was

in a foreign

language, and though

I

could have wished that another had
I

undertaken the task, yet
labour rather than
it

was resolved

to

go through the
all.

should not be performed at

Some

of the writings of Bichat are so well
it

known and

so

justly appreciated in this country, that

is

perhaps unnecesoffer

sary for

me

to

speak of his merits as an author, or

an

apology for translating the present work.

Every thing which

he gave

to the public

bore unequivocal proofs of being the

production of a mind of the most original and powerful cast,

iv

PREFACE BY THE TRANSLATOR.
it is

and

impossible to estimate what the influence of his la-

bours might have been

upon medical science
As
it

if a

longer

career had been permitted to him.

was, he accomplish-

ed much, and as his writings are more known, their influence
will be

more

sensibly

felt.

His manner of investigating phyhis strong
is

siological subjects

was characteristic of
to

and original

mind, and
ble, his

it is difficult

determine which

the most admira-

acute and accurate reasoning, or his ingenious and
]N"or

well conducted experiments.

were these experiments

the result of preconceived opinions, he seems to have brought
his

mind perfectly unbiassed

to

every subject that he investi-

gated, and to have been guided in every instance by the most

rigorous laws of induction.

To
his

these high qualifications he

added great perspicuity
rity

in

arrangement, remarkable pu-

and beauty of

style,

and an extensive knowledge of
to

disease,

which enabled him

enrich his work with
It
is

much

valuable practical information.
his

not pretended, but that
in

experiments upon living animals may have

some few

cases led him to erroneous conclusions, but

how numerous
know, be-

were the

instances in

which he obtained from them the most
It

satisfactory and important information.

has,

I

come fashionable of late to undervalue these experiments,
and to deny that any useful application can be made of them.
It
is

no doubt true, that the sufferings which animals some-

times undergo in these experiments, are such as to destroy
entirely the order and regularity of all the functions, and of

course to prevent us from determining any thing as to these
functions in health.

This probably was the case with some

of the experiments of Magendie on vomiting, and Legallois

on the principle of

life
it

;

but let us not

condemn

this

mode

of

investigation because

has been sometimes injudiciously
is

em-

ployed,
against

let us not

forget that the argument
it,

wholly directed

the abuse of

and that these

experiments have

MEDICINE, PITTSBURGH ACADEMY OF
822 North Craig
St.,

prTTSBUEGH, PAPREFACE BY THE TRANSLATOR.

v

already led to some practical consequences of immense value.

Would

the carotid artery have ever been tied in a living huit

man

subject, if

had not been
in

first

ascertained that

it

could

be done with safety

animals
I

?

In translating this work,

have studiously endeavoured

to
I

give with precision the meaning of the author, and have,
fear,

by

this

means frequently employed French idiomatic exthe great originality of
it

pressions.

From

many

parts

of the

General Anatomy, Bichat found
to

necessary in some instances

employ new terms,
in

to
;

which there were no corresponding
in

words

our language

such cases,

I

have either made use

of several, or adopted the term, as one or the other seemed
best calculated to render the

meaning more clear and exact.

A

few notes only have been given, and these for the most part

for the purpose of explaining

what was obscure, rather than

of controverting any thing contained in the original.

Upon

the
to

whole,

I

trust that this

work

will

be a valuable acquisition
I

our stock of medical literature, and
labour has not been in vain,
if I shall

shall feel as if

my

have been the means of

making
of
its

my countrymen

better acquainted with the writings

illustrious author.

Boston-, April, 1822,

PREFACE BY THE AUTHOR.

THE

work which
I

I

now

offer to the public, will
;

appear

to

them new,

trusi, in
;

three points of view

1st, in

the plan
it

that has been adopted
tains;
1st.

2d, in most of the facts

which
its

con-

and 3d,

in the principles

which

constitute

doctrine.

The

plan consists in considering separately and preall

senting with

their attributes, each of the simple systems,

which, by their different combinations, form our organs.
basis of this plan
is

The
it

anatomical, but the details that
It

em-

braces belong also to medicine and physiology.
in

has nothing

common, but the name, with what has been
;

lately

advanced

upon the anatomy of systems
alone gives an outline of
2d.
it.

my Treatise on the Membranes

The
is

facts and observations in this work, in addition to
I
it,

what

already known, form a very numerous series.
;

shall

not give an analysis of them
little

the reader will supply

how

soever he

may know

of works on

Anatomy and Physiowith different re-

logy.

Experiments on living animals,

trials

agents on organized textures,* dissection, examinations after
death, observations upon

man

in health

and disease, these are

sources

whence
in this

I

have drawn thern, and they are the sources

*I have
tissu

and every other instance translated the French word
texture.
it
1

by the English word
I

know many

writers have adopted

the French term, but
a foreign word,
as

think

unnecessary, to say the least, to employ

when one
TV.

of our

own

language can be used with quite

much

precision.

-

PREFACE BY THE AUTHOR.
I

yii

of nature.
especially

have

not,

however, neglected authors, those

who make

the science of the animal

economy a

science of facts and experiments.
I will

make

but one remark upon the experiments con;

tained in this

work

amongst them will be found a series upon
I

the simple textures, which
tion, putrefaction,

subjected successively to desicca-

maceration, ebullition, stewing, and to the
It

action of the acids and the alkalies.

will be easily seen,
to

that

it

was not the object of these experiments

determine

the

composition, or ascertain the different elements, and con;

sequently give a chemical analysis of simple textures
this

for

purpose they would have been

insufficient

;

but their obsimple

ject

was

to establish the distinctive characters of these

textures, to

show

that each has a peculiar organization, as
life,

each has a peculiar

and

to

prove by the diiferent

results
is

which they gave, that the
not speculative, but that
intimate structure.
it

division
rests

which

I

have adopted

upon the diversity of their

were only
on

to assist

The different re-agents, which I used, me where the scalpel was insufficient, and
1

this account, therefore,

presume these experiments

will

have some influence upon Anatomy.
3d.

The

general doctrine of this work has not precisely the

character of any of those which have prevailed in medicine.

Opposed

to that of

Boerhaave,

it

differs

from that of Stahl

and those authors who, like him, refer every thing in the
living
ideal,

economy,

to

a single principle,

purely speculative,

and imaginary, whether designated by the name of soul,

vital principle, or archeus.

The

general doctrine of

this

work

consists in analyzing with

precision the properties of living
is

bodies, in

showing that every physiological phenomenon

ultimately referable to these properties considered in their
natural state
;

that every pathological

phenomenon derives
;

from them augmentation, diminution, or alteration

that every

and that which flows from others . before we have which I considered these properties in the point of view in have presented them. physical sciences. that in physics. it is chemistry. in determining with precision the cases in which each is property brought into action . will answer.viji v PREFACE BY THE AUTHOR. and when the organic sensibility and the sensible or insensible contractility. is phenomena an axiom so well known at the present day. perI haps. and those which are derived from the organic . object will be attained. flection. unnecessary repeat If this work establishes an analogous its axiom in the phy- siological sciences. it. that this manner of viewing them it a theory. that which derived from one. gravity. We shall be easily convinced upon rein- that we cannot precisely estimate the immense fluence of the vital properties in the physiological sciences. in ascertaining by rigorous induction the natural and morbific phenomena which the animal properties produce. The as relation of these properties as causes to the effects. in distinguishing accurately is in physiology as well as in medicine. and in pointing out when the animal sensibility and contractility are brought into action. as the primi- tive principles of the facts observed in these sciences. astroto nomy. &x. . It will is still be said. &c. from which has been chang- ed . elasticity. its therapeutic phenomenon has for principle the restoration it of the part to the natural type. that is a theory like that which shows in the affinity.

and the sciences physiological or phy- Animals and vegetables are organic Sensibility — minerals are inorganic. These two phe- have relation only to the internal to different nomena these. astronomy. of the inorganic. and their relations with those that do not live. and contractility are vital &c. . and medigravity. &c. The first will occupy shall fix our attention especially I. are the sciences of organic bodies mineralogy. and we upon the relations of living bodies with one another. are non-vital Animal and vegetable physiology. bodies and their description. anatomy. The beings are either organic or inorganic. and two classes of sciences. elasticity. and .GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. . chemistry. physics. the properties Tital or non-vital. The differences between these sciences are derived 2 essentially from those existing between the properties . General remarks upon physiological and physical sci* ences. &c. are the physical classes of sciences sciences. two classes of properties. there are two other classes that correspond to which relate and external forms of Botany. properties properties. sical. us. affinity. THERE are in nature two classes of beings. zoology. cine form the physiological sciences.

and to enjoy them are two things inseparable. phenomena. armed with the microscope. of dynamics. brought into action . and continually connect Cast your eyes upon that objects the which surrounds you most distant. succeed. we shall finally arrive by a connexion of causes to graas the vity. of acoustics. they enter the world of those. of digestion. God endowed it with gravity. of hydraulics. . inflammation. create the universe. of these properties. that we cannot conceive of their existence without them. feel. bodies gravitate also. that they are the principle of phenomena . but above they and possess a motion which they owe only to themselves. fevers. elasticity. of optics. and to a part he gave sensibility and contractility. is end of our researches. to exists. that particularly characterize it and by means of which contributes in its own manner. whose minuteness almost evades our view. themselves in the universe. &lc. to elasticity. nature it has imprinted upon a certain it. every where you other. Suppose instantly that of a sudden they are deprived of them all the phenomena of nature cease.10 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. number of to all the properties. These properties are so inherent in bodies. whether we consider the phenomena of respirathe tion. they examine those that swim in space. &c. affinity.c. . which are the object So immense is the influence all that preside over the of each class of sciences. &. whether. on the other vital properties. circulation. So the vital property primum mobile to which we must ascend. &c. will see inert bodies gravi- tating living upon each and reciprocally all attracting. every where you will find on one side turn them upon physical properties. or. whether we examine those of astronomy. They To exist constitute their essence and their attribute. phenomena that are developed. aided by the telescope. of secretion. — In giving existence to every body. and matter alone Chaos was only matter without properties. .

which are effects 2d. that Newton was the first however variable the physical phenomena all were. and physiological sciences. first to all the . suffered all himself be dazzled by a system which misled learning of his age. $ 1st. centre of our system. the re- search into the connexions that exist between them and the physical or vital properties. with a multiplicity The epoch of this great man was the most remarkable human wisdom. viz. For a long .GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. or tend to air. sufficiently shews. the . Attracted by each other and by their sun. men of which made a revolution in the that may be compared to that the . the study of phenomena. as well as the physiological. This of physical sciences. and one that serves as the basis ences. we have had principles from which we draw facts as consequences. Boerhaave. though to brilliant in genius. the waters. which are the causes. they could principles. move sci- move towards it : it is truly a sublime idea. deduced from them The physical sciences. time these sciences have not been so considered every fact that was observed. was made the subject of a particular hypothesis. A of simplicity effects. physical Let us render homage to Newton of causes reconciled he was the who discovered the secret of the Creator. Since that period. &c. was what do I say? it retarded Mankind soon saw nothing but attraction their progress. planets describe their eternal courses attracted to the stones. and impulse in the vita! phenomena. and that these explanations are as consequences. to remark. are composed of two things. then. This mode of considering the perties. be referred to a certain number of principles He analyzed these and found that attraction enjoyed the most important place among them. that vital \ \ and physical pro- we cannot ascend above to be them in our explanations. that they afford the principles. epoch. so advantageous to the nothing to the physiological .

&c. he confounded the principle with the consequence. some are derived from sensibility. Thu you notwithstanding the labours of a crowd of . some are derived from gravity. he made them almost insulated properties. was not easily overthrown. and the other to the muscular. rich in the means that convince. but he did not discover them. that is that has no more lhat reality than which would phenomena. archeus by lation Van Helmont. see. Vicq d'Azyr changed them into functions in his physiological division and ranked them with ossification. The of its plausibility of the theory and the celebrated name author. have referred principle. but the truth escaped him. which. digestion. but in limiting one to the nervous system. effected in the physical. others from affinity^ &. Unknown to to the ancients. that is. called the vital princi- ple by Barthez. but he did not generalize their influence. a specu- the vital phenomena. the laws of last ( life have begun Stahl be understood during thc age only. this great man did not consider them in the correct point of view.c. following his steps. though deficient in those that please. some from elasticity. was much neglect attraction and impulse. by the vortices of Descartes. The same in the living economy. less brilliant than profound. refer to a single principle all the physical Among these we know others from contractility. He perceived the discordance between the physical laws and the functions of animals. differently to a single all denominated by each. gave to this revoluiion an empire. formed for the physiological sciences an epoch more worthy of notice than that of Boerhaave. though rotten in its foundation. this was the first step towards the discovery of the vital laws. This. had already remarked the tonic motions. &c.12 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. Many authors. Stahl. perceived that these were not true. soul it The Stahl was to him every thing to in the phenomena of life. llaller was engaged particularly with sensibility and irritability.

in But see ascending vegetables better organized. every where sees gravity. the mind of the physiolomovement of a watch proves to the mechanician that elasticity is the primum mobile of its motion. and their influence upon all the phenomena of the physiological sciences. descend. you discover only an internal motion that is scarcely real their . at least in a general manner. If their limits are not accurately assigned. circulation. learned men. which has been treated sufficiently in shall my Researches upon Life . or the sensations. or as the wheel of a mill or of any machine. is evidently necessary to form a just idea of vital properties. is ning water proves to the natural philoso- pher that gravity the cause. we must follow them from bodies which are the most that are hardly developed. I we cannot with precision analyze their influence. according to the state of the forces that regulate them. from the phenomena to Digestion. This continual . sensibility or contractility to do not bring the idea of gist. : elasticity. the chemist refers all phenomena that he observes to affinity the natural the philosopher. you them continually pervaded by fluids. in that work. what I add now will be but as a supplement to what has been explained II. growth is as much by to the affinity of particles and con- sequently by juxta-position. in his science. Of vital properties. shall present here only general considerations on this point. the properties from which they are derived. and run in a thousand different directions. that circulate in numerous capillary canals. which mount. differ 13 still how much the physiological sciences from the physical. In the others. which runas the sets in motion. In the plants that seem to form the transition from vegetables to animals. In these. we have not as yet ascend- ed. to those perfect. as by a true nutrition. To assign the limits of these properties.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. &c. To place upon the same it level in this respect these two classes of sciences.

the voice. fluids is motion of vital foreign to the physical properties. less extensive. that these bodies . If . receive into a sac. for which there must be animal sensibility. which correspond in some measure to the capillary system of animals.14 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. and of reacting upon course. the zoophites. they all indicate a derangement in the organic sensibility and in the corresponding insensible we pass from vegetables to animals. which are formed by an augmented or diminished animal they have not those of fevers. insensible organic contractility. ones only direct Nature has endowed every por- tionof a vegetable with a faculty of feeling the impression of fluids. to favour their I The first of these faculties call organic sensi- bility. remark. the is other. which . and exhalation of vegetables. tractility and locomotion. we see the lowest of these. Rerela- mark. The diseases of vegeta- bles are tumours of various kinds. increased exhalations. . &c. them in an insensible manner. which animal conthey have say. sensible organic contractility. but also the very obscure in most vegetables bones of animals. This it is the same in the These two properties govern not only the vegetable circulations. tive in fine. as the great circulation and digestion. &c. the sensations. which the animal sensibility takes so great a part . for which there must be sensible organic contractility for I . secretion. For the same reason the catalogue of their diseases is They have not the class of nervous disin eases. contractility. marasmus. they have not those of convulsions or paralysis. which evidently arise from a disorder in the . have only functions all to their properties that the phenomena that animals derive from properties which they have more as than vegetables. since not vital properties to place them in action. or gastric contractility diseases. that these func- tions are essentially foreign to vegetables. the it. with which their fibres are in contact. absorption. is necessary .

are added to the preceding. plants plants obedient to vital and physical properties all plants are governed only by these. Then the vital properties necessary to the exercise of these new functions. far the organized bodies live wholly within them- they have no relation with that which surrounds animal life is them . wanting in them. physical properties . man we shall see the lowest . as become more sive. and animals. receive a developement which is constantly growing more perfect. the aliments that are to we see them begin to unite sensible organic contractility or irritability to the properties which they have in common with vegetables. . vegetables. On the one hand. which he has used to characterize minerals. which are governed by it. or at least its if it has commenced life in these animo-vegetables. in we approach quadrupeds. But this begins to display itself in insects. and on the other. perfect. lowest animals begin to add sensible organic contractility to these properties. consist of insenthe and organic sensibility. If we strictly examine the immense series of living bodies. digestion mence the performance in particular. obscure in the lower species. locomotion. the superior classes. is 15 alternately filled . from the lowest of of animals. which is insepa- rable from them. digestion. rudiments are so obscure that we can hardly discover them. Animal sen- sibility and contractility.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. nourish them and emptied. in worms. and locomotion and the sensations become also more extenSensible organic contractility then increases. and proportion to that. &c. We know the expression of Linnasus. circulation of the great vessels. Thus selves . which. The following would be more correct : 1st. are more or less fully developed. afterwards animal sensibility and contractility. &c. the sensations. we in shall see the vital properties gradually aug- menting to the first number and energy. mollusca. and consequently comof different functions. sible contractility in them.

cysts. or presenting unnatural phenomena. Smith. and the animal vital properties. which are the par- ticular object of our researches. hemorrhage. which has been is by Dr. cicatrices. resolution. physical properties and organic vital . as in the formation of tumours. diminished. absorption. enjoy then evidently. it instantly contracts and throws the anther violently particularly described against the stigma.) When these are fully expanded. exists in the flowers of the barberry. This fact.16 for minerals . the stamens are found spread out on the inside of the coIn this situation. induration. that evidently in these suppose some injury or disorder two preceding * Several plants certainly possess a considerable degree of sensible organic contractility . all the phenomena that suppose a Inflammation. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. the state we must always ascend to these properties. 1st. a state of health. tinct in in the English barberry. though there are several others that enjoy this pro. all the organic vital properties. the mimosa pudica (sensitive plant) is a well known example. : these are morbid symptoms. for Man and all the neighbouring species. perty to almost as great an extent particularly the hedysarum gyrans. u A degree of irritability. formation of disorder in these functions. of absorption. properties. pus. are clearly derived from an injury of these properties. for vegetables 3d. if the inside of the filament be touched with rolla. . disordered in some nutrition. as in dropsies. the shrub. the vital properties. Organic sensibility and insensible contractility have all the phenomena of the capillary circulation. except* sensible contractility. as adhesions. a pin or straw. life. altered way or other. In of disease. or increased exhalain wholly wanting. animals. of secretion. some of which belong to organic the others to animal life. in &c. 2d. evidently dependant upon them In treating. (berberis vulgaris. mentation or suppression of secretions tion. of these functions. therefore. nutrition. very remarkable the oxalis sensitiva. more or less. not exceeded by the sensitive plant. physical properties. varieties of not less remarkable and dis- the American Tr. &c. exhalation. and the berberis vulgaris." Bigelow's Florida Bostoniensis. unnatural aug.

governs especially in a state of health. 3- . palsies. for the excretion of urine. all the phenomena of vomiting. pricking. In disease. In the state of disease. smelling. &c. and you will see that there no one which cannot one of the be ultimately referred to some us to properties of truth of less which this I have just spoken. itching. and which does ties to . thirst. viz. 4th. and a great part of those numberless ones of the pulse. 2d. lassitude. a conclusion not eases. &c. tickling. throbbing. are derived in a state of health from the animal sensibility. of diarrhoeas. in oedema and dropsy. 3d. property. 17 Sensible organic contractility. tasting. as those of hunger. the is are derived from an augmentation or diminution of this Examine all the physiological and all pathological phenomena. which. not separated from the sensibility of the same nature. are not ? these only different alterations of animal sensibility A words would not express the diversity of painful sensations that morbid affections bring with them. and &c. in local inflammation. the movements necessary to digestion and the circulation of the great vessels. properties. Animal contractility is the principle of loco- hundred different motion and the voice. &x. which. and the internal. does not increase this weakened property. pulling. is like the preceding. brings The undeniable assertion. convulsions. at least for the red and black blood of the general system.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. All the external sensations. spasms. hearing. that its certain in the treatment of dis- every curative method should have for of object the restoration their natural type. may ultimately be referred to a disorder of the sensible organic contractility. the altered vital proper- Every remedy. what part does not this property per- form ? pain and its innumerable modifications. weight. &c. feeling. those of seeing. smarting. the sensation of heaviness. does not diminish the augmented organic sensibility which.

which be-t shows the caprice of the human mind. of obser- vations often puerile. Refrigerant and heating remedies were brought into use by those who had a special regard in diseases to an excess or a The same identical remedies have deficiency of caloric. when that of the thickening of the The expressions of diluents and attenuants. when is guided only by the wildness of opinion. all the same medicine has been employed with ferent and opposite views . flowed back it upon Hence this the vagueness and uncertainty that presents at day. humours prevailed. that perhaps of the physiological sciences. when the theory of obstruction was in fashion. relaxant in another. There has not been system. a general this science has been governed by the different theories that have successively predominated in medicine. it is a shapeless assemblage of inaccurate ideas. in the materia medica.18 not reduce elevate it GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. To what errors have not mankind been led in the employment and denomination of medicines ? They created deobstruents. Deobstru- ent in one case. fails in its object. before this period. Those who saw in diseases only a relaxation or tension of the fibres. refrigerant in another. and incisives. been employed under different names according to the it. each has. these dif- so true it is it that the mind of man gropes in the dark. the laxum and slrictum as they called employed astringents and relaxants. When it was necessary to blunt the acrid particles. manner in which they were supposed to act. What do I say? It is not a science for a methodical mind. it is An incoherent assemblage of incoherent all opinions. and is contra- indicated. it. and the ideas that are attached to them. animal contractility in convulsions. of deceptive remedies. if I may so express myself. were common sants. they created inviscants. and in paralysis. and of for- mulae as fantastically conceived as they are tediously . incras- &c.

thus this property is . &c. stimu- lants. Since the morbid phenomena may be considered as the as different alterations of these forces. All those that are called resolvents. when principles are derived from the greatest part of the works on the materia medica. in some way. the action of remedies should also be viewed means by which these its alterations are to be brought this principle. and local baths. particular .. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. emollients. fomentations. to increase. . the restoranatural type. is Take away those medicines. ulcers. obstructions. ferruginous substances. the effect known only by accurate observation. that it is not in some its respects the study of a reasonable man. tumours of different kinds. a diminution of these properties all raise them by the application of wine and are called tonics. that these remedies are of &c. general. of which ants. class of appropriate remedies.c. without doubt. act upon this property. there is In some dropsies. those upon a particular function what knowledge have we of the remainder ? It is. cine was disgusting I add further. or alter it contractility. is We have seen that there in inflammations an increase of organic sensibility and insensible contractility diminish then this increase by cataplasms. sialagogues. as evacu* anti-spasmodics. &. It 19 has been said that the practice of medi. Upon each of the properties has 1st. class it is remedies according to their modus operandi all . and give tone to the whole system : 2d. the remedies act peculiarly upon the insensible diminish. in white-swellings. two kinds: 1st. extremely difficult at present to diuretics. Slc. suppuration. consequently that act . but undeniable that have for their object. Observe. these re-animate insensible contractility. those substances that In every species of inflammation. arranged. from tion of the vital forces to the which they have been driven by disease. oftentimes the acids. or nutrition. as wine. exhalation. tonics. back to the natural type. in every alteration of secretion.

Animal sensibility has also remedies that are pecu- But they act in two ways 1st. I think. : upon the brain that perceives the pain thus all narcotic preparations. taken internally. — . mercury in the salivary glands. and then will not. &c. 3d. &c. liar to it. hereafter be attempted. as vesi&x. They are totally different 4th. in diminishing intestinal irritation. perhaps. as in stopping vomitings. we have to to diminish sensible organic contractility. especially. such are emetics. Art does not excite the heart in the same manner we do not artificially increase its moveas these viscera ments as we do those of the stomach in gastric diseases. separate]/ excited by nitre in the kidnies. but the prudent physician stupifies the brain so much. . Many a contraction of the stomach It will. pain. Medicinal substances have also their influence on animal contractility. frictions. smarting. while the cause still remove the sensation of In cancer of an ulits subsists. and drastics which create a strong contraction of the intestines. especially if it is true that fever it may often be a method of cure. in acting cations upon tumours. and then remedies are employed that act in a manner opposite the preceding. which produce 2d. remedies act particularly upon the sensible organic contractility. It is essential to distinguish accurately these two actions of remedies upon the animal from each other. in diminishing pain in the part where it is seated. Every thing that produces an active catories. as different appli2d. it. .20 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. be difficult to find the means of ef- fecting At other times. when these mus™ . tends to re-animate in paralysis this benumbed faculty. All those substances that paralyze the cerebral action. &c. obstructions. prevent the brain from governing the muscles of animal life. that it is it. the disease continues incapable of perceiving progress with activity. sensibility. cathartics. cerated uterus. excitement on the external surface of the body.

augmented convulsions. Moreover. diminution. cles. An brings into action the sensible organic contractility of* the stomach. and to lessen when too elevated. it is not only in increase or . are 21 convulsively agitated. in the action of substances applied to the body as in the phenomena of diseases. My only object is to show. but they are besides . of the intestines. these substances are true anti-spasmodics. or alteration. would here present itself: the same medicine acts often upon many emetic. and oftentimes the aninervous villi. Moreover. in their action to I Medicines are too complicated be arranged anew. that to heal it. every thing vital must be referred to the properties. Some authors have considered diseases only as increas- ed strength or weakness. But tonics and debilitants are certainly not applicable to every case. In presenting these observations. while it properties.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. diminution that the vital forces err. therefore. The same observato the stimulants of the may be made with regard &c. and that their augmentation. I do not mean to offer a new plan for the materia medica. an inconvenience vital common every classification. but it This idea it is true is false when we generalize too much. You would in not weaken you animal contractility. are not cured by the same method. in part. without more reflection than profess as yet to have bestowed on to the subject. as would insensible organic contractility increased in inneither would you increase them by the flammation same means. The morbid phenomena that organic contractility and animal sensibility experience. to raise it For every vital force there are means proper it when much too much diminished. are ultimately the invariable object of our curative method. and have consequently divided medicines into tonics and debilitants. excites the insensible contractility of the mal tion sensibility of the mucous glands. bladder. There are medicines proper for each vital force.

sufficient to show. that mediof exhalations. there are vital laws. the different modifications that insensible contractility and organic sensibility can undergo. and one to which we are naturally led by the preceding observations. therefore. but that they should moreover restore them to the natural modification from which they have been altered. with disorder of the epilepsy. to en-. you would see that the physical laws were all ultimately the sole principle of this will is their phenomena . What I have just said is particularly applicable to the strictum and laxum of see but these many authors. the laxum to dropsies. cines should not only diminish or increase each of the vital forces. as from its source. with bilious affections. a parallel between physical and vital consequently between physical and physiological sciences. I mean. but 1 so well known that it is not necessary to do it. in the phyI siology of vegetables and of animals. has been perhaps more injurious to science. that every where in the physiological sciences. who every where two things. The strictum may be properly &c. ? It is the peculiarity of those who have to a general theory in medicine. consider an important subject. &c. that govern the phenomena which are the object of these sciences. to it. in &c. pathology. in therapeutics. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. phenomena. deavour bend every phenomenon The fault of generalizing too much. and that there is not one of these phenomena that does not flow from these essential and fundamental laws. These observations arc. produce in glands in wounds and ulcers a diversity of suppuration. a diversity of secretion. If 1 should take a survey of all the divisions of phy- sical sciences. but what have these two states of the organs in common with with convulsions. &c. intellect. han that of viewing each I phenomenon separately. think. . in exhaling surfaces a diversity It is necessary.22 disordered . applied to inflammation. and .

therefore. that at all periods and under every ence they are the same .GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. for cases. on one side. to is only necessary to make the application Thus heavy bodies fall always in a series of odd numbers attraction is in the inverse ratio of the square of the distances. predicted. the motion of the planets. that of disease . be foreWe calculate the fall of seen. and calculated. the health . On the other hand all the vital functions are susceptible of numerous each particular case. we have only approximations towards them. in every case marble has the same elasticity. and those that are the object of the physiological. On the other hand. . a heavy body. two distinct sciences hence there are physiology considers the pheno- . that the physical phenomena are influ- never variable. A stone does not gravitate towards the earth with more force at one time than another. they are scarcely ever the same. 2d. those of When we consider. the course of a river. is we how immense exists the space that separates their nature and their essence. or calculate. the phenomena which see are the object of the physical sciences. follows. or altered It . &c. diminished. and even these are often very uncertain. 23 Characteristics of the vital properties. any thing with regard to their phenomena. sensibility and contractility are increased. &c. it : the rule being once found. It is impossible to foresee. ' There are two state of things in the phenomena of life. &c. they are subject neither to augmentation or diminution. state . Physical laws are constant and invariable. . they can. consequently. the ascension of a projectile. compared with the physical. at every instant. 1st. variations. this difference arises But from that which between the laws of the one and the other. III. They are frequently out of their natural it would be necessary to have as many rules as there are different they defy every kind of calculation. predict.

of the changes that the earth has undergone. is The object of a medicament ral the restoration of properties to their natu- type . We see then that the peculiar instability of the characis ter of the vital laws the source of an immense series of phenomena. every idea of medicament absurd in the physical sciences. different of prying their &c. of the second. are to those of inert ones . Phyastro- to the movements of living bodies. and it is absurd to confound them. but. those phenomena that take place forces are altered. leads us to consider quence. if the physical properties nature at every had the same character as the vital. have of course no need of restoration. what nomy. the physical properties. What would become variations as the vital ? of the universe.24 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. dynamics. hydraulics. As the physical sciences were perfected before the physiolo- . hydrostatics. never losing this type. For the same reason. but these last have no such correspondent sciences as pathology. There is nothing in the physical iciences that corresponds to therapeutics in the physiological. and upon which ages have accumulated without producing others : but you would see these overin throws and these general commotions instant. the sciences themselves are essentially different. the experimental art. which form a peculiar order of sciences. pathology those The history of the phenomena in which the vital forces as a conse- have their natural type. mena of the first state. The maninto ner of presenting the facts and causes. when these is But . every thing bears a stamp . is For the same reason. if the physical laws were subject to the same commotions and the same Much has been said of the revo- lutions of the globe. that the phenomena and laws of the physical and physiological sciences are unlike. &c. in the physical sciences there is only the siology is first history the second never found. of the overthrows that ages have gradually brought about.

Let us its affinity. . as the eye and the ear. that which depended on affinity. The works all of Stahl illustrate well the advantage of neglecting those pretended accessory aids. phyhe could not phenomena in their true point of view. and bility let us employ . 25 mankind thought that they could illustrate the lat. It is and physical phenomena. that they will never. I think. them with the former but they have confused them. for exam- on is this vvork this account. when we do not precisely limit their meaning. vital action. which were to present their is Nothing which you were every where to use these terms. &c. for the application of the physical sciences to physiology. phenomena of living bodies by the laws of Here then is a false principle. vitality. and even that of the celebrated Haller. and if gave no precise or definite ideas. and having followed in preference that given by Stahl. those cases seat of vital where the same organ becomes the ple. you all correspond to the non-vital properties. vital influx. and all the consequences drawn from it must be erroneous. But as this great sician had not analyzed the vital properties. more vague and indefinite than the words. But in leaving a bad path. gical. if you did not determine that which belonged to gravity. they have taken another so tortuous. leave to chemistry and in to physics its elasticity and gravity. which overthrow the sci- ence in attempting to support it. and that which was the result of elasticity. that the general character of wholly different from those on physiology. however. was the explicater by connecting tion of the the inert. The much many physicians of Montpellier for having deserted the theory of Boerhaave. and this was inevitable.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. find 4 its termination. indebted to Let us say as much art is in re- gard to the physiological sciences. I physiology only sensi- and contractility except. Suppose that mankind had created some general and vague words. would never be understood.

that is necessary that many analyses should be made. a great variety of modifications of the same fluid . But the man of genius every where pauses at this impression. Oftentimes the author himself incautiously follows the impression given to a science in which he writes. until friction and other causes destroy them. This . in reading. for are not the sweat and the urine poured out under one circumstance. Elevated in the commence- ment of theus. they remain stationary at the adult age. and keep the same constituent principles. and afterwards are debilitated and become nothing. having formed some statues of men.. what do I say? they pour out a variety of fluids really different. and an invariable identity in their principles. So in the elements of inert bodies. inert bodies remain the same. Ordinary minds. life. to snitched fire from heaven animate them. which should be henceforth entirely different in physical and physiolothe age in gical works. at one view. stop at insulated facts thai are presented . whilst the principles of the living are so continually changing. according the degree of their vital forces. which is known when they have been fluids it once analyzed. under every possible cir- cumstance. . two distinct fluids ? There are a thou- sand examples that would assertion. tHy do not embrace. 26 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. it Promefire is is said. the principles of the work. You see the living solids constantly tion. undergoing composition and decomposi- every moment taking and rejecting new substances on the other hand. It is necessary to use a different language for most of the words that are carried from the physical into the physiological sciences. We shall see the glands and to exhaling sur- faces pour out. It is incontestably establish this the nature of vital properties to exhaust them- selves. there is a constant uniformity. continually refer to ideas that have no connexion with them. and the sweat and the urine under another. time wastes them.

abandon so that inert bodies have no limits to their existence. when a part of the extinguished. and vice versa and we can evidently conceive that this matter has been endowed through an immense series of ages with physical properties. These properties are given will to it at the creation. of vital properties. by juxta-position further establish the difference or a combination of their particles. that would still between the physical vital laws.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. in consequence of a certain funcfirst that the increase in the same manner nal as they are formed. the difference of the general character and methods of the physical and physiological sciences. in the space that separates these two epochs. by juxta-position or the combination of new particles the others by an inter- movement of assimilation. in passing into living bodies. with regard to these two kinds of properties enjoys by intermissions only. hence there are ne- On the other hand. constantly inherent in matter. that inert bodies are formed at hazard. This matter. the 27 it emblem of the vital properties it is . . viz. to animate . but what accident gives to them. essence of these properties. I one it it possesses con- could add many other considerations. while it bums. and leave it only when the world shall end. It is. By nutrition the particles of the matter of inanimate . I could show. and consequently between the physical and and vital phenomena. this matter. never it. generation . at interwhich are then united to physical is Here. the other stantly. then. 1 vals. . bodies pass into living bodies. matter for a determinate time only cessary limits to life. and as a consequence from these. while living bodies. becomes possessed. on the contrary. which requires different constantly preliminary functions these experiencing . properties. the physical properties. then. life is supported. . ceases. exist tion. a great difference in matter. a space that immensity only can bound. say.

a stone always preserve the same modifications. desiccation. in show no communication their dif- ferent parts. by friction. could not produce phenomena . existence of inert bodies ceases commenced. inert bodies. if they were stripped of every thing derived from sympathy ! Who does not know that these complaints often predominate over those that arise from the injury of . without being immediately perrest. let us content ourselves with drawing from I it consequence difference of often deduced from other facts. But some aua thors have already presented a great part of this parallel. physical as it The . on the other hand. How easy would be the study of diseases. or a metal. or by new combinations living bodies afford in their natural destruction. and undergo putrefaction. but principally in the latter. or of a metal. every thing in so connected and tied together the living body. composition and decomposition. tion. by mechanical laws. both in a state of health and disease. Though when broken or dissolved. But there is an essential difference between . a phenomenon as uniform as in their production. vital and physical properties All inert bodies I refer to sympathies. those remaining always internally in the fications same condition. which they did not these perties being restrained by the vital. they pass suddenly to a new state when life abandons them. ceases to exist. may . mean the the laws that preside over the two classes of functions. that no one part can be disits ordered in ceived functions. before. because the physical pro- &c. Though the extremity of a stone. is On the contrary. the other parts are not it is affected necessary to touch them by a direct action. their particles will always be the same. undergo no other modithan such as are derived from chance and the laws. be altered in any way by chemical dissolu- or by mechanical agents. by the All physicians have known the sin- gular consent that exists between our different organs.28 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

and fluids. cutaneous surfaces. is oftentimes very far from the brain. ani- sensibility in the nerves. IV. ? How little soever we reflect on the sympathetic phe- nomena. of absorption. the materials. in the pulmo- nary organs adult age. insensible organic contractility in the involuntary. and in the abdominal contents in let us But pass to other subjects. of convulsions. composed of fluids and of The first are. from the glands. it will be evident that they are only unnatural developments of vital forces which are called into action in an organ by the influence that it receives from those that have been directly excited. article We mal shall see sympathies action always those vital properties especially that prevail in a system . 1st. &c. Of the vital properties ered in relation to the solids and their phenomena. from the bladder. S2e &c. of retention of urine. sensible contractility in the glands. tant point of doctrine will be treated at so in this work. of vomiting. to appear oftener in the nervous and vascular system of the child. from the stomach. 8lc. of exhalation. mucous. the laws of nutrition and growth. and in another the residue of the second. synovial. of diarrhoea. under the call into vous system that it is useless to insist on the nermuch upon it here. from the exhalants. particularly This impor- much length. in youth. They . We shall see them assume the character of the vital properties of the organs in which they are de- veloped. from the intestines. in the serous. In this view all the systems are dependant upon each other. skin. of secretion. &c. from the voluntary muscles. &c. contractility of the same kind in the voluntary muscles. in one point of view. acute in the muscles. is consid- Every organized body solids.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. cartilages. We shall them observe in the frequency of their development. from the absorbents. their progress will be chronic in the bones. the diseased organ 1 29 that the cause Who does not know of sleep.

and fluids. of the subtle fluids that it contains. the materials that enter all The fluids of . evident. mon centre. for from the aliments which convey through the intestines. Moreover. are the materials. foreign to them. &c. There are then tion of the first. and the place from which the second are sent back. all this is which can on occasion expand or contract but an assemblage of vague ideas. composition and decomposition are not chyle. they form evidently a part of the chyle and 2d. on the . let This being admitted. circulate together. and the solids. wards make a part of the secreted that form cutaneous and of those and mucous exhalations. &c. I will not speak here of the pretended spontaneous movements of the blood. the elements of nutrition. exhaled upon the mucous and cutaneous surfaces. are The fluids secreted and especially of the first kind. the blood.. and it. They are the residue. us see vital and the solids enjoy in the what part the phenomena. that are confirmed by no experiment. according to some that fluidity cannot be the seat of authors. all the pheno- mena of the living economy show us manifestly the fluids in a state almost passive. in which the elements that enter. the principles that the lungs draw from the air. 30 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. enter again into the blood. insulated the by cutaneous absorption. The solids are the termina- which come from without. which are composition and others sub- thrown out externally. fluids This must evidently depend and in reflecting on the it is on the properties they possess vital properties is which we know. appear But the blood is a comto be exclusively of the second. even to the interior of the organs where these elements are deposited. and those that go out. that every idea of fluidity any contraction nor of organic and animal sensibility. these nutritive partiafter- taken up. for after having remained some time cles are in the organs. fluids for servient to decomposition.

have their seat in the solids. that the capillary system That the heart may may close itself. This conconstitutes stant impression of the second upon the first. Let them. and the vehicle of morbific matter. the ex- citement is natural . but when this is changed from any cause. receive the excitement. the functions are disordered. that constitute the innumerable variations of the pulse. this subject Here we can apply the of composition distinction of fluids into those and those of decomposition.. the fluids are only the excitants. the same place in the state of health. and which are consequently not perceived this is organic sensibility. it is necessary that fluids should first go there. then. always essentially active. . every where continual sensations that are not referred to the brain. and diseases supervene. however. the vital properties are essentially seated in the solids. that the fluids fatal are nothing principle of as in diseases. as by the introduction of foreign substances. In proportion as the fluids are in their natural state. at that instant they become unnatural excitants. contract. and differs from the animal in the mind has no consciousness of these sensain this. in which the solids are the active the agents of action is phenomena that we observe. they oftentimes carry the They all possess. merits further consideration. It is 31 the solids in that every where. the morbid phe- nomena and that are but alterations of these properties. then. us not believe. which do not go beyond the organs which they take place. to a certain limit the fluids are foreign to all them. in disease. and on the other. and act con- sequence. spasms and irregular movements of the heart. that the fluids can oftentimes be the principle of diseases. that tions. The first. other hand. but their inseparable from that of the fluids. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. Since. You But see. in it is evi- dent that these phenomena reside especially the solids. on one side. Every kind of pain.

1st. cuts. that cutaneous absorption oftentimes troduces into the blood the causes of disease. and convey the disease. and adapted to excite disease. crisis is : and it is by these fluids that a produced. ble. the fluids destined the decomposition tend to carry the disease out of the system. There another accidental one. the urine. which. be convinced in the course of this work. principles of contagion tfbxed with our aliment. then. are found in the primae viae. on one account. . &. as when putrid and badly digested matter. and carry into the blood the fatal principles of disease. to On the other hand. belongs to them. by conveying their essen- solids. in becoming unnatural excitants to the which they produce phenomena contrary to the natural order. Is it not established in- by many proofs. Under these four we might produce are the tial first a variety of cases. as the sweat. thus driven out but we cannot doubt that this doctrine . these are especially their vehicle. that arises from wounds. Physicians have exaggerated to an infinite degree the influence of these morbific humours. lacerations. but on another. may accidentally get into that fluid through the medium of the lungs? these doubt. either by exhalation or secretion.32 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 2d. in which enter the system various ways. bites. in which the fluids causes of diseases. things we cannot Here. 3dly. &c. and. by means of which destructive principles are oftentimes conveyed into the animal economy. go into the blood. as we shall moreover have reason 4th. that substances foreign to the constituent principles of the air. fluids We have seen that these are every where poured upon the mucous and cu- taneous surfaces. that the It is incontesta- chyle can be loaded with a variety of foreign substances. But it is evident. that it is those fluids principles and especially destined to the composition of the organs that thus carry morbific principles.c. there are already to is tbree ways open to the principles of morbific matter. to the fluids of decomposition. &c.

it is evident. mass of blood. After it is all that has just been said. I say particularly. times the vehicles of disease. sometimes exists in them. into those which is especially affect animal life. but the cause of this action. 1st. 1st. the effect is the same an acceleration of the pulse takes place. urally into the system. in This example gives an idea of what occurs in diseases.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. the heart can con1st. diseases into two classes. distinguish. second it was not. An is example tract will render this more clear. because itself its organic sensibility increased whilst the blood remains the same. The solid always takes organic sensibility of the heart does not vary. because the blood or altered in its is either augmented. into those that particularly disorder organic life. unnaturally. has oftentimes a real foundation. Almost the symptoms are in the solids. nature. while the The exmay be double. for such the connexion of these two lives. are The I following reflections made with this view. 2d. as in putrid fevers. the principal part in the disease. . according to the principles that support them. thus fevers that affect orthat agitate produce cerebral 5 effects the ani- mal : thus also primitive cerebral affections influence sym- . contracts. that necessary to distinguish accurately diseases them- selves. citement . but in the in the first it is always that which case the cause was in the solid. or rather the whole of the symptoms that characproduce or all terize them. &c. when the absorbed urine enters &c. or the organ may be twice as susceptible as common. the distinction of these cases. as in plethora. that the one can hardly be altered without the other ganic life. and someIt is no doubt essentially necessary to seek times not. as it is 33 If these fluids are some- when they bile enter unnat- when the passes into the this fluid. all of which the solids are especially in action . 2d. in the present question. but the cause can be in them as well as in the fluids.

and are cured by evacuants. &c. &c. Diseases. as fevers. and those that are the product of a direct exciteits ment. spasms. &c. in every case are foreign to these Hypochondria. a disorder of whose principal and primitive character the animal such are convulsions. But it appears that the cause of these diseases is almost always in the solids. and not the reIn this work I have cited a percussion of the humours. melancholia. arise agitation of the heart.: 34 pathetically the tainly GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. immediately the pleura becomes If cold water is conveyed into the stomach affected. that there are some affections. In fine. that particularly affect or- ganic life. exhalation. and absorp- from a change effected. by the influence of a part more or less remote. It is necessary in order to resolve the question 2dly. deny. secretion. the alone act upon each other and correspond together All sympathetic vomiting. mania. to distinguish their phenomena into those which are sympathetic. skin covered with sweat. catalepsy. fluids. epilepsy. commonly are not as different can yet be in a degree dependant on the examples will prove. is But cer- we cannot life. paralysis. tion. hysteria. tially Every sympathetic phenomenon has seat essen- solids and necessarily inherent in the solids. &c. and Thereyou see that crises. great number of examples of sympathy under each system . while the body is hot. respiration. solids. an effect is oftentrmes produced upon a distant organ. diseases. febrile by means yet unknown. This is sympathy. Hence the reason. may have their principle as well in the fluids as in the solids. in the solids of those which are When cold acts upon the the seats of these phenomena. circulation. on the other hand. though they appear to reside more particularly in the that the fluids most fore affected. that these diseases are subject to crisis. &c. inflammations. of the affection of the solids or the fluids in diseases. alteratives.

essential here. and this It the blood. leads us to conclusions as well as the Though solids. is less so than would undoubtedly be a subject of very cu- rious research. How little soever you may examine you will diseases under difis ferent points of view. increase in vitality as they advance from the aliments of which they are formed. to determine. to the solids which they compose. that it is improper to resolve it this question in a general manner. and alternately attacks the different organs. 4thly. to The division into acute in resolving it and chronic. I which would place in acthink there are two errors that should be equally feared. The alimentary mass is less animalized than the chyle. evident from this. equal to that in physiology is a pathological absur- tion the fluids or solids only. when the virus of the venereal. It is the composition of the body. dity. that of particularizing that of generalizing too false and much. or those which first alter the texture of the organs. it is the vital properties reside especially in the not necessary to consider the fluids as entirelyundeniable. and that a theory of diseases founded upon the principle of the affection of the solids or fluids alone. The division of diseases into organic. scrofula or scurvy predominates in the whole system. The second first. is still and into those which leave this texture untouched. ought not be neglected 5thly. perceive that what It is true of one class cannot be so of another. as has been too often done. but in none of them I 35 think is it possible to conceive of an affection of the 3dly. In fine. viz. from being t . The have their seat evidently in the solids. would be necessary to make another distinction not less important. that those of them which form inert. fluids. that of diseases which as are independent of every principle inherent in the econo- my and of those which proceed from a similar principle. how the particles. the tetters.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. the problem.

In the same manner. only the dead body upon which he can operate. This alone prefluids are suscepti- vents that internal movement. if life had not made them undergo a previous elaboration. if you should inject into this fluid the materials of those that are exhaled or secret- ed. a heat in every part daring the whole lime that the wine circulates with the blood ? Who has not observed that one kind of wine pro- duces one effect and another not the cause of a different? then without doubt the seat of every thing but is it The solids are we experience. a general heat. and before they penetrate the solids to become a part of them. an universal agitation. it. they go immediately into a state of putrefaction.36 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. say the rudiments. and are solids. a thousand different sensations of lassitude and heaviness. foreign to the vital properties. chemist who wishes to analyze the has. the exhalant and secretory organs would repulse these materials. that when the like the has left the fluids. and ? their effects. t . to of which you are unaccustomed. even to intoxication Who has not a hundred times paid dearly for the pleasures of a repast by a general disorder. is in the fluids? It the blood. the effect of the mixture of the nutritive piinciples with the blood. and the fluids. is the first degree of their vital properties. like the anatomist who dissects the solids. and enjoying only physical ones. decomposed deprived of their vital powers. accompany If digestion. for certainly the vital elaboration that the fluids experience in circulating as such in the body. ordinarily a slight increase ot the pulse. which undoubtedly enters much ble. It is evidently impossible to say what this vitality of the fluids is. its existence however is not less real. Shall I speak of the various kinds of wine. become by degrees possessed of the rudiments of I the first. principle of life You will observe. is the consequence you have made use of acrid or spicy aliments. into the alterations of which the Observe what takes place after a meal .

the people carried into the new world. structure. you will product analogous effects. consider the slow and gradual influence of regimen in chronic diseases. which contained ordinary blood. with Mess. at the Hotel Dieu. which carrying with foreign to it. I will relate a fact here which disproves what has lately in been advanced upon the incorruptibility of the blood diseases. which the divisions of the all splenic vein. who who are in See how alkohol. the trunk of the vena porta. l'Herminier. all the ramifications of the vena porta from those of the vena cava. so that by cutting the liver in slices. Certainly this sanies was not if the effect of death. The experiments made upon this subject are so well known that I have not even repeated glands. and really decomposed. and the blood had circulated. and we found instead of the black abdominal blood. 37 its own particles others that are excites all is the organs. filled all a real grey sanies. as in disease. Compare only on milk and vegetables with those the constant use of spirituous liquors. Peborde. at least very different from its natural state. and meFcury and the salivarx into the That which I say is so true. we could distinguish by the flow of this sanies. that if you infuse open vein of an animal. so remarkable for its size. thus altered. as there rides between cantha- and the bladder. This body was that I do not recollect to have not ever seen one equal to it.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. has modified the manners and habits of the savages. A short time since. and you will perceive that the fluids is in health. in examining a body Bourdet. and especially the brain. consequently become changed for it is an inevitable . Consider the immense influence of aliments upon health. live and even character. the alteration of frequently before that of the solids. and the hepatic branches. which . because there a particular relation is between this viscus and spirituous liquors. wine them.

the rudiments of organic more or less in relation to the fluids that enter it. sensibility . between the living fluid and that which does not live. if we compared it to the mixture or chemical combinations. if they were they were alone In the deprived of life. animated in vessels fluids -id animated same manner. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. circulate like living fluids. as it were. arises in part from the general disorder that the blood undergoes when its vitality begins to communicate itself to these foreign substances from the kind of struggle which takes place in the vessels. or the lungs. from the arrangement of their particles. if doubt whether purely inert could. of inert substances. . These are what 1 call properties of texture. we may so say. for the purif poses of sanguification. Foreign to inert bodies. inherent in the organs of living bodies. annualized with those that are We way should have a very inaccurate idea of the mixture with the blood of the foreign substances brought by the of the intestines. V. especially acrid substances. Life then is equally necessary to one and the other. but not from the life that animates them. Who I knows but upon their that the vitality of the fluids has an influence motions? fluids 1 think it is very probable. am persuaded that a great number of the phenomena that we experience after taking food. they arise from their texture. the skin. The it blood enjoys. against a stimulant they are unaccustomed to. Bu* the alteration of the fluids appears to depend essentially upon the mode of the mixture of parts not so. vessels. and spirituous liquors. it is more or less disposed to combine with them and to endow them and as the life which it enjoys places with the life with which it is animated. Sometimes it repulses for a long time substances that are foreign to I it. could not move themselves. Thus we see all the solids rise.38 circle. Of the properties independent of life. But these subjects are too ob- scure to occupy us longer.

first. I now in a general manner only. Fire is the principal agent of this horny hardencoals. then the nitric. con- * There are no words in English that correspond exactly to the words racornir. 2V. upon burning 2d. then the muriatic. to harden like horn. suddenly. Now it. make the animal fibres contract most As they are is diluted. in action. shall have occasion in work I to explain the influence they have each system. is ing. . the strongest acids. contracted and wrinkled in different ways. Every living organ. that. 3d. placed suddenly raised to the highest degree. Putrefaction and the decomposition of the organs. adds much their energy. Alkohol much less this effect. they lose this power. have explained these J sufficiently in in this my Treatise on Life. and is affected almost like irritable organs when they are excited. shall now speak of a pro. alone destroy them. and which physiologists have confounded often with irritability. and I have therefore been compelled to employ the terms. though it may be highly concentrated. This shall will be examined particularly describe it in each system. part. and racornissement. submitted either after death or fire to is the action of and of certain concen- trated acids. however. as to the its organs which are and as to phenomena.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. and contracted by the action of different agents. and the acids that are naturally very weak have hardly any powerful in producing It of it. Thus death does not destroy them. this it property is to be considered as to the agents which put the seat of 1st. perty of which as yet very little has been said which chemists have proved by their experiments. and horny hardening. t» Express the precise meaning. the sulphuric Next to fire. but which is as distinct . Every organized during life. from it as it is from the contractility of texture I mean the property of being* hardened like horn. organs 39 in the to They remain when life is gone . The two first of these proI perties are extensibility and contractility of texture.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. and is some degrees below very remarkable at that point. and twist dual manner. These two species differ very much in their The state to which the first reduces the organ. are in a special Fire and the strong acids first. the air has taken away. The is different agents of which I have just spoken. condense and harden them wonderfully after the lapse of a considerable length of time. 3d. 4th. Fire cona tinuing to act upon the solids. action. Boiling water. As the the solid. sudden. then. specimens. 6th. When by drying. gradual. it parts. when it is combined with much caloric ening. the effect of the boiling increases. however. when having lost all consistence.40 tracts. The ac- tion of the neutral of the air. the other slow. do not produce any kind of horny har7th. becomes pulpy. and separates their particles. find The neutral salts. princi- pally produce the second. Water appears to act in a manner opposite dening. . of alkohol. the texture of twists. which it condenses and even So that those who preserve anatomical necessary to dilute the alkohol. manner the agents of the salts. spreads the organs It is b}' maceration. 1st. the aque- ous particles of the its these continuing exposed to in a slow and grahowever strong they may be employed. is soon hard the hardening cause continues. that it produces horny hardat This phenomenon takes place boiling. 2d. wrinkle. contract. and it arrives at the greatest extent. changed if results. reduces them to and coaly mass. and even insensible. almost like the motion which results irritation of a living from the muscle : 2d. 5th. duce. hardness diminishes. two species of horny hardening: the first prompt. to this horny hardening. solids. Animal organs that have been acted upon suddenly by the acids. it dilates. by being plunged into it. after a length of time. destroys by degrees the hardness the solids had suddenly acquired. after being moistened by the humidity of animal substances. The alkalies. pro1st.

we may so say. and nerves. it. by the action of fire I have made the same observation with regard to boiling and the acids. or are they derived from separate principles? know have only observed. the contact of neutral &c.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. tinued action of the cause that produced by the conhowever long may be. except the hair. and of contractility of texture. that after many years drying. of sensible organic contractility. All animal textures are susceptible of sudden hardening. Textures that have been contracted for a long time by alkohol and the neutral salts present the same pheno- menon. and Seems to be derived from the same principle. these. presented on the one hand by boiling. as the glands. but remains always firm and contracted. of the air and of alkohol. It is very different phenomenon from it the not altered it. exhibit only the rudiments of is In general the hardening move sensible. insensible horny hardening. in proportion as the fibrous texture predominates in the organs. I ing. Are 4:hese two species only different degrees of the I same. the effect of salts. Both textures deprived of animal contractility. Hence the muscles. as it it does not soften in a slow and insensible manner. if and the nails . are the most susceptible of it. as in a recent state. and on the other by the strong acids. soon grow soft and change into a true pulp. has a great analogy. the tendons. the epidermis. The organs not fibrous. We know . they are still susceptible of the other. show it. first. the least degree of The slow and in insensible horny exist hardening in is almost the same every part. has hardened. animal textures are hardened. the muriate of offers a The slow and soda. as well as in those which enjoy them in the highest degree. is This double phenomenon. and become that 4i consequently hard. 6 . such as alum. that when the living solids have undergone the slow and gradual horny hardennot.

so it has acquired a real elasticity by the process of hardening. loses more ways.42 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. it almost inevitably dies. When is stripped of it. until the maceration has reduced the textures to mere pulp. and stretched out to their original length. this is an insurmountable obstacle to it. which before this are absolutely destitute of it. Oftentimes we it is see the skin hardened by burns. length. it remains is becomes elongated. and becomes twisted in various it Taken suddenly from hardened. if a I shall point out hereafter. it When than half a texture its is suddenly hardened. this cannot be produced again by any agent that we may the textures are a state of putrefaction. which does not. pulled. but that if it the arid or boiling water. they employ. after having been hardened. . This elasticity is not an effect of the slow and insensible hardening of alkohol ard the neutral salts. they gradually lose the power of contracting sud- denly. the tendons. cannot be restored to the When it a part has been hardened upon a living subject. If the textures are softened by boiling. did not. under the article of the muscles in particular. the muscles and the skin. however. which contractility arising from hardening from all others. epidermis. when its agents have over- come its the resistance that vitality offers. and then contracts again. the aponeuroses. suffice to distinguish the This single circumstance would variety of differences. and a very strong acid is poured upon the same effect produced as upon any other organ. This elasticity is remarkable in the tendons. the bones. when the force applied ceases. By macerating for a length of time the organized textures. entirely disappear. But that which is sudden may. even Thus whea their calcareous substance has been may be hardened as well as removed by acids. When in no longer possess this kind of contractility. nerves and muscles. Slow and insensible hardening cannot take place during life.

When two first the muscles are deprived of they lose the kinds of contractility it . Separated from the blood. crisps and contracts. presents essen- tial differences. sensible organic contractility. life. and the strong acids. 3d. but which. as the nerves. suppuration separates from the sound parts. from a want of extension. fire When 1 have exposed to the action of ed. they are dried or remain in water a . and is general. &x. this the contractility of the horny hardening. with them as does with all the organs that enjoy little When them it . if we could preserve then. During life it appears. the arteries. they have I parenchyma become harden- am persuaded is. suppleness that it it 43 possessed before . in the influence of the nerves upon the voluntary muscles. &c. according to it is manner that brought into action. that have no analogy. in many of the organs. but the third remains it. the veins. they lose that also it but the fourth still continues with . evident that the After what has been said. that this faculty would last for many ages. a all the organic textures. In the mus- cles. or at least is very obscure. this is animal contractility. it the fibrine only excepted. By the action of fire. the bones. different This brought into action many ways. the cartilaginous of bones found in cemeteries. It would certainly be impossible to avoid distinguishing the difference between the four . lids it is so- possess is the faculty of contracting in or shortening.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. which is not found. 1st. the cellular texture. the skin. the fibrous bodies. 4th. Contractility common and general property. The fluids do not present the phenomenon of hardening. which divide it into many species. In the involuntary muscles this is by the action of stimuli . is the last that abandons the animal textures is perpetuated for a length of years. inherent in the animal textures. This is the contractility of texture. is the cartilages. 2d. time.

azote. It is to this let us treat arrangement that they exclusively belong. 10th. others are independent of it. six with six. several separate machines in a general one. They disappear when these scattered particles have lost their organic arrangement. All animals are an assemblage of different organs. light. fibrous. These textures are. 4th. which forms during life the insensible organic contractility. the fibrocartilaginous. the arterial. some belong. Now many these separate machines are themselves formed by textures of a very different nature. 7th. to life. eight with eight. All the organs but each of the causes which are essentially contractile . just analyzed. or kind of oscillation. which. oxygen. makes them contract acts only upon ti:is or that texture : the horny hardening alone has a general effect. make the organs. of it here in a general way. 11th. In the same way anatomy has its simple textures. executing each a function. that of the absorbents 9th. then. Among the causes that bring contractility into action. hydrogen. which form. that constitutes the individual. the compound bodies. 6th. and are derived only from organization. the cartilaginous. Observations upon the organization The properties. have pointed out. the texture of the exhalants. concur in their to the preservation of the whole. of animal life. &c. &c. 14th. by the combinations of which they are susceptible. the nervous of animal the nervous of organic life. are not absolutely inherent in the particles of matter that are the seat of them.44 species I GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. such are caloric. It is own manner. phos- phorus. medullary. the venous. 2d. the muscular of organic 15th. the and their glands . and which really compose the elements ot these organs. VI. carbon. or tonic motions. 5th. . 8th. by their combinations four with four. and that insensible contrac- tion. life. the 13th. which. Chemistry has its simple bodies. 12th. the muscular life . 1st. the osseous. 3d. whose influence we have of animals. the cellular.

As in chemistry. There is no analogy in the organization of the shall see that this simple textures. not the work of the imag- it rests it and 1 think upon the most substantial foundation. 9th. the nervous appears as a as cords in the nerves. in others. are flat. the simple bodies do not alter. 1 4$ . that the principal differences should be drawn. membrane in the retina. Some unite abun- dance the cellular texture. ed as membranes. These are the true organized elements of our bodies. considered as to their attributes of thickness or size. the glandular. the pilous. sults We organization re- from parts that are common . for example.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. notwithstanding the different compound ones they form. We see the simple textures arrangfascias. 21st. the epidermoid. Their forms are every where different. This has noth- ing to do with their nature tion it is then from the organiza- and the properties. No one has the same external character with another. 2dly. it will do not resemble each other it is nature and not science that has drawn the line of distinction between them. 1 7th. the blood vessels and the nerves. 18th. 16th. will have a powerful influence upon phy- siology as well as practical medicine. These differences different appear- of form. to all. 1st. . and from those parts are all in that are peculiar to each but the common differently arranged in each texture. the synovial . can only be accidental. the dermoid 20th. the particular object The organized elements of this work. Their nature is constantly the same. of man form The ination idea of thus considering abstractedly the different is simple textures of our bodies. canals. . wherever they are met with. here they there round. the serous. one or two of these three common . the mucous. fibrous &c. . however. and the same texture is sometimes seen under and many ances . Under whatever be found that they point of view we examine them.

resistance. is are Colour. As to the peculiar part. Notwithstanding these differences. lamellated. answer but purpose. &c. &c. the question easily resolved. Here parts are scarcely evident or entirely wanting. authors are not agreed as to the limits of the different textures. wonderfully multiplied. the alkalies. which essentially striking. thickness. seem at first view that all these experiments little intimate texture of systems. water. submitted I have examined every tex- them to the action of caloric. there the vessels are more numerous for other purposes. air. been almost each acts all different. By comparing the results of is my experiments upon the It would upon the I different textures. sufficient to nothing similar. there a granulated one . drying. each gives results of its own. show dif- a number of characteristic attributes of each. that in these various changes. is hardness. clearly ferent from the others. the differences density. their dif- ference can be ascertained only by the different results they furnish. ture. there circular. exists in cer- tain textures. whether the veins are of an analogous nature. salts. boiling. in a particular way. . in others this net-work can hardly be de- monstrated. the products of many of these actions have altered in a different manner each kind Now it will be seen that the results have of texture. the neutral faction.46 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. distinguishes the texture. in order to leave no doubt upon this point. Here here it is is a fibrous arrangement. in fixing with precision the limits of each organized texture. maceration. There has been considerable inquiry to ascertain whether the arterial coats are fleshy. 1 have had re- course. Mere inspection &c. A capillary net-work. the acids. no one resembling another. putre&c. there are only the exhalants and absorbents of nutrition. to the action of different re-agents. for the nature of these textures being unknown. think however that they have effected an useful object.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. . See each of these simple textures combining. &c. In giving to 47 each system a different organic arrangement. the bones. and consequently living with more or less energy. that what we call texture presents finitely varying. the tendons. character- izing especially the glands. 3d!y. of the of each organ. this Upon principle rests the whole theory of secretion. in the highest degree. of absorption. the skin. or afterwards reject Much peculiar life has been said since the time of Bordeu. &c. when these if I many. each texture has a particular kind of force. nature has also endowed them with different properties. that and keep is adapted to its sensibility. this You will see in the subsequent part of degrees in- work. the cartilages. forming the peculiar property of the involuntary.c. which enjoy most destitute of See the animal tractility of the it. and of nutrition. Independently of this general difference. the ten- dons. &c. The blood is a common which it. the skin. they take each a peculiar and chronic. reservoir. con- same kind marked in the vol- untary muscles. the serous surfaces. &c. of vital properties they have in properties exist in common in is . which is nothing else than that particular character which distinguishes the combination of the vital properties of one organ. sensible organic contractility. to al- the cartilages. in the bones. which is not sepmore than from the preceding. of sensibility. it is acute in the muscles. the glands. the cellular it membrane. from those of another. &. to appropriate it. distinctive character. in more or less of these properties. of exhalation. the skin. which are Shall I speak of the vital properties ? sensibility predominant particularly in the nerves. This character may so express myself. insensible contractility and sensibility of the it arated from same nature. There is but little difference arising from the number different degrees. from the muscles. &c. . &c. from which each texture chooses.

Shall 1 speak of the pectoral organs of the fleshy texture of the heart in What has common with ? the life that of the membrane that surrounds it ? Is not the pleura indepen- dent of the pulmonary texture? Has this texture nothing in common Is it with the membrane that surrounds the bronits chia? not the same with the brain in relation to membranes.48 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. the term peculiar offer nothing but vagueness and uncertainty. mu- cous surface different is so different from the serous. for example. of the different parts of the eye. that by associating them the together. the venous. and both so from the muscular. the bladder. true of the intestines. The stomach composed all of the serous. . The same portion of the peritoneum. and precision. the distinguish The same womb. rect idea of this peculiar it. the ear. This so true. and not to the organs themselves. &c? that When we study a function. the compound organ . &c. it is necessary carefully to consider in a general manner. that oftentimes the same textures alter- nately belong or are foreign to their organs. which we can consider separately. Some examples is will render this point of important. organic muscular. and of almost the common textures. the idea of a peculiar life can only apply to these simple doctrine which is textures. the peculiar give a very precise and exact idea of In fact the evidently impossible that you could it. just given of Before these properties had been analyzed with exactness it was clearly impossible to form a corlife. &c. whole would be confused. mucous. as the arterial. it is From the account 1 have evident that the greatest part of the organs being composed of very different simple textures. enters or does not enter. of the stomach it is Now if you should life attempt to describe in a general manner. more evident. into the structure of the gastric viscera. according to their fulness or vacuity. is if you do not life what belongs to each of the tex- tures that form the will is compound organs.

composed of different textures.in. one may be this diseased. In the absolutely necessary to decom- notions of anatomy. ossification mon membrane 7 of the red blood does not extend to the neighbouring textures. attention. while the others remain in sound .GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. In convulsions or paralysis of the muscles of the larynx. and vice versa. to VII. When the membrane of the . 1st. Oftentimes one membrane of the eye only is affected. The 5th. much elucidated by The first then will engage our Since diseases are only alterations of the ties. as . essential to separate the textures. cannot be the anatomy of systems. of this oig. most fevers. let us take the principal organs. affect almost simultaneously every part. 49 the properties but when you wish it is to know and pose life it. diseases* Consequences of the preceding principles relative What are local I have been saying leads it to important conse- quences. now happens a great many cases . but hardly of the heart itself. 3d. Nothing . respects those acute or chronic diseases that for those. evident there must be a difference also in the diseases. which like. if you would have only general you can study each organ as a whole. the mucous surface is unaffected . and on the other hand the muscles in catarrhs of this sur- perform their functions as usual face. ever in that 4th. but it is same way. if you have a its desire to analyze with accuracy intimate structure. We observe a variety of different remains scund while of the com- alterations in the texture of the pericardium. Both these affections are foreign to the cartilages. is it the other inflamed. for example. the others preserv- ing their ordinary degree of vitality. the tunica arachnoides that covers 2d. vital proper- and each texture it is differs from the others in its pro- perties. In every organ then. the brain more rare than affections of the mass of nothing is more common than inflammation of is it. performs it.

the pleura is hardly affect- ed at all. the serous surface exhales as usual the muscular coat continues to contract. the seat of catarrh. self I 7th. surface In ascites. chronic. the subjacent organs remain sound. is a par- * though we have as yet hardly stomach. . We speak of a bad stomach. except in the case where poison or some other deleterious substance acts upon them. there ticular kind of inflammation. and reciprocally in pleurisy the In first is scarcely infil- ever altered. this point. the intestines. tion that has existed during the serous and mucous surfaces often appear not to have been affected. in which the serous exhales more lymph than its in a natural state. impaired. the now very often when and almost always when it is acute. &c. All authors have said much of the inflammation of the stomach. peritoneum rous inflammations.50 bronchia is GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. tritive juices. as most commonly should be understood surface only. For myfirst believe that this disease rarely ever affects at the whole of any of these organs. the any thing certain upon these three diseases. the bladder. and the bladder are not suddenly affected with A diseased texture can affect those near I it. or universally. when an enormous life in tration in the dead body shows the excessive inflammathe pulmonary texture. peripneumony. this 6th. acute and chronic catarrhs. but the primitive affection seizes only upon one. this affection is intestines. perhaps even for the layer of organic muscles that separates the two membranes. the pelvis. but the intestines. &c. in have examined a great number of bodies which the peritoneum was inflamed either upon the stomach. a weak stomach. 1 have never seen this membrane exclusively diseased upon one organ. Those who open dead bodies know that in they are frequently healthy incipient phthisis. There are for the mucous surface of the stomach and for the intesse- tines. &c. without applying to the mucous difficulty the nuis Whilst this secretes with which digestion its fluid. the raucous oftentimes performs functions perfectly well.

much we obis serve especially after the suppression of the lochia or the menses. that frequently the marrow is for a long time affected. not of considering ihe relation of the compound organs. cera that which most often belongs only to are almost as There many cases of peritonitis as of pleurisy.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. its I know vis- not why authors have hardly ever spoken of to the inflamma- tion. 8th. or womb even. while that of the neighbouring ones remain untouched affection is . we see it in the case of the stomach . serous. in relation to their mucous. Certainly the acute or chronic catarrh of the bladder. part of the peritoneum corresponding to an organ. and have placed account of the subjacent this. Every one knows that diseases of the periosteum have oftentimes no connexion with the bone. under which are rarely . inflamed . examinations after death prove satisfactorily. and vice versa. 9th. &c. There is no doubt that the osseous. and the more more we shall be convinced of local diseases. of the stomach. You must not as think that the synovial is subject to the it. and yet while these last have been particularly noticed the Oftentimes that is others are almost entirely overlooked. muscular textures. same diseases the ligaments that surround I &c. The same can be of the intestines. that first it is the portion that lines the pelvis that affected. But soon the affection becomes more or at least less it general . has nothing in common with the inflammation of that portion of the peritoneum corresponding with these organs. their diseases are very different. 51 its propagated more or less remotely. &c. 11th. the we observe diseases. 10th. affec- medullary and fibrous textures have their peculiar tions which we shall not confound with the idea we may said form of the diseases of the bones. while both the others remain sound. Though the muscular and tendinous textures are combined in a muscle. think the more we examine the necessity bodies.

but only is this or that texture in the organs. Much has been said of the sympathies of the stomach. the bladder. 2d. that 5th. 4th. For the same reason. action of the liver is when the it sympathetically increased. separate from 1st. the fleshy fibres contract by the influence of another organ and produce vomiting. the sympathies are but aberrations of the vital properties . It is if it were. the one of exhalation. But it is follow the impossible to form an idea of them. besides. they would be the seat. the portion of peritoneum that covers it is does not throw out more serum. of the lungs in relation to the pleura. because not affect- it. that it is not this or that organ which sympathizes as a whole. the fleshy texture is alone affected. the heart to the pericardium. this an imIn fact mediate consequence of the nature of sympathies. do not partake of the sympa- ed by 3d. the brain in relation to the tunica arachnoides. the other of sympathetic certain that exhalation and secretion. I shall say as much &c. the pancreas. are seated exclusively in the marrow. and that the tendinous not so at all. ever affected as a whole. the lungs. 52 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. the When phenomena of diseases are sympathetic. but under that of their different textures. 1 could cite many other examples to prove. It is the same of the kidney. if they are referred to different textures. the intestines.. &x. &c. which to the serous or is not extended either mucous surfaces. It is undeniable that is in all sympathetic convulsions. the organ as a whole. thetic influences that it experiences. so that pours out more it bile. which are almost always attacked separately. its When in the stomach. they same laws as when they arise from a direct affection. they alone receive the influence. the testicles in texture? 6th. What has the fibrous membrane of common with the sympathies of its peculiar No doubt a number of sympathetic pains we refer to the bones. the gastric organs upon which the peritoneum is spread.

not only from one texture to another in the same organ. as there are sysWhence does this arise? From the difference of the relations that unite the heart to each kind of texture. each. example. venereal disease. one each will be fixed upon a upon the mucous. tines. and at the examination of this organ . accompanying the That attending the mudifferent kinds of inflammation. cous is slight. as tems. all Thus in many the parts of the same organ are gradually changed. it is almost is always separately that they attack them an organ its never as a whole influenced by them in all parts. that with the serous severe. cancer. however. the lungs. we shall find as many many peculiar characters. the organic sensibility of these textures. according to the relation which they have with But . to be local affections. 53 the sympathies of these textures then would do the same. some days before the eruption. and each for be independent of the other. &c. Observe the herpes. What do I say 1 If two of these diseases exist at the same intes- time. one seizes upon one texture. the other upon the serous. bow these properties vary according to eacli texture . lest experience should contradict us. Pinel. Let us not. the &c. can be attacked by two will different dia- theses. chronic diseases. but from one organ to a neighbouring one. We shall see the cellular system is oftentimes a medium of communication. when they have ceased themselves universally . because different texture. &c. the other upon a differ- ent one of the same organ. If as has been noticed we attentively observe the fever by which attends the inflammations of differences. Thus the stomach. all the systems.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. exaggerate in this independence of that the textures of the organs diseases. they spread they alternately attack different textures. and that with the cutaneous has the peculiar character of showing itself Observe what takes place in fever. now this difference of relations is the result of the differ- ence of the vital forces peculiar to itch.

if judging of the primitive seat of the to you attempt determine it from the parts found affected at the time of the examination. exhibiting in some small &c. the bronchial membrane. nected with dium are sufficient to disturb the this. follows the same course. Since every organized texture has every where the same arrangement. Observe phthisis. since.54 after death. though the intellectual functions are not conit. vomiting is produced. though one of textures only was so at first first. the intestines. continuity is oftentimes sufficient to that appear in textures explain the different that are not affected. at length invading oftentimes the pleura. some other considerations relative to the influence of the anatomy of systems in diseases. commudis- affection gradually to others. in and that you will be deceived ease. be convinced of the truth of this assertion. it pass to now has the same structure and the same properties. that the primitive source of the I evil exists. the GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. How will little soever you may examine bodies with a view to the same chronic disease. that motion of the heart. finally the glandular. In the cancer of the breast. but is in one only. the cellular. &c. first viz. oftentimes an alteration is We in cannot deny after one of the textures alone of an organ all sufficient to still it disturb the functions of the others. affected in an organ. We cough and someis times expectorate considerably when the pleura alone diseased. it is . symptoms The peritoneal coat only being inflamed. and even the cutaneous textures are con- founded in one common cancerous mass. the penis. you find at only a small gland that rolls under the finger. Cancer of the the beginning stomach. whatever be its situation. and that a texture being at nicates its at different periods. you tubercles in the pulmonary texture. is Delirium comes on when the tunica arachnoides Frequently the diseases of the pericar- inflamed. &c. whole of its it appears to have been affect- ed. In acute diseases.

. upon the affectFor example. cardium. in which the inflammation exists. most of the cutaneous eruptions I shall speak of it hereafter. prove it to be the pleura 4 diarrhoea. &c. which I believe there has been no . if we may so . the termination. with the gastric viscera by the peritoneum. the kind of pain. description. are almost always the same. but which deserves great attention I have already many times observed this peculiar eruption of the is serous texture. is makes no difference. the duration. whatever serous surface is affected. evident that It its 55 diseases must be every where the same. every where it is inflamed in the same manner . inflam- There are always two orders of symptoms mations . the nature of the accompanying fever. tunica arachnoides. with the heart by the pericardium. constipation. every where is subject to a species of eruption of like the miliary. But difficulty of breathing. excepting the difference only that arises from variety of structure. every where it dropsies take place in the same way . I will say the same of the fibrous. those which depend ed organ. in 1st. that it is the peritoneum injury of the intellectual functions. &c. those that belong to the nature of the dis. Pinel appears being the have done much for the art. that it is the periclass. that it is the eased textures 2d. dry cough. irregular pulse. cartilaginous textures. first belong to the whole is the second set of symptoms that particular sort confined exclusively to this or now the second are. to &c. and embracing in one general view all those of the same sys^ tern. of little whitish tubercles. &c. with the lungs by the pleura. affections have in general the mucous same character. whatever may be the organs in which it is found. &c.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. Whatever may be the organ its that the texture invests. Mr. which like generally of a chronic character. in first me who to ar- ranged inflammations in the order of the systems. . The . vomiting. that the serous texture connect- ed with the brain by the tunica arachnoides. &c.

In making these researches. according to the organs to which they belong. Medicine has yet much to do. fee. not an individual organ. is We it shall see. fee. It is yet to be ascertained. the serous. and consequently that their diseases must be the same . the arteit the venous. No one excites the same sensations as the . it is am the first. but that of the others is is very obscure. that others. as phenomena. tain textures. which I attacked. 2d. but some texture in an organ. We are well acquainted with that of the cellular. in its researches upon the inflammation of the different textures. the cutaneous. muscular of animal all fee. the it . I this subject will it be treated more or shall only refer to here. The first are particularly important. according to the degree of sensibility that possesses. are precisely the same in the organs in which they are found. to establish one important distinction that 1st. it is necessary to show the differences As- they present according to the textures they affect. accessory. the muscular of organic life. class of diseases must consequently differ After having shown most of the local diseases. that others. Almost every thing remains respects their inflammatory known in the cartilaginous. as the glandular. the serous. the mucous. that cerlife. inclined the fibrous or muscular. less fully. as the cutaneous. to think that to be rial. as the osseous. are very different in each organ . &c. some variety of structure and vital properties. that pain modified differently in each texture. the synovial. under each system. will be necessary is. as af- fecting almost always. and that their general symptoms and considerably. depending upon the proximity of the af- fected texture with some other texture. and the mucous . experience. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. in rheumatism. 3d. then. which necessarily modify the general pheno- mena of the class of diseases that belong to these tex- tures.56 say.

then. the nature of : . to be cicatrized by the juxtaposition of its different parts. only five or six days if they heal it intention while requires thirty or forty for a bone. &c. in a general way. as 1 have just said. Compare erisypelas with the throbbing of phlegmon. we know that cancer. disease cannot be classed. as an acute or chronic one. cellular. 2d. &c. a chronic one continues for a whole year or more. 8 this distinction . on the other hand. Nothing in medicine is more vague. it. others 57 the burning of when it is inflamed. &c. the pain of rheumatism with that of inflamed lymphatic glands. serous. it But if we gene- ralize cannot be understood. has a pain that peculiar to it . a cartilage. than the in terms acute and chronic. and the fibro-cartilages. it is very well. We it is shall see also that the sense of heat. modified in a slight degree in each texture. the different textures.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. but common term of an acute inflammation of the bones. developed in each inflamed texture. mucous wounds. that however. the affected texture thus. &c. except in relation to the same system when we describe it then becomes void. &c. by its duration. Cutaneous. but affects the duration of them also. whatever is texture syphilis is. that are acute and chronic. If we apply this distinction to the same texture. relation to inflammations of Most commonly they run their course rapidly in the dermoid. they are slow in the bones. serous and cutaneous inflammations. may affect. thus there are catarrhs. variation in the There are two general causes that produce a symptoms of diseases 1st. that and scurvy have also a peculiar character. the cartilages. by the first last . difference of textures not only modifies the The symp- toms. has a particular character. &c. in this point of view. the inflam- mation of each produces a different kind of suffering. here sharp and biting. lasted A catarrh would be this is the chronic if it two months. . A . The nature of the disease it . there like the feeling produced by fire. mucous textures.

form to themselves a general idea of the alterations com- mon to all the textures. Physicians consider abstractedly almost all diseases. scirrhus. It appears to first me to be infinitely more simple to con- sider at all the affections common to each system. Morgagni. the chest. first morbid anatomy two great parts. whatever may be the organ of which it it is in the structure concerned. with regard to each. always uniform. throbbing and pain. besides this. you must a system. the abdomen. it is phlegmon. or whatever It is may be first the place occupies. they take for a general in standard that of the cellular texture. much contracted. have adopted the general arin rangement used descriptions. They have examined the diseases of the head. and the In following this method.58 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. It is . to whom the art indebted. the general ideas con- cerning the affections of the parts they compose. many bear others. they scarcely agree in one or two of the tex- not only the history of diseases that the will anatomy part to of systems elucidate . The same may is grene. which If. they can only extremities. necessary to show at the different . as general attributes. to The contains the history of the alterations common each system. to and then I to observe what every organ has peculiar into itself in the part that it occupies. and many others. then. When they speak of inflammation they describe the red- ness^ swelling. &c. in mind. withbe said of gan- only one of the modifications of sup- puration and its product. divide. it will change in the method of treating morbid anatomy. whom we owe so much is in this respect. out thinking that If of suppuration. Nothing more vague and uncer- tain than the general ideas that are given concerning a disease tures. when lated part of The there ideas is are necessarily too presented only an insuis composed of a great you obtain a general knowledge of the affections of each system.

nervous. there many cases which almost excludes. the chest. into the abdomen. osse* ous. absorption. It seems to me that we live at a period. Some. afford respect an immense field to morbid anatomy. secretion. &. cially affect common method. After having thus pointed out the alterations peculiar to each system.c. which are connected with all the seat of exhalation. that take place slowly. the cutaneous. alterations of texture. which is very rare. to speak of the different enlargements of which they are susceptible. though. ture. the nervous. which they undergo. peculiar to each . in whatever organ it is found. This science is not only that of organic derangements. the muscular. muscular. The others. when morbid anatomy should take a higher stand. glandular. as the principles or consequences of chronic diseases. those in affections of the mucous surface of the pituitary membrane. the glanin this dular. 59 alterations of the cellular. as in all divisions in which we wish it to copy nature. and that the others are particularly the &x. as the mucous. the changes in their nature. &c. &c. This course are is incontestably the most natural. diseases Here an organ as which can espea whole. Into the characters tures alone. are more rarely changed in their tex- We shall see hereafter that nutrition alone is per- formed in these.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. suppuration. synovial. an exami- nation should be region . to examine the kind of inflammation. functions which suppose much energy in the insensible contractility and organic sensibility. made of the diseases peculiar to each as those of the head. the serous. as the fibrous. mucous. &c. and not one of its tex2d. they may be divided. arterial. serous. and the extremities. &c. . venous. after the 1st. cuta- neous textures. peculiar to each portion of this or that texture. the peculiar symptoms which are seen in diseases of the serous surface of the tunica arachnoides. gangrene. &c. for ex- ample in the head.

c. How pears the reasoning of many great physicians. will now . for a Medicine was long time excluded from the circle it of the exact sciences. at least in the diagnostics of diseases.GO it GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. but on the dead body. with a physiological classification. respiration. if we are ignorant of the seat of the disease You may take notes. at any period in which serve their diseases. would no place here. for twenty years. not in their works. Many find of them. not being united in one point. the lungs. when This it we shall every where unite to accurate observation. is not the most favourable to the study of the functions. from morning to night at the bedside of the sick. will necessarily present only a train of incoherent phenomena. will have a right to be associated with them. the particular object of is which anah sis of the different simple systems that form the compound organs. but to a combination of them. such as digestion. which. as some would wish it to connect the different facts of physiology I that contains. However. we may obWith the exception of certain kinds of fevers and nervous affections. which observation alone would never have been able to have dissipated. What observation ? worth. an rational minds. upon the diseases of the heart. scurity will Open a few bodies. this ob- soon disappear. the gastric viscera. and even of said many organs. &. an union of I many have the systems. and all will be you only a confusion of symptoms. to &c. Remarks vpon the classification of functions. The plan that I have followed in this work. is examination of the changes our organs undergo. consists in the examination of all the alterations our organs can undergo. introduced incidentally in this work. course is beginning to be that of all will without doubt soon be general. weak apwhen we examine it. every thing in pathology is within the province of this science. VIII. is Thus what only upon the functions. because (hey do not belong especially to the simple systems.

He did not point out their connexion in the elaboration of nutritive matter. he did not analyze it with sufficient exactness. with the bodies that surround us. Since this author. Grimaud brought forward again this idea. nor show the from alone. and natural funcupon so weak a foundation. the distinction of internal and external functions was only presented as a general sketch in his . in classing the phenomena I of life. have endeavoured. the other. Vicq d'Azyr has substituted one for it which offers hardly any more ancient division. if I may so express myself. to follow the path I marked out by nature herself. in his course of physiology and in his memoir upon nutrition . explain that which tures. and are equally removed from the natural arrangement of the far as possible. it separates phenomena that are connect- and changes into functions. which serves for his nourishment. only sensation and motion. I 61 course of lec- have adopted in my We know how The tions. others have made divisions which are not more methodical. irritability. work upon Life and Death. which is as great as it is true. nor place the voice among them. which did not analyze is how- ever one of the great means of communication. &c. all distinctive characters. as laid. he ranked among the external functions. the foundations of this classification. into animai. where each works in its turn. He more accu- rately the internal functions. have seen in man two kinds of functions. advantages. but by considering it in too general a have my manner.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. properties. rests different the kinds of classification are. he did not describe the brain as the centre of these functions. vital. &c. Aristotle. one which connects him with external bodies. which I pursued before 1 published this work. which separate generation the other functions relating to the individual Besides. Buffon. that a methodical superstructure could not be raised upon it. as ed. in functions. such as sensi- bility.

met with at the present time he examined. for the general outline of Aristotle and Buflfon but it was not to be presented in too general a manner. Memoir upon tion. and that it is more with them than the addition of these func- . soon saw that it was not only one of those general views. that with vegetables. one of those great outlines. are in these to be 1st. From this it may be perceived. 5th. one relating that these the individual. length . Nutrition. orders equally natural. I and their limits established by nature. mixed together all the functions without referring In reflecting them to certain general heads. which was treated at much 2d. the action of the organs of the senses . this was the place . These two first classes being rigorously defined. of which many manuscripts ranged by himself. 7th. sought to discover in each. which cannot be separated from them. the action of the muscles. 6th. in his lectures.. To come at this classification I observed that it was necessary at first to refer all the functions to to two great classes. osteogony. means of classifica- He did not avail himself of in the division of the ar- functions. the other to the species. generation. 4th. animal thus indicating that this order it is belongs alone to animals. were I to be accurately assigned. &c. 8th. that Grimaud. secretion . In fact. the action of the vessels or the circulation. respiration. ternal bodies. digestion . 9th. 3d. this was easy in the functions relating to the individual. in two classes had nothing all general connexion that unites the common. the nature and connexion of the functions peculiar to each order. called the order of functions that connects us with exlife. like preceding authors. 62 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. but a variety of distinctive attributes characterize them. that are oftentimes made by men of genius who cultivate physiology. but the phenomena of living bodies . I upon the division pointed out above. and not as a it. but that it might become the permanent basis of a methodical classification. the action of the brain and nerves.

exsecretion. which are three in number: 1st. I for its principal I place calorification here. it was easy to assign those of the second. it will be seen that it ought to have it. the body. so that it forms a boundary between orlife ganic and inorganic bodies. of the brain which perceives them. reflects. 2d. absorption. respiration. those arising from an union . compose organic life. life. the order that serves for the constant composition and decomposition of our bodies. 63 tionsthat particularly distinguishes them from vegetables. and wills. Digestion. that it is a function analogous to secretion. . serves to separate composed of the action of the senses which receive impressions.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. nutrition. as animal the two classes that form the first. functions belonging to the male. 3d. The brain is truly the central organ of this halation. of the two sexes and the product of this union these are Such is the classification that it I made in Physiology. to all organized beings. calorification. vegetables as well as animals and because the only condition of enjoying it is organization . a secretion or exhalation of that fluid in every part of I have not even at present given this place to : heat in my physiological classification but in reflecting upon the method of its production. truly a separation of It is. those belonging to the female the three orders. and you . and of the nerves which are the Animal life is agents of transmission. from the mass of blood. because it is evident from what have said under the article upon the capillary systems. exhalation and It is nutrition. which has the heart and central organ. if combined is caloric. circulation. of the voluntary muscles and larynx that execute this volition. because this life is common . the expression prefer- red. I called organic life. has evidently nothing in my Lectures on common with any if of those that are found in physiological works. The two orders of the first class being established.

have shown that one kind of sensito bility and contractility belongs animal life. since It is it two lives is not an is nature herself that has fixed the particular properties for each. and another to organic. if the life had been properly distinguished from those of the organic. she has made impossible to form a precise idea of the vital pro1 perties. it will appear I think infinitely pre- any of them. is composed of the cerebral formed of the nerves of commonly called the great symlife. have pointed out moreover the distinctive attributes of animal and of organic lite. which appears to ference. &c. make two systems have united in one. upon the subject of sen! sibility attributes of animal Not one of them would have taken place. is is But life it is the vital powers especially that distinguish one I from another. have demonstrated. and which has induced me to me be a remarkable to dif- of the nerves. that the cerebral nerves belong the nerves of the ganglions to especially to animal the organic. The belonging to animal nerves. that there is a harmony in the functions of the first. but that limits. all mark a difference between them and I the functions of any other order. without admitting the division have made. that each class and each order have general and characteristic attributes that particularly distinguish them. Observe in fine. Now as these vital properties are the princiit is ple of the functions. the other to organic. How many disputes there have been.64 reflect GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. life. a discord- ance in those of the second. evident that the division of these properties demonstrates that that of the abstraction. those of the other irregular. I have shown that the organs of one are symmetrical. and which being appliferable to cable to all the functions of that order. that one commences sooner and terminates I later. as frequently has been done. Certainly no one will hereafter confound in one view. . or what pathetic. that anatomists first. upon it a little. the ganglions.

in orIn muscles remain unmoved. thus 1st. I separate these two kinds of contractility from In sensibility. and those which the cerebral influence puts in action. by admitting the the vital properties. and make two distinct classes. but of transmitting it to the brain. sensibility. has been brought into action. so that the sen- sation If may be perceived. not only of feeling the impression of external bodies. exhalation. impossible that you should be understood. it is There has been much discussion during the last age. On these two properties are never separated. there is first an excitement of the organic and then an action of the sensible organic conIn the same manner. have. immediately insensible organic contractility takes place. Each of the two opinions seem to have rested upon an equally solid foundation.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. &c. or if these two properties can be separated. whether sensibility is the same as contractility. the stomach. the natural state they are inseparable. ganic life. without transmitting that impression. when the organic sensibility testines. organic life. dent. and appreciated It is that they may be that in more accurately. to secretion. whilst the passive sympathies of organic sensibility can never be separated from the 9 . it is In animal evi- not a necessary consequence of frequently external objects us. 2d. the involuntary motions of the heart. the nerves. the in- &c. that contractility sensibility. &c. you include under one common name of the motions of muscles that contract only by stimuli. irritability. long time an impression upon make for a and yet the voluntary the other hand. is distinction life. 65 the faculty that the heart has of being sensible to the en- trance of the blood. upon the point. studied better. Hence why the passive sympathies of animal sensibility are very different from those of animal contractility. in the motions necessary tractility. But all these disputes will be done away. the other senses. I have made in then. and the faculty that the skin.

the exposition of the functions. which. gomena. that all the disputes. 1st. and on the other to life. have not been distinguished from those which put into action the functions of the other. upon the subject of the vital properties. these two things are almost always separate. proceed only from this cause.£6 v GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. will give a more precise idea of the classification. We suffer by sympathy. I will now give a table of it. described in a general manner. presenting it under one point of view. corresponding contractilities. considered in relation to its great attributes. This table comprehends. that those which preside over the functions of one life. and the diversities of opinion. on the one hand to organic texture. science . the prolegomena of the In the prole- 2d. and are sympathetically convulsed in a distinct manner. I could prove by all many examples. sensation and motion in the organic sympathies are inseparable. . every thing is referred to two great considerations. On the contrary. Let us return to my physiological division .

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the principal agent of oris being interrupted. which ceases when account that 1 action is interrupted. having under immediate superintend- ence. though the functions should be studied abstractedly. Though functions. another else- example. is in the first class. the divisions pointed out above. by the means of the diaphragm and intercostal. It is pre- thus also. less connected with the others. more or Each order is For intimately. respiration. as the link that connects animal with organic foetus its and have proved that a something to supply of its without a brain. we should always have in view their connexion. to take. and additions in another. which receive the cerebral nerves. that the heart. but one life cannot be preother. if they wish the to refer th>m I to a physiological classification. has the circulation directly under its control. a line of demarcation separates each order of it is not necessary. facts that are contained in this But they can easily arrange under it wGrk. that the brain. instead of distri- buting them according to the anatomical order in which present them here. every thing united in the animal within in a distinct economy. have shewn where ganic tral which life. as its I have shown. which is the cen- organ of animal immediately stopt for the it want of excitement. all here some changes in one part. independent of the Thus. I have adoptwill ed in find my Those who have attended them. and the functions over which sides are destroyed. and thus the whole of its organic It is life. on this have considered respiration life. when we consider the whole of them as simultaneously in operation. cannot live out of the is womb is mother. . the brain. ceases. Every thing connected. This is a sketch of the general plan that lectures. in too exact a sense. however. served as a whole. life. We live without and manner. It is when one order thus that is I soon annihilated.76 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. or without place.

nutrition.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. calorification. a little from the other. logy. however. 77 It will be seen that in the Descriptive Anatomy. such as exhalation. have not. because the same organs often serve for many functions. I have adopted a classification analogous to that of physioThe one differs. to speak correctly. and especially because certain functions. any distinct and determinate organs. .

.

placed in certain determinate apparatus. economy may be in the One. The if I first part of this work will be devoted to the exam- ination of the general systems. cartilaginous. and nervous systems. on the contrary. and some are always found where others . may so express myself. concurs not only tem. in necessarily provided with these six. foreign to the rest of the economy. exhalant. THE organized systems of the living divided into two great classes.!. uniform base. fibrous. in others nerves some there in some . but even in that of the other sys- and offers to every organized part a common and venous. but little cellular texture . this embraces the osseous. &c. mucous. this includes the cellular. has a less general and oftentimes an almost insulated existence . . serous systems. The other.GENERAL ANATOMY. of the generative systems. tion of all the apparatus. SYSTEMS COMMON TO ALL THE APPARATUS. but they concur to form the greatest number. absorbent. &c. systems which are not howall ever of puch importance that are neither arteries nor veins the organized parts are In fine. arterial. muscular. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. generally distributed forma- and every where present.

there are exhalants. &c. absorbents. the other of decomposition. forming a common and is uniform base for . Thus in the tendons. that carries from them the nutritive matter . sometimes met with. Oftentimes no nerve vous is discoverable. &c. considered under the relation of organs. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. appear to be deprived of it. the osseous. poses this. in fact this function is movement. the whole fibrous system. now the exhalants are the agents of the movement. which brings gans. in the cartilages. Particularly destined to form a part of the structure of other organs. that the generative systems. and the arteries and veins are ramified cellular texture. where they penetrate. first every organ most generally found. all. observation proves. and it always exists where these Next to this. the cartilaginous. It may be imagined.30 are wanting. it follows that these two systems belong After them the cellular system is the to all the organs. the arteries and veins are spread to the greatest number of parts. vessels are. is The is ner- of all the generative systems. As is nourished. &c. &x. The membranes. as in the aponeuroses. While there hardly an outline of the othere . &c. the generative systems perform the same office for one another . It is a general intermixture of one- with the other. it is Where there are no blood vessels. appears that the exhalant and absorbent Nutrition supthe result of a double to the or- systems are the most universally diffused. the fibrocartilaginous. which are deprived of blood. and the absorbents of the second. that which in the smallest found serous by dissection number of parts. ought to be sooner developed than others and this. one of composition. it In general. &c. thus the cellular texture enters into the composition of the nerves. and the arteries and in the veins . from what has now been said. and as the mechanism of nutrition is uniform. the fibrous membranes.

. their nutritive substances it were known is but the most of them are unknown. of vascular or nervous branehes. but not of nature and composition. it is alone for the cartilages. from the nu- matter and leave this parenchyma untouched. in 81 the first months of the foetus. It js in tnis outline that the nutritive matter bones. establishes a difference between them. albumen for certain other organs. which the brain. we should see only deposition of among them. now call the nutripart of nutrition. is which gree. enlighten us upon this cubject. the mucous mass that represents the foetus. appears to be only a 11 compound . the cellular texture. chemistry that must at All the organs resemble least each other analogy. cellular varieties ol form.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. In the first period alter conception. and their centre. or to have a great all If it were possible remove. the exhalants and the absoi bents. From what the has just been said of the general systems of it is economy. exhibit this phenomenon in a striking de- Mere inspection is suffices to prove this in the nerin vous. cellular. would become a bone with a muscular form. of layers. tritive in their parench)ma. tendons. if parenchyma was tilled up with earthv and gelatinous substances. the deposited. parts. so that if the nuit tritive parenchyma in of a bone was filled with fibrin. venous and cellular systems. is The n-'rves. and vice versa. it For the gelatine is phosphate of lime and gelatine. the veins and their central organ. ea^y to perceive that they perform the must important tritive The) form the nuparenchyma of each organ. is This matter being different each or^an. it We should know the nature of all the living to us . these predominate in a remarkable manner. the heart. would be a muscle a muscle its the form of a bone. of size. vascular and nervous outlor line of that organ. &'c. nod of life. I tive parenchyma. fibrin for the muscles. the arteries. arterial. the ether two it proved b) the wonderful activity of absorption at this pt and exhalation.

tracts. there first an expansive force. from which length and breadth arise. to be dis- and have a separate existence. constitutes establishes Their equilibrium the stationary . the common source ? This depends entirely upon the organic sensibility it peculiar to each. be developed there. the lias imprinted the form of the organ. of density. to prevent what its foreign to from being intro- duced into texture. nature. which places in relation to this or that it it substance and not to another. by remaining longer would be injurious. a new substance of the same kind. After this substance has continued for some time to form the organ. This addi- tion gives the attributes of thickness. that In proportion as this outline it. Each organ has as yet only its parenchyma upon which nature is to of the general systems. is increased. it then becomes foreign to it it and heteroit geneous. takes in a stnte its place. is absorbed and thrown out by the different emnnctories. the augmentation of its dimensions are always antecedent to here at Whilst all inorganic bodies increase by the addition of is particles. and of this. of the first over the second. which is brought by exhalation. of composition and decomposition but this composition and decomposition vary their proportion. the nu- tritive substances penetrate and then each organ. that each organ draws the materials of its nutrition from the blood. until that time had been like the rest and forming with them a homogeneous mass. begins tinct.82 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. and which makes priate ter its it approto en- to itself. each one draws from is the blood the substance that proper for it. and suffers vessels on all draws back and conit. nutritive parench) ma. The predominance growth. which lengthen and widen it. which in its nature. afterwards substances are exhaled into the parenchyma. By what mechanism is it. Each organ in is then constantly . is penetrated by sides while is it it. but the increase of parenchyma.

a theory which shall explain at length in I my physiology. they are truly the common organs. anatomy shows them every where. that the parenchyma of it is nutrition is the same for all the organs. 1st. which are cellular and vascular. Now the first healing of wounds. and upon its organic phenomena. each point. and that an assemblage of red vessels. of cellular texture. 3d. Such is. 1st. from the bones the phosphate of lime by by boiling.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. of exhalants. When we take away from the organs acid. as 1 have observed before. the uniformity of the parenchyma of nutrition. which is the casejvith the adult. this or that nutritive substance. and the gelatine is their different nutritive substances. these are the proofs. . and of nerves ferent organs are I . 2d. and upon which it is will now offer a few words. These difmet with in all the others. the parenchyma of nutrition developed. between each fibre. There no doubt in is but that the mechanism of the union of divided parts the same as that of their natural nutrition. but that it rests upon the laws of the economy. if I prove. the manner in which the general theI ory of nutrition should be considered. 3d. in short. each layer. state of the 83 body. the faculty which the parenchyma of nutrition has of appropriating to its itself. is When first. and is every where the same. according to the quantity of organic sensibility. 2d. there is a residue is which is evidently cellular and vascular. I say in the place. of absorbents. of afterwards throwing out this substance. if may so say . and of taking new. These are first in fact the fundamental principles of this theory. every where fleshy points appear. to show that not a system formed by accident. Now 1 think that this assertion will be demonstrated. the variety of the nutritive substances". the activity of the second greater than that of the then decrease and decrepitude follow. for example. which have the same appearance and same character. to the exclusion of others.

which In fact. arise from a whether they bone or a cartilage. and assumes the form of cellular texture. it From these considera- tions. The mucous substance which forms the body of the empoints that bryo. it is embryo must be homogenewhich is Nutrition commences. there only the nutritive parenchyma of the is organs. and exhibits there the in same appearance fill >d body of the embryo the first is periods. the same in all. vascular and. as Bordeu calls it. becomes necessai) nourished and consequently that we must go faither secondary causes here facts back. in in physiology. is abundantly supplied with vesare developed in their inter- sels and nerves. and experiments enlighten our way. part its texture. becomes easy to "admit the uniformity of the paits renchyma I of nutrition. imagina- our guide. that is in this mucous state of the embryo. which are united by the exhalation of fibrin in the fleshy first arise upon the divided surfaces. in in healing. like the organs. that by admitting this it common that it parenchyshould be ma of nutrition. itself. beyond tion only is that.84 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. ihey differ also like the organs. am aware. &c. and then each organ appro- priates to itself the substance this it proper for it . appears to be nothing but cellular or mucous textu-e. it may be seen as the stices for a certain length of time. it whence may be presumed. the skin. gradually this substance becomes condensed. with cells. in c< rtain cases. the art of finding the truth conit searching for in . and cellular. a ligament. All a muscle. after ceases to be homogeneous. wounds. &c. 4th. in this when the organs mucous substance. . in the nutritive is substance that afterwards deposited to the in vary according be . but sists. nervous texture. substances which where the wound happens to thus the deposit of the phosphate of lime gives to the callus a different character from that of muscular wounds. resemble each other their parenchyma . and as the parenchyma evident that the mass of the ous.

placing it each gland rate. thus cantharides are exclusively in relation with the sensibility of the kidneys. We could offer nothing but conjectures upon this subject. is un- necessary to prove that they differ by the substances that are deposited there. &c. After having demonstrated that the organs 85 resemble it each other in a common parenchyma of nutrition. but a consequence of a general law of organic sensibility. do not stop in the biliary or pancreatic durts. ed with proving this fact by a great number of examples. in it relation with the fluid that should sepa- makes receive this fluid.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. which. thus the substances that pass the intestines. Animal chemistry has within a few elucidated this point. because the serous part is with their organic sensibility. that in refuting it years past so much is not worth while to waste time In fine. the nutritive substances it and which are brought to by the not a all phenomenon peculiar to nutrition. t > how earh parenchyma of nutrition appropriates itself according to the quantity of organic sensibility that are proper for circulation. observable in the acts of the organic economy. without trying to discover the cause. it is It is it. and reject the others. . We see from this. But why has this property as the many degrees as there are organs in economy ? Why do these degrees establish relations so different between the organs and the substances that are foreign to them? Let us stop here let us be content. although their diameter is sufficient to admit them . it is easy to conceive. mercury with that of the salivary organs. that the mechanism by which the parenchymas of nutrition appropriate to themselves nutritive substances. Thus the secretions take place only in consequence of the this determined quantity of sensibility. &c. it enjoys. is not an insulated phenomenon. what has been writ- ten upon the identity of the nutritive juice. alone in relation thus the red part of the blood does not ordinarily pass into the exhalants.

has only slightly glanced. perform the greatest part. though indirectly connected with the subject of this volume. are . of those especially who wish to consider diseases under the essential relation of the influence that age has upon them. because in these phenomena. upon which the most exact and the most judicious of all physiologists. the development that authors have only vaguely examined. the generative systems upon which we are going to treat. and because we shall frequently have occasion to refer to them in the examination of the development of the organs.86 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. but which however ought to receive the particular attention of physicians. nutritive These few notions upon the not misplaced here phenomena. Haller. .

do not allow every where continuous. more or less irregular. and of white soft layers. as has been done. which under the namt is of the cribriform body. though every is where spread. is order to give a complete view. as represented by the continuity of in parts. and researches. which. the number of orit surrounds. and the multiplied relations presents. shall then at first consider abstractedly the general all its system. leaving between them spaces communicating together. the different parts of this sys- tem act at the same time as a bond to connect. Placed around the organs. I shall it examine is it afterwards independently of these organs. inter- mixed and interwoven in different ways. The gans it great extent of this system. relations with other systems. in it one point of view. interior of these Carried into the same organs. : & many know stWl.CELLULAU SYSTEM. THIS system. an assemblage of filaments. development will be the object of my . me to in describe it. &. its In fine. or to whose composition concurs. and which serve as a reservoir for the fat and serum. and as an intermediate body to separate them. they essentially contribute to their structure. its properties. as in spread everywhere organization. the mucous texture.c. necessary to separate the different points in which it may 1 be examined. it order to consider it in relation to the organs that it surrounds. its its the spaces between them.

which is the most general. the absorbents and the excreto- which are destitute of it in their interior. The second. considered in an insulated man- ner. as for example. ARTICLE FIRST. It appears . 1st. can also consider here. It enters essentially into the structure of each. and in relation to each organ of the animal economy. We ries. Of the cellular system upon the exterior of each organ* The different conformation of the different organs. that which covers the exterior of the arteries. The cellular system. place. that in fact. The first ment takes when these organs have one side free. one side. and the other attached. es- tablishes two very distinct modifications in the relations of is the cellular texture. As this texture enters also into the structure of these vessels. when an organ is attached every where to those in the vicinity of Let us describe separately each of these two arrangeit. It forms for each organ a covering. can be described in two secondary relations. is ex- 2d. is observed. and forms one of the essential bases of this structure. 1st. it is it exterior to them. and the serous and mucous membranes. the veins.88 CELLULAR SYSTEM. most authors have examined it. There are three membranous organs which are free on . ments. a boundary which terior to it. Of the cellular system which adheres only to one side of the organs. In one case arrange- contiguous only to one of their surfaces. the skin. > OF THE CELLULAR SYSTEM CONSIDERED IN RELATION TO THE OTHER ORGANS. and clothed on the other by the cellular texture these are the skin. in the other envelopes them entirely. in treating of them.

CELLULAR SYSTEM.
to

89

me more convenient
all

to present

under one point of

view

the parts of the cellular system.
Sub-cutaneous cellular texture.

Besides the chorion, into which, as

we

shall see, a

great quantity of cellular texture enters, and which anat-

omists consider as formed by a particular condensation
of this texture, the skin, every where that
it,

we examine

presents a subjacent cellular layer, the quantity and

density of which vary in the different parts of the body.

Upon
than in
this,

the greatest part of the median line, this texture

appears more compact, and more adherent to the skin

many

other places.

We

may be convinced

of

by dissecting upon the middle of the nose, of the lips, of the sternum, upon the linea alba of the abdomen, upon the range of the vertebral and sacral spinous processes, upon the posterior cervical ligament, &,c. From this adhesion arises a sort of division of the two great halves
of the sub-cutaneous cellular texture; a division that
I

have sometimes made very evident in my experiments upon emphysema. The air being driven with moderate force under the integuments of one side of the body,
diffuses itself gradually,
at the

and

is

stopped in
is

many

instances

median

line, so

that one side

puffed
cells.

up and the
It is

other exhibits the ordinary state of the

often-

times necessary to increase the force very much, in order
to

general.

overcome the resistance and render the emphysema However, we cannot always produce this phenomenon, and sometimes the air spreads immediately every where ; this takes place especially if it is forced in
is

about the neck, for the sub-cutaneous texture
there in front, upon the median
sides.
It is

as loose

line, as

it

is

upon the

only from the circumstance, that the sub-cutaneous

texture immediately under the

median line, is somewhat more compact than elsewhere, that we can say with Bor»
12

90

CELLULAR SYSTEM.

deu, that this texture divides the body perpendicularly
into

two equal
in

parts.

No

where, but under the skin, do
Besides,
1

we

see any trace of this separation.

have de-

monstrated

one of

my
life,

works, that the division of the
parts,
is

body

into

two symmetrical

a general attribute of

the organs of animal

an attribute which distinguishes
life,

which seem to be under this relation, and not under that of Bordeu, which is contrary to anatomical facts, that the median line should be de-

them from those of the

internal

characterized by their irregularity;

it is

scribed.
In the other parts of the body, the sub-cutaneous cellular texture varies considerably.
1st.

The

density of this
is

texture

is

remarkable

in

the hairy scalp, which

with

difficulty

separated on that account from the aponeuroses

and subjacent muscles. Those who have often examined patients who have died of apoplexy, know that sometimes their heads and necks are emphysematous; I
have already seen
is

four.

Now
none

whilst considerable air
is

found

in the face, little or

met with under the
is

hairy scalp.

2d. In the face, the sub-cutaneous texture
loose,
it

remarkably
itself to

is

very abundant there.

3d.

Upon

the trunk this laxity

is

also

very evident

;

it

accommodates

the motions which the great and broad muscles per4th.

form there.

Upon

the extremities, the sub-cutaneous

cellular texture, situated
skin, offers almost
tion.
It is

between the aponeuroses and the

every where an equal degree of relaxa-

only upon the palm of the hand and the sole of
its

the foot that,

texture becoming

sion of the aponeuroses to the skin

more compact, the adheis more evident, an ar-

rangement that

is

favourable to the use of these two parts,
to

which are designed

adapt themselves to the forms of
It is

external bodies, to grasp and hold them.

to this

com-

pact texture, that must be referred the difficulty that exists
of making these parts subject to dropsical effusions. after every other part of the sub-cutaneous texture

Long
is infil-

CELLULAR SYSTEM.
trated, this preserves its

91
I

ordinary state.

have seen two
part of the

patients affected with elephantiasis,

where every

skin and subjacent texture of the lower extremities

was

enormously swelled, except the sole of the foot. The contrast of this part, remaining in its natural state, with the top
of the foot, which was raised to an enormous swelling, gave
that peculiar appearance that
all

authors have noticed.

At the place of the annular ligaments, the sub-cutaneous cellular texture is very compact, and the adhesion of the
skin, is also

very evident

;

hence those contractions that
little

are seen in the limbs of infants at the place of the liga-

ments, the

fat

penetrating but very

into the cells,

that are very closely

drawn together.
it

The
uses.

sub-cutaneous cellular texture has several different
It

furnishes the skin with the great mobility
is

en-

joys, a mobility that

particularly observable in the great
it

motions of the trunk and extremities, in the collisions
that get to a great size, as in sarcocele,

experiences with external bodies, in the different tumours

which

is

often

covered at the expense of a part of the integuments of
the penis, the

abdomen and the

thigh,

which are stretched
organs subjacent to

and have a
It is

real locomotion.

to this texture also, that the

the skin

owe

in

part the facility with

which they move

in

the great contractions of which they are susceptible.
fat

The

contained in great quantity

in its cells, contributes to

protect the subjacent parts from the impression of the external air.

We

know, that

in

general this
in

fluid is
it is

more
found
ani-

abundant therein winter than
in a

summer,
in

that

very considerable proportion under the skin of

mals that inhabit cold countries, that

consequence of

the emaciation that follows great diseases, the impression of the external air
is

often very sensible,

&c.

^

The serum appears

to

be

in the

sub-cutaneous texture,
it

considerably more than in other parts;

has a greater

tendency to accumulate there, no doubt on account of

92
its

CELLULAR SYSTEM.
laxity.
If

we compare

the quantity of fluid which

enters this texture in a dropsical limb, with that

which

occupies the intervals between the muscles and the interstices of the fibres of the different subjacent organs,

we

shall see that

it

exceeds

it

considerably, and that the size

of the limb

is

in proportion

much more

increased by the

dilatation of the portion of sub-cutaneous cellular texture,

than by that of the portions situated deeper.

To

be con-

vinced of

this,
its

place at the side of a healthy, lower limb,

stripped of
sical

integuments and subjacent texture, a dropin

limb prepared

the same manner, and consequently

having

like the other, only its aponeurotic covering,
is

you

will see that the difference

not very great.
texture.

Sub-mucous cellular

The mucous membranes have
continuation, and with which, as

the same relations with

the cellular texture, that the skin has, of which they are a

we

shall see, they

have
is

a great analogy in their structure.

There

is

then a sub-

mucous, as well as a sub-cutaneous texture.

But there

between them,
the

this essential difference, that the texture of

first is infinitely

more compact and condensed than that
neighbouring parts
is

of the other, and consequently that the adhesion of the

mucous system
that

to the

much

greater,

than that of the cutaneous system.

It is to this

difference

may be

referred,

1st.

the difficulty of dissecting the

mucous membranes and of separating them from the subjacent parts.
2d.

The
in

impossibility that

I

have always

found in many successive experiments, of producing an
artificial

emphysema

the sub-mucous texture, whilst

I

have done it almost every where else, by blowing in air. 3d. The uniform absence of this fluid in this texture, even when the natural emphysemas are the most generally
spread.
4th.

The

equally uniform absence of serum in the

sub-mucous

cells, in

the most general leucophlegmasia

;

a

phenomenon

essential to the functions of the hollow or-

CELLULAR SYSTEM.
gans, which would soon be obliterated,

93

texture swelled as
Is it

much

in

if the sub-mucous dropsy as the sub-cutaneous.

to the difference of texture of these

two portions

of the general cellular system, that must be referred the

much

greater frequency of phlegmonous inflammation in
first,

the second than in the

or

is it

that this

is

less ex-

posed to the exciting causes derived from external bodies?

Both circumstances may have an effect. I believe much more readily in the first, as the throat, in which is seated,
especially around the amygdalae, the most lax of parts of the sub-mucous texture,
is

all

the

the most frequent seat

of phlegmonous inflammation.
Besides,
it is

the firm and compact structure of the sub-

mucous

texture,

which makes

it

fit

to serve as a point of

number of fleshy fibres that compose the muscular membranes of the stomach,
insertion and termination to that

the intestines, the bladder, &c. and thus to

fulfil

the uses

that the tendons have in relation to the muscles of ani-

mal

life.

Sub-serous cellular texture.

There
as
is

is

under almost

all

the parts of the serous system,

under the two preceding ones, a cellular layer, which in general very abundant and very loose, as we may be
it

convinced by examining

around the peritoneum, the

pleura, the tunica vaginalis, the pericardium, &,c.

This

quantity of cellular texture

is

particularly destined to ac-

commodate the

different

changes these membranes expe-

rience, in dilatation, in contraction,

and

in a species of

locomotion, of which they are susceptible under

many cir-

cumstances.

We

shall see the

peritoneum, for example,
a state of fulness or

belong at one time to the omentum, at another to the
stomach, according as this
vacuity;
last
is

in
it

now

for these

removals,

was necessary that
attribute the ease

there should be a great degree of laxity in the surrounding texture.
It is

to this, that

we must

94

CELLULAR SYSTEM.
is

with which the sub-serous texture
in dropsies,

penetrated with water

and with

cutaneous texture,
trations.

emphysema. Next to the subno part is more disposed to these infilair in

There are, however, some places, where the serous membranes adhere in a very intimate manner to the
neighbouring parts.
sules, the tunica

The pericardium

in its

two

layers,

the synovial glands with the cartilages and fibrous cap-

arachnoides with the dura mater, offer

examples of
it is

this

arrangement, which constitutes, when

with a fibrous

membrane

that

it

makes the adhesion,

the sero-fibrous membranes.
Cellular texture exterior to the arteries.

There

is

around each artery an extremely compact,
first

condensed, and resisting layer, which at
to be a peculiar

sight appears

membrane, but which evidently belongs
It

to the cellular system.

has the greatest analogy with

under the mucous membranes. It is never Fat never accumulates the seat of serous infiltrations. It there, and it is never attacked with inflammation.
that which
is

arises

in

an insensible manner from the neighbouring

cellular texture,

mixed
so that

in such a
it

which is gradually condensed, and intermanner, that we can detach it as a whole,
surrounds and supports.

will

represent a kind of canal corresponding
it

with that of the artery which

Are the

arterial fibres inserted in this

compact

texture, as
in

the muscular fibres of the stomach and intestines are,

do not think they are was the case, we could not so easily remove the
the sub-mucous texture
?
I
;

for

if it

cellular

cylinder that surrounds the arteries; the arterial fibres

seem

to be

whole

circles,

and consequently not

to

have,

like the muscular, two inserted extremities.

However,

some of these fibres constantly adhere to the deepest celwe distinguish them by lular layer, when we remove it
;

their direction

and yellowish colour.

CELLULAR SYSTEM.
Cellular texture exterior
to the veins.

95.

The
pact.

veins have an external covering analogous to that
it

of the arteries, but
It

is

in general less
in

thick and com-

cannot be taken out

an entire cylinder as

easily as that of the arteries.

Moreover,
is

it

does not

contain

fat,

and but

little

serum, and

not subject to
all

dropsical effusions, but uniformly preserves in
tions its original state.

affecthis

When we

raise

by layers

texture which

we
and

on the outside of the coats of the veins, easily perceive that it is dryer than in any other part;
is I

have often been tempted to believe, that
albuminous
fluid

it

does

not, like that of the arteries, the excretories,

and mucous

surfaces, exhale an

which lubricates the

Other parts of the cellular system.
organization, which
tion in this system.
is

We

shall see that its

entirely different, forms an excep-

In examining the cellular cylinder of the veins and
arteries, especially that of the
first, it

is

essential not to

confound

it

with their filaments, and the numerous ner-

vous branches which come from the ganglions, and form
a very thick net-work around them.

The

cellular texthis

ture

is

whiter, the nerves

more greyish;

becomes

very apparent after a few days maceration.
1

ents

do not speak of the texture external to the absorbwithout doubt they have one like the veins, but so ;

delicate are these vessels, that

we can

say nothing of

them founded upon experiment and
Cellular texture exterior
to the

dissection.
excretory ducts.

All the excretories, th? salivary, urinary, spermatic,

hepatic, pancreatic,

&c. are evidently surrounded with
to the

a layer analogous

preceding, entirely distinct

from the neighbouring texture, and which appears to be
inserted in
it

without partaking of
to its

its

nature;

it is

a dis-

tinct body, as

thickness,
it,

its

form, and

its

texture.

The

filaments that

compose

not being separated in

96
their interstices

CELLULAR SYSTEM.
by any
fluid,

remain

in contact

with each

other; so that the whole really makes a
the form of a canal, which can be easily
that which surrounds the arteries
;

membrane in raised up like

it is,

however, thicker

than that of the veins.

Of

the cellular

system considered in relation
it

to the

organs

that

surrounds on

all sides.

Except the organs of which we have
parts of the body are surrounded on
cellular layer

just spoken, all

every side with a

more or
to the

them, according

less abundant, which forms for happy expression of Bordeu, a

kind of peculiar atmosphere, an atmosphere in the midst
of which they are immersed, and which serves to insulate

them from the other organs,

to interrupt to

a certain de-

gree the communications which would unite them in an
intimate manner, which would identify,
if

we may

so say,

the existence of one with the other,

if

they were in im-

mediate apposition.

The
floats

serous vapour, in which the cellular atmosphere
is

of each organ

constantly immersed, and the

fat

which

there in greater or less abundance, powerfully assist
insulation of vitality
o( separation,
;

in this

both form for the different
fluid,

organs a line
a

which, being

enjoys in
also so

much

less

degree than them the
is

vital forces,

which
if I

in this

point of view,

not at their level,
is

may

express myself, and which

consequently very proper,

to interrupt in a certain degree the vital

communications

that would

otherwise exist.

The
life

essential difference

that there

is

between the peculiar

of the cellular texit

ture and that of the

other organs, renders

also

very

susceptible of performing alone like a solid, an analogous

use independent of the fluids
It is to this

it

contains.

insulation of the vitality of the organs by

their surrounding cellular texture, that

we can

refer in

part that of the diseases,

which

is

only an alteration of

CELLULAR SYSTEM.
this vitality.

97

Every day we see an

affected part contiguous
to
it its

to a

sound one, without communicating

disease.

A

healthy pleura covering the lungs

filled

with tubercles,

or ulcers, in phthisis; an inflamed

peritoneum corresliver,

ponding with the
spleen,

intestines, the

stomach, the
;

the

which remain

in their natural state

the mucous

membranes

affected with catarrhs approaching without danger the numerous parts they cover the sub-cutaneous organs remaining free from the innumerable erup;

tions of

which the skin

is

the seat; the tunica arach-

noides in a state of suppuration enveloping a healthy
brain, and a thousand other similar facts; these are the

phenomena
presents.

that the examination
I

of bodies constantly

formed
it,

in

speak of the different tumours that are the midst of organs, without their perceiving
Shall

by their side them ? Dissect a muscle under a suppurating cutaneous wound, or even a most obstinate ulcer; you will not often find it different from the rest,
without
affecting

of the numerous excrescences that grow

the skin only has been affected.

No

doubt the
is

differ-

ence of
tial

vitality of

two neighbouring organs
;

an essen-

cause of the insulation of their diseases

but the cel-

lular

atmosphere that protects them

is

also

an important
it

one.

When

an organ sends elongations into another,
to
it

communicates

much more

easily

its

diseases, than if

a thick cellular layer separated them; for example,

we

know

that the affections of the periosteum

and the bone

are soon identified.

Let us

not,

however, exaggerate

this idea,

by describe
by showing

ing the cellular atmosphere as an insurmountable barrier
to diseases.

Facts would often contradict

us,

diseases passing from an organ to the texture that sur-

rounds

it,

and from

this texture to
it

the neighbouring or-

gans

;

so that

we
is

see

at

one time an obstacle, and at

another the means of their propagation.
that
is

The atmosphere

formed

in

different cases susceptible of being

13

98 charged with all CELfcULAR SYSTEM. those of the surrounding texture are often altered by communication. of we is see in most cancers. a part being dis- eased. Here constantly in the communication of diseases. the tumour chronic ? it is an induration more or less evident that affects. the neighbouring organs afterwards be- come so. the neighparts. which affect only the ligaments. another part becomes affected without the inter- mediate ones being deranged there is in their functions. in which. inflamed part that was very large during resume byr Is the loss of the vital forces. a more or less considerable . but embraces also the neigh- The inflammations of the pleura spread . produces a painful swelling around them of . If it is acute. the emanations that arise from the or- gan. an atmosphere which extends more or less remotely. nearly its ordinary size. In phlegmon. a con- siderable tumefaction in the neighbourhood of the knee is almost always the result of diseases the joint. should be carefully distinguished from sympathy. the same order as in the position of the organs. it is a simple swelling which disappears almost . oftentimes to a distance. disease developed not only around the affected organ. as in phlegmon. the vital forces of an organ being altered. Many tumours have around them a kind of diseased atmosphere. &c. swelling surrounds the red and inflamed place rheu- matism. as bourhood of the diseased This atmosphere bouring ones. which affects the white parts of the wrists and fingers. and gradually those of the different neighbouring organs themselves. in which an organ and its texture "being diseased. This kind of influence that the organs have upon each other. or to speak in language more strictly medical and physiological. entirely at death as I have often seen in dead bodies an life. and which constantly partakes of the nature of the tumour. A great number of local affections affords us examples of this dependance. which always exists in the cellular texture.

Why a blister often useless that in is ap- plied to a remote part rheumatism. as in the different applications to the made mucous membranes. whilst one placed fibrous organ upon the skin that covers the muscle or the that is the seat of the disease. to the lungs. that of the 09 the diaphragm . that mere contiguity is without cellular texture. atmosphere of the organs serves to proalso the means of communicating mediis cinal effects. thus it is. the fleshy fibres irregular convex surface of the liver to by the influence it has on of the heart. &c. produce an action upon the subthis Why jacent parts ? The cellular texture is certainly the means of communication. It when should be remarked. not applied directly to the affected organ their effects are transmitted by the sub-mucous texture. becomes chronic. : enema diminow these means are . by affecting the subjacent intestines. frequently produces a sud- den effect? Why has a cataplasm applied to the scrotum oftentimes an influence upon a diseased testicle. terminates. in soon produces inflammation them . beginning. in contact with healthy ones. the inflamed portion of a serous membrane.CELLULAR SYbTEM. however. a carious tooth neighbour . that after inflammation has continued a short time. but it is is not the only thing. &c. it is this which forms chronic enteritis. cate disease. However. though between the cutaneous organ and relation of vitality? applied also to gland there is no do several other medicines the skin. an emollient nishes that of the peritoneum. though the pain has announced only one point to be primarily affected. A gargle is advantageous in inflammations of the tonsils. produces in this organ the pericarditis. peritonitis. motions of an intermittent pulse to the it . in the which is exclusively confined peritoneum. the whole surface is found attacked. I am convinced that disease that the cellular pagate. . for often sufficient to communiaffects its example.

upon tumours of the glands of the groin. to two contiguous organs. both when applied to the cutaneous and mucous faces. by posite vitality. with a view of acting upon organs of to these sur- different vitality. ways groping upon very in the dark. ciently acquainted with the degree of vitality of each know when the cellular texture can be the means of communication of medicinal effects. axilla. and now confine them to the most subPerhaps hereafter we shall be sufficutaneous organs. the vital forces of any organized its part are particularly altered. between organ. surfaces. &. and when it is a barrier which stops the commuAt present we go almost alnication of these effects. and consequently injuries are . how emollients. which has immediate seat In general. All modern surgeons admit the inutility of applications made in this way. and irritated in a certain manner. and consequently separated from the cuta- neous organ.c. the one is indifferent to the affections of the other. when a tumour appeared as they are with ? projecting under the skin.100 the advantages of CELLULAR SYSTEM. with different structure and properties. though the parts little effect are contiguous. of the breast. &c. with which it has no relation. have. whilst it has no effect upon neighbouring ones. Who does not know. ? and that they are as often cured without our applications Formerly. many others of a different and even opit they covered with a poultice. while it will its have no sensible effect in diminishing pain in the sub-cutaneous organs. discutients. and which are subjacent Practice too often proves that they may be ex- cited. without the conlife tiguous organ being affected. a bath will check a spasmodic vomiting. if it was seated in the abdomi- nal viscera. because their and that of the organ has no resemblance or correspondence. Frequently a cutaneous application acts by sympathy distant organs. these applications have been much exaggerated. for example.

by sympathy. . the other becomes so without any apparent cause 3d. and swelled. The only cellular atmosphere of each organ has relation not its to the immediate phenomena of vitality. the skin that covers livid it be- comes discoloured. and which. 1st. Why is the cellular texture. with that which only a very on the outside of the tendons. but also . to the different this ed. as the axilla. the great in arterial trunks. is movements that the organ executes as is more abundant. have. these movements are more extendThis observation is made. the great articulations. however. by cellular communication. from fresh air. These membranes and the cellular texture are in fact the two great means. the eye. upon the external surface of which but little cellular texture is found. the brain. in comparing that which considerable quantities around the heart. the means that nature uses to defend organs from the influence of is that which diseased. 2d. to supply its place. the serous membranes that cover them. The organs. upon exposition of facts the research into the cause. and of which there small quantity. the womb. in some cases. the is bones. or that filled with irritating exhalations . those espe- cially of dilatation favoured by the fluids that and contraction. which moreover are it contains. the groin. would only be conjecture. .CELLULAR SYSTEM. is &c. while in others ? it serves to pro- pagate morbid affections this point to the Let us limit ourselves . as the stomach. &c. as when one eye being affected. by a direct irritation. and the only ones. the aponeuroses. as when a bone being carious. as when the conjunctiva is inflamed. &x. produced 101 in three ways. its cells in general The extension and contraction of which are susceptible. make them very proper to accommodate the great movements of the organs. by which nature has facilitated the movements of these organs. the intestines. the bladder. perform many movements.

The cellular texture. II. systems. parts. rounded with a great quantity of this texture . almost all the immoveable which are not of much importance. Of the internal cellular system of each organ. is united to the others by thus in the stomach. the serous surface and the pulmonary parenchyma. are every where surrounded by an abundant cellular texture. muscular and mucous membranes between of these different hollow organs.102 CELLULAR SYSTEM. each of these systems it . it forms one of their principal elements. cle. the bladder. which are however surrounded with a quantity of celthe kidnies are a remarkable example lular texture testicle and its membranes are also surof this. In the lungs. are surrounded with a sheath. In them from the neighgeneral. between them and their mucous surfaces. after having covered the organs. The but . every nervous filament. in their In the organized systems. the pancreas and salivary glands a thick partition which separates is the it find bouring organs. &c. which an assemblage of many &c. then unites together the different homo- geneous parts of each of them. and which are not separated from others by serous surfaces. Each fasciculus of a mus- every muscular fibre. is In an apparatus. every portion of aponeurosis and ligament. is destined to the same uses that the greater covering of which we have . the in- testines. the nervous branches which enter into their it composition. as are almost all the thoracic and abdominal viscera. it offers a variety of elonga- tween tion? more or less compact. so thyroid gland. every glandular particle. vascular and whole course. There are many organized parts with obscure motions. a particular celwhich in relation to its parts. the cellular texture at first accompanies and surrounds. lular layer. enters every where into their intimate structure. it different layers which belong to separate the serous. bethis and the divisions of the bronchia.

have a very apparent motion in each of their parts taken separately. which undergoes no alteration in its course. It is remarkable. There are many organs. or powers of secretion in the glands. Thus the life of each fibre is insulated by this layer. and which. like that of it the whole organ. occupying only the cellular texture. are capable by means of it of a much sible greater internal contraction. maceration. But in many of these organs. The motion of each of these fibres is peculiarly favoured by the cellular texture. should exist without injuring the secretion of bile. it. respiration performed almost the same as in health. the ligaments. is in which the cellular texture is so compart some authors have even denied the existence of it in them. but which can. by fill- hardly apparent. those not less remarkable in is They may be compared with the lungs in phthisis. It is often affected without the participation of the organ. which. just spoken. We see that in insen- the nerves. which give this organ a raised and uneven form. which secretes as usual the bile. and even more than that. leave untouched the glandular texture. the it is. because their structure . performs for the 103 whole organ. like the muscles. in which. and the glands. thus the organs. have no sen- motion but that which is communicated to them.. than those which. parts. The little internal cellular texture of each organ has but of the vital character which distinguishes that orit gan . that these tumours. preserves almost structure all its general properties. without contractility the muscles. CELLULAR SYSTEM. like the general layer. forms around destined to defend and protect a kind of atmosphere. In many organic tu- we meet with steatomatous mours. be the means of the communication of diseases from one fibre to another. oftentimes of enormous size. affections of the liver. be- cause the parts are nearer to each other. like the tendons. however. in the of different medium which it is unites without resembling sible in them. which. how- ever.

because the organ loses by them structure. from some their nutritive substance. . After having considered the cellular system in relation to the organs. Let in the head. even the bones and cartilages. as we shall see. for example gelatine. Ebullition. &c. are essentially of a cellular nature. In all. . and which exposes that which of the fibres. is placed in the interstices ARTICLE SECOND. the production of fleshy points. I. OF THE CELLULAR SYSTEM. it The cranium and the cellular texture in the first. the trunk.104 CELLULAR SYSTEM. parts them by degrees. of tions. ing in an insensible manner the fibres with water. face differ extremely as it respects is fouud in very small quantity in the and in great abundance second. let us consider it separate from all the parts it that it covers and penetrates. or granulations. and makes apparent the cellular texture which separates them. and extremities. which takes in the fibrous membranes. proves the existence of this internal texture. which they are only the elongasaid of the The same may be and fleshy. which. soft. leaves a membranous residue which is evidently cellular. as we see especially in the tendons. diseases which apparent. and takes one that is becomes very its compact more loose and spongy. Of the cellular system of the head. bones becoming and of in fungous tumours of the other this texture systems. found every where in the in this interstices of the organs and being analogous point of view us trace almost all the other primitive systems. CONSIDERED INDEPENDENTLY OF THE ORGANS. in order to represent all as a body continued on to it sides.

quantity. skull in the cribriform plate to this attribute the weight. of the cellular texture of the in- cranium are very numerous. am convinced that it is in a great measure owing times 3d. and pain of the perhaps we may head in coryza. Below. the zygomatic furrow. iuterior of the . it to these communications. cranium has but very little it.* the influence of which pro- pagated by these communications. though this term is not usually employed by English writers .CELLULAR SYSTEM. and between it and the top of In the pharynx. and heaviness in I the head. it is even apparently destitute of how- we raise the tunica arachnoides. however. The communications terior of the 1st. mina 2d. It enters the nostrils by the fora. Tr. cellular If. . though often- may be wholly sympathetic. by * The word paraphrenias is meant probably to designate the inflammation of the meninges of the brain. the cerebral texture is Above and behind. where the shall vessels enter and where the nerves go out. texture. we find a small which is remarkable for its delicacy and transby this parency. but the word used by the author might be translated inflammation of the diaphragm. The pia mater is principally formed and the texture of this membrane appears this. and the sphenoidal hence the redness and heat of is the eye in paraphrenias. 14 . in many cases which angina is attended with pain. vertigo. which certainly is not his meaning. Cellular texture of the cranium. continu- ed with that of the corresponding parts of the head. &c. to is be ex- continued with that of the brain. &c. tremely hard to be demonstrated maceration. and it is it is not proved by scarcely seen except in fungous tumours. it In front enters the orbit by the optic foramen fissure. the numerous foramina of the base of the effect communications between the face and the cerebral cellular texture. 105 The texture ever. as well as by the continuity of membranes.

The orbits are is fill- ed with the excavation of the cheeks. have but a small quantity of to the beauty and harmony of the countenance. that is almost immediately attached to the it. the sated. and consequently that there too great a depression. it the numerous but small openings in the sutures.. that is so frequently observed between these two membranes. which a The sur- mucous face covers. the features of which. when one is inflamed hence the sudden affection that frequently takes place of the dura mater. 106 CELLULAR SYSTEM. especially upon the forehead as a consequence of erisypelas of the cranium. tunica arachnoides. also that serum is deposited there. and blood extravasides. bouring parts of the tongue are furnished with nasal cavities only and their sinuses. nothing is more common than to see the eye-lids receive the pus that is formed. &c. Its . &c. It is very abundant it . Behind and upon the communications of the cellular texture of the cranium are also very evident. bone. In . is when there is no fat. contain much of it : all the neighit. and it becomes probably sometimes the means of communication. examined closely. that bound- ed by the buccinator and masseter muscles. not found in great quantity there. ac- companies the vessels that go from the dura-mater to the pericranium. and which often accumulates in these moveable veils. so as to occasion It is by these communications considerable deposits. no doubt because the muscles are so few and thin. Cellular texture of the face. from a stroke of the sun upon the integuments of the cranium. the zygomatic and malar bones. though more abundant on the is outside of the cranium. communications with the face are evident. The cellular texture. show that the muscles draw in an unfacial The cellular texture contributes pleasant manner across the skin. in every part.

by that which accompanies the texture are vessels. after the swelled. and particularly in is the triangular space at the situated the parotid gland. Only these features are less The the cellular texture is in greater or less quantity in face in different people. the air passes to the face principally by the sides. a striking arises without contrast. almost wholly dis- is effected by the mus- Thus the different passions are delineated fat with face. by the contraction of the same muscles. persons. lips example. a middle state the most favourable to the is beauty of the face. This texture connected with expression. nearly the same features upon a and a lean marked in the first than the second. there is a is 107 is kind of bloating that disa- greeable. Every one knows that some are always of the body. a fulness In other individuals. of the The principal communications of the facial cellular made with the neck by the sub-cutaneous portion of this texture. there an opposite of the face with a lean body. an opposite state. for and the alae of the nose in negroes. There are great communi- . the neck is air of which comes from the still chest. In parts of the face. state.CELLULAR SYSTEM. effusions of pus take place that often extend to the emphysema. which cles. doubt from a cause op- posite to the It is to the greater proportion of cellular texture. and which first. because in the last more wrinkles are formed than in the other. from deposits made upon the neck. to the much more than development of the muscles. &c. tity I thin in this part. that must be attributed the evident thickness of certain parts of the face. who are fat in the rest From the dissection of the bodies of such it have found that it arises from the small quanis of cellular texture contains in proportion to the other parts. From the same cause arises the variety in thickness in the great and small labia pudendi. lateral superior part of which Thus. in different species of the human race. that.

especially below. the vena cava. thus. in the places where it does not adhere. and pelvis. where it is very There is none of noides and dura mater. is In the cavity of this canal. in the thorax and abdomen. oblongata. . as we examine the regions of the spine. I so call the cellular texture which is found in the neighbourhood of the spine. in the neck.J03 CELLULAR SYSTEM. cations of cellular texture between the neck and the face. It varies in its proportions. little fluid that is often red- dish. loose. This texture is on the contrary very abundant along the whole course of the anterior part of the spine. more fre&c. that the muscles being very compact in the vertebral canals. many musmuch and but to cellular texture in proportion. between it and the vertebral canal. II. and always covered with a the outside of the spine. there is more of it. behind. we see some mater. Cellular system of the trunk. On cles we see. a circumstance which arises also from this. There is no part of the animal economy. and in the vertebral canal. by the spaces between the muscles that are attached to the base of the tongue. the great trunks which go from it. the chest. keep in a state of depression the cellular texture that separates them. the abdomen. and contribute to the formation of the pia this texture between the arachBelow this. depositions in this part are less liable much more rare and spread than elsewhere. where it accompanies the carotids. the neck. of the vessels. between the nervous elongations that go from the and the sheaths of the arachnoides that accomfilaments that follow the course pany them. where it follows the course of the aorta. there it. Vertebral cellular texture. azygos. but very little of Between the tunica arachnoides and the medulla last.

water. The lumn. It communicates with is that of the thorax.CELLULAR SYSTEM.&c. . Hence why the neck and consequently the chest. and hence also the facility with which we produce the same phenome- non by forcing air beneath the pleura of a dead body. has to much cellular texture. that the superior parts cor- respond with the inferior. than 109 this. there is a great quantity of it. neck. In the space this texture is between the sterno-cleido-mastoideus and trapezius muscles. the escaped air first occupies the chest and then the neck. where the brachial nerves arise. The cellular texture of the neck communicates also with that of the superior extremities above and below the clavicle. In the pectoral cavity. especially lateral where the remark- lymphatic glands are situated. and where the vessels pass that go from the thorax. hence it happens. and other fluids that are forced into the sub-cutaneous and intermuscular texture of these extremities. which is very muscular. and by those which are beneath the integuments. it is upon the median line that . by the large opening that found at the superior part of this cavity . quently exposed to different collections of pus. the neighbourhood of the pericardium is supplied with it. principally by these cellular communications. the cellular texture is especially found it is abundant in the space formed by the duplicative of the mediastinum. Cervical cellular texture. and vice versa. besides that It is which belongs in the the vertebral coparts. that when the cells of the lungs are ruptured. Pectoral cellular texture. are filled with air. Nothing is more common than at the groin to see depositions that are formed at the anterior part of the thorax and abdo- men. that able. projecting by a channel which we It is dis- cover by the examination of bodies.

the pectoral integu- ments have an adhesion to the diseased side. has a much cided influence upon the left pleura. accompa- the rest of the thorax. nies a short distance . We see it in great quantities under . that which covers those two viscera. Hence the facility with which the pleura particularly on the right side receives the influ- ence of diseases of the peritoneum. and particularly of the oesophagus that of the sel. cellular texture it of the chest. occupied by less the lungs. hence the passage of the deabdomen. Desault mentions formed in the neck. 2d. but they are not very .110 CELLULAR SYSTEM. and which . by the fibres. pectoral texture communicates 1st. by the interstices intercostal between the evident. from the interior to the exterior. contains much of it. which it particularly around the great vessels. . especially opening of the diaphragmatic ed to the ensiform cartilage posits by the tri- angular space. when on the convex surface of the place. this happens however when in dropsies and chronic inflammations of the pleura. liver this is diseased its which always keeps whilst by the motions of the stomach and the spleen. is very abundant above tributes in in there surrounds the breasts and con- part to those rounded forms that delight us in women. by that of the aorta. with the abdo- by the different openings of the diaphragm. became prominent just above the abdomen. as these interstices are very small thus the dis- eases of the breast have rarely any influence out of this cavity . by the anterior mediastinum. The also cellular communications of the chest take place muscles. which are less de- constantly changing their situation. through which those pass that are attach- from the thorax to the first a purulent collection. The exterior . vena cava being too closely united to that ves- to permit these communications easily. and those prominent ones which we admire a well formed man. The minal.

then with that of the lower extremities. the pectoral muscles. Abdominal cellular texture* little The abdomen lular texture contains. all particularly about the kidnies. below it 1 1 diminishes in a very evi- dent manner. It is then with the abdominal cellular texture. that that of the inferior extremities has a particular relation. particularly in man. drive there This fluid it goes spontaneously to the inferior force to extremities. that is hardly any case of ascites. Cellular texture of the pelvis. The first of these openings establishes also a cellular correspondence be- tween the abdomen and genital organs. . Around the bladder. at first communicates around the peritoneum. by different openings. that the first a^e affected much more easily in the diseases of the abdomen. is the interior of this in cavity. but It is not abun- dant between the peritoneum and the anterior and lateral it is so on the posterior part This with that of the of this membrane. practitioners know. parietes of the abdomen. &c. this texture found collected the places where the great arteries and veins enter the gastric organs. in proportion a In more cel- than the thorax.1 CELLULAR SYSTEM. the mesentery. while the superior are unaltered. It is to be remarked however. as in the fissure of the liver. interior texture pelvis. as it is with the pectoral that that of the superior corresponds. in which the lower extremities are not swelled. as has been observed by Bordeu and Portal. There are but few parts in which the cellular texture is more abundant than in the pelvis. by the inguinal ring and especially by the crural arch. We can easily prove these communications by injecting a fluid into the abdominal cellular texture of a dead body. whilst it requires a long continued All to the superior. than the second are in those of the chest.

The exterior of the cavity of the pelvis has also much sides. The hollow of the axilla. 111. may If be. less however behind than upon the but in front around the genital organs of man as well as woman. in infiltrations of urine which accompany ruptures of the urethra and bladder. that whatever state the preceding organs rilled. Of the cellular system of the extremities. in it is necessary that something should so act. Around the two superior articulations. the bony cavity of the cranium would have been lined without doubt with cellular texture. by the arch of the &c. the cavity of the pelvis should be always the motions of the brain alternately increased and diminished the size of this organ. blowing in their We can fill the pelvis with air. particularly upou the great and the dartos. it is very abundant. This appears to me that. are well known. by the ischiatic notch. especially intermuscular texture. and as the osseous parietes of the pelvis cannot yield to these dilatations. rectum and to womb it there is a great quantity of it.1 1 2 CELLULAR SYSTEM. like the abdominal parietes. be the cause of . and inferior extremities. The facility with which pus and urine spread themselves in this part and the mischief they occasion. in deposits in the which take place neighbourhood of the anus. Besides we know the effect of this large quantity of cellular texture in the pelvis. This texture communicates with that of the inferior extremities pubis. Different authors mention. in which the . by this fluid into the inferior extremities. as these three organs are sub- ject to great dilatation. that effusions of pus and urinous infiltrations extend downwards by these communications. the quantity of cellular texture decreases from the superior to the infeIn the superior rior part. cellular texture. it is found no where more abundantly. there labia are large masses.

especially However. In fact the extent of motion that exists above. almost entirely filled with The groin has also con- siderable. whose deep cavity has a considerable quantity . the muscles approach each . for which they are indebted to the small quantity of cellular texture that exists there. Towards the inferior part of these two portions of the where almost every thing on the hand and foot are still tendinous and fibrous. and becomes sensible. requires in the muscles a laxity which they borrow from the quantity of cellular texture that surrounds them. is 113 is head of the humerus is situated. and which spacious. in proportion to the motions. an arrangement that is consequently the reverse of that of the axilla compared with that of the groin. other in a sensible manner their cellular layers is are less much more compact. the multi- same time the limited extent of the motions of the hand and the foot. con- tains much more than little. The arm and the thigh have between their muscles large interstices that is are cellular. CELLULAR SYSTEM. it. the whole cellular system limbs. though less than the axilla. abundant. where we see but This successive decrease of the cellular texture of the limbs is adapted to the uses of their different parts. the palm of the hand. plicity Below. of the hand especially which is destined to adapt itself to the form of external and at the bodies. In the fore arm and leg. require in the organs of these two parts a close juxta-position. At the elbow there a smaller proportion than at the ham. the on the sole. hardly foot. 15 . the cellular texture diminishes more.%?.

that we cannot describe them a general gular. or where it is in small quanMoreover the capacity of the cells is extremely tity. forms of the also be The injection of melted gelatine may employed but the results are less certain. remains nearly the same. w hich constitutes all the difference of the general size of the body in corpulency or emaciation . There is the same variety in leucophlegmasia compared with the ordinary state of the fibre. Artificial emphysema by it also a good way 1 have often determined in our slaughter houses where they blow meats. AND THE FLUIDS IT CONTAINS. hexagonal. Ir Of the cells. . ARTICLE THIRD. filled. quadranThe are found mixed together. triple or even quadruple what they are when they are empty. The interstices or cells less between is the different layers. and the cellular system only varies. nothing definite can be determined upon this variable . oval. Round. The figure of the cells in is so variable. because . the cells. little icicles to freeze an infiltrated limb . that of the is cells which they . When is fat and serum fill them. numerous are then formed. are more or wide . point.ll4 CELLULAR SYSTEM. is best way to see these. OF THE FORMS OF THE CELLULAR SYSTEM. their size remarkable upon the eyelids and the scrotum. they are double. in each state the size of every nervous. The general conformation of the cellular texture is not the same every where. body. as they are capable of contraction and expansion. and eral in gen- where there is no fat. tendinous &x. and show by their form. It the variation in the size of the cells of the system of r which we speak. manner.

which sometimes extends even to the sides of the chest. 7th. A rupture of the blad- der or the urethra produces an urinous infiltration. by blowing air under any portion of the cutaneous organ. it breaks the texture. Thus the sweat has been considered as the transmission by the skin of the albuminous fluid of the cellular texture. Pressure made upon them. is drawn out with the caloric that is constantly disengaged. 6th. from the feet to the head. makes the part upon which fluid it is ascend or descend. If one or two punctures are made in a dropsical it is limb. so that the cellular texture really permeable throughout the whole extent of the This permeability is . produces an leucophlegmasia. also. and moreover rate each portion contained in each after it is cell. which. They have . difficult to sepa- it hardened.CELLULAR SYSTEM. The permeability of the cellular texture has been it much exaggerated. injection of The any fluid into the cellular texture of artificial a dead body. according to the made. in 115 going from one cell to is another. sometimes wholly emptied in this way. Of- tentimes this happens from ruptures taking place spontaneously in limbs of this kind. 1st. currents in different directions more or less irregular. thinking that all could be pervaded indifferently by the fluids of the animal fluids economy. They have thought. an operation which affects neither the or health of the animal. body. All the cells is communicate . proved. though oftentimes the whole of the body is bloated. 2d. have believed that these formed there. We know that some beggars make use of these sion. means without danger. it thus that many physicians. 4th. or rather has been presented under a point it is of view different from that in which Jt is shown by nature. by that by emphysema spontaneously produced which is artificially produced in a living anilife mal. according to some moderns. that the permeability of this texture would explain the rapid passage of drinks to the bladder. 5th. for the purpose of exciting compas3d.

116 explained by it CELLULAR SYSTEM. it was analogous to that of the other parts of the body. communicates with the pelvis where the bladder is situated. we may so say.. then. after having deprived drink. only in serous infiltrations. as we phenomena can be explained shall see in a very natural manner. too. the promptness with which sweat is produced by warm liquors. &c. After death the cellular texture is every where penetrat- ed by fluids. hereafter. Moreover. The cellular texture in the neighbourhood of the stomach and intestines. like all the solids hence the infiltration of the integuments of the back. laws which show in us the fluids constantly circulating in the vessels. in their cells. vital forces. in dead bodies that have . have taken I have never found any portion of drink in have tried the cellular texture of animals immediately after they it. is permeable. which pass not only across the communiits cating openings of cells. I many of these experiments upon dogs. that the cellular permeability becomes apparent. placed behind the mesentery. that especially which. having been attentively examined. until absorption takes them We do not see if them pass from one to another It is they are stagnant. All these theories. the cellular texture reservoir. that they might them for some time of drink the more. in effusions of pus. which remain up. only little to fat and lymph and yet it appears that but use is made an ordinary state of this permeability by these two fluids. are repugnant to the known laws of our economy. in which are formed the serum and the fat. which it has. then. that examination never proves. We can only consider. and not extravasated to being move irregularly in the cellular texture. in a morbid as the state. The in cellular texture . but also through the pores . in one word. these Besides. of consequence of the organic sensibility as and contractility which they possess. did not appear to me to contain any fluid .

with a large surface to the action of fresh air. first respect. &c. II. hence also the passage of the bile through the texture. exposed hot. that serum is never effused it. Where no it in the scrotum. which separates the gall bladder from the duodenum. afterwards the prepuce. or even to that which from any aqueous fluid. Observe upon subject. and excretories. but as is the vapour not condensed. We cannot judge of observations the quantity of cellular serum by made upon the dead body. and by which this intestine is discoloured. there no apparent cloud. &c. a texture which by the absence of fers in fat resembles the ordinary. Thus condensed by cold any part of the cellular texture of an animal recently killed and to the still when we expose preserving its heat. in which the . the little eye-lids. &c. the from them. Of the serum of the cellular membrane* to The same lants it first of the two cellular fluids appears be the as that which is elsewhere furnished by the exha- and taken up by the absorbents. the prepuce. the veins. means But these pheno- mena have nothing in in common with those that take place the living body. second carry air it The first deposit in the organs.7 CELLULAR SYSTEM. in cellular serum varies there is in quantity fat. then come the this eye-lids. a vapour arises perfectly analogous to a cloud that transpiration and respiration produce in winter. the arteries. &c. When is the atmosphere is warm The the solution takes place in the same way. are We see also that these parts In this much more disposed to different infiltrations. been laid 1 1 upon it for a length of time . from it. appears to be a more abundant than elsewhere. the scrotum holds the rank . however. as the different regions. we see a vapour arise which re- sults from the solution of the serum in this air. that the cellular texture exterior to the mucous dif- surfaces. in this.

made an animal first emphysemamade a large incision into this. but has not disease in this respect. because the swelling separated the vessels from the course of the knife. is serum increased or diminished in a I sensible manner. By immersing in diluted nitric acid the cellular portion of the scrotum of a sound body is dead. 1 blood only escaped. which I more easily. and the proportion of which lular is almost always nearly equal. The show 1 nature of this fluid appears to be essentially albu- minous. afterwards injected by a syringe. laxity of the parts permits a transudation of the fluids from all the vessels that pass through the cellular texture. for the pur- pose of distending the and to make the alkohol. upon the fluid that lubricates the serous surfaces. that in health as well as disease. less I 1 By these means. that It appears. laid open. a portion taken directly from a living animal. enter them Some minutes after. &LC. we can observe the same thing. that it disappears in in- flammation. then. the subjacent texture presented here and there different whitish flakes. be satisfied made a dead animal emphysematous. stated in This fact coincides with what have my Treatise on the Membranes. and whilst much sweat is exhaled by the cutaneous organ. the skin having been removed. have not observ- ed. tous little 1 To estimate accurately below the skin. that in leucophlegmasia. cells. and which then enter the the cellular moisture. three circumI stances under which that the cellular have repeated these experiments. that during digestion.8 1 1 CELLULAR SYSTEM. the is albumen one of the essential principles of the fluid . or which is better. after sleep. then altered first nature To cells. experiments made upon that of leucophlegmasia that there its is albumen ? in it . the quantity of celis We know serum much increased . the cellular texture being texture than have often in this been convinced that there was much serum we commonly suppose.

its place is supplied by medullary substance. Very abundant under the skin. especially those of animal life . The fat is the second of the fluids for which the cellu» lar texture serves as a reservoir. as we have said. and have made boil in about same time . nutrition. which constant. off this fluid it is possible that it is mixed with other substances. defective upon this point. Is the nature of the cellular fluid the same as that of It the lymph that circulates in the absorbents? cannot be in the doubted but that these vessels take cells . as nearly the same quantity of tendinous substance froth at the moment of ebullition. so as to have it separate from the the fat. Of the cellular fat. the organs of great motions. Natural proportions of the fat. but appears in that which contains the tendons. those especially that nature. Examined surfaces. The brain and spinal marrow are destitute of it. under the mucous veins. the fibrous bodies. For the most part. . upon the penis. around the serous sur- faces. the fat varies in quantity.CELLULAR SYSTEM. ture from the scrotum of I U& this texit have taken much of many 1 bodies. &c. . of the cellular texture. very little of it is seen in those of organic. It is always found in the intervals of the nervous fibres . an unctuous is substance escapes. it is wanting. the in the interior of the organized systems. where there none. &c. . the scrotum. and which it it un- doubtedly furnishes. is In the bones. There is none between the interstices of the arterial and venous coats. the cartilages. The lymphatic glands do not appear to contain any. come from is which alter its Chemical analysis III. little much whitish rises upon the water. around the arteries. is in consid- erable quantity in the muscles. it is not often very evident but in dissecting them. the prepuce. &c.

like the cellular texture. see. almost always wanting. are almost entirely destitute of The glandular system sometimes has it. that it is very abundant in the in the first. than . that in this point of we upon the head. especially in the inte- 2d. &c. around the pelvis of the kidnies. mucous. which the different apparatus leave between them. the cranium and face have . and omentum that in the pelvis. Now by view. It is thus that between the coats of the stomach. It is the same of the of it. it par- ticularly abounds in the posterior part in the neighbour. as in the liver. that We observe in infancy. that in the thorax tion . little around the lungs. the fibro-cartilages. but much about the heart that upon the exterior of this cavity.120 CELLULAR SYSTEM. and rectum . 1st. &c. From this we perceive that the interior of the organiz- ed systems contain in general but very little fat. that the quantity of fat is in proportion much more considerable under the skin. the epidermis and the hair never have any of this fluid. hood of the kidnies. as we see is it in the parotids. between that and the cartilage. the prostate. between the periosteum and the bone. there no trace The serous and cutaneous systems are never fatty. in other places. more abundant above and in the vicinity of the great articulations. It this fluid is follows from this that it is principally in the inter- stices. ex- amining the different regions. and wanting rior . &c. 6th. much of it near the bladder upon the extremities it is found. between the muscle and the tendon. that fat accumulates in cellular reservoirs. there is 5th. The different apparatus have but a small proportion between their various parts. tity around the breasts 4th. an inverse arrangement second. the bladder. the mesentery. the intestines. &c. the superior part has a considerable quan. although much fat surrounds them. it. we see very . that the neck contains a considerable propor3d. that in the abdomen.

common the musfat. of which different 16 . fat Does this superabundance of office ? sub-cutaneous perform any important a has it any connexion with the great riod ? I size of the liver at that pe- know not: it is phenomenon fat in that should fix the attention of physiologists. ing is fat is in much greater it is The exterior swell- as rare towards the fortieth year. is I have ob- served also that the intermuscular texture almost every that all where deprived of fluid is it. have established these many instances. is In old age almost all the fat is dissolved and disappears. Oftentimes the fat accumulates I in very great quantity in the cellular texture. Towards adult age. any where else. especially when all it is com- pared with the absence of almost the parts where it is afterwards accumulated. at least while the foetus is in good health. the rest of the abdominal cavity The pectoral cavity contains scarcely any more. Unnatural proportions of fat. and becomes thin. especially that in 121 cellu- the abdomen the this lar viscera. destitute of it. then. as fifth. will not cite examples of those authors have enormous collections. wrinkled. frequently are scarcely visible. There are only some is flakes of fat around All the kidney. there any confat nexion between the large quantity of abdominal at the adult period. the proportions of are not always the same the body . this concentrated under the skin. fat for the different ages there are some exceptions. and always much less in proportion than in after life.CELLULAR SYSTEM. and the frequency of diseases of which this region is then the seat ? However. We may say. the abdominal proportion than the sub-cutaneous. about the fourth and a period at which Is all cular forms are concealed by the superabundance of and the body is remarkably rounded. the little at this omentum I in particular contains but very fact in a great age. hardened.

the muscles in particular. in this point of view. which is in all proportion almost equal to that of sound limbs. lency. given a number of cases shall far this would be superfluous. such as inactivity. with a state of lassitude and ian- guor of the individual who a is it. great of fat . convalescence from certain acute eases. whilst the other parts. . is from nutrition a part of its energy. Castration. not less so in man. In other this fact remarkable. that this state of great corpulency. though is abounds. as a certain degree of devital velopment of the individuals ing:. we It do not see this fatty enlargement that hides the promi. necessarv to distinguish carefully the size of the arises body which from cellular Oftentimes fat. the evidently weaken the powers of tity life. from being a sign of health. are too fat. 1st. that the small size which they retain is owing in part to the fat. from that which causes which is the con- sequence of the proper development and nutrition of the organs. vital 6th. nences of the muscles is these are distinctly marked. a part of their activity. in whom this degree In is want- are in general not is fitted for this function. indicates almost always to a weakness of the absorbents which are destined off the fat. which takes from the powers 7th. As fowls are .122 CELLULAR SYSTEM. In man in whom strength and activity predominate. infiltrations than analogy to serous Different facts much greater we commonly think. still languish. A fatty state of the muscles a state of evident weakness in them. in which the powers 4th. I only observe. and long condisfat tinued hemorrhage. it is woman. animals we make the same observation. 2d. take and has. establish this assertion. On who very often marked by excessive corputhe other hand. in examining atrophous limbs. 3d. 5th. is Every kind a debility of unnatural corpulency accompanied with the subject of of the muscular power. produce a considerable quanrest. I have been sometimes con- vinced. are contracted and hardened. powers is necessary for generation.

fattened for the table. long abstinence the necessary fasting and sleep of dormant animals. the liver. 2d. is We between the secretion of semen and the exhalation of fat. and the the consequence of the organic disease. they cease to lay eggs. hence it is usually incurable. 123 Most do- mestic animals are governed by the same law. of atmospheric influence. so that in this point of view. superabundance is almost always a sign of weakness. never so human The and it diminution of the as frequent as its increase. that if the its moderate in exhalation of indicates strength. that leucophlegmasia almost always arises from an organic disease of some of the viscera. so that they are unable to escape the sportsman. which striking in the is very frequent species. and death is the spleen . which does not prevent a long life. I If leuco- phlegmasia arose only from cellular weakness. should say that there a constant relation We may is conclude from these fat facts. The causes . ortolans. On other hand. This pheis nomenon. as phthisis. an organic disease rarely accompanies corpulency. continued for a long time.CELLULAR SYSTEM. fat is in autumn. however. it am per- would not disturb the regularity of the oftentimes an effect almost Great fatty collections are instantaneous of certain circumstances. a fog fattens thrushes. is the nourishment which the ordinary kind is reserved for the time when taken away. which diminish us with an fat is this fluid are these : 1st. for example. &c. should be observed. particularly the heart. may be said that there are more cases of extreme emaciation than of remarkable corpulency. suaded that functions. every or- ganic disease. the lungs. and that there this point of view a kind of connexion between as I fatty and It serous infiltrations. furnish example of this. the womb. It is thus that in twenty-four hours. and that these two fluids are in an inverse ratio to each other. have mentioned before. red-throats. cancer .

long- continued efforts of the mind. intestinal. . those especially that are seated on large surfaces. without seeing the internal viscera. the urine. of the pylorus and heart. &c. 7th. which in a particular first ner affect the brain. but also an alter. or the sudden result of a bilious or putrid fever. effect is manupon though 1 have observed that an injury of the has less effect upon corpulency than all functions of this life that of the functions of the other. since we often observe much sub.124 CELLULAR SYSTEM. without knowing the previous of an essential part affections. ca- tarrhs. those bodies can judge by the external appearance. which eral favourable to an increase of fat . running. there is whether the organization In general. we must add. the saliva. disorders who are in the disease. not only emaciation. 4th. 9th. leucophlegma- sia. cutaneous affections of the dropsical subjects 5th. as the pulmonary. 8th. To the causes already pointed out. ation in the nutrition of the organs they are more slen- der than usual. 3d. a function is that is is deranged as is exercised. as those of the bile. . evacuations unnaturally increased. hard . not yet sensibly affected. consequently the animal life. emaciation only obit served . and which affect the organs of it more particularly than those of external life. after an acute fever is that has lasted only a few days. fat and serum mutu- ally exclude each other. great difference between it is two bodies equally emaciated sufficient. too frequent emissions of semen. . On the other hand. of the habit of examining &c. slowly. that to say. in most cases. every considerable purulent collection. nutrition. &c. to effect of dissect a limb of each. in organic is changed. of the liver. especially if it depends upon a chronic affection though we must not believe that fat in . long heat of is in sumgen- mer. &c. compared with the cold of winter. womb. There is in this respect a . 6th. &. all melancholy mind which have an influence especially upon the internal life.c. to determine if death has been the gradual an organic disease.

and that the degrees of the consistence of fat vary remarkably. to increase at the expense of that of Different states of the fat. after these I it will be easily perceived what are all omitted. where have had occa- sion to open living animals with red and warm blood. &c. viz. 1 1th. immoderate use of spirituous 13th. a weakness that acts upon the cellular sys- tem. of those &c. long diseases. as upon all the others. much more fluid than it is in the we know that the temperature is nearly uniform. acting upon fat out of the body. There is a great difference . &c. a partial weakness of this system. The fat is almost always solid and coagulated in dead it bodies. make it Besides. though many authors have pretended that it is so. long-continued watchfulness effect. and not being able to continue even these for a long time . &c. it is I have never found it exactly flowing as it is when melted. 2d. parts. many experiments. 125 10th. I nder the skin has uniformly more conI sistence. would living subject. long sleep producing a contrary 12th. I do not cite a great number of the causes of emaciation . and produces there this phe- nomenon . Undoubtedly a degree of heat equal to that of our bodies. those where it is necessary to use only weak ali- ments. Jabour. that almost 1st. whose action seems the cellular texture. an opinion founded upon the belief that the vital heat would keep it melted. that . &c. but in the living at least in certain approaches nearer a liquid state.CELLULAR SYSTEM. In . fatigue of every kind especially . which have opposite properties to the farinaceous. the use of acrid and spicy aliments. the of increasing the fat: liquors. a weak- ness arising from the affection of some other organ. the great it vessels. a general weakness of the powers. may be referred to two principles. would only remark. as around the heart.

having a gelatinous appearance. a yellowish substance. approaches near the character of albumen. transparent and fluid. this difference remarkable between a subject of ten years and one of sixty. . yields to the least communiglobules cated motion on account of the state of the sub-cutaneous This fat in the foetus is formed into little more or less rounded. Fat becomes yellow as we advance in years. Many animals with red and cold blood have liquid fat. and acquires a peculiar smell and taste. for example there fat. is flaccid and loose. not less In the dissecting room. Instead of sical fat. between the buccinator. the masseter and the integuments. a remarkable firmness and condensation.126 CELLULAR SYSTEM. which fluid of the In general. In is no precise rule concerning these differ- young animals the It is fat is white and very consistent after death. and of all those who have died of a disease. which give the whole a granOftentimes it ulated appearance. in which there has been a constant and protracted weakness. In comparing that of is we readily perceive the difference on our tables. which is much firmer. we often find around the heart of drop- and phthisical patients. the skin. though there ences. and that of the neighbourhood of the kidnies. veal with that of beef. between that of the omentum. is period. fluid it appears that the nature and state of this are not the same in all the regions . and can be taken out whole. is among the most economy. a ball of which is separate from the It surrounding fat. whilst in the adult the skin of a dead body fat. this consistence that gives to the exter- nal covering of the human foetus. thorax and brain differs from each other. that the fat of the abdomen. even forms consideralmost always at this able masses . to con- tributes very much the remarkable prominence the cheeks have at this period of life. and which however.

There an of arteries. In my experiments upon the colouring of the myself by the examination of red blood as blood. Malphigi spoke of glands and excretory ducts. through which fat never transudes. CELLULAR SYSTEM. as we see in the scrotum. it mechanical. Different hypotheses have been proposed concerning the manner in which fat is separated from the blood. an existence that proved by no positive fact. This substance also occupies but it is 127 other parts in similar cases It less frequent there. the eyelids. for if it did exist there would be numerous little drops floating on its surface at the moment it was drawn. opinion of Haller is The founded upon a transudation truly In fact. and examine it ever so long. This circulating then. of which I never could convince it comes out of the vessels. and oozed from all parts into the neighbouring cellular texture. and they ought therefore to have the fat ready now in these places the arteries are . appears to be gelatinous rather than oily. spread in the cellular texture. which no anatomist since his time has seen and which no one believes in at present. ar- teriotomy has been performed at the Hotel Dieu. it I have frequently established this . the existence of fat ready is formed in the arterial system.. This opinion supposes two things. escaped through the pores of the arteries. but never in living. its we shall discover no oozing of culates in it fat through coats. Exhalation of fat. that ed with the blood and floated on its circulat- its surface on account of fat specific levity. Haller supposed that the it fat was completely formed in the arterial system. 1 have observed also in examining the blood of maniacs upon whom 2d. separate entirely from every cir- thing else. 1st. &c. a transudation that easily takes place in dead bodies. is though the blood infinity as usual. . according to him. organized as elsewhere. if we lay bare an artery of a living animal.

of the particular alterations undergoes it under different circumstances. formed then. can apply satisfactorily to the establishes fat. that the fat all separated by an exhalation analogous to that of that is other exhaled fluids. would not have had The eyelids loaded a proper relation to the vagina. which are intermediate between the extremities of the arteries and the cellular texture. we shall see under the article upon exhalations. that for example. Besides. Some authors have thought that they saw the vessels that carry the fat. could add nothing to what modern chemists have I upon this subject. it Accumulated in the submucous would have contracted the cavity of Spread in the organs which the mucous surfaces line. by the vessels of a particular order. will it' terminate this article is with an important re- ma! k. to this &c. is under that article we shall see also. the muscles. fat. this. they are invisible and can only be proved by a train of reasoning. whatever fluid is supposed to be establish the transuded is evidently repugnant to the 1 laws of the animal economy. are for This would lead me Besides. according to Haller. the veins and the that which surrounds the arteries. The penis increased in size Iry it. in the blood that they circulate .128 CELLULAR SYSTEM. deprived of with fat could scarcely be raised. . We exhalants of what will be said upon the exhalant system in gen* 1 ral. which however. it will not treat of the chemical nature of of the acid it contains. said 1 long time macer- into details foreign work. fat. texture. that that contain a it. but it appears. experiences when animal substances as the skin. fallacy of Haller's opinion. that it in those parts which nature has would have injured their functions. to refer then to this article. their existence. such ated in water. that this transudation through the pores of the arteries. that like the other exhalants. and have dc-bi^nated them under the name of adipose . fat would be deposited there. to say.

Fontana has made researches which lead but to few results. 129 it and here observe. upon its intimate structure and upon the tortuous cylinders of which. Bordeu has given some vague ideas upon it. explains an phenomenon fluid in diseases. common parts. This remark. vessels . its it transudation. the diaphragm can descend. it is an as- semblage. according to him. excretories. that a very small quantity of unat- poured out upon the tunica arachnoides can disturb is the functions of the brain. that is would have obstructed the caliber of these its uniform absence in the a proof against sub-arterial texture the opinion of in the cere- Haller upon bral cavity. Let us throw aside let us all hypotheses that exami- nation does not support. like almost all the others. is com- posed of a peculiar texture and of I. Accumulated would have compressed the brain on account of the resistance of the bony parieles of the cranium. whilst a great effusion tended with danger in the abdomen or the thorax.CELLULAR SYSTEM. which do not yield like those of the abdomen. Much has been written upon the nature of this texture. In the thorax. when the gastric viscera are loaded with fat. viz. Of the texture peculiar to the organization of the cellular system. important the serum. but no experiments. ORGANIZATION OP THE CELLULAR SYSTEM. ARTICLE FOURTH. The cellular system. &c. and the lungs can without danger occupy erable fat exhaled applicable also to in less space when there is consid- the mediastinum. and not in those 17 . follow nature in the phe- nomena of structure that she shows us.

and whose texture . is greater. They are very evidently crossed by nu- interwoven which running in all directions. 1st. The more it is extended. In thus considering the cellular we see that it is very different from a species of to glue. to the soap bubbles that are thrown into the It is with a pipe. the interstices be- tween the filaments are greater. crossing very often certain kinds of delicate layers. others exh'alants. the larger consequently the membrane becomes. and that many are formed in the places where the layers unite together for As (he thickness arising from the formation of the cells. if we may so say. and stretched as I have described. a piece of the cellular portion of the scrotum should be fat. with which some have wished compare it.ion dent lines upon the cellular texture stretched into a is. eye. but when stretched out. in every way. 2d.130 she wishes texture. arranged in layers. by the naked . there can be seen between them the layers of which merous filaments. instead of examining the cellular texture upon a portion taken from the scrotum. which form cells with these filaments. I What is the nature of these filaments? presume that some are absorbents. Then there may be plainly distinguished. which makes the foundation. a transparent net-work. they are distinguished by more evithis Ui. taken. fibre in the texture of these layers every thing there uniform. and the tenuity of which air is such. that it has been aptly compared by a physiologist. it is observed in an artificial emphysema. It is an assemblage of many whitish filaments. membrane. What induces me to believe this. which has no To see this organization well. conceal. to CELLULAR SYSTEM. any is impossible to distinguish. when the cellular texture is pressed together. as . and the intermediate layers are also more apparent. are all of which touch. I have just spoken. that when. is consequently not concealed by this fluid into a kind of this portion being stretched membrane. is seen very distinctly.

of hardened juice. veins. which form reservoirs. meshes. in that of - 13 [ the slaughter-houses for example. they become. when it is distended with air or any other means. lift it When we from the surface upon little so as to which it is applied. in that forms the external cretories. and no layers to form them. the of which are composed of the transparent and non-filamentous layers of which we have spoken. sacs. have no solid foundation. properly speaking. if I may so express myself. Their organizahowever. On the other hand. is is in them. everywhere where fat is accumulated. and ought to be banished from a science in which imagination is nothing. it is in these sacs that the serous and fatty depositions take place. These layers have not the same thickness quite dense in all cases when the cellular texture is contracted. there are membrane of none of these and arteries. in the sub-mucous texture. What tions. without any of it those filaments that were seen crossing in the other method. though some have doubted it. and facts every thing. CELLULAR SYSTEM. so fine and attenuated. which and excare- no cells. forming a true net-work. which the seat of very distinct vital funclives. then there cell. and draw it a structure. in fact a texture that is is nourished. that the mind cannot conceive that there tion is any thing organized real. inflames and suppurates. or serum little The zation cellular texture has essential differences of organi. there are real cells which have sacs communicating sides with each other. and rest neither upon experiment or observation. fully raise this texture. if it is and which evidently All not an organic texture? these vague ideas of concrete juices. of in- organic glue. interwoven every way. is seen upon the covering of each only the non-fila- mentous layers of which I have spoken. we shall see very distinctly show its numerous filaments and cavities. that have been applied to the cellular texture. but not sacs ..

remains in the cells. intermuscular. I have said. it is driven forcibly into the is . and we obtain by a solution of tannin a remarkable precipitate from the water in which this texture has been boiled. and the texture sinks when accumulated in the ordinary texture. in the general class furnish among It those which a great quantity of gelatine. Composition of the cellular texture. is weather has much been damp infiltrated by evening. This fact is evident in markets. out doubt because the communicating openings are very small. the it sub-cutaneous. These in layers and cellular filaments have a remarkable tendency absorb atmospheric moisture. with- notwithstanding they have been in part opened. common cellular texture transparent layers. where we see the cellular texture blown up. infiltration the . : and of retaining the in cells contain. wherever they to and existing alone certain places. are really of the same nature as those spread the membranous layers which After what things in the fine. in different directions in make the cells. around the meats that are stripped of their skin. &c. and are by themselves. is number of found everywhere where the 1st.132 CELLULAR SYSTEM. We observe it dis- secting rooms. It appears that the filaments that are interwoven in every way. air distends this The ing net-work when . it is evident that there are two . now this is takes place in the cellular system. without any . a cellular net-work. a texture loose. capable of yielding suddenly fluids its to different distensions. &. only they are nearer together. which a real hygrometer. where often a subject dry and easy to dissect in if the morning.c. neighbouring texture but as soon as an open- down made near it. Chemists have placed this texture of white organs. has this in fact. filaments intermixed with these layers are. it escapes. 2d. and which form about the vessels and under the mucous surfaces.

of the temperature of a cellar. as they do upon the fibrous. rounds the vessels the filaments that compose it. in the This fact is particularly remarkable sub-mucous texture. it yields to less readily than many of them. cartilaginous textures. sub-serous. . the the intermuscular as that textures. differently But. Exposed it to putrefaction with other animal substances. ple. but without taking the yellowish colour of the fibrous texture . &c. than the glandular and muscular organs it filled with the putrefactive juices does not become pulpy until some time after these parts. with great ease in every direction . I 133 it. are changed sooner. so that possible to distinguish it it would be imcan be bent from one dried is in the same way. its cells adhere together. but not so soon . resist much longer than the other parts of the cellular system. the cellular texture dries quickly. The sub-cutaneous. cutaneous. for exam. said of maceration as of the pre- In looking at a tendon and a portion who would first say that the action ? of water would soften the quicker than the second the one being soft and almost fluid. it In this state the cellular texture pliable. the cellular texture of the arteries did not appear to me to have undergone any alteration. of dried fibrous texture it when immersed takes but imperfectly its former appearance its cells are separated with difficulty. that of the scrotum. it has not the stiffness again in water. in that which sur. &c.CELLULAR SYSTEM. Exposed to the action of the air. of cellular texture. however. have made this ex- periment. The same may be ceding phenomena. and these layers being stretched a little to facilitate the drying. different re-agents act very upon this texture. foreign organs except the vessels that run through for example. When it is dried in considerable layers. After remaining in water three months. re- present a true serous membrane. the putrefactive process. and the other compact. as. it remains white. .

in size. than is when it is exposed alone. analogous to other organs treated the same way. be easily . the texture which separated the fibres of these. the same it was at first. few minutes and melt into gelatine most of the white textures. In this state the texture is firmer. resists layers are still seen between the fibres of the boiled muscles. At the instant of boiling. The fat which remains in parcels among the fleshy fibres. are not altered in water. different they were arranged in lay. however. has become elastic . of cartilages. which takes place almost immediately. being very accessible at If fine. When this froth is formed. was as firm and distinct as at first. I am satisfied that sufficient to three or four days of maceration would be reduce them to a mere pulp. in a some nerves. and about 2d. &c. was arranged in layers as fine and as much separated. of apo- neuroses. glass vessel. after the boiling. if it had not been contained in cells which continue untouched we can. the excretories. when the cellular macerated with organs that soon yield and be- come tance pulpy. I have kept for six months. which as we shall see. that the action of boiling longest in producing an effect. it remains soft. is crisped and contracted hardening increases until it boils. is water is The cellular texture that boiled exhibits in phenomena 1st. moreover. when an albuminous froth rises upon the water that contains it. . tance to the action of water texture is is less. cellular system this. the texture of tendons. is many points to the contact of the fluid. said of ebullition to dissipate if . This resis- of some other organs. This resis- the more remarkable. convinced of the existence of these layers of fat. As much may be would be sufficient a ers as fine a long time as the . It is in the parcels especially upon the texture exterior to the arteries. of the skin. if it it drawn in an opposite direction. as this texture. The it becomes hard. would have been melted. &c.134 CELLULAR SYSTEM.

than with the meat this 2d. 4th. is is much made less gratified with the cellular texture that itself. which generally fills these cellular lumps. much elongated without breakthe rupture of it is now the effect by the continued action I of the least effort. then Ebullition being continued. phenomena that &c. have remarked. it of boiling water. In fine. especially by the in last. The almost always a certain index which nato ture has given us judge of digestible aliments. when to the action of dry and moist it is of cold and boiling water. . the following facts prove this. which the hardness it it 135 3d. I cellular texture offers air. upon dogs that tic 3d. it . that the cellular lumps which are found with the fleshy fibres of boiled meat. for example taste. . nearly an hour after eating I . mixed I with cooked meat. I I may have an influence also in this have made the same observation at different periods have opened of di- gestion to determine the difference of the bile in the cys- and hepatic ducts. suddenly returns. when I my stomach little. The become pulpy before the fat. that it gradually melts. assume the is yellowish tinge. besides. are much longer . had acquired it can hardly be ex- tended at ing. phenomenon. which fibrous system spread over the whole of the From exposed the when boiled. the muscular tex- ture. have experiment upon myself. in all it may be a natural state. then threw up this and with I it the aliments the stomach contained. does not in any period of ebullition. gastric juices than many others. would not do before. contained a sufficient quantity of food. being altered than the fibres themselves these last have others are acted upon.CELLULAR SYSTEM. have frequently ascertained by these means. a difference of which I have al- ready given some account. gradually softens and loses . presume that less easily changed by the 1st. excited vomiting when it contained but could not vomit without taking a large quantity of I warm water.

where putrefaction is sudden and where there nization of parts. which then above the level of the earth that covers the other coffins. If each has a peculiar mode of putrefaction and gangrene. than that of other textures much more firm ? We tity know that in those who are drowned. so arranged that their aeri- form products might be collected. renders it emphysematous and makes the body float. When they are fine and have succeeded well. II. Blood must not judge of the vessels of the cellular texby injections. This does not so often take place in the open air. of the air. if in this state their appearance is different. have appeared me in animals drowned in it. I for the purpose. &c. &c. than the organs before pointed out. the products that escape from them are also In dead bodies that are buried. a thousand different threads interlaced in ture We . as the muscles. How softness and delicacy that characterize a greater resistance to the different re-agents. Paris common to the organization of the cellular system. from those especially that contain much blood. vessels. &c. The to cellular texture itself has less part think. the bones. the to cartilages. the aponeuroses. by macerating these systems separately in closed vessels. can the cellular texture unite to the it. It would be easy know the kind of gas that each or- ganized system furnishes. fills the cellular texture. it is presumable that different. is a discolouration and disorga- The tendons. that it it will raise the lid of the coffin. have observed in a church-yard. the glands. though raises may be covered with half a foot of earth. a great quan- of gas disengaged from different organs. not to assist in the produc« tion of this gas.13G CELLULAR SYSTEM. the emphysematous swelling often takes as I it and it is sometimes so powerful. and beyond the reach place.

Exhalants. living animal. We air. see. for its materials the fat and the serum. every way. arises from this. also.. . by the preceding experiment. which shows there many more vessels than ordinary. by transudations that sometimes take place in the cells. 3d. the sub-cutaneous texture tended. and that great trunks that do not belong to passing through it send off skin is in different branches it. which is continually going on. transudations that really form an artificial exhalation 4th. in an upon a whilst their own it sensibility would repulse the blood ordinary state. and it seems thus to increase the number of little arteries. The 1st. it. By this first making the cellular texture emphysematous. There are always remarkable variations. and little we may clearly . when these injections are driven with much force. way. 2d. which is a natural manner of injecting them. destroy injected is 137 it its whitish colour and change into a vascular net-work. that the blood varies in the vessels being exposed sometime to the the there appears double number of them there was when it was laid bare. distinguish in this is it different branches that end there remarkable in dogs. as by accidental exhalations when the blood is diffused 18 that sometimes take place. . CELLULAR SYSTEM. by natural exhalation. and which has 5th. existence of the exhalants is rendered evident.c. &. by artificial injections. very well in . that lants have admitted a fluid forced through the arteries. The appearance it of a body thus the exha- deceptive. and ramifications from dis- that are evidently lost in In raising the the subjacent organs. In dissecting the cellular texture is seen to be white as in the dead body. if the place that is denuded is examined even for a short time it is the blood retained in the exhalants. in and colours serous infil- trations. the often after experiment succeeds better.

cellular system the eye cannot trace them. is driven by it into the sub-cutaneof. owing air. these an effect that must be . sanguineous in ecchymosis. as shall see. and we find in the subject who dies immediately. is by the resoin which the it. at least the principles that constitute have no way of escaping. I . natural and constant absorption of fat and serum 2d. this I have convinced myself 5th. that contribute to its do not speak of those nutrition and that are consequently found there as in of these vessels is all other organs. The drying up of external ulcers is owing to the cellular abOftentimes in phthisis the ulcers are suddenly sorbents. loaded with the different substances it exhales. in which its texture. at another a gelatinous one. But their existence there is pro- by the . it is other This evident when the em- stopped after the air ous texture . only the place that was occupied by pus or sanies . or agency of these vessels 4th. &c. and when a very little opening is made in the animal. sometimes a species of scirrhus. injected into to the 3d. and offers at ders. one time a fatty substance. purulent in the different kinds of abscesses that fluids are removed. The absorbents correspond with the exhalants in the . systems in the living economy are furnished with 1 Few a greater number of exhalants. inflammation so we in a part . superabundance which ren- much more frequent where the cellular texture is in the greatest abundance it is this that exposes it to that variety of alterations. emptied. by the more manifest one that produr es resolution of serous infiltrations in dropsies. lution of natural and artificial emphysema. has a firm appearance. &c. by the disappearance of mild cells. physema arises from a rupture of a bronchial cell. 1st. Absorbents.138 CELLULAR SYSTEM. The superabundance is owing It is to the continual exhalation that this going on there. ved. injections would not reach them.

of those especially which serve tion lymph. then. These vessels and the exhalants appear to contribute particularly to the formaof its structure. Where there is cellular texture.CELLULAR SYSTEM. is Each cell a reservoir intermediate between the exhalants that terminate and the absorbents that arise there. &c. we meet with the greatest number of sorbents. their colour. Nerves. 139 to die in this way by a the most ab- re-absorption almost instantaneous and exactly analogous 6th. we can the which are rendered apparent contain red blood. in which these vessels ramify. see many nerves running through the cellular tex- affords this. the cellular system as the to carry the principal origin of the absorbents. as in the brain. are in a small one. We ture. and the most of those bodies with a glandular appearance. and nothing more. when they . cellular texture is Where the scarcely discoverable. They way what the serous sacs are in a large orifice We do not see the of either set of vessels. We parent filamentous texture. We must consider. we can with difficulty see the absorbent system. have already known two patients to that of external ulcers. thought that is it was exclusively formed of them but this not founded see a trans- either upon observation or dissection. we by cannot see them at their termination as well as arterial branches. But do these filaments stop there ? Dissection no light upon the subject it arises perhaps from . that these filaments being white like the texture. Many have .

grees The flexion and extension of the thigh. the ordinary- texture would be incapable of resisting the impulse of the blood after the rupture of the coats of the artery. and dilatation. in that exterior to the arteries. than in the sub-mucous layer. in this. &c. of the all neck. oedema.140 CELLULAR SYSTEM. to we raise any organ from those texture is which it is contiguous. But thet-c phe- nomena themselves prove the greater difficulty of exten. or even treble. . aneurisms. the axilla acquiring an extent what it has when the arm is down. however. without the texture of double. and of almost the parts. All the natural mothe arm cannot be raised tions suppose this extensibility . the sub-serous. the veins. if often fatal the arteries were only surrounded by this. as in fat. The degrees of the extensibility of the cellular texIn the sub-cutaneous. in the accumulation of and in different tu- mours. Properties of texture. ARTICLE FIFTH. the in- ture vary. I. The properties of texture are strongly characterized in the cellular system. varices. sion in this species of texture for example. the intermediate considerably elongated. in which the cells are much spread and the membranes remarkably elongated. as is proved by the dilatations of the gastric viscera. Extensibility. PROPERTIES OF THE CELLULAR SYSTEM. &c. exhibit in different deIf analogous phenomena. this property has limits much more extended It exists. termuscular. There would be a sudden. Extensibility is proved in a variety of rases. enormous. and the excretories.

differ from it like the aponeuroses.CELLULAR SYSTEM. extended too far. because the extensibility of memmade. is a kind of locomotion of which it is capable . like the cellular texture. tion of the In a natural state. to produce this sides. . The cellular texture is evidently the seat of those swellings which take place in that texture which is sub-cutaneous. are united. no moregard necesin the economy is capable of being carried so far as I to occasion this. though possessing. The cellular texture. which makes the progress of these tumours slow and gradual. for to cellular texture example. resists all dilatation that is not gradually Many other organs. that it it in is taken from the sary to extend it at least three times as far as is phenomenon. as the tendons. the bones. It is in fact all an essential character of the extensihility the cellular system in which the layers and cells of almost consequently the taneous manner. branes not being capable of being suddenly put into action. Bewhat opposes also this rupture. have remarked axilla. the cartilages. We observe it also as a conse* quence of fractures. &c. which capa- make ble. so that if too violently elevation of the arm. extensibility of texture. ft 141 is the thickness of that which covers theru. and contusions of the limbs. in the impossibility of being suddenly distended. In general. in which we sometimes see enormous swellings appear in a manner almost as sudden. the softness of the primitive structure appears to have great influence upon this modification of exten- sibility. this texture go suddenly from a state of perfect it contraction to the greatest extension of which is The artificial injection of different fluids exhibits the same phenomenon. becomes at first very thin. and then breaks. to in action have the power always of being put suddenly and in an instan- We have an example of artificially this kind of extension in emphysemas produced. and not in that subjacent to the these aponeuroses.

that of the lower part of the abdomen. is this contractility takes place its ease .142 drawn. it it CELLULAR SYSTEM. draws and thus becomes less stretched. This takes place also in differFor examplej ent indurations of which it is the seat. lose a great part of the capacity they had ac- quired in a wound which has affected the cellular tex- ture as well as the skin. and that upon the dead body it breaks with great ease. the least effort is sufficient This fact is uniform in all cancerous affecto break it. is thus brought also upon it. and a space remains between them owing to the contraction of the cells. the cells con- tract and . thus in consequence of great emaciation that takes place in old men. somewhat advanced. tions. youth the period of greatest energy. being . man. the . the womb and in those of many other Contractility. towards see this swellings of the testicle. if may be allowed to use the word . I that surrounding a cancerous womb. Thus in emaciation. the top of the thighs. who has become emaciated. in large hydrocele. Then all the surrounding texture. swelled. in the resolution of dropsy and of tumours. the cutaneous covering remains at some distance from the exIn a young ternal organs and cannot lie close to them. loses I the capacity of being extended it is brittle. Contractility of texture always takes place in the cellular system when extension ceases. As we advance with less in life. is contiguous to it. the edges separate. because the subjacent cellular texture not having contracted. and the perinaeum. We phenomenon in a remarkable manner in the displaces that which itself. have observed that the inflamed cellular texture loses in part this property. the skin is flaccid and wrinkled. on the contrary. drawn by that which immediately covers the tumour. of organs.

and which may be accidentally irritated. they form what are called prominent features. I43 preserves it exactly applied to the organs. On the other hand this sensibility so altered by the contact of urine. that it . An animal that undergoes these experiments If gives no indication of suffering. the among the animal fluids the it lymph and milk do not raise so high. that inflammation is often the consequence. if they did not make an impression I that brings into action organic this sensibility. fat and serum could not be absorbed there. it from the nervous filaments that pass through the texture. would observe concerning the cellular system. and pre- vents absorption. is he feels any pain. the cellular texture in an ordinary state it. in the face. is necessary to observe these prominences. property considered in all substances have not an equal relation to blood. In disease however. and are thrown out with the pus the operation for that arises from them. Wine and almost other irritating fluids excite suppuration. saliva or other fluids destined to be thrown out. we can with draw it in-different directions or distend with gas. skin sion is . Among the foreign all fluids injected water is absorbed. bile. Experiments upon living animals agree . abscesses in the scrotum are always the conseinto the quence of an accidental passage of the injection cellular texture. with the folds of the skin. II. The animal impunity cut it properties are not among the attributes of . which takes place of them as well as of fat is and serum. as to prevent absorption. the seat of acute pain phlegmon is a proof of The texture organic properties are very distinct in the cellular . the sensibility it is raised to such a point. when they are effused or injected there.CELLULAR SYSTEM. it its ten. may become this. We know that in hydrocele. that . because the cells in contracting draw It with them these form the external prominences. Vital Properties.

as it is disseminated in all the organs and contributes to the structure of all. In fact. degrees of contraction and relaxa- now it appears to contain under the skin only celluit is lar texture. remarkable manner that as it is irritated or not. . oscillations that cannot be described. alterations so common as we have seen. frequently difficult to distinguish what belongs to is from that which an attribute of the parts where in acute as well as it is found. but those produced in parts of the cellular texture that have not any known relation to arising from juxta-position the affected organ. muscles. which we designate under the name of insensible organic con- and others call tone. true. it is it. however. contraction to be sure is not to be compared to that of the it . various eases. the filaments of which. It has to a certain extent sensible organic contractility. Sympathies. diluted acids. perfectly with this fact every other irritating fluid. &c. Insensible organic contractility clearly proved in the cellular texture. or rather a medium between this and those tractility. We tum tion know in a that cold alone is sufficent to contract the scro. but it is certainly the it is first degree of it is the same nature.144 CELLULAR SYSTEM. These it is relations . have a par- ticular appearance and seem to differ in their nature from This of the filaments of the other portions of this system. become evident under chronic disaffec- circumstances very susceptible of the influence of the I tions of the organs. produce the same is phenomenon. The relations of the cellular with the other systems are very numerous and multiplied . alkaline solutions. do not here mean the alterations and continuity. this part has various . but oftentimes it is not easy to perceive them clearly. by the exhalation and absorption that take place there. .

CELLULAR SYSTEM. This influence of the principal or- gans upon perience. this system becomes especially remarkable in chronic affections. I and dropsies that sometimes suddenly attended a man gion in great terror. sympathetically by the influence of the liver upon the cellular texture. the stomach. it be- comes inflamed. it is many times I alternately dry or moist. without doubt. oftentimes that the cellular tex- in the same day. and that what is going on there. stages. in consequence of had a sudden contraction of the epigastric reby the emotion of the mind. the spleen. that the skin very easily perceives the sympathetic influence of diseased organs. ward Saint Charles who. as in the lungs. that * consequently depend upon an influence producthen. for all being among the ceive that almost infiltrations are symptomatic. . arise. the heart. the lungs. the intestines. the stomach. it is the natural exhalation or absorption of this texture that is deranged the in acute affections. the womb. spread in a a tinge of the jaundice. have among their symptoms. arise Most critical deposits from this real though unknown connexion between Oftentimes the affected organ and the cellular texture. ed by the affected organ upon the cellular texture. we should per- 19 . &c. hence the swelling. comes on gradually the patient I That which took place suddenly in mentioned just now-. all We that see in acute diseases. suppurates. an oedema produced. In acute diseases which ' J 45 have their seat in a particular organ. the cellular texture is often sympathetically affected . &c. &c. a dropsy more or less general. In the evening he had great oedema of the lower limbs. which the in the latter arises from per- the debility created in the cellular texture. see am convinced ture experiences the if we could same alterations as the skin. in the alterations of texture they ex- We know that most of the gradual diseases of liver. an indication of the affec- tion of the liver few hours after over his face. Medicine first to owes much almost all to Corvisart.

Sympathetic vomiting. which. or that of the muscles of animal life. or it more or receives . that sometimes render complicated but do not form an essential part of it . fcc. the stomach. which present innumerable varieties serum. according as the system of organic muscles. because or not. and the disease remains the same. upon the disease. cells are more or less moist. receive sympathetic excitement. a seton produces an effect that cannot be obtained from a blister: why ? because the relation that exists between the eel- . The cellular system in its not only receives the influence of other organs sympathies.146 ceive that its CELLULAR SYSTEM. In phlegmon. in the introduction of setous. which delirium. do not depend as they imagine. Art avails Oftentimes itself of the influence of the diseas- ed cellular system upon other organs. which. to speak correctly. less dry. they can take place and contractility are sympathies. sensibility in cellular these are the two vital forces essentially predominant in Thus sensible organic contractility and an- imal contractility are particularly exercised in muscular sympathies. the tumour is different alterations are oftentimes discoverable in the functions of the brain. Most physicians consider in too general a manner a number of symptoms. are phenomena that are seen with large phlegmonous swellings without belonging to the disof bile. the liver. according to the kind of influence it is to this also that must be referred the different state in their cellular of bodies that have died of acute diseases. according as they are affected. but wholly upon a sympathetic affection produced by the diseased organ upon the sound ones. give rise to different phenomena it truly foreign to the disease. in diseases of the eyes. is called an overflow &c. ease itself. but it is exercises its own upon them. if which the inflammaconsiderable. the heart. tory state of this system. Observe that organic almost always in action that system.

organs remarkable for the obscurity of their vital forces and the dullness of their functions. we have Suppuration takes place here with a rapidity of which an example in but few of the organs. . Certainly the pus that flows in erisypelas. After what has been said. its comes from all its this suppuration. especially in surgery. so that that which does not resemble it. in this system. or as we say sanious. is we see that the vital activity In this sufficiently evident in the cellular system. we have formed a general idea of laudable. So it is that the pus of others. a muscle. lular texture J 47 and the eye. consistence. it is point of view. the from a bone.CELLULAR SYSTEM. Every fluid that one knows the Its colour. mucous. which differs among them according from which differs it to the vital alterations of the organ. such as the aponeuroses. osseous pus. is derived. to external qualities have become the type which we refer the ideas that we form of pus. in the each system from that of the same way as the alterations of which susceptible are different from their purulent alterations. Cutaneous. is more active than that which unites the latter to the integuments. white like it. Thus the is phenomena of inflammation go through periods their different much quicker Their progress very rapid. &c. much superior to other organs that are and among which it has been ranked. the skin mucous it is is membranes however in is catarrh. the cartilages. have each their peculiar sanies. Characters of the vital properties. This opinion is incorrect. compared to that of different I tumours that appear in the systems of which have just spoken. is of a good kind so long as the its inflammation regularly going through different from cellular periods . is considered to be pus of a bad kind. as of sanious pus. totally pus.&c. the liga- ments. the tendons. As this most frequently observed.

tumours. which is to the mucous surfaces. Properties of re-production. in is in in opening bodies. &c. of growing any manner. fest difference of vitality that exists is the mani- between the texture exterior of layers and filaments almost every where spread. parts in which it is found but these are conjectures that nothing positive confirms. and excretories. the cellular texture peculiar vital modifications in it Has those organs to whose structure contributes ? From All what has been said above. That which ought not to escape us here. It is in- flammation and tumours protects the organ often a real barrier that stops the affections of the it first. cysts. and almost disorganized by the pus. that its life.148 CELLULAR SYSTEM. the tenlittle in dons. a difference from which arises the rareness of in this last. to the have been saying. that it is the skin. &c. of elongating and re-producing when upon it has been cut or divided in itself. that which forms the external covering of the vessels remains untouched least alteration. III. It is this faculty that depends the formation of cicatrices. Thus have many times as in the axilla. separate from It is bination with their structure. observed ture. . that whilst the ordinary texarteries are which the embedded a state of suppuration. I a barrier that covers. in general tends to an equilibrium with that of the . and the texture that is wholly filamentous. that in I it seems hardly probable. The by the cellular texture is distinguished from other organs faculty it has of throwing out a kind of vegeta- tion. it has not undergone the have seen the same phenomenon in the texture exterior to the urethra in deposits of pus at the loins. I . to the blood-vessels. applies system considered all comhowever that the interstices of the organs. its possible vital activity is diminished increased a in the cartilages.

that it ascends to the same degree as the second. Every wound that follows the ordinary periods. in the sub-cutaneous texture and skin particularly. Shut out until then from the contact of the solution air. First period. Influence 149 formation of cica- of the cellular texture upon the trices. the following phenomena. only organic sensibility. most of the parts concerned enjoy to in the of continuity. red at first and afterwards becoming whitish. 1st. so the parts divided by a wound become capable of performing the functions of the integuments.. 2d. that which transmits to the brain the impressions are received. the dressings and surrounding bodies. and can that by it like transmit to the brain its impressions. Inflammation commences the instant tbe wound is made. Now the effect of inflammation upon organs endowed only with the first kind of sensibility. Let us trace these different periods. in the external organs. it surface 3d. fleshy granit ulations are formed upon 4th. it. the contact of the air. the first This is advantage. inflammation always precedes this development the increase of life now that it produces in the organs. . This is the sudden result of the irritation caused by the instrument. 2d. in the internal organs. 5th. without doubt. Another advantage of this period is to dispose the parts to the development of fleshy granulations. In fact. its it it inflames . presents between its formation and its cicatrization. CELLULAR SYSTEM. . ought to enjoy animal sensibility. Cicatrices may be considered under two relations. is to raise it so much. of this inflammatory period of cicatrization. appears . 1st. but then these contributing form the surface of the that body. suppurates fine pelli- sinks down . is covered with a cle. Let us examine them at first in the external.

and form. an exposed cellular surface. which absolutely prevents the contact of air upon the subjacent organs. Hence granulations. that in blowing air into the texture subjacent to a living or lations . for the production of which the natural forces would have been these insufficient. like tubercles. no doubt. arise. whether in a dead body. as their name. endowed with more it sensibility and more insensible contractility. this fluid does not enter the granuis they are raised up entire. like lard. It is in the midst of this extension of the forces. which this substance the granulations remain the same in the I 1 midst of the general bloating. In proportion as the granulations are developed upon we see them unite together. which we are unacquainted with. by their union. This substance so fills the cells. to be necessary . have often made these have wounded for the experiments upon animals that purpose. unequal and irregularly disposed upon the surface of the wound they are not fleshy. on account of their colour. where the granulais tions are formed. small reddish bodies. filled with a thick substance. wound. raises it to a temperature . that which is to . and which it is important to analyze. . they are little cellular vesicles. The production of fleshy granulations succeeds to inIt flammation. Second period. that the fleshy granulations arise and increase.150 to CELLULAR SYSTEM. above that of the neighbouring organs it becomes the centre of a small circulating system independent of that of the heart. while the true cicatrix. presents the following phenomena . when the paleness and flaccidity of these different functions are weakened or cease. a kind of provisional membrane. but no one of them cells developed or distended as the does not fill . given. animate the parts that are to be re- produced by it the cellular texture. would indicate .

the granulated surface convex. became very evident it might have inflamed serous membrane. This inequality of parts during the the granulations and their separation. that when the granulations are united together. been taken for an It follows hence. as in the cheeks. I have said concerning the first state of cica- the following experiment leaves no doubt upon I the subject. which knows cle. I . The following observations prove in a satisfactory cellular nature of the granulations 1st. be permanent. differs from common serous membranes in this. appear to be oppos- ed to what trices . whilst the granulations produce here an unequal and rough surface. This provisional membrane of cicatrices. that had been conthe tubercles were effaced . manner the and the provisional pellicle that arises from them. Where the cellular system is most abundant. it made a large periods . to cover is over a divided part. that they are smooth and every where uniform. how better than we can do by our dressings. removed a portion of flesh upon which the granulations were developed I distended it by a prominent body. Now that it is easy to prove that the cellular system here per- forms not only an important but an exclusive part. placed on the side opposite to the granulations. so as to make cave . and all these phenomena take place in its texture or its cells. is 151 forming. the provisional pelli. stretched out. and let go through its first the animal was then killed. whilst the work of cicatrization prepared and effected. and that what is commonly said of the contact of this fluid is inaccurate and contrary to the arrangements of nature. granulations grow most easily and wounds are soonest . this kind of epidermis destined to defend the work of cicatrization.CELLULAR SYSTEM. that the air is entirely excluded. These are the general phenomena that cutaneous cicatrices offer in the two first periods of their formation. wound upon a dog. The internal cicatrices show nearly the same thing.

of the cellular texture that has become the seat of phlegmon. is unlike every production of the On to the one hand we have of seen. From the red colour of fleshy granulations. are always the the expansion. stantly given to red blood in this kind of vessels as the fleshy granulations are cellular. strongly inculcated in surgery. their nature. in a greater or less degree five they appear at the end of four or days upon the skin. the cellular texture. only they are more or less of each organ is backward.152 healed. 4th. whatever be the organ that produces them. The nature of fleshy gra- nulations is the same every where. 3d. stripped too much of the cellular not covered with ease with these productions. difficulty to the co and adheres with neighbouring parts . texture. that seems be almost made up them . and it is very much longer before they are visible upon the bones. general base of every organized part. and the vital forces . on the other is . of saving this texture in dissecting out tumours. is CELLULAR SYSTEM. in the excysts. we shall see that in inflammation a passage conthen. whether a muscle. according as the life more or thus more or found there marked less active. when we expose a dead body that has one to this simple experiment. Maceration surfaces of always reduces to this first base the granulating wounds. hand. that same. hence the precept tirpation of wens. 2d. their external appearance. but their structure. The skin. &c. the enlargement of an organ. is . has been but their blood- thought that they were a vascular expansion development vessels. they consequently partake of the nature of this system a real inflammatory state. . a bone. a cartilage. the skin. that the cellular texture contains so it many exhalants and absorbents. &c. now this common is to all. then they are only is met organ with this in all the others. a ligament. and when found in that their redness we conceive the same as that of an inflamed pleura. less decided. it . of erisy- .

in those that usually carry white. will see that But how is this membrane changed into that of the cicatrix? it Observe nature. can Moreover. and you of this period. after the formation of the cicatrix that arises from their near approach to each other. fleshy grauulations in their solutions of continuity ? Let us conclude from these circumstances. before the arrival Third period. &c. the cartilages. The period of suppuration does not take place in the cicatrization of the bones. and reproducing is what takes place . faculty of increasing. they would continue and perform their functions. colour so that the granulations. 153 not imply an a redness that does elongation of blood vessels. the blood ceasing enter these vessels. Now how if it had been a new production of vessels. brings on suppu- ration and a sinking down of the parts. is raised into vesicles irregularly disposed. the membrane takes its natural . which exhale a white substance. which have. . This is so true. but only the passage of red blood. like other organs. as in the tendons. that to when the inflammation is gone. pelatous skin. We must then show what relation there 20 is between their cicatrices and those .CELLULAR SYSTEM. of torn muscles and generally in the reunion of all divided organs without external wounds. by the power that it acquired in the first period. in the second period of the cicatrization increase of of wounds the cellular texture. that the arterial system is not connected with the formation of fleshy granulations . extending. whiten because the blood no longer enters them. in that of broken cartilages. that the cellular system this is alone con- cerned This in it. we suppose a development of blood-vessels where they did not primarily exist. and unite at and form a provisional membrane. that their superficies is not well understood. &c. because that alone is endowed with the itself.

we should understand the cicatrization of the different organs. become a kind of secretory or rather first. fibrin. a base formed upon the shape of the organ hence the the third : This then is &c. having united together. &c. bone is broken. these granulations. the two first periods of its reunion are the same as those of the external organs. exhaled in that of the divided muscles. peculiar Now as each organ of the different systems has substance. first When In the third period. the substances that as gelatine and nourish these organs were as well known phosphate of lime. that the cellular texture rising into irregular granulations upon the divided surfaces. granulations are the same for they resemble each other that which establishes the in each having the same base difference between them. to the cicatrix . tine only is In the cicatrization of cartilages. or rather it is The mode in of development of the general analogous to that of nutri- is the same with this difference only. what in general takes place in period of the cicatrization of the internal organs phe- . of . of the external organs for a common principle presides over all the operations of nature. the ends inflame. and then the phosphate of lime which completes the osseous arrangement. each has its peculiar nutritive mode if of reunion . and which remains is in the cellular texture. in a word the cellular texture is the common base all the cicatrices of the internal organs. though they may have a different appearance. . This subcon- stance generally the same as that which serves for the nutrition of the organ. . and brought away. does not afford inequality of callus. exhalant organ.1 54 CELLULAR SYSTEM. is the substance that is separated. and then are covered with cellular granulaa tions. and stantly carried there which is by its this function. gela. internal cicatrices tion. then the fleshy all . the gelatine which and gives to the callus a cartilaginous nature. as well as that of the bones. which separates encrusts it.

and in the external. this difference. it is thrown out and has nothing to do with the reunion . me have a great analogy with the whitish substance of some kinds of cysts. there is exhalation and then excretion of this fluid. 1st. because the thickness of the granulations arose not from the cells. fine pellicle that The same is. we see in erisypelas. that essentially cellular. so that in internal cicatrization there is exhalation. similar organs. The exhalation of pus upon appears to a cicatrizing surface and to serous membranes. 155 nomena very analogous are seen in that of the external.CELLULAR SYSTEM. and analogous to that of phlegmon. The membrane which covers the fleshy granulations thus becomes a kind of exhalant organ which separates from But there is the blood a whitish fluid that is called pus. an internal wound which affects the cellular texture and suppurates. then incrustation of the exhaled fluid. but the substance . The pus is in both cases almost of the skin the same nature. this fluid of a very different nature. it is covers the granulations is of the nature as an inflamed pleura or peritoneum. Fourth period. insensibly diminish in size. me to resemble perin which are covered consequence of their inflammation with a purulent exudation. whilst is because alone as is it comes from if concerned. Besides. 2d. as the phosphate of lime and gelatine penetrate the bone. phenomena. This sur- is a very fine membrane. Suppuration gradually exhausts the whitish substance that first fills the granulations. they close . All the fleshy tubercles disappear and their contractility of texture there face is a uniform surface in their place. then their cells. appears to fectly serous surfaces. which were at swelled. of penetrating and encrusting it. that instead of remaining in the texture of the granulations. by by degrees they adhere to and from their adherence arise the following each other.

and which amply repairs the but a pellicle. are often contracted to an inch When that first the adhesion is complete between this all the cells form the fleshy granulations. they contained. hence those that are broad are much more easily torn . The . do not partake of the functions of the cutaneous organ they replace. why. &c. its but afterwards white by the return of vessels. the membrane of adhesion. is necessary that they should lose in one way what they gain in another. 4th. leaves them empty. the smallest. the the contrary it &c. bethe centre cause the cells in contracting. and which being taken away. and why their texture is absolutely different from this organ. the great trochanter. 6th. the same granulations that in the beginning occupied a fW example in the operation for cancer. as in the scrotum. why the thickness of all uniformly is in an inverse ratio to their width. the cranium. it is easy to conceive. why the skin approximates from all it the neighbouring parts to cover the wound . the cicatrix axilla. 2d. where is yields the most. 3d. blood into From this mode of origin of external cicatrices. the development of which astonishes loss of substance. full us. in fact as there only the same quantity of cellular granit ulations to form them. why they adhere intimately to the places in which they are found. exists. 3d. and have no laxity in the integuments . the cicatrix. 1st. why they have not a regular organization.15G CELLULAR SYSTEM. and the breadth of the wound diminishes space of half a foot diameter. the largest. it and why on little. approximate. these . it why wrinkles in approximating is . the result of it is Thus is that all the flesh. cicatrices is 5th. This membrane has first infinitely less width than the pellicle that covered the granulations. where yields but as on the sternum. . draw the edges of the cicatrix from the circumference to . as or two. reddish when the exhalants are this of blood.

that the celluall texture the essential agent in the production of it cicatrices. are but the result of this increase of the cellular system. that forms their basis and their principle. that of suppuration. All the fungi. All those different excresences. &c. and that thev it depend especially upon the property and increasing. known by the names of fungous flesh. repressed that consolidation takes But it is especially in different tumours that we see this development. and productions that are developed exclusively in the nasal cavities. in the sinuses. that without it they could not take place. nor the third. that of fleshy granulations. that of dowh. the the mouth and the womb particularly. differs essentially from the union by the first intention. which often has more of this texture than the parts from which it arises. which is effected is by the neither agglutination of the edges. soft flesh. especially those with loss of substance. and which differ essentially from those that have their . CELLULAR SYSTEM.. that of sinking to the first. being greater than what it should be by the ordi- nary laws of cicatrization not until they are place. inflammation. the cellular texture grows but a few lines above the level of the place of division the cells It is it forms in its reproduction are generally small. cicatrization 157 of wounds left to themselves. In this last there the second period. has of extending Influence of the cellular texture in the formation of tumours. mucous membranes. when any accidental cause alters the not so vital properties. then we see a very extensive growth. when there is a departure from the ordinary laws of cicatrization. Union succeeds immediately see. We lar from is all that has been said. thus the cicatrices are not it is effected while these irregular productions continue. fleshy protuberances. this remarkable growth of cellular texture. In the formation of cicatrices. nor the fourth. .

they differ in the nutritive substances deposited in this All tumours then are cellular.158 CELLULAR SYSTEM. all exam- though they are compounded under a I common name. to point out those that the cellular then consider as forming the general base. then encrusted with different foreign substances. modify differently its vital forces and place . all the inter- nal cicatrices are similar in the period. and grows to the part where the tumour be developed . tumours that are equally the attribute of the muebus system. it is the fungi. Their peculiar character is derived from the substances that the texture separates. according morbid alterations of which it is the seat. in that of fleshy granulations. penetrates them. it in relation with this or that substance thus as we have first said. All the different kinds of cancers exhibit it in a manner more or less evident. and the only difference arises from the application of this law. Polypi. they primitive are of a peculiar substance deposited there. Wherever Thus we see. is the same in her operations. that a uniform law presides over all. that nature . anal- ogous to those of ordinary nutrition. all the organs resemble each other in their nutritive base. in the swelling of the parts which they occasion. say. whether mucous or sarcomatous. and their difference constitutes the difference of the tumours. nutrition. arise from the cellular texture. all texture assists to form. and differ as the nutritive substance of the organ to which they belong. These phenomena are precisely In fact. this is their common as the character. It is shoots up. which is vascular and cellular . which as more or less abundantly separated. the dura-mater for seat on the fibrous ple. have also the cellular texture for the primitive base of their organization. We may it the nutritive parenchyma of almost first at it is excrescences. It would be necessary to notice almost all tumours. the parenchyma of parenchyma. leaves less its base more or exposed. membranes.

are violently affected stantaneously. &c. these cases there neither growth or enlargement. without increasing or growis ing. a fungus. the fibrous substances divided in solutions of continuity. now it this important part which has in cicatrization and the formation of tumours. &c. as the cellular texture of the part for the production of granulations. We must not confound these tumours with certain in chronic swellings. thus the fibres of the bones. it is a substance more solid than serum. which . that infil- trates the cellular texture. obliterates its layers f and pre- sents a homogeneous appearance- . &c. that change nature such are those that take place in the diseases of the articulations. is &c. the tendons. of dilating and growing. pain. though there is tension. the cellular texture alone is goes from the organ and spread in the tumour . the muscles. &c. &c. with the acute swellings a violent irritation. Examine the tumours that appear in the muscles. that constitute phlegmon. as has of which I have spoken. stances enter it. it sometimes comes on almost deserves rather the and is not really inflammatory. you will not see there an expansion of fleshy. . as in a polypus. the cellular texture infiltrated. the cellular texture performs an essential it part. its and different sub. a whitlow. or of the cartilaginous substance. it name of inflation than engorgement. a punc- ture with a poisoned weapon. arises from the singular property possesses of extending itself. . are not raised above the level is of the wound. In the fatty matter that all is is found in some tumours.CELLULAR SYSTEM. nor with that engorgement that the limbs experience where there as a is compound fracture or luxation. such is the callosity of fistulas. the cartilages. or tendinous fibres. have nothing in been imagined. an engorgement that in- generally seen around the whole external parts. which. &c. The tumours common. there is 159 natural nutrition or an accidental modification of this function.

that the subsidence especially takes place. like all the I organs. and which is very analogous to this. Let us pass to a function of the cellular texture not less important. and containing fluids of a different nature. and almost identity. To tem be convinced of the influence of the cellular sysit is in the formation of cysts. its density. and have all its characteristics. of the immediI ate cause of which am ignorant. its size. as in carbuncle. growth and that by form. &c. between that produced infiltration. The cysts form all kinds is of sacs without an opening. there greatest analogy. until putrefaction. is There after death a great difference between an by- acute and chronic tumour. though always in size. Influence of the cellular texture in the formation of cysts. common in external injuries. polished surface con- . is natural and the other Analogy of conformation. there an accumula- tion of blood. loss of the vital This subsidence varies if the tumour I nothing but the cellular inflation of which have spoken. as have remarked. The cysts are formed in from the cellular texture they arise in its cells. which accidentally developed. has been on this ac- count divided into many species. and it which is . one remains its the same. A cyst is a membrane. the one of which accidental. and preserves. for that these the we membranes are essentially cellular. a portion of the tumour remains. forces. so if. is entirely dis- appears besides this inflation. phlegmon. having a smooth. The following are some of the analogies of these two kinds of shall see productions. It is much diminished generally in this inflation. 1. . and In fact. The is other sinks away. opening. sufficient to prove that is between them and the serous membranes. is in the form of a sac without an which. grow the midst of them. containing a fluid that ex- haled from them. by the .160 CELLULAR SYSTEM.

CELLULAR SYSTEM. Thus they constantly arise in the midst of the cellular organ. Exhalation becomes very evident there. them in an ordinary . as is proved by maceration and inflation. an uneven. 161 tiguous to this fluid. must have perceived that their appearance cisely the same. loose one. and tone. as we have seen. cysts have like them a celtexture. in consequence of the ficial or natural evacuation of the contained fluids. a cure which must depend on this function alone. there is the greatest analogy . and examined the sacs in which the fluid is is tained. Remove 21 the fluid from the cyst of a . those of serous membranes. Who does not know that 5. Cysts are evidently secreto- ry or rather exhalant organs. after the evacuation of the fluids. for example. or an cited in it. artificial inflammation ex- Absorption is proved. Analogy of structure. like serous lular Always formed of a single membranes. the cure is the same. &c. the when membranous sac has not been removed. and that ? effected by a similar mechanism Whoever conpre- has opened two bodies. each having one of these affections. there. 2. in the spontaneous cure of encysted dropsies. usually where it is most abundant. Analogy of affections. between the dropsy of the tunica vaginalis and the encysted dropsy of the cord. that the curative means are the same. There is is it no is ani- state. which characterized by a arti- slow and gradual contraction. which exhale the fluid they contain.. layer. 4. Few bloodvessels enter them the exhalant system is conspicuous . mal sensibility in Analogy of the vital properties. wine. but very re- evident in inflammation organic sensibility is always markable in them. they are also. Analogy of functions. continuous with the neighbouring cellular texture. 3. is that in both cases the inflammation that produced by the injection of a is foreign fluid. these are the characters of cysts.

if the cells adher- . it is said. It is and consequently into the is cellular system. in which the vessels compress- ed against each other would inevitably be obliterated. as see. white and thick in di- Gradually this fluid. increases in quantity. this fluid increases and dilates in every direction. will discover but little difference be- tween dropsical cysts. crowds against the neighbouring organs. as we liar see the skin become callous. considerations will serve to prove this. and thus acquires the form under which we see it. and you it. very probable that there is a rela- between them. is usually resolved in the manner at first. grow. a small quantity of fluid collects in a cell. Does an origin thus mechanical. and serous membranes. following The cysts are analogous in every point of view to serous memshall branes . The 1st. accord with the exhaling and absorbing function of the cysts and with their pecukind of inflammation? 3d. this is ? does not. There this essential question. &c. and that when a cyst diminished formed and exhales copiously.162 soft CELLULAR SYSTEM. how these cysts developed How a membrane. can arise. however. which are never formed. following This problem . Why. steatoma. wen. and even acquire a very considerable development under certain circumstances. how then could they have a different origin from these membranes. the exhalation of the serous memare branes is . by the compression of the cellular texture ? we 2d. and into the system of which they tion essentially enter. The preceding considerations induce us to admit a perfect resemblance between cysts and serous membranes. Nothing at first sight . which are attached to the neighbouring cells and thus increased in thickness. presses in every rection the sac that contains it. serous in dropsy. appears more nothing is simple than t his mechanical explanation less conformable to the process of nature. rest upon direct proof. which does not exist in a natural state. enlarges. the parietes of the cell. of whose characters they partake.

is 163 not the neighbouring cellular texture diminished and destroyed. or are developed within for there no difference in these two sorts of unnatural productions. Suppose a fungous. appear externally. as we can- not doubt. As the form. is suppose a superficial cyst. and which seem to be aberrations. &c. I think. on the contrary. reflec- The immediate consequence of the preceding tions. and suppuis carried from the external surface to the walls of . of . Most tumours throw from their external surface the fluid that is separated there. sup- purating tumour. this will be then a suppurating tumour. and unnatural applications of these fundamental laws. establishes the only difference be- tween tumours and cysts. fluid : it is neces- sary to conclude then. form these unnatural sacs. to be We may way . 4th. ing to each other. and preserves ration it in its cavity. A cyst.CELLULAR SYSTEM. even when they acquire great size? cellular texture. is then. is. this cavity this will be a cyst. conceive of they begin the production of cysts in the following developed and grow in the midst of the cellular organ. If. no one ever thought of attributing to compression. How. that the common explanation formation of cysts. do these sacs arise and grow ? these tumours that . send the fluid of oblite- which is exhaled upon the exter- nal surface . that their fluid is exhaled by them. then. On the other hand. that this pre-exists in the I organ that separates it from the blood would as soon assert that the saliva pre-existed in the parotid. course that nature is of the directly opposite to the general pursues in her operations. why should not the formation of one be analogous to that of the other ? Surely. suddenly becomes a cavity. by laws very analogous to those of the general increase of our organs. the cysts are formed by the compression of the and if it is true on the other. except in the form. the cavity of which rated. exhales this fluid by its internal surface. the formation of external or internal tumours. on the one hand.

exactly similar to that which before formed the whole of the body. can it. In fact. which we are ignorant. then. terized. as it the farther removed from proaches. to the great quantity of it fluids that enter at that period does not denote an . The increase of the exhalant organ.1G4 CELLULAR SYSTEM. State of the cellular system in the first age. after- wards increases as the cyst grows. penetration lies This substance that is resembled it precisely. is once characit commences at first scanty. homogeneous in appearance. when the organs begin to be developed in this mass. First is a true mucus. the foetus is only a mucous mass. that which forms the parent which before this ma of nutrition of the organs. and which is the principle of the cellular texture. exhalation When the cyst . is in a direct ratio to ARTICLE SIXTH. is owing . and in which the cellular texture seems almost exclusively to predominate. always precedes the accumulation of the exhaled fluid. between the organs. so that other things being equal. because h) has not been penelike trated with the peculiar nutritive substance. I. a fluid state. the period of labour apa kind of glue. ance that it this appear- has at it first. This primitive state of the cellular organ. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CELLULAR TEXTURE. first In the periods after conception. the quantity of suppuration in a tumour its size. be considered as the residue of exists in a distinct or rather perhaps it it manner. then then the cellular texture begins to appear. the spaces that are left between them are filled with a substance which.

Whatever the humour is. acter of gelatine. 1 should think. which appears wholly at sight. that is filled with fat. the great quantity of fat makes artificial emphysema very diffi- it does not appear that the foetus ever has a natural delicacy of the cellular layers and filaments one.at this period. such. . in after life. evacuate this humour. which I have said arises is almost always exists in the cheek of the foetus. inorganic existence . it is much more viscid and unctuous than it is afterwards the touch is sufficient to convince us of this. that it has much of . and becomes more sensible as age. What is this humour first that is so abundant in the cellular ? system. that the imagination cannot repre- sent the texture of the hair I is gross in comparison with it. by blowing under the skin. also. we know. CELLULAR SYSTEM. humour diminishes with This phenomenon sometimes takes place filtrations. because the transparency of to see layers do not permit us its cells . makes every attempt to air render the foetus emphysematous. a rupture from which produced a great cell. in the months after conception Is it it ? albumi- nous like that which afterwards lubricates it Probably the char- is. them in the to humour that enters make a puncture so as evident. from a rupture of several layers. almost absolutely useless. in different serous in- those especially in which the infiltrated fluid has some viscidity. in the animal humours at this period I know of no experiment upon this point. a character which predominates. extremely first fine and even transparent in the periods of life. joined ers. At cult birth sub-cutaneous . 165 it we can then compare fluid its to the vitrefirst ous humour. and they become Thus the cellular texture.. that. to the delicacy of the cellular lay- in the first months. is The it . It is its predominance. and some time after. is then concealed by the humour that this fills it. presume that the ball of fat.

as we see in the scrotum. at this age. The still layers preserve an extreme delicacy In producing easily broken. the interstices are contracted. the want of prominence of its organs. 1 have sometimes made an analogous observation. the union of wounds is easier . which sometimes infiltrates accidentally . quent. the whole mass of the cellular system diminishes. in part the suppleness and movements it is hence also the frequent they are diseases of which still the seat at that age. the vital energy of the cellular texture is very conspicuous . to the same cause. In infancy and in youth. 166 CELLULAR SYSTEM. have observed that often forms in places very considerable dilatations. birth. a the cellular system are raised rapidity that particularly depends upon the high degree to at which the vital forces of It is this period.. the flesh of calves blown. that must be referred the facility of absorption of serous fluid. the cells. formation of cysts. tumours. why are the superior . and that of oxen in the same state. the cellular humour constantly diminishes become dryer. the suddenness of the then dropsies are much less fre- When they do take place. essentially cellular as we have seen. a kind of sacs in which the arises air accumulates in large quantity. have in their development and their progress. upon very it lean children. the eye-lids. the air is propagated in an uniform manner and constantly infiltrates the cells without destroying them. that are almost concealed by multiplicity of its it. hence . arise more promptly and go through their periods more rapidly than and all at any other age . the fleshy gran- ulations. &x. By comparing in our slaughter-houses. because as This the organs increase. this and which from rupture. &c. I emphysema. whilst in the same experiment upon an adult. . hence the roundness of form that characterizes the infant. . consequently more apparent. at that period Sometime before the cells and in the subse- quent years. system however predominates for a long time over the others.

The motion ducing takes a of a part appears to have no effect in proactive nutrition of its more cellular texture. is In old age this texture condensed and contracted hardness. Does not this depend situation. prominence under the integuments. in the legs of as the singular tendency that there infiltrated. It appears besides. adult. acquires consistence and The teeth tear . the cellular texture . with difficulty in the boiled flesh of old animals it is like tough and requires long boiling to soften it. their &c.CELLULAR SYSTEM. the striking appearance of in part. it predominates over the other systems. the nerves. gradually weakens the absorbents when it has continued for some time are. which it is is characterized by a dryness and rigidity of In in the smallest proportion. and sometimes in even the blood-vessels. . fibre. whilst the leuconhlegmasia of adults in the last ? commences almost always is This is then as remarkable a phenomenon. the roundness of their forms part the result of this. women. Stale of the cellular system in the after ages. circumstance that must be attributed the form of the muscles. why varices we know. because as the organs If increase in thickness. as place in the muscles. as ? This explains. there is at least It is one in to this comparison with the state of the organs. II. there is not a real diminution. it it it. which. forcing the lymph to ascend against upon its weight. becomes firmer It its layers have a more compact appears also to lessen in quantity. Much . more frequent in the inferior than supe- rior extremities. 167 extremities almost as often affected as the inferior. it is in larger is in quantity than in men . that in those called phlegmatic or lymphatic. being compared with the arms. In the is condensed and texture. and in the bilious. that the quantity of cellular texture varies according to tempera- ments . their interstices are contracted.

This becomes every where loose. in the cellular . sixteen saw at the Medical Society a dwarf. that does not belong to his age. or to have dissected. in which it forms folds. hence a sort of dryness and render the motions of old age it rigidity. Two persons who exhibited the same phenomenon. hardly two feet high. or a primitive disposition. in adults.168 less fluid is CELLULAR SYSTEM. texture womb from the rectum these. this sort of flaccidity is This excess the constant attendant of old age. exhaled there. It it loses its vital forces hence its laxity. have rendered this I age premature. contributes essen- diminution that the body then under. -find rare in old age to osseous incrustations in the cellular texture. there was externally this relaxation and flaccidity of integuments. who had already begun to grow old his sub-cutaneous texture had that laxity. that pre- from supporting the skin as usual. of which the subjacent cellular texture appears to be the It is seat. general relaxation. I In the great number of old persons that 1 have had occasion to to have seen dissect. lived a long time with him informed me. of all in individuals even in whom kinds. and that occupied the I posterior part of the mesentery. goes. . that difficult. dependent even in some places. The premature decrepitude of the dwarf of the king of Poland. years of age. The scrotum has no longer the vents power of contracting that characterized it and which it derived from the forces of the cellular system. especially in have seen some others women. A kind of withering. have preserved several speci- mens of . that at his death. re- member but one. I in whom that they are found separates the frequently. that tially to the general experiences.

of the secretions. that transmits to the brain the external impressions that are to produce sensations . is from the general arrangement. by the voluntary muscles to almost every where dis- tributed to the organs of digestion. the one having the brain and its dependancies for its principal centre. without regard to par- ticular exceptions. the other it serves as a conductor of the volitions of this organ. that the division of the two nervous systems allel is founded. the texture. strictly confined to the organs of either life. of respiration. in which it performs a part much more Neither is obscure than that of the preceding one. . of circulation. The second. essentially distinct from each other. which are executed which it goes. having the ganglions. Thus the cerebral nerves send some branches to the glands. first The belongs especially to animal life . the distribution. but if we reflect a upon the forms. the properties and the uses of the different branches that compose it. it is on the and on one hand the agent. and the other. and the nervous system of the It ganglions have ramifications in the voluntary muscles. belongs more particularly to organic life.NERVOUS SYSTEM OF ANIMAL LIFE. because the descrip- tion of each will be sufficient to do this. &c. ALL little anatomists have heretofore considered the nerin vous system an uniform manner . to the involuntary muscles. between which I shall not draw a par- here to show their difference. it is easy to see that they should be referred to two general systems. 22 .

precisely similar go from them . At one time exactly one half of the body passive. is The nervous system spinal exactly symbrain and metrical. This difference it a striking proof of the superiority of man. relations of size of the nervous system with The brain are in man and most quadrupeds. one side only has an unnatural energy and be- comes the calm. of which I just spoke. from that in which the lower in parts of the body are deprived of motion consequence the of a fall upon the sacrum. man this the brain is much more voluminous than his. in an inverse proIn portion. in all the animals that we commonly employ in our experiments . It is in the others. and the principal character of which arises from the symmetry different. at another. on account of the size of their nerves very delicate experiis ments upon sensibility. corresponding trunk. by which is designated the double. which are the double origin of this system. the right and left. while the other remains In both cases. The kind of partial paralysis. who have for nerves larger than easy to prove assertion. as respects the intellectual . the other left. vous systems of animal the life. Nerves hence the name of pair. sometimes the often it is limited to a phenomenon is gengreater or less number of is lateral organs . is wholly regards this character. or any other analogous cause. the one right. small dogs are used. as has been observed by Soemmering. Their distinction is apparent not only from dissection. in fact. a name. and the whole nervous system of that side remains the other retaining its ordinary activity .170 NERVOUS SYSTEM of animal life life. median line separates them. seat of convulsions. is deprived of motion. but from their diseases. but always there an evident separation between the two nervous systems. eral . have this character in a remarkable degree. of the nervous system of animal as it life. that we should not be able to employ commonly in There are then really two nerthe system of ganglions. like all the organs of that The marrow.

** OF ANIMAL phenomena. sounds. The word to origin should only be understood in relation anatomical arrangement. 171 the encephalic are superior to referable to On it the other hand. . all in the perfection of the ? sense. than elongaIf tions of it. 3d. the touch should be more obtuse and the organs less perfect. and cor- rects their errors. in the course. I. Origin of the cerebral nerves. that of touch. is It not then astonishing. of hearing and seeing. tasted and smelt. 1st. 2d. at the In fact. many animals him as respects motions and the four senses of taste. This sense is voluntary. is we shall see that the termination is at the brain. should be in man. but he touches nothing without a preliminary act of the intellectual functions. shall consider these forms. the nerves are formed same time as the brain they are rather organs of communication with this viscus. Is it . in the origin . ARTICLE FIRST. consequent to them. of smell. strike the respective organs without any effort of the animal. in the termination of the cerebral nerves. that the perfection of the organs of touch and the great development of the brain. Light. all LIFE. Observe however that fifth is he surpasses them viz. it poses reflection in the animal that exercises the others do not. sup- heard. &c. in the same proportion. and the origin upon the surface. we take a view of the functions of one part of the nervous system. because we have it. Why Because is this sense entirely different from the others. We touch. in whom more contracted. and that in those anithe brain is mals. seen. which are mass. EXTERNAL FORMS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM OF ANIMAL I LIFE.

and which will per- haps hereafter elucidate these functions. The cerebrum furnishes but two nerves. in this. . 172 NERVOUS SYSTEM not said that the nerves go towards this or that part. &c. and attributed the volunsicians of the last age. the origin evidently derived from the tuber annulare. we cannot remove them greater than that of most 2d. from the spinal marrow the cer. the auditory. nerves of animal 2d. and that by raising the pia mater. The tuber annulare and its elongations. as in the trigemini and par vagum. The life derive their origin from three 1st. begin by many filaments separated from each other: sometimes. is As the emito be ever) where exterior to arise. from the . nences from which they appear manifestly 2d. furnish the motores com- munes of the muscles of the eye. are distinguished by different characteristics. Almost all continuous with this substance. the of which. which. and its elongations ebellum gives origin Tuber Annulare or Pons Varolii 3d. the trigemini. though posterior. ? These are only metaphorical expressions. all the. to none. that their adhesion is very strong at their origin with the brain. All these nerves 1st. 1st. that the arteries take this course. the motores externi of the eye. principal portions of the encephalic mass. we ought not to lose sight of in the examination of the functions of each part of the brain. the glosso- pharyngeal and the great hypo-glossal. as that which begins the spinal marrow. the par vagum.. as well those that go to the cerebrum and the cerebellum. is pathetic. the facial. the least reflection will determine their meaning. these are remarkable. these are very numerous. that their softness is other nerves. This circumstance. the olfactory and optic. in this. from the cerebrum . tary to the cerebrum. medullary substance. sufficient to is undoubtedly make us appreciate the opinion of many phy- which placed in the cerebellum the source of involuntary motions. wind about.

under the name of spinal.OF ANIMAL LIF$. most usually separate and always 3d. at least in an apparent manner. but take their origin from surface. and that each pair cross each other not only the brain. each other. the other posterior. so that they are almost always raised in detaching the pia mater . to it is prevent breaking the nerves from the brain when of the skull. paralysis almost always takes place on that side which is . The spinal marrow gives origin to thirty or thirty-one pair of nerves. that founded upon a singular phenomenon. They all arise cords. taken out of the pathetic. This opinion viz. its external Many physiologists however. twelve dorsal. one anterior. 1st. that there was only contiguity. thus it requires great precaution. all 3d. a circumstance that depends upon a cause that 4th. some by one filament and others hv tw its by two. We should almost say. with 2d. believed that the nerves of one side arise from They have in is the opposite. the motores is particularly weak. by two These cords placed above distinct. it and to a nerve that enters the cranium and goes out of gin. have admitted an origin more remote than can be proved by examination. but also in the spinal marrow. five lumbar. eight cervical. 173 I I The others arise. The following are the characters of these nerves at their ori- They are continuous. that the nerves not arise deep in the cerebral substance. have a greater con4th. derive their origin from many filaments. sistence at their origin than these last. is The consistence of the spinal nerves their canals. also very do evident in From what has been said. The adhesion is much stronger at the origin of these nerves than at that of the preceding. it is clear. from a slight examination. like the preceding. The adhesion communes and the facial. the medullary substance. will be hereafter pointed out. Except the auditory nerve. this. They ad- here but little to the corresponding cerebral portion. viz. five or six sacral.

that it particularly concerns the nerves of motion. false hearing.174 NERVOUS SYSTEM phenomenon by the other opposite to the affected side of the brain. and afterwards by presenting turn to each nostril volatile ammonia. I and the anatomical first contradicted at the will make but one observation upon this singular that is. one eye. by compressing the brain of a dog. &c. hence . as has been shown by Lorry. phenomenon. other. We do not suddenly sensation. one ear. a that is frequently noticed in diseases and proved also experiments. this. in We often observe in man a discordance the organs of sense. do not believe that with our present this last. and hardly ever affects the nerves In fact we know. as do not become insen- the muscles of one side cease to move. that in wounds of the head. be connected with the brain. &c. is knowledge we can explain opinion pointed out above. and of sensation. On hand. as it regarded the sensibility. an alteration corresponding with that which the mobility experienced. one eye sees further. does not appear that each hemisphere always corresponds necessarily with the nerves of motion . or other pungent substances. One ear hears better than the . and thus rendering him paralytic on one side. one side of the tongue. nostril. and not to but the cause of these discordances appears to reside in the organ itself. I have not seen. &c. impossible to those of perceive the alterations of sensibility as we do However. it is said that convulsions are seated in the side corthis is responding with the injured side of the brain. it Moreover. as become we do as paralytic on one side as it it regards respects motion in hemiplegia. one sible. for it is Experiments cannot elucidate mobility. in consequence of apoplexy. but fact is more uncertain than that of 1 paralysis. sight. which incontestable. and then shutting each eye separately and alternately. hence a species of strabismus. to see if he in distinguished objects.

and vice versa. LIFE. 175 we often see on the right side effusions or injuries of the cerebral substance. The nerves go over a more or less considerable extent before going out of the cranium or the spinal canal. forming membrane corresponding with the it and the nerve. penetrates the and accompanies the is nerve to the middle of the canal. which they go flected out. The its tunica arachnoides surrounds every nerve at origin with a fold formed oftentimes in the shape of a tunnel. and partly by is the cellular texture. consequently. The two that arise from the cerebrum are much longer within than tuber annulare and without. membranes 1st. In fact. 1st. through which the dura mater enters. its 2d. the broadest part of which fully raising the is at the origin. or by opening the dura mater of easily discover this fold. to this. with- out any alterations of motion on the left. 2d. which in way. and which has not been well explained. I shall speak of its continuity upon the nerves.OF ANIMAL of the opposite side. is we very it is which continued to the osseous opening. canal of the dura mater. the spinal canal. communicates with the dura mater. this which goes even to the sclerotic coat. of this a sac between optic fibrous then reflected upon the surface brain. in treating of their peculiar membrane. and the remainder re- upon the edges of the opening and continued with The optic nerve is the only exception the periosteum. Sometimes. as in the it nerve and the motor externus. then it quits them and is partis ly lost in the cellular texture. found at the origin of the nerves the dura mater forms for them a kind of canal in the fissure through entirely. the pathetic nerves are the only ones that remain any length of time in the . The pia mater used in a manner as yet that is difficult to understand. lined in part by the tunica arachnoides. it is accompanied in its whole course by a fibrous canal. which. that are The following are the cerebral . Among those of the dependancies. 3d. By care- brain.

Course of the cerebral nerves. that we in the spinous processes. II. successively increase from above downwards in a gradual manner. The nerves of the spine have a much when examined lower down. in the neck. the length in the canal. it the application of is necessary. always ceptions as to size. At the cerebrum and the tuber annulare. Each pair of nerves. Above. and consequently pass many foramina it be- fore they arrive at their own . they are six inches long the canal. become in directly external below.1 76 NERVOUS SYSTEM it. to take nearly the spinous process of the vertebra that corresponds numerically with the pair that we have in view. . the size and oblique direction of the spinal nerves. But in the spinal nerves. cranium before they go out of extent there than externally . diverges in the two trunks which form the pair. there no general arrangement. whilst in the loins it is much above is this vertebra that the application should be made. and the spinal run nearly parallel. this marrow above the becomes more and more oblique down to the end of the lumbar region. on account of their prominence. the its tuber annulare or dependancies. as has avail ourselves of been observed by Jadelot. they . These three things. in going from the cerebrum. The is direction of nerves at their origin also very variable. almost perpendicular to the cervical region. with some exdirection. greater extent 3d. hence if happens. The nerves exhibit different arrangements at their exit from the osseous cavities that contain their origin. and that have a greater the others go out almost all immediately. viz. to judge of the origin of the nerves the moxa. and the spinal mar- row. in order to act upon a point corresponding with the origin of any nerve in particular. The olfactories alone converge.

scribe the nerves of the spine as as going usually done. at their exit. sends a branch above and below. describe at first in each region the plexus that the nerves form there out of the spine . so that in the brachial plexus. that each nation. the motores communes. These second cords. The two nerves of the cerebrum. in going I expose before the cervical nerves. 1st. and also receives one so that the cords that succeed those that go from the foramina.OF ANIMAL . pairs. in dividing. especially in their anterior portion. 177 the cerebral nerves at their exit from their osseous cavities. These kinds of plexuses have a particular arrangement. It is this consideration that has induced it is I me not to deis. lumbar. each its exit from the foramen. Those of the tuber annulare and its dependancies begin to have communications. that from such or such thus. when the nerves cease to communicate thus. 23 . receive them and form third cords. to their respective destination. send their respective foramina. &c.Communication of LIFE. The deep arise cervical plexus. at . and are di- vided into separate trunks. 2d. would be impossible to say correctly from which It would require a very tedious dissecfrom what pairs come the tion to ascertain precisely median. which are not so visible in the intercostal nerves. the brachial. whilst above. Thus the par in much more vagum going from and the great hypo-glossal nerves. for example. numerous filaments this to the neigh- bouring organs. the cubital. the auditory nerve does not communicate with any other. the spine are The communications of the nerves of more evident sciatic. it may go to its desti- pairs they arise. They are formed in the following manner. which are evident when examined inferiorly. go without com- municating with any other. and from these communications. the pathetici and even the trigemini shew 3d. arise from two or three of these. send branches above and below. arrangement less evidently. nerve.

Nothing. as may be easily seen in the great trunks. which. The different cords of which each nerve is formed have precisely the same arrangement. because you will have to one point not to as which your memory will refer them all. arising from . 1 pass to the description of the nerves that go from them before. or to the posterior muscles of the neck . moreover. 4th. the relations of these plexuses being known. &c. as the diaphragmwill easily atic. winding upon the sternozius . retain all you the nervous distributions. referring more comby them to the pairs that first furnished them. the form. and many centres as there are pairs. By sepa- rating the different cords of these nerves. of the hypo-glossal. afterwards to the great which go sympathetic which are distributed upon the acromion and the triangular space. into those that go inferiorly. but that . before the brachial the brachial plexus. without. as in the median. &c.178 NERVOUS SYSTEM the deep cervical plexus. the radial and especially the sciatic. 5th. 1st. the anastomoses of these pairs at their exit class the nerves. This method has appeared to me. into external. beto the pairs of hind. into internal. into anterior. mastoideus. is plicated than the description of the cervical nerves. which go either to the occiput. 2d. form there with the branches of the facial a kind of superficial plexus . to be extremely convenient for students. within. The general arrangement. But understand well at first the deep plexus. without regard nerves that come through the foramina. . and before the lumbar and sacral the plexuses of the same name. It is not only at their exit that the spinal nerves thus communicate. for example. into posterior. bounded in front by the sterno-mastoideus and ^behind by the trape3d. the cubital. &c. as those that communicate with the nervous branches In this way. we see that they are not only in apposition longitudinally. Internal communications of the nervous cords.

as without. were found for the most in the cords of the centre. which the want of cellular texture. they send 179 numerous filaments to each other. the cords that began the nerve are not composed of the same filaments as those that finish it . viz. and [ once amused myself ments. for the particularly at the extremity of the canal.OF ANIMAL LIFE. Thus the its cords of the branches of the brachial plexus. in which there is always continuity between the communicating branches. in the second the fila- in tracing the filaments of the sciatic for a short distance. as we shall composed of filaments. the differ- ence in the filaments. the whole becomes mingled together in the course of the nerve. and that the if same nerves do not 6erve the double is use. where the 1 nerves run a long course. For there is this diffc rence between the very evident plexuses formed by the nerves themselves and those that are less evident formed during their course in their interior even. part below now those which com- posed above the external cords. and not in the cords. a This is remarked plexus in the interior of the nerve. as have before said. now it is these filaments that frequently go from the cord to which they belong to a neighbouring one. These communications do not resemble those of the arteries. and each is. so that after a short distance. that in the first. in nervous cords are much insulated. the filaments that compose them do not thus communicate with each other. This remark proves that there are not nervous cords destined to sensation and others to motion. The communication their osseous cavities is of the nerves at their exit from so general. Here there is only contiguity. it is the cords that go off it is and form the interlacing. of the cords forming the nervous trunk see. at origin are not arranged like those of the branches that terminate it. that under this point of view it may be said that they form on every side a . there is not. In the interior of the vertebral canal.

though concurring in course to form I many cords of the same nerve. that this form requires a system fill generally diffused. differ- They form at first considerable trunks. though belonging in its course to many different trunks. and destined to up the spaces that . necessarily exist between round organs this sj^stem is the cellular.c. which are all made by juxta-position.180 NERVOUS SYSTEM kind of organ every where continuous. nature chooses the round form for the organs of animals. so can each filament. the mental. whenever it In does not interfere with her design. this. for the . do not appear to have much influence upon the functions of the nerves. in which two nervous filaments coming in an opposite direction. are confounded and identified with each other. It would be infinitely less necessary. and the auditory nerves only are strangers. Each of their cords. but the form does not affect nervous ac- nerves that are naturally round. because there would be less space between them. of these trunks it is is sometimes flattened as in the sciatic but most comflatten- monly rounded tion. that it is would observe with regard to necessa- ry to distinguish accurately these communications from anastomoses. when ed by a tumour. if the form of our organs was square. the sub-orbitary. Besides. The form . which pass through the great cellular interstices and go over a greater or less extent. After having thus communicated at their exit. &. the olfactory. these kinds of communications. an organ to which the optic. which is seen between those of the facial. the nerves separate from each ot^ier and go towards the ent organs. 1 would observe also. vVcjtom5 trunks. . perform their functions as usual. general. can perform its functions in an insulated its manner.

as the sciatics. . which still send off those that are last divisions. are of different lengths. and the trunks The nervous trunks are sometimes accompanied by a corresponding arterial and venous trunk. these give out smaller ones. then in fine. 181 The nervous trunks are of different length. &C. It is not a real origin. they go separate. the division into branches are very short. first Those of respect. is immediate. According to these divisions. pose the cords of each nerve and these cords themselves. &c. as the brachial. they . furnish here and there As the trunks advance. especially in the extremities for in . the filaments which comfirst. of one cord only for the smaller. be- the extremities hold the rank in this cause the extremities being very distant from the origin of the nerves. whole extent of the nerve. The nervous branches are almost all accompanied by : an artery and a vein. on the other hand. smaller. in is different subjects. and of separate filaments for the last divi- sions. In the trunk and the head. of one or two of these for the smaller ones. The place where happens never exactly determined. the longest filaments of all go the ends. Thus this separation is made more or it less high. Of different branches the nervous branches. and those of the par vagum. from which is arise the All these different divisions take place at very different angles. that forms the branches. The acute angle the most com- mon. as the organs are presented immediately to the nerves that enter them. these trunks must of course go over a certain extent before distributing their filaments. the shortest separate the middling . at other times. and only terminate where it The brachial and crural nerves exhibit this arrangement in a remarkable manner. but merely a separation of many still cords united.OF ANIMAL LIFE. crural trunks.

They are lost in the organs. so that the sciatic terminates at the thigh. The filaments of nerves They are continued. I call that the termination. the arteries often cross the nerves at an angle. and each filament should be examined separately. ment disconnected with their functions. &c. after will what has been said already an arrange- and from what into cords and be said further. it itself by the side of fila- contributes with is them in to the nervous Thus there no anastomosis a plexus. where each filament ends and not that only where the whole trunk of the nerves terminates at .132 NERVOUS SYSTEM . and not merely at the extremity of this In fine. from the junction of a cord that passes to a nerve more or less remote from that to which belongs. Termination of the nerves. 1st. the Anastomoses with I same system. tympanum with the lingual So that though the filaments of the different of a nerve pass frequently from one to the other. but this never happens. so cords . with other filaments of the same system . to this juxta-position of the nervous and sanguine- ous systems. essential. III. with the arise anas- filaments of the system of the ganglions hence tomoses. 2d. 3d. so that cords. at the foot. for example. . it Moreover. many arterial branches are found thus separated This circumstance is sufficient to from the nervous. there are exceptions to this rule in the neck. if this juxta-position to would be seen with regard the smaller branches . the trunk. have three different terminations. the union of filaments is that of cords into trunks. In the head. its and which simply places ments. instead of accompanying them in their course. have already observed. make us attach less importance than some authors have was so done. the leg and last. in the union of the chord of the nerve. that true anastomoses should it be distinguished.

but coming from the two halves of the nervous system. branches belonging to different nerves. the communication of the great hypo-glossal with the cervical pairs. there is only juxta-position. that is to say. where the median line. those of the chin. the We 1st. it relation to the filaments of that trunk. still it can- not be said that the cords of the same nerve anastomose with each other . On the other hand. in The arterial and more numerous than the to believe that they can perform a part in neu- some sympathies even. and not merely contiguity of nervous filaments. led to a different opinion. because there is a continuity. some examples of this in may be seen in the superficial nerves of the neck. This union does not take place upon the abdomen. ralgia. or those of two different pairs. &c. &c. 183 as to give to the nerve a net-work-like texture.OF ANIMAL LIFE. can generally refer anastomoses to three classes. that there is nothing common 1 but the cellular covering. a simple thread-like texture. by this simple reflecthey are in tion. portions of the trigemini. as in the example cited above of the great hypoglossal. entirely aponeurotic. forms a true anastomosis. it is very evident. If those physicians. 3d. go on as also the Two together. It is perhaps by these anastomoses that take place at the median . had reflect- ed how few at first comparison with what they appear view. unite at the median line. and not as anatomists say. 2d. the occipital with the frontal. as those of the three Sometimes the two nerves of the same pair. The branches of the same nerve can unite together. infinitely venous anastomoses are nervous. In fact. and branches of the facial with those of the sub-orbitary. than these have among themselves in . they would have been. has no more that though a filament is joined to a trunk. has no nervous branch in its texture. a part foreign simple communications of the filaments. who have all considered the anasto- mosis as the exclusive causes of sympathy.

In others we find fewer of them. since there are two nerves. portion of the fibrous. because the sound brain or spinal marrow would through them have an influence upon the nerves of the affected side. some there are many of them. In many. glandular systems. We ment are ignorant of the situation of each nervous at its fila- termination . the cartilaginous. and does the pulp only penetrate the interior of the fibres ? In the optic nerve this last arrangement is evident. as in the mucous. they evident. &c. &c. are blended in such a manner. &c.184 line. or the other ends. the mefine. This termination has a great analogy with the preceding. in general This sort of anastomosis it is very rare. as in the cellular. that tell we cannot where one begins. 4th. the tendons of the fibrous. that they cannot exist are hardly ever seen behind. side of the it is clear that hemiplegia would rarely take place. is it deprived of its covering. which meeting at their extremity. the epidermoid. I shall treat of this in the following system. 3d. 2d. In the extremities in the trunk. Termination in the organs. Some require a more attentive examination than has heretofore been made of their nerves. the pilous. are evidently destitute of nerves. us In the varieties that exist as respects the nerves. which are a as little known. that NERVOUS SYSTEM we may in a is explain. Anastomoses with the system of organic life. If every pair of nerves gave examples of them. dullary. dermoid and muscular systems of animal and organic life. as the serous. and not frequently before. The covering of the nerve is continued only to the en- . The exposition of the following systems will it show 1st. how certain motions can still continue part affected with paralysis. the fibro-cartilaginous. .

2d.OF ANIMAL LIFE. Sometimes the filaments form 3d. I have already mentioned how both are interlaced in the interior of the nerve. divided by many furrows. are formed of one cord only. that the others evidently exhibit. and in the trunk of the olfactory. Most of their nerves 24 at their origin are . that the branches applied to each other. does not appear to have in its interior that interlacing. These cords arise from filaments likewise in apposition and united together. is around In the it a net-work. do not allow us at their intermixing. a very delicate kind of plexus. as in the sciatic. like the cords by cellular texture. ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM OF ANIMAL LIFE. is expanded is to form A similar. Those of the sciatic and the crural are smaller than those of the brachial nerves. 5th. except those of the median. But nothing known concerning any of the others. differs which from the true plexus only in this. I. 185 Jrance of the eye. many they nerve. as I have said. ARTICLE SECOND. of a greater or number of cords lying in apposition to each other. so as to form a kind of plexus. in 4th. the cords are not distinct. though furrowed in its whole extent. Some nerves. from the commissure to the eye. and the pulp the retina. 5th. character of the nervous cords varies con- Their size is not always the same. first view to see The general siderably. same nerve. as the par vagum. equal. 1st. Texture peculiar to this organization* less Every nerve is formed. there optic sometimes united large and are all small cords. In The the posterior part of this nerve. expansion seems to take place in the olfactory and the auditory.

nervous coal and its Of the origin. their course. the nervous medulla itself. found that which rests on accurate observation omitted all I have the theoretical ideas that Reil has added to the facts which he offers. exhibit a common pulpous portion. light Reil appears to I me to have thrown great his exhis. that this medulla is stagnant. fect the intimate structure. The spinal origin of the nervous coat is very evident at the marrow. These varieties however. veins and arteries contain the blood. We 1st. which will only . that the internal arrangement of the nerves varies singularly. in an external membrane form of a canal. &x. they have given results very analogous to Some only have appeared searches me 1 so difficult. that under this point of view they do not resemble the arteries and veins. I 2d. though does not resem- . with this difference. this &c.jg£j JNERVOUS SYSTEM in their separate filaments. whatever be their size. that each presents almost a different texture. have repeated exactly to periments. have added in his many new facts as will be easily seen by combe paring his work with this article. which are every where the same. which wUite substance. for follows from all these considerations and many others which we are indebted especially to Reil. which is contained the medulla. shall now treat of each separately. in which all their's seem It to be implanted. the trigcmini on the contrary. distinguish two things in in every nervous filament. that to I have re- not even undertaken them. canal which contains in This membrane forms for each nervous filament a true as the its interior the medulla . while the blood circulates. and it which is called the pia mater. do not afand our business is to describe intimate structure even to the last fibres that we can separate. upon this subject. It is continued with the dense and comcovers its pact membrane.

fila- the parietes of this artery would be to those of these ment?. is much softer. is The coat of the nerves of the tuber annulare. which adhe- the difference of thickness and density of the pia mater establishes differences. which . and appears be analogous to that which covers the cortical substance of the brain. especially if precaution be taken to wash it. the nerves remain attached to the its membrane nervous coat is medullary substance. rent. It might be had in the form of a sac. have an arrangement analogous to that of the nerves of the spine. since either. whereas the cait is which they belong its is is transparent. do not pretend however. because their medulla nal to fills it. by cutting out a piece of the at the medulla of a certain extent and then pressing out the medullary substance separated from two ends. spinal To see this origin well. is to the Only the nerves are them. because I de- prived of that there own medulla. In fact the pia mater covers these parts is different from that which serves as a it is canal to the spinal marrow. a perfect identity between these two mem- branes. those coming from the tuber-annulare and pendancies. if it is raised and scraped with a scalpel or any other instrument.OP ANIMAL hie the LIFE. the immediate covering of the spinal marrow is thus separated from either side. less to torn with more ease. It is exactly as if a number of small arterial filaments went from the aorta. However. 187 the membrane of that name which surrounds cerebral circumvolutions. easily membrane should be cut longitudinally before or The medulla then appears whitish. what the pia mater of the spinal marrow coat of the nerves which go from white. because their continued with it. the elongations that it receiver from the cerebrum and cerebellum. I we do not exactly know the nature of refer only to their anatomical arrangement. In this double ex- periment. this behind. soft and raised up. As to the origin of the nerves contained in the craits nium. that is de- to say.

At the place of their union. as nerves is broken. because its medullary substance its more abundant and more . canals be- ing larger 3d. which has never yet been well deit scribed. singularly from the others. upon the white it substance that covers anteriorly and posteriorly the tuber annulare and the four great elongations that receives it from the cerebrum and the cerebellum. the continuity with the pia than I in the canal.188 NERVOUS SYSTEM manifestly continued from this portion of the pia mater. membrane. it is more soft facility with which. that this Observe. evidently presents three great modifications. 2d. almost the same in the spinal canal. the olfactory. but by cutting longitudinally. hence the mater is proved by the facility of raising the nerves by- raising this membrane . where is less . The auditory nerve has also a From what has been said. slightly . 1st. i* easy to see that the medullary substance separated there by partitions. loose. pressed against each it other. the origin of these Moreover. loosely evidently destitute of covered by the pia mater. where it i6 reddish. filled with medullary substance. Then begins to be covered with and canals are formed by it. it . 1st. extreme have observed. very peculiar texture. because these canals. because it has a kind of general nervous coal is . it is evident that the pia mater has greater analogy with the coat of the nerves. and very easily raised 2d. it The its optic is it from origin to junction with that of the opposite side. ac- cording as is examined . exhibits partly this character. does not appear to have a coat own. resisting. give the appearance it in the interior of a continued it is body . extremely vascular. this nerve differs continue even to the retina. upon the grey substance that surrounds the whole of the cerebrum and cerebellum. and which Besides. almost always both are attached together. As of its its to the nerves of the cerebrum. it may be said to be in fine. than any of the other membranes. easily obtained.

becoming whitish. is it infinitely more convenient to examine this upon the last nerves of the spine. more ad' . thickened and condensed at the furrow that separates thickness below. &c. different. which are. resisting. it these eminences from the tuber annulare. In most of the subjects that I have examined it is much stretched. Arising in the the nerves passes with manner we have pointed out. if lary substance for it may be in it I so said. and which at another it is smaller than the diameter of the canal. upon the whole spina} marrow and upon It is the corpora pyramidalia and olivaria. as membrane we have seen. an arrangement wholly different from that of the brain. on account of the difference of thickness. which very soft at one part. I would remark. 189 begins to become more firm.OF ANIMAL red and where it LIFE. which completely fills the cranium. herent. that the density of the pia is mater of the spine necessary to prevent injuries of the is medullary substance. instead of using the different preparations that Reil mentions for the purpose of separating the coat of the nerves from the cellular texture. cavities. which may be raised with great ease. the coat of them through the cavity of the It is cranium and that of the spine. But presume that it is Besides. the medul. then. and less easily lorn 3d. so that can be shaken there. which is it serves as a canal so that when a small opening made the medullary sub- stance immediately comes out. but only with the arachnoides. increasing in it has an appearance entirely different from what the had in cranium. very distinct in these because it is not surrounded there with cellular texture. . this state of compression is much less sensible towards the superior part than towards the middle and inferior. It It might be said to be a membrane has four times the thickness of the wholly tunica arachnoides. and compresses. remarkably long. looser during life.

soon succeeds a softness so great that at the end of a short time it is easily moved under in the the finger. especially at the instant the nerves are immersed in an acid slightly concentrated. the nervous coat embedto it ded in the cellular substance. transparent and consequently free from the colour of the nerves. produces an analogous to that of To the sudden hardening like horn which the nerve undergoes. ed for ebullition. whether is the same as that of the pia mater. they lose a great part of their white- The coat of the nerves is one of the parts of the ani- mal economy which are hardened with the greatest ease. neither do they Hence. nervous coat any more than in any other texture of the economy. fyc. when they have been deprived. alkalies. The living alkalies do not produce the horny hardening dissolve it. The action of the acids continue effect some time. of the tuber annulare and its dependancies. action it of boiling water produces an analogous effect. It appears to have It is great affinity with the cellular texture. of the medulla. We are ignorant what its nature is. . its whitish colour is changed to a sort of yellowish very different from that of boiled tendon or aponeurosis. by the nerve is wrinkled.190 NERVOUS SYSTEM . and tint. phenomenon remarkable a manner size the nerve different suddenly diminished . by of their ness. its resis- Without the osseous cavities. contracted and hardened then. pulp. Action of certain substances upon the nervous coat tance. this is I nitric and have not observed in so in in any other texture . but in the inteit appears evidently to be of the same nature as rior. ally gradu- becomes soft. hence why. particularly the sulphuric. and afterwards becomes partly dissolved. The . adheres strongly. and twisted in directions is now we shall see that the medullary substance in no way concerned in this phenomenon. after it the ebullition has continued for a certain time.

next to the fibrous. that the texture of the nervous coat is gradually softened. it immediately and in- seems in the beginning to consistence. and this state. the serous. The coat of the nervous filaments has a very great reit sistance. in proportion to the medullary infinitely substance that it contains. the muscular. thicker than the it is membranous canal of the spinal marrow. and broken. arranged in filaments or in elongated tubes. &c.OF ANIMAL undoubtedly. and even two months. It is only at the end of this time and frequently longer. LIFE. afford the greatest resistance. having macerated for lie. the fluid conis at siderably exceeds the solid in the there least an equality in the second. Medullary substance . continues for a month and a half. at the ordinary temperature of cellars. its origin* This substance occupies the interior of the nervous jcanal. much . this and the arterial. less in the great trunks than in the small branches first. and finally ends by being diffused like other macerated textures. medullary sub- The a action of water upon the nervous coat produces that is phenomenon exhibited by few others of the aniit mal textures. 191 why Reil. because is. Thus a very small nerve would support a much greater weight than the spinal I believe that among the textures which are marrow. they surpass the venous. which has always succeeded in that of winter and spring. I have not repeated this experiment in a very warm temperature. in the same way as the substance of the spinal . some time to sepa- a portion of nerve in soap-boilers was able its rate accurately the nervous coat from stance. thus that the proportion between the thickness of the vascular is panetes and the fluids they contain. A nerve soaked in water becomes there harder and more resisting. then reducing crease its it Far from softening to pulp.

it I think at the origin in the osseous cavities. Submitted to drying in the open small slices to prevent putrefaction. I think. so as to leave the nerves adhering to this membrane. the nervous coat greatest. by scraping this white and the spinal marrow. is but in the course of the nerve. predominates over the nervous coat. 1st. as It is well as in the olfactory. hardens and con- becomes yellow. it gives the nerve colour. as that of the brain and is marrow it is . compared to what they have in the first. seems to form a great part of In general. and its dependanno one can deny this continuity with the origin of the optic and olfactory nerves. the white substance of the brain dried becomes yellow also. substance from the internal surface of the pia mater. It in much other . evidently at the place where these nerves go that there is an elongation penetrating their nervous coat. The nerve . it is very apparent in the spinal marrow. the tuber annulare cies. it so abundant in the auditory that it. the Hence the greater degree of resistance of the nerves in the second. in which more of this medullary substance is found than in the other nerves.192 NERVOUS SYSTEM fills marrow spinal the canal formed is by the its pia mater. also. In the auditory. in ference under others. This substance appears to be continuous with the medulla of the brain. greater proportion in the optic nerve than in any found exclusively in that part of it posterior to the junction of the two. . This medullary substance whitish. a comparison is between it and the cerebral substance there considdif- erable analogy under some points of view and some air. we see off. the Comparison between medullary substance of the brain the nerves* and What nerves? is I the nature of the medullary substance of the have endeavoured to institute . and acquires considerable consistence.

and are whitened again its Thus we have the dried. that have become greyish from drying. I have observed that the water in which the nervous system has been macerated has but little odour. colour and have acid sufficient to redden blue paper. a remark that think inter- esting. the soonest. In a dead body which is putrid. it in is regard to this. of the been immersed hand turns from grey to white. the cellular texture. they preserve their whiteness and consistence. has - fc The cerebral substance and that of the spinal me- dulla easily bined action of water and air become putrid when submitted to the comthey become of a greenish . in the middle of an abscess. But this does not prevent the medul- lary substance of the nerve from contributing also to the yellow colour by the evaporation of will its watery part. a covering that has great analogy to the nervous coat. The proof of this is that if we dry the cover- ing that the pia mater furnishes to the spinal marrow. while the other parts are black and soft. but that that in which the brain has 25 . by drying. regain their whiteness when immersed in water. and of restoring them afterwards to their primitive colour. if they have not been long its or greyish by addition. all the fibrous organs. its LIFE. Thus also the serous surfaces. all Of animal substances.OF ANIMAL tracts. subtraction. &c. putrid. when for some time in water. I think they exhibit this pheno- menon on the contrary. this. the skin. that water has an influence upon the whiteness of a number of textures which become yellow by power of making yellow. nerves are resists putrefaction The nervous medullary substance. &c. I I make. the new qualities it acquires are very analogous to those of the dried nerves. During life they are often found untouched in a gangrenous limb. The epidermis of the sole of the foot and the it palm 2d. 193 in part to These changes are undoubtedly owing coat. much longer. The all among to the slowest of the parts of the ani- mal economy become &c.

observed. that nerves is especially to the nervous coat. have remarked also uniformly. To phenomenon : when the anterior part of the optic nerve 3 put into boiling water. the dura mater detached from the crain nium contracts powerfully hardening like horn. or at in any openings that may be made in its covering. its canals shrink. that the owe this sort of incorruptibility for I have tory. been macerated not take place These phenomena clearly would It is if the medullary substance of the nerve became fest. and spinal marrow. by submitting to the same experimust be referred the following ment the distinct. does not seem to This is very evident when we immerse the two last in boiling water. as easily putrid as that of the brain. it is the medullary substance that produces these enlargements. is As this sub- stance in is less less proportion in the other nerves. being immersed in boiling water. suffers the compressed substance to escape. and the medullary substance not is forced towards the extremi- which become consequently enlarged. . in which the medul- lary substance predominates. The medullary substance of the nerves. contracting in proportion. it takes place. become putrid sooner than the others. the nervous coat becomes wrink- led. that the optic nerve. and this explains the small round tubercle that seen at each end of boiled nervous filaments . This phenomenon is very evident in the spinal marrow. howis ever. Thus boiling a head. We may be conthat of the brain vinced as to the first. and the olfactory and audi- which are abundantly furnished with I it. ties. either at the extremities. its covering remains untouched. in a concentrated acid. as well as be susceptible of any kind of horny hardening.194 NERVOUS SYSTEM is foetid. soft nerves that have their nervous coat pretty this also . it mani- however. that whilst the white substance of the spinal marrow becomes 3d. which. putrid. com- presses the cerebral substance which does not contract . &c. this phe- nomenon apparent in them .

has been soaked some time in water. a large quantity of whitish substance can be pressed out of them. In the others. the nervous coat is in too great a proportion to the medullary substance to allow us to see what happens to this last. not diluted. &c. 4th. 6th. All the acids that are much concentrated harden it the brain very evidently. so that it escapes into the space that the boiling has produced between the dura mater and the cranium. When coat the anterior part of these. reduces it The it sulphuric afterwards softens if it is and finally to pulp. it. and which colours the water that receives in it it. A similar emulsion is made by the olfactory nerves. very similar to what is seen in ataxic fevers. in which the nervous is very evident. Boiling hardens the brain. especially macerated an alkaline solution. like it. and commonly even without this. that in a must be heated referred the flaky precipitate that obtained cerebral emulsion. can often be forced out by pressure. from the cut ends they have been previously in of the filaments. 5th. The same phenomenon takes place in the soft nerves. which the brain is has. and gives it a greyish and dingy appearance. in them. which the medullary substance if is From the other nerves much less abundant. then it is precipitated to in the becomes suspended the bottom of the vessel. it When the cerebral substance in it is agitated in water. is very analogous to In those in . in hardening The muriatic has the least action nerves coat coat is is upon the soft which the very distinct.OF ANIMAL LIFE. It is to this property of coagulating by heat. which is evidently analogous to the medulla of the brain. 1 95 and sometimes breaks it. the posterior part of the optics. The nitric makes yellow only. form of an emulsion. the horny hardening of which this the seat. upon The effect of acids this. the instant is immersed it. as has been observed by Fourcroy. conceals all the sudden phenomena relait.

this substance has appeared to to me the be diminished in consistence altered by acids. a phenomenon to examine that the anatomist can avail himself of to give the parts he dissects a firmness. whereas that of the brain keeps always the same if degree of hardness. with regard is that the grey substance much quicker is altered by them than still the white.196 tive to the NERVOUS SYSTEM medullary substance. lessens considerably in size. for there are 1 still great differences between them. fluid. and of alkohol. as to Reil in his have said. we know effect but little. Thouret and Fourcroy have discovered. which softened. the acid be not too much concenThis We is all know that alkohol hardens the brain. having the properties of ammoniacal soap. it. disappears in part. changes to a capable of softening under the finger. . miscible water. after being buried. has been of great assistance 8th. in Do the nerves undergo a similar alteration their medullary substance? We know nothing at present by which we can determine this question. of which. and resembling very closely spermaceti in its nature. think. the result is the same. that the and brittle substance. From whatever part we take these two substances to submit them to the action of the alkalies. This action. have observed. say that it approxi- mates 7th. experiments. that will enable better. It him them approximates I this sub- stance to the albuminous fluids. They make time. in brain. The it alkalies have an upon the cerebral sub- stance precisely opposite to that of the acids. hardening. 1 and even dissolve it completely after a short to this. exhaling a disagreeable odour. When and the coat is sof- tened and dissolved. but is leaves a considerable portion that not dissolved. The alkalies act also evidently upon the medullary subI stance of the nerves. trated. of boiling. the effect of acids.

'is more pleasant and digestible. For example. upon this last Has ? the nervous medullary substance analogous I differences believe that it it is similar in the same nerve. which are as hard or harder than the nerves in a natural in its distinguish in boiled become much softer by boiling. bral substance birds. and. gelatinous state. though our knowledge not yet suffi- ciently advanced to decide with certainty point. varies in different nerves according to In fact. con- sistence. The first. all If we examine it attentively. LIFE. however. The cerebral medullary substance is very differ- ent in the brain. The digestive juices generally alter with ease I the medullary substance of the brain. when there are varieties in the ner- vous coat also. The nerves are much less easily digested . much more powerful .OF ANIMAL 9th. Those that feed upon whose craniums are easiiy broken. We can meat each of these parts. the tuber annulare and its elongations. furnish examples of this. why should the medullary substance be ? every where of the same nature Certainly the colour . in these we must perceive the difference in colour. but this de- pends wholly upon their coat. and the spinal marrow. the tendons. humidity. when the internal arrangement of the cords and the filaments which constitute the nerve. state. its without doubt also in is very nature. action upon in a natural than a boiled state for all the re-agents first are in general more powerful delicious in the of these states. hardness. first. differs so much. increases their consisof the brain The muriate tence. when sprinkled upon slices and the pulpy nerves. 197 of soda. the pole- Man considers the &c. brain as one of the most dainty parts of the animal. 10th. the parietes of almost always eat the brain cat. but that their uses. which does not yield so readily to boiling as the other parts. that they would have a it think. 11th. The weasel. We know that most carnivorous animals esteem the cerefood.

and that the optic nerve would be unfit to transmit tastes. &c. that of the eye with the ear with sounds. I ical have not availed myself of all the details of the chemexperiments that have heretofore been made upon . for I shall prove hereafter that a particular kind is of animal sensibility not necessary for this sense. the auditory to propagate impressions made by light. which approximates. As to the nerves that go to the voluntary muscles. that of nature. am permuch in- &c. I think their medullary substance But in the par vagum. As to the nerves of touch. in thickness. the organs of sense has its peculiar sensibility. but is sufficient that this general property for it. That of the auditory does not resemble We have seen that each of that of the trigemini. as these muscles are every where analogous and per- form similar functions. &x. depend upon the difference of organs but I suaded that the organization of the nerves has fluence. the ear. I think that these differences of sensibility .29§ NERVOUS SYSTEM and consistence of that of the olfactory are 'different from that which is forced out from the anterior part of the optic. which places it exclusively in relation with particular bodies in light. which may throw 6ome light upon their difference and their analogy. since its ac- curacy depends especially upon the mechanical form of the hand. the brain I have only given the principal phenomena of . and that of the taste. why do not the varieties of internal organiza- tion coincide with that of the texture in dissecting this nerve? which we observe We may whose say the same of many an en- nerves that go to parts sensibility presents tirely different modification. we shall see an essential difference of structure between the nerve of the eye. whose destination is is the same. If we examine attentively. so different. the nerves of motion. of the nostrils. This then is a comparison between the cerebral pulp and the medullary substance of the nerves. they do not require a peculiar texture .

examination proves this assertion in the optic. some time in diluted become separated from their sheath. II. These cellular canals often contain nitric acid. In general I think. &c. From this common layer go off different elongations which communicate with the cellular texture of the neighbouring organs. that this substance. but out of these they have a great quantity of first A large external layer. and the spine it. I all of which have repeatedly proved. auditory. Besides. the action of different re-agents. It substance of the nerves is not arranged appears to be analogous to the white sub- stance of the spinal marrow which is a real jelly. The medullary in filaments. The nerves are entirely destitute of this . olfactory nerves. phenomena.OF ANIMAL LIFE. the cords also fat in the great nerves. Parts common to the organization of the nervous system life. though rarely the seat of dropsical effusions. which serves as a reservoir for it. Within. would be if ranked. stagnant in the canal of the pia mater. and form for When a nerve has been macerated them kind of canals. they were deprived of the vessels that run through them. as well as the cerebral. which is to them what the layer of which we have spoken is to the whole nerve. covers and then connects them with the neighbour- ing parts. and separate them from each other. and form a medium of union between the nerve and these organs. rather or they would form a among medium the fluids than the solids. in the sciatic there is always . of connexion between the two. 199. there are other elongations that go between the nervous cords. the arteries. texture in the interior of the cranium. Fat often accumulates in it is sometimes. of animal Cellular texture. This layer is looser than that which surrounds it .

from these arise the little capil- lary arteries which are spread upon the coat of the nerve. they have evidently an unctuous and saponaceous deposit. branches which penetrate from The optic is it rule the membrane it that surrounds prevents the vessels it from entering laterally.200 NERVOUS SYSTEM it. The number arteries running between the cords. have observed. and the cellular texture has nature which characterizes . Sometimes this size increases considerably. perhaps even the nervous coat nothing but this texture considerably condensed. some of there tion in is Hence it is that I when we dry when they these organs. Be- the cellular texture so connects the one to the other. For examnerve its ple. cross it and are continued with the exhalants of the me- dullary substance. first in In the other nerves. the subis nervous texture. &x. that no motion can take place there. In fine. in part that peculiar the sub-arterial. Finally new elongations going from the cellular canals that surround the cords. and are of a size there more or less considerable. Here. the artery of the sciatic has been seen with a caliber more than three times natural size. sides. the arteries run the cellular texture between the cords. Each nerve all receives its it vessels from the surrounding an exception to this trunks. and the filaments of these eords. its An artery passes through in the course of axis and sends out different branches. a that. Blood vessels. the cords of the nerves. according to the nervous trunks. in popliteal aneurism. send all off a of little branches that go into the interstices of the filaments. We readily see this vascular arrange- . upon their surface truly and are immersed any alkaline solution. fatty exhala- almost always as . there is never any fat or serum. . which send to sides to the interior. cover the nervous filaments with canals still smaller.

ment in the spinal first 201 spread marrow. tion with the exhalants. The blood that goes to the nerves. Only the nerves are a little more reddish in some cases than others. is When this stimulant increased the nervous excitability increases. I am convinced by in dissect- ing the nerves of living animals. Numerous ramifications are upon the dense and firm pia mater. how uncertain this method is here as every where else. which does not der to ascertain commonly contain red blood.OF ANIMAL LIFE. where the arteries enter below and the veins go out above. they then pen- and are lost in continua- The veins follow in the nerves a course analogous to . because. there takes the place of the nervous coat etrate the medullary substance. they have made use of fine injections which have entered the capillary system. have been convinced that their branches do not go out of the nerves at the place where the arteries enter. Does this fluid. as Reil of a frog. who26 . as ? plexy I happens to the brain in sanguineous apohave not had an opportunity yet of making very decided manner in the great number of bodies that I have opened. Do this observation in a these cases coincide with certain determinate diseases I ? have not any knowledge upon this point. like that which sent to the brain. have overrated the quantity of blood that goes to the nerves. the arteries however. As to the pretended compression of the origin of the nerves. in orit. particularly Reil. I in carefully dissecting many great nervous trunks. when carried in great quantity to the nervous system. the only means of having an accurate idea of what takes place a natural state. is is a stimulant that supports their action. so as to that was convinced by rubbing the nerves redden them by the quantity of blood was brought there. This arrangement is analogous to that of the brain. by the blood that is carried to the brain and spinal marrow. sometimes interrupt its functions. Many authors. which .

their extremities in the canal of the pia in Thus. that wards taken up by the absorbents. because the itself. these would so that if it hang loose by mater. There the same arrangement at the spinal marrow. they so that how full soever they I may cannot press upon their parietes. is which enter this organ to deposit it there. will see that such a compression is not probable. said. which has so great an analogy with the nervous The vessels cross this membrane. little Besides. this function is appears that . at the base of the can only conceive of a compression at the origin of the nerves. Many think that the nervous coat is the secretory organ its of this medullary substance. the pia ma- ter of coat. 3d. they only permit the vessels to pass. . the vessels cross here and there the substance that they deposit in their .202 NERVOUS SYSTEM ever has examined the relations of the nerves with the vessels of the base of the cranium. most of the holes through which the of the arteries arteries penetrate into the inte- rior even of this viscus. in the medullary substance constantly renew this was possible to remove substance without touching the vessels. but nutrition supposes their existence there. have a caliber greater than that be. from effusions cranium. 1st. do not believe it. olfactory nerve would not then be able to support any more than the posterior portion of the optic. some very soft fungi. which oozes out of to lie in its cavity. then losing 1 themselves. 2d. We cannot discover these vessels in the nerves It . performed in the following manner the exhalants receive from the arteries. if I may is so exafter- press myself the reservoir of this substance. as have it . I parietes. which is. with which they are continuous. the medullary substance which they deposit in the canal of the nervous coat. The cerebral membranes are not concerned with the secretion of the pulp of the brain. Exhalants and absorbents.

from the brain that goes the impulse. and even in those with red and cold blood. and would produce a vegetation this we could remove substance and leave them un- touched. the passive part of the nerve. In the optic nerve the vessels evidently* . it they penetrate also forms. does not prevent the nervous nutrition in . on the other with the different parts. 4th. in man and the neighbouring species. it re- gards the functions in part false it is for the nerves are evidently only conductors. than the pia mater is of the cerebral substances It may have uses of which or that of the spinal marrow. the heart and the lungs in life. are not confined to the nervous coat the canals stance. these functions concentrated in the brain. In animals with white blood. we can remove the brain. why a proceed from the brain. if LIFE. we are ignorant. This assertion is true as it is it respects nutrition. but as . are. 203 like net-work. the medulla being the part essentially active. and there too is the sensation. evident that it does not it is formed in each nerve by the means of the neighbouring vessels.OF ANIMAL interstices. it is From these and other considerations. Reil considers the nerves as having an entirely insulated existence. Hence why the inferior portion of a cut nerve does not decay . communicating only on one side with the brain. why to in most paralyses which the nervous system ceases supported as usual. correspond with this organ. that it is true more generally spread it is throughout the nervous system. hence without doubt. as being bodies by themselves. that the nervous coat is no more the secretory organ of the nervous substance. it is reptiles without immediately destroying on this . but the principal certainly it is is that of a covering. and deposit there the medullary sub- Every thing appears then to prove. From this way of describing the production of the nerit is vous medullary substance. but that ligature that interrupts the cerebral communications.

and a serious injury of the brain. that we should never avail ourselves of experi- ments upon animals with red and cold blood. of the functions are absolutely different in animals with cold blood and in those with one. 2d. by presiding over the mechanical functions of which by ceasing. so that the continuance of the two lives. to draw conclusions concerning those with red and warm blood. asphyxia. Few than systems exhibit these properties more obscurely If this. is warm . that life. written upon life.c. 1st. Properties of texture. But in these and is in man especially. Nerves. in an opposite direction. stop the chemical. then the &c. 1 Anatomical examination does not render ARTICLE THIRD. circulation. The relations respiration. &c. the nervous system. it is undeniable. that the brain the centre of animal is life. Authors who have are two things wholly incompatible. which ceases when is the action of this viscus destroyed. as it proved by apoplexy. that I NERVOUS SYSTEM have remarked in my Researches upon Death. I. that which is true for not so for the other. in a living animal. as the small arteries spread on the coats of the large ones this probable. difficulty. Does the nervous coat receive small nervous branches? Do these small branches penetrate the nerves. has also immediately in dependant upon that is it organic though an indirect way.204 account. PROPERTIES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM OF ANIMAL LIFE. have usually considered them in too general a manner. we draw it a nerve. is extended with makes . then the secretions. &.

OF ANIMAL LIFE. does not two ends. also. 20o little great resistance. osseous tumours. It is thus in the brain. and consequently much widened. while the least depression of a bone of the cranium. large fungi which increase slowly. and acquires a length but more than what is natural to it . . these filaments can yet sometimes transmit sensation and motion. a great collection In hydrocephalus. which nearly destroyed. &c. and partly because they are really elongated there is also a greater separation of them. in the axilla. retract at the other. which remain opposite to each In amputation. the end of those of a tendon. this appears to depend par- ticularly on the nervous coat. less The contractility of texture is still evident than the extensibility. which always Spontaneous luxations of slowly. Thus distended. Hence why the luxation of the head of the humerus often occasions paralysis. is when a more of this fluid than common exhaled in the ventricles. that succeeds a fracture. it is flattened down like a ribbon its filaments are separated it is and lay at the side of each other. the brain is We know how The medullary substance much that of If stretched in the dropsy of the ventricles. the nerves that are there yield partly because their curves disappear. an accident which is always the result of those that happen from external violence. the vertebra. by a swelling . entirely deranges them.. as in popliteal aneurism. is a great trunk distended by a subjacent tumour. whilst it rarely happens from very large In general. a sudden distension interrupts certainly than that chronic tumours in the axilla. like the abdomen. is distended. are rarely come on accompanied by paralysis. disturb its functions but little. little of serum has oftentimes but is effect little upon sensation. like A nerve cut transversely. would yield much more. at other times these two functions are annihilated there. some kinds of apoplexy. as happens in When a large cavity. more them much which comes on slowly.

they cause obtain that great pain. The in nerves must be considered. in regard to sensibility. than would be from the opinions of a great many phywho have made these organs perform almost the first. &c. 2d. the skin. that. Observe. This is sometimes the cause of a painful pres- sure from some part of the dressing. Exposed and filament. 1st. It is necessary to consider the part which they take in that of all the other organs. and whose derangement would consequently have an inevitable influence upon this pro- . Properties of animal life. without which it could not have animal sensibility. two points of view. whole part in diseases. less evident in the nerves. is. for we can almost with impunity sensibility is having removed the cortical substance. of all others. pricking. or exciting any way a nervous we uniformly result so well known in practical surgery. and even there it much so as in the nerves. not so in It is only deep in the brain that the animal becomes strongly marked. Vital properties. the most strongly markirritated.20G NERVOUS SYSTEM the nerve remains longer than those of the muscles. Animal This property sensibility inherent in the nerves. cauterizing. ed in in:. and by those who make experiments upon living animals. By tying. especially towards the convexity of this organ irritate this after . This property would seem at first to establish a very great difference between the medullary substance of the nerves and that of the brain. These are thought at sicians. II. We should examine that which is inherent in them. that the experiments upon the cerebral pulp you destroy the organ itself that perceives. however. the nerves.

making my experiments upon the it injection of black is blood into the brain. for ex- with the point of a very delicate scalpel. the animal sensibility of to seems in the nerve be gradually exhausted. pierce to it It is necessary to in and arrive at the medullary substance order produce pain. as elsewhere. is The membrane of each filament truly in every case a kind of covering that protects its medullary substance. also. why . the animal cries out and much agitated . no connexion I Hence why we can. separate from each other. the different filaments of a nerve of some first size. 207 whereas the seat of perception being untouched irritate a nerve. the pain is fact. In these experiments. whose atmosphere the nerves are have no influence upon them. more sensibly felt. in a variety of cases. I have had frequent occasion situated. of ample. occasions pain . without pressure. has. when they have ing the animal been laid bare.OF ANIMAL LIFE. it. but same thing is repeated two or three times. a nerve can almost with fluid. At the moment the nerve is raised it is and drawn to detach after the from the carotid with which connected. that animal The nervous coat possesses a much resides. the sciatic. As to the cellular texture which enters it into the composition of nerves. different tumours. impunity be immersed in a purulent. easy to be convinced of the kind of insensibility of the covering of each nervous filament. when we It is. I convinced myself of this upon the eighth pair of nerves. as . he . without givit is much pain. In experiments. in which the sensibility particularly resides. degree of Hence why simple but little contact. hence. in animals why. perty . as have often done upon a living animal. ichorous or even in the sanies of cancer the air occasions but little hence why the contact of pain when the nerves are to see merely in laid bare. and finally ceases. in principally in the medullary substance of sensibility less each nervous filament. with this property.

were divided by the knife. in pain. great energy. has often been confounded with rheumatism. its sciatic disease. The animal systems. that as each system has its it peculiar kind of animal sensibility in a natural state. why the pain. which he experienced when the flesh was cut through which the nerves. whose thigh was amputated by Desault he asked me. in the which does not resemble that mucous surfaces. was the ques- man of great mind and coolness. experiments that are known to all physiologists. and which determines. the judiciously taken for the . was wholly different from . which affects the muscles The seat in the nerve of the or tendinous parts . and had studied physiology but little . which same name. and why this last sensation differed that in entirely from that which was felt divided. &c. I have seen since. a kind that unlike that of any other system.208 NERVOUS SYSTEM If no longer gives any signs of pain. which has its seat in the skin. has it also in a morbid life. that is to say. sensibility of the nerves has it a peculiar the other character which distinguishes It is this from that of all character which gives a peculiarity to the pain in these organs. scattered here and there. but the difference of pain alone is sufficient to distinguish them. first Mr. This embarrassed me then. as it regards the is nerves of animal the peculiar kind of pain that is experienced in the has tic douloureux. the sensibility returns with when it is drawn again. when the marrow was when I was wholly it is 1 engrossed in surgery. however. is state. A very clear proof of this assertion. Chaussier has very character of neuralgia. that to be refer- red to that general principle of which have already spoken. attention is What particularly 6xed my upon the difference of pain of which each system tion of a the seat. we cease to excite the nerve for an hour or two. he felt when the skin was cut. These experi- ments furnish a result very analogous to that of experi- ments relative to the animal contractility of muscles.

two days before. 209 Every one knows the peculiar sensa- tion of numbness and afterwards of pricking. that the local irri- tation of a trunk often produces suffering in the whole branches. and generally in all that class of diseases of which Mr. and that its comwhole spreads over the whole external part the peroneal suffers. for I This precaution is essential. in subjacent part . No other organ in the economy gives the same sen- sation from the same cause. in the sciatic disease. tated. then painful and swelled the a centre. is compress- ed. through one of the anterior nerves. along the whole course of the nerves. has another pecu- which consists in this. local. except by dividing the irritated trunk. taking care to entangle some of the nervous filaments. though we in shall succeed less frequently here by these means than the affection is the preceding case. the pain extends along course. because passed a pin. in tic dou- loureux. the sciatic nerve with nitric acid 1 the whole limb was swelled and painful the next day. Chaussier has given a sketch under the name of neuralgia. 1st. When we wound. in have a dog. without dividing. one of the branches of the sathe operation of blood-letting. 3d. the whole of whose fore limb I swelled. that is felt when a superficial nerve. where irri. In the tic of the leg. 2d. the internal cutaneous or muscular cutaneous. passed a pin through the cellular texture that sepa- 27 . the consequences of which oftentimes cannot wholly be stopped. while here it is usually extended 4th. an analogous observation may be made. at this have is time another. fre- quently becomes irritated point is numb. LIFE. Thus. as the cubital. when douloureux of the face. We it know that when the cubital is pressed at the elbow.OF ANIMAL nature of the pain. painful irradiations. &c. I along the whole course of the nerve. the phena. whence go forth. sensibility of the nerves The animal liar character. the division of the nerves has sometimes over- come the disease.

never feel thus in their different ramifications. and because the medullary substance sensibility flattened and its destroyed. and that have irri- tated a nerve at one point sometimes without producing any effect. ribs. which often very extensive without any apparent wound. though it is in this direction that sensation I conveyed in a natural state? know all not. The cellular its is not affected In the a distance by the diseases of one of parts. among those of whose parts are united like the nervous system. The ligature of nerves is rarely followed by these accidents. 5th. and though there ligature. sensibility of all the subjacent ramifica- Physicians do not give sufficient attention to this is cause of pain. the affections of any one part of at their trunk. the influence that a portion of an irritated nerve has upon the animal tions. in a wound. the venous. without producing any effect. However in is accidents have often happened from tying a nerve rism. that these different I experiments do not always succeed. the cause we should soon upon the distribution of the is we reflected branches going from the trunk of the nerve that the affected part. however. because the communication with the brain is interrupted. near Why in these phenomena. in that An irritated nerve in a fracture of the of a limb. The arterial.210 NERVOUS SYSTEM rates the filaments of the sciatic. the absorbent. in a tumour. is the animal sensibility of ? the nerve below the affected part always raised Why is does this phenomenon never take place on the side of the brain. by the very means is that irritate. all the operation for aneu- no real danger in making the it good practitioners advise that prove should be avoided. No other system. I should observe. &c. These different considerations in a positive man- ner. and which if number of phenomena. can produce discover at a distance a of which often escapes us. . presents the same pheno- menon.

The general sensations are derived from the sense of feeling. sensations are of two orders. Influence of the nerves upvn the animal sensibility of all the organs. 2d. we should distinguish two kinds of sensations perceived 1st. the 2d. 1st. we must examine it is the part this sysin relation to all tem performs in this property described the other organs. So that when any this point point of the nervous system suffers. as in the preceding nerve that is between and in the brain. which. the whole nervous trunk ble. from the affected part to the nervous extremities. often- times others also are affected. suffers. by the internal sensitive principle. After having considered the animal sensibility in the nervous system itself. serves to conduct the impression.. which remains without being painful this is a real sympathy whereas in the other. &c. Thus animal contractility. in which often the means of trans- mission between the organ that receives the sensation and the brain which perceives cases. 211 continuous. they indicate the presence of the bodies that are in contact with the external organs. . they produce a painful sensation when the external organs are torn. a part being irritated. to be explained accurately. the portion of it. but there is always an intermediate portion more or less considera. These sensations may originate . moisture and dryness. the internal. to the which is the principle of the motion. &c. . how- ever. or acted upon by chemical agents. as we shall see .OF ANIMAL mucous which is LIFE. The general external . as when the stone in the bladder produces suffering in the glans penis. There is. pricked. the particular. more difficulty in the first kind of transmission than in this. the nerves are always intermediate to the brain. requires that the external. and muscle that executes the motion. hardness and softness. they give the general impressions of heat and cold.

2d. thus the eye may cease to see. auditory. the bodies in nature ternal may produce them. As to the general sensa- . the smell. the mouth. necessary. &c. but only the general feeling. gustatory nerves. which does not require. the hearing. and who still would suffer very It much is if the pituitary membrane was irritated. the eye. the nose odours. could never continue after a serious injury of the optic. with a peculiar form in the organs that are provided with it. I have seen a man that was deprived of the sense of smell from the use of mercury. is without doubt as it regards the organs of sense the sight. &c. moisture real pain.212 NERVOUS SYSTEM upon the skin. These particular sensations are to a certain degree inde. to distinguish in the organs of sense. olfactory. attributes of heat and and may be the seat of Every day we see in the ear. or the taste. like the other senses. the ear. the ear sounds. so as to mould themselves to the figure of external bodies.c. and all the exorgans may perceive them. If feeling that each has sepa- now we examine the part of the cerebral nerves in it these two kinds of animal sensibility. patients affected with gutta serena suffering from the eye. the nostrils. a peculiar modification of animal sensibility. pendent of the general ones taste. the tongue tastes. the tongue to and yet these different organs may preserve the and dryness. This . determinate external or to particular emanations from surrounding bodies. are equally essential to one and the other. then. from that which which belongs to is dependant upon the particular kind of rately. all . The particular to certain sensations are relative bodies. 2d. &. the ear to hear. I do not speak of the touch. those affected with deafness having pains &c. faculty of perceiving the general cold. &c. Thus the eye exclusively perceives the light. &c. that the general sense of feeling. the nose to smell. upon the beginning of all the mucous surfaces. appears that they 1st.

Thus when the brain has received a concussion. yet there is neither hearing. it feeling may be The pinched. they have phenomena brain is much more obscure than the preceding. these pains are not perceived. . irritated. are provided more or less abundantly with cerebral nerves none of them receive the nerves of the gangli. cease also to act. with which external all Observe the organs bodies can be in contact. it becomes absolutely insensiit. that the nerves are actually necessary to the external sensations. also. though acute pains may affect the internal organs. it forms almost the whole of this system. The undoubtedly the centre of these sensations. without perfect paralyses of sensation exhibit in easily be man this phenomenon. and the organs of sense. ble. LIFE. which can all produced in the pituitary is animals by cutting or tying limb. origins of the the mucous systems. But how do the impressions . that all whatever be their nature. the eye which are uninjured. opium. burnt. the nerves that go to a is When the general feeling left in membrane after the loss of smell. 213 act in whenever the cutaneous nerves cease entirely to any part of the skin. I believe. It is the same with regard to the other organs of sense. This external portion of the nervous system of animal life is very considerable united to the portion ons. that goes to the voluntary muscles. or any other means. seeing or smelling. if the action of organ is suspended by wine. which has but very few appendices in the organs of internal life. as well as those which take place without this it . of light. &c. of odours and the nostrils is made as usual upon the ear. though the impression of sounds. then. alone paralyzed if the nerves that enter by the spheno- palatine foramen. then feeling is the general likewise lost. as the dermoid system. through the anterior and posterior openings of the nostrils.OF ANIMAL tions. in fact. As to the internal sensations. the olfactory nerve .

which so many nerves enter. which the opponents of but these are such. without seeming to 3d. of the vital forces. when their texture is cut without entangling the nervous filaments that penetrate them. that the opinion of this celeto. the aponeuroses. &c. transmit however to the brain the most painful impressions when they are inflamed. that. All respects the tendons. and which however receive is very few apparent nerves such the medullary memwhich the brane of the long bones. brated physiologist should not be entirely acceded we know upon an organ in the internal sensations is. &c. hesitate to admit. Certain organs in nerves evidently enter. why. in which in the structure of also the branches of these perform so great a part as it relates to animal contractility. the cerebral lungs. as the liver. is which the cause of sensation it seated 2d. the organs with the structure of which the nervous system has manifestly no connexion. . The two kinds of sensibility. that this organ transmits to the brain the par- ticular modifications that experiences in its vital forces. by supposing that the nerves are charged with transmitting these impressions exactly like those which that have the most acute sensi- are experienced by the external organs. do not occasion much pain 4th. 2d. can be irritated in animals. . when they are It is the same 5th. There are organs upon the bility slightest touch. in my division cation of one with the other. of the three . give them much pain. But we are wholly ignorant of the medium of communiHence.214 NERVOUS SYSTEM the internal organs get to the brain it is ? made upon Here are different phenomena. The muscles of animal life. could bring many other facts. &c. that Haller have carefully collected we cannot All that 1st. I &c. is there . The ligaments. are the distended. 1st. that impossible to conceive of well. that no nerve enters. distinction of the I have avoided a systematic basis. as as it seat of acute pain my experiments have proved.

but these experiments have no relation to the . . I Such if is the obscurity of the phenomena of life. less remotely. where experiments are not the basis of it. what is this atmosphere ? Is it an emanation that is constantly made at the exterior of number of those scattered in his works. a knowledge of the nature and essence of the vital forces. the nerves is independent of them. but that in other cases. it is sufficient that it should be in the atmosphere of a nervous cord to be the seat of This ingenious idea of Reil. should be placed sensations. the nerves are in certain cases the evident agents of commu- nication between the organs that receive the impression and the brain that perceives it. that doubt we shall ever be able to establish divisions from a great difference between ani. Some modern they have admitted a authors have been less judicious . I observe that there sensibility is mal and contractility that in the first. 215 kinds of contractility. In fact. than an accurate and judicious mind. at the side of a great that Bordeu has and which are rather proofs of an ingenious author. never execute a voluntary motion without the influence Let us confine ourselves to this general view. as it has placed the air around the earth ? Is it a ? Is it a fluid that power that has been given to the nerves to act at a dis? tance without intermediate bodies Some galvanic exthis in periments seem to prove something similar to the nerves. rests wholly upon the observation of facts. always manifestly by the nerves that the brain communicates with the muscles. hostile to every opinion not founded on rigorous experiment. and that nature has placed around each nervous cord. and so that though an organ may not receive a nerve. we know it is not the kind of relation whilst in the second. nervous atmosphere extending more or acting at a determinate distance . . which is from accurate observation let U3 abandon reasoning. and that the organs can of the cerebral nerves.OF ANIMAL LIFE.

magnetic nature. Why is there not suffering produced. though at a distance from every ner- vous cord ? of activity for motion Would the nerves then have also. when pain transmission of animal sensibility.216 NERVOUS SYSTEM Moreover. &c. viz. which the nervous influ- ence tion. electric. in most physiological treatises. is Some have admitted last a kind of vibra- others a fluid pervading the insensible canals of hypothesis is still these organs. they perform however an essential part in this property. in the centre of a large articulation. animal contractility always supposes the exercise of three successive actions. whilst the pain it is very acute in an inflamed part. upon that of The texture of the nerves is wholly destitute of is this contractility. considered in relatidn to the muscles of ani- mal life. What has not been said upon the albuminous. that of the brain. Moreover. The divided opinions of physiologists have been singularly in upon the manner propagated. takes place in the middle of a very thick tendon. or even connected with it. the nerves and the muscles. but I shall say nothing upon it. This in much credit. as that of the knee for example. Influence of the nerves the other parts. We shall see that they are the essential agents which transmit to them the principle of motion so that . No kind of sensible motion ever observ- ed in them . for we do not know any thing that rests upon experiment. is by is the irritation of an insensible part that at the side of a nerve. a sphere ? But why should the contiguity of it the nerve never be sufficient to produce in the muscles ? Why is it not the same of sensation ? Jlnimal contractility. it would be necessary that the atmosphere of nervous activity should extend sometimes even an inch. is almost wholly devoted to the examination of this question. are we not able . of this fluid? The article upon the nerves.

of light. until philosofinally phers perceived that before reasoning it was neces- sary to have a foundation upon which their reasoning should rest. of judgment. until metaphysicians have perceived the necessity of analyzing the operations of our intellectual faculties before they can know their essence. What is the result of an immense deal of rubbish. of cold. Thus observe. gists of the Properties of organic considered in the nerves. The insensible and the organic sensibility are there only to that degree that necessary to nutrition . &c. that of the last age. Science was in its infancy When all the questions they discussed turned upon the first causes of the vital it ? phe- nomena. for these pro- perties have no other functions to support there. Physiolofurther. They organs. an epoch useless to the sciences. 1st. &c. and the necessity of finally rate study of these coming to the accuphenomena by abandoning that of their causes. Each of the natural sciences has almost had two epochs . Thus intermina- ble disputes have existed in the schools upon the nature of the soul. in which first causes were the only subject of discussion 2d. phenomena only Physiology has that experience still and observaone foot in the first epoch. are in general very indistinctly marked in these They want is sensible organic contractility. to have wished to begin where they should one day end. until ries. that in .OF ANIMAL without LIFE. they then sought for these foundations and thus created experimental philosophy. present day should advance life. that almost all the diseases of the nervous system 28 . we have observed enough to establish theoThus mankind have disputed for ages. to which they have begun be composed of the study of the tion offer. study and analyze the phenomena of the nerves ? It is the common fault of all the ancient physiologists. of heat. 21? to knowing the mode of the nervdus action. upon the nature of fire. it still whilst it has placed the other in the second.

&c. however severe they may be. &c. they still preserve for a long time the same degree of is organic sensibility. tion of the nerves they have no effect upon the nutriwhich transmit them. On the . When the pain . like those of rheumatism. has been a long time the seat of uninter- rupted painful sensations. when a which there are nerves. have often searched to see. in that the nerve diminishes in size. as the dilatation of the arteries of tumours. not found any sensible difference. ever an alteration in the nervous texture . Desault discovered fingers. the uterine nerves in those of the womb . makes their nutrition more active and their size more apparent but generally this phenomenon is infinitely less sensible in them than in the muscles. median nerve of uncommon certainly in this kind but this phenomenon not as genera!. as in the systems in which the organic properties are predominant. and that but very There is hardly no tumours. the also in a body is affected with carcinoma of the size .218 NERVOUS SYSTEM are affections of the animal sensibility. part. As to acute pains. and their nutrition usual. It is them any differonly when the limb becomes atrophous. . ulcerations. 1 have never found at the in which never happens except I end of a long time. have dissected the stomachic cords in cancers of the I have pylorus. other hand though the nerves may have lost the faculty of transmitting sensation and motion. the nutrition of these is altered. except in two subjects. of different inflammations. in whom they were a little enlarged. this last especially. Thus morbid anatomy finds but little to exercise itself upon in the nerves. fungi. I the same as have many times examined comparatively the nerves of the sound side and those of the side affected with hemiplegia ence. The little continual motion of a part sometimes increases a the organic sensibility of the nerves that are found there. if. and consequently I if their organic sensibility is affected. few suppose a disorder in the organic.

takes place in these organs. exhalation. and it may be. now in none of these cases do the nerves appear to perform an essential part. by the organic it is sensibility that the solid receives the impression. nutrition. This. tractility that it by the insensible con- reacts .OF ANIMAL is tic LIFE. and the nerves were the same on each side. and in consequence of which It is the solids react. 219 itself. the tendons. Inflammation. however. absorption. These are. a number of varicose dilatations of veins that enter- ed it. secretion. and little this had at its superior part. the ligaments. the fluids In all the phenomena of these funcmake an impression on the solids of which we have no consciousness. from animal of. seated even in the nervous texture as in the douloreux. for I preserved the nerve of a patient. 5th. tions. Have the cerebral nerves any influence upon the orI ganic sensibility of other parts? think not. the capilthis assertion. The life capillary circulation exists in the cartilages. as well as in those that are . &c. who had experienced very acute its pain in whole course. deserves further research. that in many is cases. At least Desault had occasion to open two patients that had had that disease. the internal substance of the nervous cords sciatic a little altered . es- which we can with its difficulty conceive pecially in natural state and in the external sensations. 4th. let us lary circulation. 3d. 1st. 1st. without the nervous influence intermediate between the brain and the part that receives the impression. Influence of the cerebral nerves upon the organic properties of other parts. 2d. To prove examine the functions that depend upon organic sensibility. and this it is the essential difference that distinguishes sensibility. in which the nerves of animal do not enter. which this is only a derangement. there is oftentimes no organic affection. an increase of capillary circulation.

and inflammation comes on. refer to the dermoid system to I prove that the sweat independent of the nerves. that have said. is 2d. not so often inflamed as the rest of this system. tumour is uniformly . then independent of the cerebral nerves. Exhalation last the second function over which this I is property presides. tion of the nerves themselves the internal substance of the brain is hardly ever inflamed. are. the muscles are an example of Avhose surface alone this. In the limbs of paralytic patients. In the first phenomena. than the inflamma. there are hardly any nerves so . which there are infinitely less nerves the capillary circulation constantly active there. NERVOUS SYSTEM what do I say ? where the nerves is are the most numerous. The tongue. The Nothing which is entirely nervous. in which there is an evident exhalation. action a limb. as in whenever there are accicysts. retina. are wholly distinct and have no analogy with those of inflammation. and the cellular texture. almost destitute of them dental exhalations. would only observe here. has more than four or even five is times the quantity of nerves of the mucous surface. this affection not the most fre- quent. the cellular texture. as I remarkable for function. in . &c. hydatids. the nervous action has ceased there in ? when Have you ever accelerated this circulation inflammation. examine the serous is surfaces. On the other hand. or produced by increasing convulsively by irritation the of the nerves of this limb ? The phenomena of convulsions and those of paralysis. in the second it is the organic . that the serous surfaces this .220 the most nervous . in animals in whom the nerves are cut in ble. is more rare as I have said. if the cerebral nerves had any influence upon them. that in the synovial. the nerves as the have evidently no influence. however. order to render a part insensi- does not the capillary circulation continue as usual. it is the animal sensibility that this is is altered . is rarely inflamed. this would not be so.

may be made concerning notwithstanding what Bordeu may have observation rest. than what derived from general sympathy. said. are not those in whom I nutrition is the most active. though the ner- vous and cerebral actions are essentially intermittent.. medullary absorpIt is &c. ought to produce one tions. the same of all the functions over which the organic sensibility presides . has any one been able to influence nutrition by acting upon the brain. In palsy. . but yet they go on constant^. as well as the deficiency in the action of the nerves. but it . a phenomenon common to many diseases. and that finally the diseases of the nervous system is have no other influence upon this function. 3d. the tendons. intermission. paralyzed limbs also its alterations are always independent of those of the nervous system. the nerves. OF ANIMAL LIFE. as by irritating the nerves. 221 that by acting in any manner upon the nervous system. Nutrition takes place in parts that evidently re- ceive no nerves. as well as of that of the brain. 5th. 4th. as by tying or cutting the annihilate or vial. or the spinal marrow. It is during . I refer upon this point to the glandu- lar system. &c. without them . as in the cartilages. the brain. in the serous. Those people in whom this system is the most elevated. the long rest. Marasmus undoubtbut it edly succeeds is all prolonged nervous diseases. The same For the the secretions. who are the in most sensitive. believe. As much may be is said of absorption. they are essentially uninterrupted. an intermission in the action of the nervous system. and the spinal marrow. in order to excite this system. sleep that the skin oftentimes absorbs most easily now This there at that time. synovial. serous. to which it is periodically subject. first. to action. syno- weaken its or cutaneous exhalations are never in any way affect- ed . has an influence in producing atrophy . and compressing the second. the cellular. In no experiment.

or four years is even. are of a nature wholly different from those In general. Place on one side the injuries of the external . natural nutrition obeys the same laws as accidental nutrition. belong to the alterations of the or- ganic sensibility. three. dropsies. and implies a greater or less degree of disorder in the nervous system. which is almost always developed in a remarkable manner in these tu- mours. whilst every thing like spasm. all the phenomena. in fact. &c. are completely independent of nervous ac- tion . injury of the intellectual thing. we shall see hereafter that the nerves do not increase in proportion with the parts to which they are distributed. over which preside what are commonly called the tonic forces. life. convulsion. Now . sweating. the diseases that affect the functions of animal life which destroy the harmony of organic life. organic sensibility and insensible From what has been said. and fleshy granulations. &c. morbid phenomena over which Inflammations. hemorrhages.222 is NERVOUS SYSTEM this manifests itself. and the same phenomena. In fine. a long time before Who does not know one ? that often at the end of two. &c. the same progress. it is evident that contractility. like those of animal require this action. every which tends in diseases to destroy our relations with surrounding bodies. suppurations. no connexion with all they are never found in them a phenomenon very different from that which is offered by the arterial system. Each kind it of sensibility has its presides. trance. the formation of tumours. disorders of secretions. torpor. They have not the same character. belongs to the alterations of animal sensibility or contractility. the cerebral nerves have evidently these productions . the diseased limb exactly of the size of the well Moreover. and consequently that these properties would not. viz. paralysis. &c. as that which takes place in the formation of fungous and sarcomatous tumours. functions.

produces an analogous effect. those of is as quadrupeds and birds. 5th. &x. respiration. Physicians have used too vaguely the term nervous exhalation.c. &c. . are all others. loss of taste. secretion. it always lessened when this action diminishes there are as many which the heat appears to be independent of the nervous it system. I knew a person had had the cubital nerve divided a piece of glass above the pisi- form bone. the temperature of the 4th. The follow- ing facts relate to this influence. the principal seat of which is in the brain. It appears that the nerves have some influence in the production of still unknown. the compression of the nerves by the heads of the bones. If in medicine. 1st. One in of the characters of ataxic fevers. influence. 3d. . with a strongly marked nervous system. Often in luxations. catarrhs. apoplexy. absorption. However. &c. the affected part is of a temperature below what is natural. &c. the ligature of the nerve is often followed by a sensation of general torpor and coldness in the limb. In aneurism. we had ac- customed ourselves to use those expressions only to this which was attached a precise and definite meaning. . 2d. the diseases fevers. &c. in hemiplegia. circulation. epilepsy. &x. those of the internal senses. and all that disturb digestion. is the dif- remarkable irregularity ferent parts of the body. as there are where appears to be connected . catalepsy. and whose little and ring fingers of that hand uniformly remained colder than the rest. animal heat. 6th. nor .OF ANIMAL LIFE. would have been employed much less frequently. as in physiology. nutrition. those of the voluntary motions. blindness. on the other. in whom by the degree of natural heat that the highest. Sometimes. Animals. deafness. . 223 senses. is when the cases in augmented. hemorrhages. we shall then see what an immense difference there is between them. &. the heat nervous action is is not always increased. mania. though the pulse may be as strong in this side as the other.

then 1 shall speak of the general influence that the nervous system exercises upon the sympathies and of the part it takes in them. of those which has with the muscles and with the brain. 224 with of it . the nervous sympathies are very numerous. NERVOUS SYSTEM so that we are still confined here to the collection facts. Every I sympathy excludes Barthez is that of a natural connexion of functions. the of always connected with the action of the idea of &x. Often in neuralgia (a word which I adopt very willingly express a class of and which is wanted in the science to diseases every genus of which has a distinct name) often I . Sympathies peculiar to the nerves. Thus too. thus consider- ed. though it sometimes takes place in them. there We know in between the two optic nerves in its medicine the relation the one being dis. that each nerve has with the other parts. ordered functions. mistaken speak only of the unnatural relations of the phenomena that take place between an organ and a portion of the nervous system which is not connected upon this point. with it by the natural order of life . without drawing general conclusions from them* Sympathies* upon the sympathies of the nerves. now. 1st. In fact. these relations are natural for the one cannot be affected without the other's feeling it. I shall examine first the relations forces I divide what I have to say .. Two is nerves of the same pair often sympathize with each other. as I did that which was said upon their vital that is to say. the arteries heart. This happens more rarely with regard to the ears. the nostrils. There is no doubt as to the relations of the nervous it with the other systems. These three organs can is in this respect be considered pulsation under one point of view. &c. the other frequently becomes so.

a number of sympathetic phenomena take It is place in the system. have an example of for it is a woman. changes applied of weather. I two blisters upon the thigh at the in first affected . which also reits nerves from the fifth pair. I at others they are influenced. injury of the frontal nerve has been many times followed 2d. order to cure pains in both eyes. sometimes the animal sensibility is raised in various remote parts. and hence the pains that are often experienced in the head. &c. this at present . same time at the end of twelve it Thus. in the internal viscera. it is not among themselves that . the pain disap- peared in both sides hours. say first they influence. who two months has In been afflicted with sciatica of the left limb. hence the conIn vulsions that occasionally take place in the muscles that receive branches from the affected nerve. in which the nervous texture is particularly affected. a pain precisely similar spreads itself along the course of the nerve of the opposite side. it is some cases is the sensible brganic contractility which sympa* 29 . two nerves of the same side sympaThus an thize without belonging to the same trunk. the nerves sympathize. superficial temporal is wounded the operation of arteriotomy. thus a nerve being irritated Diseases frequently show these in any way. the whole face. pains that cease when the cause that supported them has disappeared. the corresponding I one becomes so sympathetically. it is Sometimes the animal contractility . cases it the branches of a common when a in trunk which influence each other reciprocally. At other times. 3d. In other in consequence of the affection of is. becomes painful. but with other organs and then sometimes they influence. &c. as branch of the ceives 4th. facts. Sometimes by a sudden blindness the optic nerve.OF ANIMAL say in LIFE. thus in tic douloureux and analogous diseases. &c. is oftentimes sufficient to act only upon one. 225 neuralgia a nerve being painful.

the nerves can be influenced by dis- eased organs . the action of the heart is hurried. is often witnessed in a state of health fully increased in diseases. thus in many acute and chronic affections. Authors have been much divided upon the cause that How can an organ which has no is relation with another that frequently very remote. the aponeuroses. in- fluence it so as to produce serious diseases there. that if but it is so wonder- we could remove from them the symptoms that are not exclusively dependant upon the derangement of the function particularly affected.226 NERVOUS SYSTEM Thus in the thetically excited by the nervous affections. particularly in the extremities. Thus by acting upon the nerves of the superior or inferior extremities. supports sympathies. seat in the Influence of the nerves upon the sympathies of the other or- gans. nerves I In the second place. I in muscles that were in no have frequently produced vomiting. it is almost always that which is brought sympathetically into Physicians have not distinguished with sufficient action. merely itself affected ? because it is This singular phenomenon . We can by experiments produce the same phenomena. paroxysm of neuralgic pains there vom&c. from that which has muscles. all the rest it seem to feel simultaneously the disorder experiences. by irritating them any way after they have been laid is often spasmodic iting. &c. . sensibility is the predominant property of the nerves. The moment an organ to affected. or convulsions way connected with the irritated. accuracy in the pains of the extremities. we should find but little difficulty in their is study or treatment. that which beits longs to the nerves. the tendons. bare. sympathetic pains spread along the course of different As the animal nerves. ex- and each seems be agitated in its own way in order to pel the morbific matter that has seized upon one of them.

;

OF ANIMAL

LIFE.

227

Most authors have believed that the nerves were the general means of communicatien that connected the organs with each other, and also their derangements. The anastomoses have appeared to them to be destined to this use; and with this opinion, some have thought that the brain was always mediately affected, but this others have rejected. The communication of parts by the means of blood vessels has also been thought to be a cause of symOthers have admitted the continuity of the celpathies. some, that of the mucous membranes. I lular texture
;

shall not undertake to refute in detail these different hy-

potheses
ble to
all

;

I

would observe only, that as no one
it is

is

applica-

the cases of sympathy,

because the aberrain too gener-

tions of the vital forces
al

have been described

a manner;

it

has been thought that a single principle

presided over them, and this principle has been sought
for.

But

in order to ascertain the cause that supports
I have divided the each of these properties supphenomena, so the sympathies that put
;

sympathies, they must be divided, as
vital

properties

for as

poses different

them

in action, differ also.

To make
let us
;

this distinction of

the sympathies more evident,
organ, the stomach for example

suppose a diseased

it becomes then a cenwhence go forth numerous sympathetic irradiations, which bring into action in the other parts, sometimes the animal sensibility, as when pains of the head come on sometimes contractility of the same species, which is the case when worms in the stomach produce convulsions in

tre,

children

;

sometimes, sensible organic contractility, which,

raised in the heart by certain pains in the stomach, occasions fever; oftentimes the insensible organic contractili-

ty and the organic sensibility, as
tions

when

the gastric affec-

increase sympathetically the secretions that take

place upon the tongue, and produce there a mucous
coat.

There are then sympathies of animal

sensibili-

ty and contractility, and of organic sensibility and con-

228
tractility.

NERVOUS SYSTEM
This being premised,
let us

examine the cause
is

of each.
1st.

When

the animal sensibility

sympathetically

raised in a part, this does not always

communications;

for

depend on nervous oftentimes the organ in which is the
then
it

material cause of pain does not receive any nerves, as the

tendons, the cartilages, &c.

;

cannot communicate
is

this pain by them with that in other hand we have seen above that it

which

found.

On

the

is still

very uncer-

tain

if

the nerves are the only agent
;

that carry to the

brain the internal sensations
affected organ acts at
first

we cannot say
upon the

then that the

upon the brain by their means,
part in
it.

and that
pain
is

this reacts afterwards

which the

seated,

by the nerves that go to
is

Can we conagent for the
it

ceive that the cellular texture should be an

communication of pain, which

insensible to

itself?

Observe also that the parts that are the most abundantly
supplied with this texture, as the scrotum, the mediasti-

num, &c. are not those that sympathize the most. The same is true of the blood vessels, which, by their nature, are not fitted to transmit animal sensibility, and which
besides do not exist in
It
all

the organs.

appears that

all

sympathetic pains are nothing but an

aberration of the internal sensitive principle, which refers
to a part a sensation, the cause of

which

exists in another.

Thus when the extremity
pain,

of the stump gives the patient

who

has just undergone amputation, the sensitive
it is
it

principle perceives the sensation correctly, though

deceived as to the place whence
the foot which no longer exists.

it

comes;
It is

it

refers

to

the

same when a

stone irritating the bladder, produces pain at the glans
penis.

terized

Thus all sympathy of animal sensibility is characby the integrity of the part in which we find the

pain, and by the cessation of this sympathetic pain,

when

the cause that acts elsewheie has ceased.
able,

It is

then prob-

when

a part suffers sympathetically, that that which

OF ANIMAL LIFE.
is

229
first

the seat of the material cause of the pain acts

upon

the brain, either by the nerves, or

by some means with

ceives the sensation,

which we are unacquainted, and that when the brain perit is mistaken as to it, and refers it to
;

or it refers it at the a part from which it does not arise same time to the part from which it arises, and to another where it does not this happens frequently. The stone for example, produces suffering at the same time in the bladder and at the end of the glans penis. These aberrations of animal sensibility then exist en;

tirely in the brain;

it

is

an irregularity, a derangement

of perception

;

this irregularity presents
;

phenomena
is

anal-

ogous to the following
sation of heat, as

we

often refer to the skin a sen-

we

shall see,

though caloric

not disen-

gaged there

in a greater quantity than usual.

We know

that oftentimes the sensations of hunger and that of thirst

are purely sympathetic, and that the cause which pro-

duces them

in

a natural state does not then exist in the

stomach or

intestines.

We know

the illusions of vision,

of hearing, of the smell even, &c.

We

have not studied
;

sufficiently the irregularities of perception

those of the

memory, the imagination, the judgment,
analysed.

&.c.

have been

These, however, have been almost forgotten.
the greatest part in animal sensibility.
contractility supposes constantly nervous

They perform
2d.
action,

Animal

when

it is

put in exercise sympathetically.

In fact

we

shall see that this

property cannot be exerted without

the triple action of the brain, of the nerves that go to the

muscles that move, and of the muscles themselves.
a muscle of animal
tation of
life is

When
irri-

brought into action by the

any distant organ, by the distension of the ligaments of the foot for example, this organ acts at first upon the brain, which then reacts by means of the nerves

upon the voluntary muscles that are concerned in convulsions. The following is an experiment by which I
satisfied

myself of the cerebral and nervous influence in

230

NERVOUS SYSTEM
T

the sympathies that occupy us.

cut

all

the nerves

of the inferior limb of one
I

side, in different animals,

and

afterwards irritated in a thousand different ways, very
bones, &c.

irritable parts, as the retina, the pituitary

marrow of the
tractility, as

I

produced in

this

membrane, the way a num-

ber of sympathetic phenomena, sometimes of organic convomiting, involuntary evacuations of urine,

&c. sometimes of animal contractility in the muscles whose nerves remained untouched. But the muscles whose nerves were cut, were never brought into acfecal matter,
tion.
I

have very frequently repeated these experiments,

which would have certainly produced results, if the nervous communications could, without the intervention of
the brain,

make

the muscles of animal

life

contract.

I

would observe upon not been paid in experiments upon sensibility, to the symdo not know even that these I pathetic phenomena.
this subject, that sufficient

regard has

phenomena have been

the object of

any experiments

upon animals, before those of which I have here given the first results, and which 1 propose to multiply under other points of view. There are then two things in all

sympathy of animal contractility, viz. 1st, the action upon the brain of the organ that suffers, by means, of which as yet we know but little 2d, reaction of the brain upon the voluntary muscles. In this last period of sym;

pathy, the nerves of animal
necessary.
3d.

life

are the agents constantly

The

cerebral nerves and brain, have evidently no
in action sensible

connexion with the sympathies that put
organic contractility or
fected organ would
first

irritability.

If

they had, the
this

af-

act

upon the brain, and
;

would

react upon the involuntary muscle

thus,

when

tickling

produces vomiting, there would be an action of the skin upon the brain, and of the brain upon the stomach. Now the brain never exerts any influence upon the involuntary
muscles
;

whatever be the

irritation that the nerves ex-

;

OF ANIMAL

LIFE.

231

perience which go to them, the muscles remain unaffected.

Then although the brain may be sympathetically
it

af;

fected,

does not react upon the

involuntary muscles

the cerebral nerves then have no connexion with the sympathies of sensible organic contractility.

The
by

continuity

of the

membranes

is

not a
it.

more

substantial cause,
that

and

this is the

proof of

We know
;

irritating the

uvula, the

stomach heaves
is

now

as the

mucous surface
attribute
I

of the one and the other
this

the same,

we might

sympathetic phenomenon to this circumstance.
in

have then made a wound

the side of the neck of a dog
it
;

taken hold of the oesophagus and cut
uvula has been afterwards irritated

transversely; the

the dog, notwith-

standing the interruption of continuity,

made

efforts

to

vomit as before.
not

Let us acknowledge then that we do

know

the cause of the sympathies of sensible organic

contractility.

4th.

As much may be said of the sympathies of

or-

ganic sensibility and insensible contractility.

We have

two properties

proved that the nerves have no influence upon these that by acting upon them we neither ;

increase or diminish
diseases do not

them

in

disturb the functions over

any manner, and that their which these
are sympathetically

properties preside.

Then when they

disordered, the nerves appear to have no connexion with

these phenomena.
tion, as the

Thus, 1st, every sympathetic exhalasweats of phthisical patients, certain serous
take place almost instantaneously, &c.

infiltrations that

2d,

all

secretions of the

same kind,

as those

in a

number of
all

diseases afford us examples of them,

which appear &c.

3d,

analogous absorption, the three functions over

which the preceding properties preside, are evidently unconnected with the nervous influence of animal
shall say the
life.

I

same of the cellular, vascular influences, &c. Certainly we have no data, by which we can explain how these means of communication produce sweat when

232

NERVOUS SYSTEM
in

the lungs are affected, and saliva

the mouth

when

the

membrane of the From all that
greatest

palate

is

irritated,
it

&c.
1st.

has been said

follows,

that the
in

sympathies of animal sensibility

appear

to be

the

number of

cases an aberration of the principle

that perceives in us, and

which

is

deceived as to the
;

place in which the causes of sensation act

2d. that the

sympathies of animal contractility require inevitably the
intervention of the brain, but
affected acts

upon

this viscus,

though

we know not how the we know very
;

part
well

how

this viscus

sympathetically excited reacts upon the
3d. that the causes of

muscles to make them contract

the two kinds of organic sympathies are absolutely un-

known and
cation

that a thick veil hides the agents of communiin

which connects,
it.

this

case,

the organ
to that

which the sympathetic influence goes
ceives
It is this

from which re-

obscurity of the sympathetic causes, that has
entirely

made me
I

neglect every

kind of hypothetical

opinion, in classing the sympathies in this work, in which

examine them
to

in

each system of organs.

I

have had

re-

gard only
exercise.

a natural division, to that indicated by the

vital forces of

Now

which the sympathies are but an irregular by limiting ourselves to the most rigorous
evident that this division
I

observation,
that
is

it is

is

the only one
is

admissible; and

believe that there

no other

to be employed, until our

knowledge

shall

be sufficiently

extended to admit of their being classed by the causes that produce them, and not by the results they present.
Besides
I

cannot recommend too strongly the necessity

of distinguishing what belongs to them from that which
arises

what takes place
organ
is

from the natural connexion of functions. Observe one in syncope, apoplexy and asphyxia
;

disordered

;

all

the others soon cease to act.
in these

Sympathies have no part
cians have

phenomena. Physibeen much embarrassed by classing these

;

OF ANIMAL
affections,

LIFE.
to

233
the nerves, at

sometimes as

if

they belonged

others to the sanguineous system,

&c.
in

This

is

what

takes place in each.
1st.

The

heart

first

ceases

to act

all

syncopes,

whether they arise from passions of the mind, disagreeable odours, &c. The circulation being stopt, the brain is no
longer excited by the blood
;

it

ceases

its

action,

and the
life

whole of the animal

life is

interrupted.

The

organic

that the blood supports,

is

thus suddenly annihilated.

2d.

Asphyxia commences
ranged
;

in

the lungs.

Respiration

is

deit

it

sends to the brain blood that cannot excite

this ceases to

correspond with the senses, to determine
3d.
It is
its first

in-

voluntary motions, &c. &c.

in the brain that
life is

apoplexy has
interrupted
;

seat

;

thus animal
it is

then,

when

immediately very severe, the brain not
the mechanical, then
;

being able longer to support the motions of the intercostal
muscles, these motions are stopt
;

the chemical action of the lungs ceases

circulation can-

not go on, and organic
that
in all

life is

interrupted.

We

see then,

the

phenomena of

these

affections, the injury

of one organ, produces, by a natural consequence, the sus-

pension of the action of the others.

This

is

wholly different

in

the sympathies.

Thus the

functions of the skin being suspended, sometimes the lungs,

sometimes the stomach, and sometimes the intestines, feel it and are affected by it; these sympathetic phenom-

ena may manifest themselves or may not on the contrary, whether it be the cerebral, pulmonary or cardiac ac;

tion, that is

deranged,

it is

impossible but that the others

should be consequently affected.
III.

Properties of reproduction.

Are the nerves reproduced when they have been

cut

?

The experiments
reproduction
?

of

many

distinguished anatomists evi-

dently prove that they are.
If

What

is

the

manner

of this

we examine

the results of these experi-

30

234

NERVOUS SYSTEM
it

ments

is

easy to see that there
it is

is

nothing peculiar in

the nervous system, that

a simple cicatrization analo-

gous to the callus of bones, to the cicatrix of the skin,&c.

When

a nerve has been
it

cut,

its

two ends inflame, the
it

cel-

lular texture that

contains sends forth granulations
possesses.

the property of reproduction that

granulations meeting, form adhesions that unite

by These the two

divided ends of the

nerve.

As the

cellular texture,

the means of union, grows from the cut extremity of the

nervous coat, as well as from that which
cords,
it

is

between the

partakes of the nature of the nervous coat, and

becomes a parenchyma of nutrition, whose mode of organic sensibility is analogous to that of the nerves, and whose vessels deposit there medullary substance, which gives a new appearance to the nervous cicatrix, and makes it resemble very nearly the texture of the nerves themselves. However, as the granulations arising from the divided
ends are not made in a regular manner, there is never at the place of union a thread-like arrangement as there is
in

the nerve

itself.

Thus the
is

callus of a long

bone,

though analogous
like
it

to this bone,

never regularly arranged
cutaneous cicatrix has

in longitudinal fibres; thus a

always an

irregularity in

its

organization, which arises

from the irregular manner

in

which the parenchyma of
is

cicatrization has been developed.

The
bones.

cicatrization of nerves

then analogous to that of
is

In the

first

period there

inflammation
is

;

in the

second, growth of the cellular texture which
for the nutritive

to serve

parenchyma; in the third, adhesion of those parts that have grown in the fourth, exhalation of the medullary substance into the parenchyma. It is this medullary substance that makes this cicatrix differ from the osseous, in which phosphate of lime and gelatine are deposited, from the muscular, in which there is fibrin, &c. Sometimes there is an enlargement in the form of
;

a ganglion, at the place of the reunion of the nerves;

OF ANIMAL
this

LIFE.

235

texture.

depends upon the greater granulation of the cellular Thus sometimes the callus is enlarged ; at

others, if the contact has
slight difference
;

been exact,

we

perceive but a

these are varieties that do not affect

the nature of cicatrization.
It follows from this, that the regeneration of the nerves, which has lately been the object of much research, and which Cruikshank, Monro, &c. have particularly de-

monstrated, has nothing peculiar in

it

;

that

it is

only a

consequence of the general laws of cicatrization, and a proof of the constant uniformity of the operations of nature,

though these operations present

at first sight differits

ent results.
is

A

nerve, that

is

cut out in

whole course,

never reproduced like a

nail,

or the hair, which take

a length, form, and appearance exactly the same as
It is under the they had before they were removed. point of view that we have presented them, and not under this last, that the nervous reproductions should be

described.

ARTICLE FOURTH.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM OF ANIMAL
I.

LIFE.

State of this system hi the Fceivs.
life is

The
that
is

nervous system of animal
developed.
If

one of the
that has

first

the heart

is

the

first

moreis

tion, the brain is the first that

has any considerable size.
is

The

disproportion of the head to the other parts
in the first periods after

markable
ages.

conception

;

its

size

monstrous when compared with that of the subsequent

Now

it is

evident, that

it is

the brain that produ-

ces this, and that the increase of the size of the bones

and the membranes that surround

it, is

owing

to

it.

&. The is difference of the external and in- a question that deserves to be atten- We have seen that the uncertain. are not the game in each j so that an examination of their . obscure action. ternal sensations. that all the voluntary motions proceed. or rather develope around them the double organized edifice. functions. tively considered. the impression. The then. nature begins to build. why does is it not suffer pain in these diseases ? Perhaps the brain it is so much the more sensible to it. so say.c. the brain its two great not like the heart constantly active . When these two essential bases exist. as not diverted by the external senses. the organs. the heart evidently presides over the circulation. all On the other hand. &c. brain tion . first are uni- formly transmitted by the nerves and is that the mode of transmission of the second On the other hand the phenomena. by sending the blood towards tions. exhalations. the secre- which compose by their union organic life. which produces on the one part a communication between the animal and external bodies. are almost nothing. Notwithstanding these early developments. and developing them much sooner than the other first organs. nature wished to establish the foundations of For on the one hand. in the expectation of acit has not acted 1 requires the excitement of exits ternal bodies. is and on the other nourishes it. nutrition. can undoubtedly perceive cer- tain internal motions that take place in the body. the organization of the two lives. however. . it is to it is the brain which is the centre of animal life it is from it this that all the sensations are referred . for if the organic dis- eases can produce the death of the fetus. relative to sensation and motion. intellectual functions also if have but a very all. and es- pecially the pains that arise there . the sensation. that It inactivity necessarily entire.236 NERVOUS SYSTEM We may say that by creating first the heart and the brain. they have really commenced at The is it if we may . is do not say.

The two less is portions. tional to that of the brain. or rather the exhalants that arise from them deposit in their interstices. change the cerebral substance into a glutinous. caustic because the second alkali much at this white. essential. very soft under the finger . nerves of animal life have a development proporAll of .. These arteries are then extremely numerous. compared to the other parts thus the foetus and the them are very large young infant are the most proper for the study of the nervous system. and ropy. as the brain has a very evident reddish tinge. the cortical distinct than less and medullary. and even almost can see it in this state we in the anterior part of the optic. as the less development of the other systems renders this more apparent. a little reddish however. almost like the white of an egg. I discovered nothing similar to this in brain of an adult acids my experiments with the when treated with caustic alkali. are infinitely afterwards. 237 This exami- is nation would have much influence upon the knowledge life of the kind of animal that the foetus can enjoy. and that of the spinal marrow. The first effect before a complete solution. in which it is . does not however attain by them a degree of hardness equal to what they produce in the subsequent periods of life. The it is softness of the brain is very great in the foetus truly a kind of fluid. When it is cut in slices. numerous streaks of this colour are observ- ed in its substance. liquid like the cerebral Their medullary substance is. The extreme The softness of the brain renders its dissec- tion very difficult in the foetus. The it coagulate the cerebral substance of the foetus. The life dissolves them period of with great is to ease. that it is Whatever it may he. OF ANIMAL relations and their differences LIFE. transparent and viscous matter. that the arteries. there can be no doubt but infinitely more contracted than after birth.

These nerves have the same their whitish colour. very considerable. &c. a livid tinge that arises from the kind of blood that enters them . is vous coat that contains as much it or even more de- proportion to what will be afterwards. We should say that this fluid acts at first upon the nervous coat. In all the other nerves this it is much more difficult to ex- amine well veloped in is medullary substance. and that they can support weights propor- tionably very great. and finally at the origin of each pair. Maceration in water. The the blood vessels are proportionably much larger in nerves of the fcetus than in in those of the adult. which does not penetrate and dilate them until the umbilical are closed. and in itself. of that of the parts to which they are distributed. where its proportion to the nervous coat is very evident. and almost liquid. finally it softens it also. in an opposite manner to what it does upon the other animal substances renders it . in the posterior part of it the same nerve. increases this resistance the adult. the proportionably less It is developed in the same of the the vis- has less large arteries. On the contrary. The .238 NERVOUS SYSTEM very evident though contained in the canals of the nervous coat. it is phenomenon as that of the brain. and renders the nerve harder without increasing its size. because the nerit. the olfactory where is found by in the auditory in which it predominates. The nerves are absolutely independent in their increase. gastric arteries. at a moderate as in temperature. whose very small arteries receive but little blood. Thus. the size is of the cerebral. follow the increase of the parts to which they go. resisting Hence it that the nerves are very hard and in the foetus. first The development presents a it of the cerebral nerves in the age phenomenon which essentially distinguishes from the development of the arteries. cera of the pelvis. face These last al- ways foetus.

the liver and the other principal viscera of organic life. distributed to organs The par is vagum which whose increase not in the same relation. and on the other the small influence that the second exercises upon them. which proportionably is to what they were in the foe- surpass the nerves that are sent to them. though the muscles vary in If according to the regions. like the brain. whose organs are already so all much developed. principally desis which not particular- . without regard to these regions. in its different branches. The nerves are. has the same proportion as the optic and the auditory. cerebral and animal muscular tems. nerves are always found in the fcetus. life. while in the adult it is the musshall see first we cles. are on the contrary rarely deficient in tial the fcetus. then predominates manifestly over the second. proves on the one part. tus. I shall The say elsewhere how the fcetus can thus exist. life Why ? Because all the essen- organs of this are necessary. uniform. we examine that the in a general and comparative sys- manner the nervous. I would only remark here that the heart. though they have a great development. for growth. the immediate relation of the first with the increase and nutrition. This double opposite arrangement of the 'wo systems the arterial and nervous cerebral. It is the same of the nerves of the voluntary muscles is their proportion of development their size. 239 whose organ is so contracted in the foetus. brain. whereas the and even the spinal marrow are sometimes wanting. LIFE. this is what constitutes acephalic subjects. principally inactive beIt is fore birth. phenomena that can take place is without the cerebral influence which tined to preside over animal ly in exercise until birth. to this that must be attributed the constant absence of their affections at this period. vegeta- tion and nourishment. .OF ANIMAL olfactory. presents nevertheless the same proportion of size as afterwards.

those of receiving sensations. that the fluid sent by the arteries acts upon the brain. which the external agents act upon immediately after The lungs and the the exit of the foetus from the womb. as quently convinced myself. a stimulant. inevitably increases vital activity. in consequence of the red blood that penetrates it.240 NERVOUS SYSTEM nervous system during growth. brain influence each other reciprocally at this period. Heretofore black blood only circulated in its vessels. which make the that is necessary for the produc. This direct acts simultaneously with the sympathetic excitement that the brain experiences from the skin and mucous surfaces. but also as an excitant. The sudden difference that the circulation its experiences. differing from red life is blood. State of the At birth the animal nervous system experiences a remarkable revolution. have fre- Why ? because it is not only as a vehicle of nutritive matter. Asphyxia is real oped after birth. is sufficient to produce there a remarkable I derangement. tion of this red blood penetrate the lungs hence we see that other excitants act before that of this blood. never begins in it perfection. air. cular motions life Some musbut animal may undoubtedly be made its . The change it it of excitement which the brain its it suddenly experiences at birth. and oftentimes even death. until the organs that execute are influenced by red blood. the least foreign substance. This blood is a general cause of internal excitement. and this by action the diaphragm and the intercostals. gives fit that which is new and renders for the functions has never before performed. which during forced towards the brain by the carotid. has a manifest influence upon In fact functions. II. the first putting in by sending red blood to the second. since . always when the lungs when they do not receive are not develair and conse- quently do not send red blood to the brain.

when the ner- 31 . then. organic ceases. after birth and during the whole of is the growth. and which tive part ef the is without doubt the most sensi- whole organ. the nervous system and the brain. . to a certain point. when it is in part suspended. as we shall see. which predominate in their development over . nerves.OF ANIMAL before its LIFE. principles that 1st. in Now in producing as- phyxia an animal I at will. especially under the relation of the Thus there remarkable diminution. give us an idea of the part the red blood takes at birth. life the first is prolonged. the brain and the whole nervous system are the more powerfully excited by the the blood has derived from the air. for it is not. and the state in which found. 2d. Besides. it suddenly revives and re-appears by opening the stop-cock. the other systems all this predominance is not uniform at the periods . a sort of analogy. and all the parts. in the development of animal life I say the part. to There the foetus life is certainly a very great difference between as- phyxia that happens is an if adult. by fixing a stop-cock upon this life is the wind-pipe. the only cause that puts it in action. while this is is in full activity in the foetus. no resemblance in the composition of the black blood in the arteries in asphyxia and that in the These two states. and. For a long time the centre of it. and permitting red blood to enter the brain. These experiments can. of even the absence of animal life. their vessels are in proportion larger and more numerous than is after- wards . have arteries of the foetus. where found the origin of the nerves. it diminishes at puberty. which characterize both. 241 it formation. as all the cerebral arteries enter at that part of the base of the brain. new as. since. however. annihilated have always observed that and that when the black blood penetrates the brain. the brain has already in a princi- ple of motion.

because of the weakness of the muscles. fatigues these organs three times as much is he to whom a great part of these external objects indifferent. but which are. sounds. like the sensations. who as in the midst of the when awake same objects as the adult. many We might prolong their light. by its early development. In fact. This predominance of the nervous system in the infant has an influence on the one hand on the sensations. The the multiplicity and frequency of the sensations of a infant. is &c. That which it an object of indifference. is Infancy is the age of sensations.242 vous system is NERVOUS SYSTEM in equilibrium with the others. the nerves that transmit them. especially objects engage them. nostrils. consequently. and in whom this state of intermission of It is animal the if first life is more profound. and the it genital organs succeed in superiority. on the other upon the voluntary motions. lead necessarily to number of motions which have not strength. ears. As a man receives great enjoyment from is show if he never witnessed before. wakefulness by removing them from &c. to the great degree of action which have. are really in the infant in permanent excitement. The first influence is very striking. which often repeated. and the brain that perceives them. because they have heretofore excited him. the want of sleep returns oftener. its is little hands are in continual agitation. all it is then to the organs that receive external im- pressions. wishes constantly to touch . As the sight incessantly presents new objects it to the infant. in whom. a source of pleaa sures. in months. extremely numerous. Thus observe that the periods of activity of animal life are much shorter in the infant who fatigues his organs in a few hours. every to thing attracts us is eyes. can pass the whole day awake. As every thing its new to to the infant. rare that infants. its whole body also in . It blunted by habit was then necessary that the nervous cerebral system should be adapted.

by influencto a ing the womb. according as their predominance in the economy or less is more decided. So great to is the susceptibility of the brain in if answering vulsions. . like those of the sensations. which then begins to predominate strong vigorous young man. are a proof of this. that the different would observe upon les3 systems are more or disposed in the different ages. in whom the gastric viscera predominate. they immediately produce con- which are more frequent at this age than any of the following. The nervous by sympathy functions are not only frequently deranged it is in infancy. would produce more particularly in an infant these viscera. hydrocephalus. which attacks the brain. should be adapted by their development. that at least four times I pains are at all severe in any part. an epilepsy. The great quantity that the greatest of blood that goes at that period to the nervous system has much is influence upon this phenomenon . this subject. These two things. fixed upon in any organ. Cerebral fungi. . constant motion. the nerves. would give to a young girl a suppression of the catamenia. &c. a peripneumony . the great development of the nerits vous system and the frequency of action in the infant. It is thus that the same passions that would give to this one a jaundice. to their constant action. engorgement of the liver. It is 243 necessary that the nerves which serve to transmit the principle of these motions. now this quantity brought there by the predominance of the vital forces.OF ANIMAL LIFE. The same morbific cause. make the diseases of this system the predominant ones at that age. or the organs that depend upon them. but particularly at this age number of organic diseases is found in the brain. to an adult. an affection of &c. to answer to sympathies. which produces convulsions an infant by acting sympathetically upon the brain. sympathetic excitements. &c. spina bifida. the spinal marrow.

III. which is the centre of it. Thus the great excitement of the genital organs. They are brought finally to eases become less frequent. are absolutely independent of the nerves. Beyond puberty. At this period of life. have no analogy with convulsions whose principle is in the brain . is At puberty. Observe. Slate of the nervous system after growth. This is so true. gives place to that of the genital organs. bodies sense . from which arise satyriasis. which have a sudden increase. which insensi- bly diminished. the level of the other systems. is the reason why external make many but little impression upon the organs of of these. or by any other cause.244 NERVOUS SYSTEM In proportion as the infant grows. that all the phenomena of geneforces. which. IV. are . as ration are governed by the organic we have seen. when the general equilibrium is more nearly established among the different systems. the secretion of semen and venereal desires take place as usual. in fact. and towards the adult age. Slate of the nervous system in old age. as well as upon that of most of the other systems. lose by degrees Their disthe predominance that characterize them. &c. the empire of the brain. The cerebral nerves appear to me to have but little influence upon their development. the nervous is not affected more than those of which we have had occasion to speak in treating of this system. the nervous cerebral system has but very few functions to perform. As to sensation. especially the eye and the ear. its nervous system and the brain. as the destruction of the venereal appetite is wholly dis- connected with the phenomena of the palsies. nymphomania. that often during those that affect the lower half of body by a fall on the sacrum. this being almost blunted by habit.

The first is not put in action by the intellectual age. In the foetus. we have not yet sufficiently studied the comparative anatomy of the make applications of it to the examination of dead bodies. In this respect has an inverse ar- rangement at the two extreme ages of life. and the brain but is perceive. has much influence upon the preceding less acuteness phenomena . there is felt . that would observe upon indicates in a eral. It is rare that it is ossified. but little and motion are two things that generally follow the same proportion. judgment. exactly analogous in position. there are. As to motion. form. all are enfeebled. none are exerted with clearness.OF ANIMAL LIFE. to alteration. are very much slower in taking place than in the adult and especially in the infant. attention. produces much less suffering. some examples of it. The solution by alkalies is a remarkable proof of this. memory. that the action of different re-agents presents. The brain and the nerves are almost inactive in this respect. In gen- young person a morbid different ages. The phenomena. the brain is almost fluid . however. brain in it The vessels diminish in the proportion as its hardness increases. to this must be referred the of pain at this age.c. &. all We know that anatomists always select this I the brain of an old person in order to study viscus. A cancerous tumour of an old perits son. it is extremely firm. 245 The in old nerves have then but little to little to transmit. often shut to sensations before general death. imagination. this subject. because but little for feeling functions. Its colour becomes more dull in old age. in old age. what is natural at this age. the parts of which are broken with difficulty. size and na- ture to that of an adult. . Changes of structure constantly accord with these changes of functions. This organ has passed through a variety of gradations between the two extreme ages. We cannot doubt but that this organic state of the brain in old age.

their nerves. have made upon living animals. should preserve the same character in disease. it is a compensation for the diminution of their enjoyments. when the sensible parts are cut. also the All the local causes of pain show In the numerous experiments I same thing. that young ones. it is that the variety appears in dogs. under the influ- ence of the same causes. and are not much agitated. though they may be slight- old. like . it is not astonish- ing that the animal sensibility having become very obscure in a natural state. thus smiles and tears succeed each other a hunlittle . dred times a day upon his the contrary state. An old person suffers then much less than the adult. and especially than the infant. I have uniformly observed. they harden gradually with age. whilst the small ones. tion of hardness in the first however ages is their propor- and last . All the large varieties make but little noise. nish examples of this. &c. &c. An old person is on always calm indifference his natural The nerves experience the same changes as the brain. the stomach. much less re- markable than that of this organ this arises from the nervous coat for the effect upon the medullary substance appears to be the same. This medullary substance has . me . all when their skin. As to the influence of age upon pain. ces. in a certain degree to have an influence upon the acuteness of their sensations. . the breast. are cut. appeared to quantity. a cause of pleasure or of pain . to be less abundant it is in the optic nerve of an old person however difficult to determine the The colour of the nerves becomes dull. is face. struggle. est cause. The infant finds in every thing that surrounds him. the and manifest upon the most acute sensibility.246 NERVOUS SYSTEM fur* Cancers of the womb. are agitated. give signs of the most acute pain whilst old ones show infinitely less expression of it under similar circumstanI would make one other remark upon this subject.

OF ANIMAL
that of the brain.

LIFE.

247

They

receive fewer vessels.

They

are never ossified.

Sometimes we say that the extremities of the nerves have become callous it is a vague expression, to which
;

no meaning can be attached. When will medical language cease to refer to the empty and inaccurate hypotheses that formerly constituted medicine? Most of these
hypotheses have passed away, yet the names to which
they gave birth remain.

The nervous system and
hemiplegia
sions
is

the brain frequently lose be;

forehand, in old people, a part of their functions

hence
neces-

almost as frequent at that age, as convulits

which are

opposite, are in infancy.

It is

sary to distinguish the hemiplegias of old people from
those of adults.

They

are

of the same nature as the
;

blindness, the deafness of old people

the difference

is

only in the injury of sensation or motion.

NERVOUS SYSTEM OF ORGANIC

LIFE.

GENERAL REMARKS.

NO
sent
it.

anatomist has yet considered the nervous system
I

of the ganglions in the point of view in which

shall pre-

This point of view consists

in describing

each

ganglion as a distinct centre, independent of the others
in
its

action, furnishing or receiving particular nerves as
its

the brain furnishes or receives

own, having nothing

in

common, except by anastomoses, with the other
gous organs
;

analo-

so that there is this remarkable difference between the nervous system of animal life, and that of organic life, viz. that the first has a single centre, and

that

it is

to the brain that every kind of sensation comes,
it

and that

is

from

it

every kind of motion goes; whilst

in the second, there are as

many

little

separate centres,

and consequently

little

secondary nervous systems, as

there are ganglions.

affixing to the expression

even those who, without any very definite meaning, have called the ganglions little brains, have taken them for dependancies, for enlargements of the nerves, in whose course they are found and as most of them are met with in the great sympathetic, they have presented them as a distinctive character of this nerve. But from the general idea I have just given of the ganglions, it is evident that this nerve has no real existence, and that the continuthat all anatomists,
;

We

know

ous thread that

is

observed from the neck to the pelvis,

is

32

250

NERVOUS SYSTEM

nothing but a succession of nervous communications, a series of branches that the ganglions placed above each
other, send reciprocally to each other, and not a nerve

going from the brain or the spine.

The

first

considerations that induced
is

me

to think

that

the great sympathetic

not a nerve like the others, but
1st.

a series of anastomoses, were the following.

These
in-

communications are often interrupted, without any
thetic goes.
is

convenience, in the organs to which the great sympa-

There are

subjects,

for example, in

whom

found a very distinct interval between the pecto-

ral

and lumbar portions of

this

pretended nerve, which

seems cut in this place, because the last pectoral ganglion and the first lumbar do not send branches to each other. I have often seen also the sympathetic nerve cease, and afterwards appear again between two ganglions and from
the same cause, whether in the loins, or in the sacral re-

Every one knows that the opthalmic ganglion, the spheno-palatine, &c. are constantly distinct, and that they do not communicate by their branches except with the cerebral nerves. It uniformly happens that there is between them and those of the great sympathetic, what we sometimes see between these last, viz. a complete deficiency of communication. 3d. In birds, as has been observed
gion.
2d.

by Cuvier,
ferior.

the superior cervical ganglion
;

is

also found
in-

constantly distinct

it

never communicates with the

The
we

filament which in quadrupeds descends the
is

length of the neck,

wanting in them.

In

many

other

animals

frequently find interruptions in this succes-

sion of anastomoses of ganglions,

which

constitute

what

is

called the great sympathetic.

4th.

The communications
;

of the ganglions are usually but sometimes

made by a single branch many go from one of these organs to the
was a nerve like
an arrangein
this respect,

other, so that if the great sympathetic

the others,

it

would present,

ment wholly

different

from that of the cerebral nervous

1

OF ORGANIC
system.
5th.

LIFE,

25

Whence

From

the sixth pair? But

does the great sympathetic arise ? all the nerves diminish as they
;

go from the brain towards the organs but this presents then an arrangement entirely different; it increases as it
from the spinal marrow ? But then the branches with which it furnishes a region would come from the branches that it receives from the
it

sends off branches.

Does

arise

spinal

marrow

in this region.

Thus the great and small
certain intercostal
pairs,

splanchnic would arise from

now they

are evidently

much

larger, the first especially,

than the sum of the branches from which they would Observe then that all anatomists derive their origin.

have been of a different opinion upon the origin of the
great sympathetic.

How
?

could they agree upon a thing

that has no real existence

These
ion that

different considerations
I

render probable the opin-

have entertained for some lime, that the great sympathetic nerve does not really exist, that this cord is
but a succession of communications between
essential that these
little
it is

ner-

vous systems placed above each other, and that

not

communications should exist, as is constantly between the ophthalmic ganglion and seen

the sphenopalatine, between that and the superior cer-

began

which many animals furnish examples. Then I regard each ganglion as a separate centre of a little nervous system, wholly different from the cerebral, and distinct even from the little nervous systems of the
vical, of

to

other ganglions.

By

considering the functions of the
I

became more and more convinced that they did not belong to the cerebral system. In fact, these nerves have properties very different
from
tions
theirs, as
;

nerves going from these centres,

we

shall see; they

do not serve for sensaorgans of internal
in the

they have uniformly no connexion with voluntary
;

locomotion
life
;

we

see

them only

in the

hence

why

they are found concentrated

trunk,

in

the thorax and

abdomen

particularly;

why

they are

;

252

NERVOUS SYSTEM
all

not met with in the head, where almost

the organs be*

long to animal
tremities,

life

;

why

they are not seen in the exthis life.

which are exclusively dependant upon

Distributed almost every where to the organs of the
internal
life,

the ganglions and their nerves derive their
it;

character from

and

this is

it.

1st.

They

are not

symmetrical

;

thus the nerves of

all

the plexuses of the

abdomen, those of the cardiacs, &c. have a remarkable 2d. There are numberless varieties in the irregularity. form of these plexuses and in that of the ganglions it is thus that, sometimes lenticular, sometimes triangular,
;

sometimes divided into many portions, that which is under the diaphragm is never seen twice alike. Hence the
error of every
that
is

name derived from the

figure; a

remark
life.

applicable generally to the organs of internal

We
life

might rather borrow the names of forms for animal On the in which these forms are more invariable.
hand, the existence of

other

many

ganglions varies

sometimes there are three of them in the neck, at others but two. The arrangement of one side does not produce
a similar one on the other.
that the
I

have frequently remarked
arising from the superior

number of

filaments

cervical ganglion differs very

much from

those that take

their origin from the opposite side.

There are two analo-

gous organs at each side

;

but several attributes of struc-

ture destroy the general character of
like the lungs

symmetry

;

it

is

and the kidnies.

We

can, then, establish
sys-

as a distinctive character

between the two nervous
one of those which

tems, the

symmetry of one and the
is

irregularity of the
distin-

other; now, this character
guish the two lives, as
1

From

all this it is

have remarked before. evident that a line of demarcation
inaccurate which considers

separates the nerves of the ganglions and those of the
brain, and that the

method

is

them
from

as forming a single nerve, arising by some origin
this last.

Their communications no more prove

it

OF ORGANIC LIFE.
to be a general nerve, than the

253

branches which pass from
pairs, to the

each of the cervical, lumbar, or sacral
pairs that are superior or inferior to
it.

two

Notwithstanding

these communications,
rate manner,

we

consider each pair in a sepa-

one nerve by their union. that each ganglion should be described separately,
as

and not

So
not-

withstanding the branches

it

sends to others.

The
ple,
I

description of the system of the ganglions should

be analogous to that of the cerebral nerves.
describe
;

For exam-

first

the lenticular ganglion, as was done
I

for the brain
is

then

examine
;

its

branches,
it

among which

found the great splanchnic

for

is

very improper to

say that this nerve gives origin to this ganglion.

The
is

same

in the neck, in the head, Sic.
;

each ganglion

first

described

then

I

treat of

its

branches,

among which

are

found those of communication.
as

There

are, then, almost

many

descriptions as there are separate ganglions.
treat of the
to

For example, we ought not to nerve with the common motor
;

ophthalmic
this,

be convinced of

it is

sufficient to see

how much

the ciliary nerves differ
to

from the others, which, belonging
contained in the orbit.

animal

life,

are also

From
organic

all

that has been said,

it

is

evident that there

are two things to be examined in the nervous system of
life, 1st.

the ganglions; 2d. the nerves that go

from them.

ARTICLE FIRST.
OF THE GANGLIONS.
I.

Situation, forms, relations, fyc.
little

The
many

ganglions are

reddish

or greyish bodies,

situated indifferent parts of, the body,

and forming so

centres, from

which goes an

infinite

number of

254

NERVOUS SYSTEM
Their position most generally
is

nervous ramifications.
along
sively

the

vertebral

column, where are seen succes-

below each other, the superior and inferior cerviIt is

cal, the intercostal, the lumbar, and the sacral.

these especially whose communicating branches form the But besides these ganglions, which great sympathetic. are placed as it were in a row, we find many separate

ones in different parts, as the ophthalmics, the sphenopalatines, the maxillaries in the head, as also the semi-

lunars in

the abdomen.
;

In the thorax there are none
at

thus separate

though sometimes we see a small one

the base of the heart.

Besides the ganglions uniformly seen, there are often
accidental ones,
if

we may

so say

;

such are those that
in the

are sometimes found in the hypogastric plexus, in the
solar even, at

some distance from the semilunar,

middle part of the neck, &c.

On

the other hand, some

of those that are usually met with are oftentimes not
found, as some of the lumbar, sacral, maxillary, &c. that
it
;

so

appears that there

is

really an essential difference
relation of existence.

between the ganglions under the

The

superior cervical, the semilunar, the ophthalmic, &c.
;

are always found

they appear to be essentially neces-

sary to the action of the organs to which they furnish
nerves.
trary,

and

Most of the others may be wanting on the conbe supplied by those of the neighbouring
in

ones, or

by others formed not

the ordinary anatomical

order.
All the ganglions are generally in a

deep

situation.

Destitute of a bony covering analogous to that of the
brain, they are not less powerfully protected against the
It is this deep position, that action of external bodies. prevents us from making experiments upon almost all of

which require that the animal should live a certain time after they have been made. It is this which will undoubtedly keep up for a
them, from making those
at least

OF ORGANIC

LIFE.

255

length of time the obscurity that hangs over the functions
of these organs.

The form

of the ganglions
;

is

extremely irregular.

In

general they are round
the superior cervical
;

but sometimes they are long, as
is

sometimes the ganglion

a species

of triangular body, with obtuse and round ends, as the

ophthalmic

;

sometimes the form
this

is

semilunar, like that

which has

name, &c.
I

Generally these forms are
;

very variable, as

have

said

the most uniform

is

that of

the superior cervical.

Embedded
gans.

in a quantity of cellular texture, all the
it

ganglions are separated by

from the neighbouring

or-

Almost

all

of them are so disposed, that they ex-

perience but
receive
it

little

motion from these organs, and cannot

from any of the vessels that enter them. situated along the vertebral column especially, Those present this phenomenon, very different from that which takes place at the brain, whose functions are essentially
connected with the constant agitation that the blood imparts to
it,

and very different from that which we observe

in the plexuses of nerves
glions.

coming from these same gan-

II.

Organization.

The

ganglions have generally in the adult a reddish
;

colour very different from that of the nerves

sometimes
soft,

they are greyish.

When

opened, they present a
at first

spongy texture, resembling considerably
of the pretended lymphatic glands.

view that

This texture has nothing nervous coat.

in

common

with the cerebral

substance, nor with that which occupies the canal of the

These two last should rather be ranked in I have said their substance is a pulp, a real jelly. Thus they have not any of the properties of solids. They do not harden like horn the kind of harthe class of fluids, as
; ;

dening, the result of the contact of alkohol, of the acids,

which make a separate Treated by the acids. softening gradually brought on when this last is com- plete. that they have a very different taste from that of the nerves. I have observed also in veal. is wholly different from the horny harden- It is analogous to the hardening of the white of an the contrary. except the epi- dermis. and which they do partly dissolve. NERVOUS SYSTEM caloric. upon the ganglions. which they tend to dissolve. after wrinkhardening like horn and hardening gradually.256 and of ing. In fact. 1st. the ganglions are to the all different from the nerves submitted same experiment. filamentous appearance. The there texture of the ganglions appears in nowise fibrous. if we may so upon simple inspection. the nails. we cannot establish any kind of analogy between them. characteristic of all the solids. is absolutely no linear. On is dens like horn in an evident manner. horny hardening and hardening boils . the ganglions. less prompt and less easy than that of the cerebral pulp by the same re-agents. continuance of this state for half an hour . Homogeneous. water . it presents every where an uniform . &c. and the hair. and become Boiling produces a phenomenon nearly analogous at the instant the . In general. the effect of the boiling is finished. a method of research which should not be neglected in attempting to ascertain the difference of the nature of the organs. the texture of the ganglions har- egg. But this solution is infinitely if they are very caustic. as we do not yet know dif- the difference of the principles which enter into the composition of each. bral substance. 2d. a phenomenon which class. soften fluid. The ganglions resist putrefaction this forms also as much and even more than the nerves a very remarkable difference between them and the cerealkalies act The a . In this state. 3d. ling. in its nature. say. we should be little satisfied with the ference of the qualities.

reddish or greyish tinge in some. &c. it is of one side and those of the opposite sufficient examine them 33 to be convinced that an inverse arrange- . does not communicate not nature placed more voluntary motions ? the other parts? If there into finer filaments. their filaments in this ganglion. in their passage. the properties would be the same. 257 the when cut in slices. white in others. 2d. would observe only that there the ganglions. into an infinite number of extremely delicate other. However celebrated Scarpa has considered the ganglions as resulting from a kind of expansion of the nerves. 3d. and to the plates contains. in 4th. have not repeated experiments. in the ganglions. by delicate filaments. and those that go out panded wards at the opposite In fact. mere inspection is sufficient to establish between them the greatest difference. me is extremely it difficult. There is as evident a de- marcation between the ganglions and the nerves. besides a certainly something else in simple division of the nerve into extremely fine threads. there would then be only a difference of form and not of nature. are they so different as I Why then shall prove hereafter? Why. those that if enter into the superior cervical above. difference of consistence. between the nerves now. In fact. of external qualities. which interlace with each distinct and which become very all his I I by maceration. which appear to refer then to his work. If the nerves coming from the spinal marrow make only an expansion. why ? is there not a proportion between the filaments that enter on one side. as between those of the brain and the brain itself. 1st. I fibres. Why has ganglions in the nerves of the extremities as in those of is only a division of the nerve the ganglion. Difference of colour. . respect to size to those that go from all the ganglions would exhibit to this constant relation . they only exafter- and united to form those that go off" below. would be equal in it .OF ORGANIC aspect LIFE. difference of properties. as it a nerve goes from a ganglion.

or rather that give origin to afterwards as them and which go from them 1 we see in the usual manner. of the liver. even to a certain extent.258 NERVOUS SYSTEM exists. we cannot describe these organs in the point of view in which he has presented them. because have no fact to support me . Why has not pain the same character in each species of nerves? I have no opinion is as to the nature I or the functions of the ganglions. but there certainly something more in their texture. the internal arrangement that this author has observed in the ganglions. if there is a continuity between the nervous filaments that enter the ganglions above. Scarpa admits a but matter which separates these filaments . How can be explained the frequent interruptions between the ganglions in man. the intestines. I in the texture have already many of the times examined in diseases of the heart. this sub- stance . How does it happen that the ganglions and their nerves do not follow an exact proportion as to development with the cerebral nerves. I think then by admitting. the superior cervical ganglion so large. nerves to these viscera they have never appeared to . the ganglions that send . do not know what is all is solid when the ganglion cut. We duce know but little of the alterations that diseases proof the ganglions. ment 6th. this substance ought to predominate considerably. so large is Why on the contrary. ? and its branches so small 7th. and those that go from them below ? 8th. The ganglions ought always to be in proportion to the size of the nerves which form them by spreading their fibres. as the ganglion surpasses in size the nerves which are thought to give origin to I it. Why then are the intercostal ganglions so small. which are constant in many animals. and the trunks that unite them. Now I have never seen it is . than a peculiar mere expansion of nervous filaments. if these form them by expanding? 9th. stomach.

the two kinds of we have spoken in their nature. and much contracted around them. size of At another time found this same ganglion of the its a small nut. It does not appear that the texture of the ganglions is surrounded by a peculiar membrane. resembling the stone of to the it. I even to the neck. except however in one case where it was enlarged and I density a little increased. The cellular tex. and in which begin by a contracwhich the patient from some mount up even to the throat. and I suspect the same thing also. exhibited no alteration. However two bodies that have opened life lately. though dur- ing the subjects bad been frequently attacked with these paroxysms. in treating of the or- ganization of this texture. as a tions number of cerebral in leave after them no trace the brain. the sub-arterial textures. It is and even is in their prop- the second kind. have always found the semiits lunar ganglion untouched. 259 me to have undergone any change. ture is only condensed in their neighbourhood it then becomes very consistent. Some authors have thought.OF ORGANIC LIFE. with a cartilaginous substance in centre. from the solar plexus and the communications which go from ganglion to ganglion. it never contains fat. that the hysteric paroxysms. surfaces. tion at the epigastric feels a ball region. in In cancers of the stoall mach ture the very last stage. as around the arteries. and which differ so essentially from each other erties. which analogous to the . There cellular then truly around the ganglions. is &c. arise affections of the semi-lunar ganglions. under the mucous texture of which &c. in the body of a man brought Hotel Dieu on account of periodical mania. but they may arise evidently from the affec- ganglions and the epigastric plexuses. This point deserves particular examination. without their being altered in their structure. and in which I the lymphatic glands are considerably swelled. in which all the cellular tex- is engorged. . It there has the nature of the sub-mucous.

whilst when I ex- lumbar nerve. Nutrition supposes exha- and absorbents there. 1 powerfully.hout Animal and insensible contractility of the same kind. solution. then laid the semi-lunar ganglion bare. for comparison. a kind of cellu- covering that surrounds them. These penetrate them from all sides. and remains even calm after the first moments of suffer- have waited for this calm that succeeds the agitation arisiug from the incision of the abdominal parietes. as upon the cerebral nerves when plunged in their I have examined many ganglions in this way.260 NERVOUS SYSTEM &c. As to animal sensibility I have observed the following circumstance. in the It is difficult to analyze the properties of texture ganglions. In general cries it out. ramify and are lost there in numerous anastomoses. Properties. on account of the opinion of Scarpa. and wi'. for example. By examining attentively the interior of we see that there is but very little cellular I have found this texture constantly destitute of fat. he lives very well for some time. who believes that fluid. then entering their texture. As in opening the abdomen of an animal. sub-arterial texture. at least in fat The lar ganglions receive many blood run first in vessels. they cannot grow. brane admitted by some authors. Fine injections show a great quantity of little vessels in these lants organs. As to vital properties. live and be nourished without organic sensibility. which forms the peculiar memthe ganglions. raises himself ap- . the animal cite a cerebral is not agitated. these organs are penetrated with this people. and irritated it ing . texture there. III. and in continuation with the exhalants that carry nutri- tive matter. of a dog. sensible organic contractility do not exist there evidently. he up and struggles. thus the alkalies do not form a saponaceous deposit upon them.

in the to determine those that have their particular seat nervous cerebral system and those which affect particularly the system of the ganglions. that these sympathies take a real part in hysteria. the many other organs. tetanus. more one Place on side. &c. Certainly the animal life. the from engorgements. 261 is pears that the sensibility of the ganglions infinitely less evident than that of skin. the evil is first especially. taste. mucous system. hemiplegia. pulmonary organs. nerarise numerous accidents that vous affections of the all sight.OF ORGANIC LIFE. or their nature. however. and the diseases the source of which evidently in the head. affect exclusively the ganglions tions to for too much obscurity hangs over these affecpronounce any thing positive as to their seat. prevent our having any data as to their sj'mpathies. apoplexy. I think it very probable. I have entirely a the last do not say that kind of nervous diseases . and which the vulgar confound under the name of vapours. the paroxysms of which begin. hearing. all catalepsy. seem to be the spot there which the seated you will see that an essential difference and that the symptoms different character. by a painful sensation at the epigastric region. the nervous of &c. . One of the most important objects of research in the neuis roses. can be then particularly but certainly af- fected in their peculiar texture and independently of the nerves they receive . the distance of those organs from exter- nal excitement. as to the diseases that Our ignorance have their seat in the ganglions. in certain kinds of epilepsy. like those of hysteria. Undoubtedly even the secretory. hypochondriasis. the medullary. the greatest part of epilepsies. in that multitude of affections called nervous. surpass it in this respect. melancholia and all that numerous class of affections in which the abdomen and in is the thorax. on the other place hysteria. it is an interesting sub- . circulating. smell. from compressions of the brain from wounds of the head. is &c. palsy. convulsions of infants.

mucous. the upon the lumbar ganglions. not resemble pains of the external parts they are deep. and other neuralgias of the nervous system The symptoms. the progress. They are real neuralgias of the neuralgias nervous system of organic tic doulouhave absolutely nothing in reux. affections. by vinous made into the tu- nica vaginalis. NERVOUS SYSTEM and there is too great a difference in the phenomena of the two orders of affections. do . and go to the heart. a sensation that appears to me to arise from the sympathetic influence exercised by the organ affected tines. of That which induces me to think that the difference the phenomena that the general order of neuroses is presents us. as we often say. every thing is different in these two kinds of now these common with the life. &c. &c. . sciatica. We know that there are colics essentially nervous. that their phenomena in a state of health are very different. and that they do not resemble those that are felt in the Thus the parts where the cerebral nerves are sent. &c. have a peculiar character. to conceive that the system of the ganglions has not a part in the last order. which are spread along the whole course of the abdominal arteries. which are certainly independent of every local affection of the serous.262 ject of research. tion. the pains of the intesburnings at the epigastric region. the duraof animal life. not to preIt is difficult sent differences in their primitive seat. and muscular systems of the intestines. great. painful sensation that tions of the is experienced at the loins in injection affec- womb. arises particularly from the difference of the cerebral nerves and of those of the ganglions. These colics are evidently seated in the nerves of the semi-lunar ganglions. Halle has observed very well that the pains that are experienced in the parts in which the nerves coming from the ganglions are distributed. &c.

of organic life The nervpus system its being less early in development than that of animal . 263 What I applies also to those of motion. as infinitely superior to them we have is seen. and most of the neuroses of the second. first which are nearly nothing during the the liver. as we have no data as to the functions of the last. and superior cervical. are as large in proportion as those which go to the stomach. it easy to make sels remark. Development. the intestines. which are more or less by an early developed according to the organs they penetrate. By this ganglions. They do not follow the proportion of increase of the organs to which they send nerves. The ably ganglions differ essentially from the brain in the is early periods in their development. IV. Thus those that furnish the genital organs. in the foetus. have just said upon the injuries of sensation. as we have seen. a peculiar appendage upon . OF ORGANIC LIFE. the bladder. whilst this in this respect. all They are only on a level with is the other organs. These nerves follow in same law as the ganglions. though the most are found upon the arteries. All these considerations &c. the intestines. and the spasmodic and irregular motions which arise in all the muscles that re- ceive nerves from the ganglions. No kind of comparison can be made between the convulsions of the muscles that receive the nerves of animal life. Nothing resembles tetanus in the heart. establish striking differences between the cerebral nerves and those of the ganglions differences upon which I can only present approximations. The ganglions receive also less ves- in proportion than the brain. which are charac- terized this respect the increase. are. life. comparing the &c. years of general nutrition. Convulsions. should be subis ject in infancy to fewer affections and this what is ob- served. semilunar in the adult.. which proportion- much less advanced than that of the brain.

pulpy. like inferior to of extreme softness. come greyish the ganglions are hard. that the nerves. evident enlargement. does not allow me in to point out definitely the alterations they experience the V. resisting and smaller. NERVOUS SYSTEM On the other hand. of action . the obscurity that rests infinitely more rare. that know not how They We cannot deny that they have the greatest analogy in structure to the others. Another difference that from the brain as the foetus. which is this. whose peculiar seat seems to be at the epigastric region. In proportion as we advance from to nervous system begins become predominant. it towards the thirtieth or fortieth year that its appears at maximum . . it diminishes as we approach old age The nerves beit decays in part at this epoch. are approximated in another respect. analogous in its apI pearance to most of the ganglions. Remarks upon In all the vertebral ganglions. in which there is so great an abundance of nerves coming from the the ganglions is this. the particular order of ner- vous affections of which we have spoken. appear to be foreign to this age. it exhibits an mina through which the nerves pass. All nervous diseases. generally less frequent at this period. this system. upon the functions of different ages. it distinguishes respects development. to class these organs. that in they are not. nerve goes from each of these foramina. I confess. it. I that 1 have said thus far upon the ganglions. reddish. have not noticed those which correspond with the fora- and which some call We know that at the instant each simple ganglions. The neuroses that appear to belong to them are Moreover. Their hardness is little what they afterwards possess infancy. the organic It is in adult age.264 infancy. form . ganglions. and in is which it appears that the first takes the principal part. in going from them.

various branches. every irritation of a filament coming from the vertebral ganglions. though it may by be come at. seen. and that in which the other ganglions furnish theirs. ARTICLE SECOND. different in the The sensibility is entirely two species of nerves. Howin the uses. 265 almost immediately plexuses that we have designated under the names of cervical. which is more difficult. Besides. produces immediately convulsions in the corresponding muscles. are formed by the nerves of organic life. cardiac. brachial. ever. and sacral. Origin. I. lumbar. the muscles to which they . same way as the solar.OF ORGANIC LIFE. a centre from Each go ganglion is. send nerves will remain unmoved takes place the same phenomenon exciting the nerves themselves. there no analogy between the manner in which the nerves is go in all directions from the vertebral ganglions. as we have which in different directions. the whole of which form a kind of little separate nervous system. at the moment they go from their respective ganglions. OF THE NERVES OP ORGANIC LIFE. In the expectation that further experiments ject. that distinguish it. The manner of the origin of these branches has but very little relation with that of the branches of the brain and of the spinal marrow. let us may elucidate the subis content ourselves with pointing out what the result of accurate observation. On the contrary. mesenteric plex&c. these last nerves are conductors of very different properties. The following are some differences 34 . the inferior even. Irritate in a living animal the superior cer- vical ganglion.

the semilunar. does not appear that the substance of the ganglion in the continued it. if then very apparent we consider the ganglion as a division of the numer- we distinguish very sudden change that these filaments experience in well the 4th. We see then each distinct filament arising from the ganglion. as the tendon.. action of the acids to destroy the adhesion of the nerve with the ganglion. very Sometimes. 266 1st. or the two &c. This beginning made tendon. I cervical. . 3d. Then the form only is . in the lumbar. however. is It this takes place in the preceding system. ous filaments of the nervous cords. This must be carefully raised be- we come it. of this we destroy that of the muscle with with the bone. it has gone from sometimes it remains separate this takes place at the semi-lunar. manner it is like a muscle implanted in a The best manner of seeing this arrangement to is advantage to cut longitudinally the superior cervical it ganglion and the cord sends to the inferior is . to the nerve. and gives it an increase of con- sistence at that place. the change of nature of the one and the other or. filaments unite together Sometimes many of these and form a cord as between the and small splanchnic nerves. &c. the ganglion is continued for es- a short distance in the form of a cord. the opthalmic. nerve to form the medullary substance of is since differ- the organization of the one and the other ent. This happens different pecially in the superior cervical. ebullition. in a sudden . as at the great have not been able by maceration. whose elon- gations are of great delicacy. The dense passing from the cord to the nerve. but it is easy at the first view to distinguish where the ganglion is ends and the nerve begins. the lumbar. &c. the nerve breaks its any where else rather than at origin . the opposite of 2d. NERVOUS SYSTEM The adhesion is much stronger. cellular covering that surrounds the ganglion is continued upon the nervous fore origin. After .

communication with the system of animal are short. superior cervical with all The spheno-palatine communicates with the superior maxillary nerve. whitish. the the nerves that surround it. as I . very inaccurate. not then any separate ganglion of the nerves of animal life . the spinal. 2d. the glossopharyngeal. or this last. Course. rarely furnish branches. send communications through each pair of foramina that correspond with them. 267 II. and to the nasal nerve. at least of the same appearance as the nerves of They do not form any plexus in their course. viz. are distriin many different ways which we shall now ex- amine. Termination. &c. &c. Thus the opthalmic is by no means in the course of the common motor nerve. and appear to have no other use than that of establishing anastomoses between the two systems. . The one and . hence the common expression that designates each ganglion as arising is from this or that pair. Sometimes also. within with the great hypoglossal. and the cerebral nerve.OF ORGANIC LIFE. behind with the first cervical pairs. to the two ganglions that are contiguous to We have have said. or being found in its course. The It par is vagum communicates with the semi-lunar. Plexuses. and of the same nature. The ophthalmic ganglion sends branches to the motores com- munes. which unites there is or rather a branch of communication between the ganglion In general all these branches of life. Each ganglion sends above and below branches it. the other send each a branch. There are always some which go immediately to communicate with the system of animal life. the par vagum. 1st. All the ganglions situated above each other along the vertebral column. above with the motor externus. buted The nerves after going from the ga-nglions. seen that the opthalmic and the spheno-palatine are exceptions to this rule.

as the par vagum furnishes an example for the solar and the cardiac. we may . as the great splanchnic. as between the lumbar and sacrai ganglions. The eye discovers no difference between them. these general communications make us regard the ganglions as being connected every where. branches of communication are straight as in the preceding.268 NERVOUS SYSTEM Notwithstand- there are interruptions in other regions. The nerves have that we are now considering. &c. as to the diaphragm. some of those to of the only. but accessory. However in the nerves of organic life always predominate these plexuses. composed by the innumerable branches that come from the semi-lunar then we see the hypogastric. if so say. which are the result of filaments. 4th. in the neighbourhood The most remarkable . an arrangement ex. which is a real trunk of communication between the intercostals and the semilunar. the last especially. &c. is those of the contiguous ganglions. plexus the solar. sometimes very fine. whilst the nerves coming from the inferior cervical ganglion are. &c. as that which is between the two cervical. actly analogous to the cerebral nerves they are formed of whitish cords. neck. and able to receive from each other the different affections of which These they can be primitively the separate seat. go to certain cerebral muscles. at other times larger. like the preceding. are not exclusively formed by the nerves of organic those of the animal give some to them also. superior and inferior. . ing this. There is only the pulmonary in which the par vagum particularly predominates. as the sacral nerves afford another for the hypogastric. the cardiac. others go neighbouring organs The greatest number going from the ganglions in in separate filaments. 3d. The greater number of these plexuses life . in some cases very large. Many filaments coming from ganglions. interlace or upon the great vessels. the form of a plexus with of.

re- it is impossible to submit them to any kind of in agents. they would present the same appearance and the same number in their interlacing. but their extremities continue they interlace with each other. and mix so together. and wholly different from those of animal as of the brachial. do not soften. the filaments at every instant. If all the filaments of the brachial plexus were separated like those of the solar. for their softness. Do the primitive plexuses formed by the ganglions per? form a part in the nervous functions are they centres to . form networks. the lumbar. change at every point the direction. collected into cords it is this also that makes these nerves so numerous. This delicacy depends upon this. buried in the cellular accommodated to the forms of the neighbouring life. not only place the preceding ones. instead of being like the pre. and ap- &c. them from cellular manner of making them evident is to let the subject macerate for a day or two open in the water. cloth with which we wiped the place where the plexus was found. The pear even nerves that to increase in consistence. 269 The primitive plexuses resulting from the interlacing of the organic nerves at their exit from the ganglions. it is often difficult to distinguish best texture. In fact. and that they do not yield in this respect to the cerebral. at the side of each change of position.OF ORGANIC LIFE. texture. form a mass of irregular nerves. &x. for their indistinctness. organs. Besides their delicacy is such. like the cerebral in a similar case. that all the filaments are I Only have observed that they possess separate from each other. they whiten then sensibly. . These organs are remarkable for their reddish or greyish colour. that we might say grew up under the themselves as in other. that it is not possible to distinguish any thing except a thousand nerves. ceding. an eminent degree the property of horny hardening. at every .

but such it is its upon each branch. it seen . When the artery runs but a short course. the mesenteries. as we but see around the splenic.270 NERVOUS SYSTEM which are referred important phenomena ? What has not been said upon this subject. and which never They accompany unite into cords like the preceding. if we may so say. arteries of the extremities appear to be desti- tute of upon those that go to the central organs of internal life. exterior to the form for it. it . The others in a sensible manner with it. . if the renal. though placed near each other. that this network is the most evident. thus the renal. all the arteries . hypogastric. When we deduct from the sum of the filaments In general it is . intermixing coat. which adhere to it intimately. I believe. of all that has been advanced is founded upon accurate observation. a new others. the hepatic. the carotid and tery without being connected with lar texture separates . The plexuses of organic life are soon separated into which go to different parts. &c. the the coronary stomachic. and can be still tenuity upon the minute ramifica- tions that disappears there entirely. But nothing. almost splenic. considerable cellu- them they go in its course without 2d. can be traced the long- The it. to those These divisions arise from an infinite number of little filaments which go constantly separate. the hepatic. are surrounded with filaments coming from ganglions. especially of this life. lost there. concerning the solar plexus ?. the external branches gradually get into the plexus. These 1st. and which interlace so together. different divisions. these two orders of branches remain distinct from each other as far as the organ. and are entirely This plexus can be followed upon the great divides trunks . that they might be taken for a network surrounding the artery. the course is longer. &x. the its distributions. Some accompany the arfilaments go in two ways. it The spermatic is one of the arteries upon which est.

upon the trunk of the coeliac. is the adhesion so intimate . she has put also the most considerable plexus of the whole organic system upon one of the places to which the red blood communicates the strongest impulse.c. said above. and on the other with the nerves of animal rest is life. 271 coming from the ganglions. vessels. viz. has undoubtedly an influence upon the action of these plexuses. &. nutrition. exhalations. those by which they communicate on one part with each other. finally destined to is accompany the This arrangement nerves. veins are not accompanied by so It is many organic the same as it respects the absorbent this which go almost every where separate from system. we see that almost all the arteries. of the secretions. As these vessels distri- bute every where the materials of these functions. It should be remarked upon this subject. From what has been pects organization. III.OF ORGANIC LIFE. The nerves. res- those that are identified with . it is evident that the it nerves going from the ganglions are of two sorts as 1st. or rather upon that of the nerves that go from them. or to the other organic functions. Properties. that as nature has placed a crowd of arteries at the base of the brain to agitate it with an alternate motion. S/c. the organic nerves have no doubt some influence upon them. wholly different from that of the cerebral whose filaments are only in apposition with the These make almost an integrant part of them. The constant union of the arteries with the organic plexuses. relative to the circulation. by the motion the blood communicates to them. Structure. this certainly supposes a use of which we are ignorant. trunks. Neither experiment or observation have taught us any thing upon this point. an union that presents an arrangement wholly different from that of the ganglions.

the absolute but certainly insensibility of the nerves of the ganglions under the circumstances that nerves would have caused I I have related. from believing in . suscep- tible We certainly cannot in deny but that the solar plexus takes a great part the differ- ent sensations that are experienced at the epigastric re- gion. hardly though many nerves of ganglions are found at this I have had numerous occasions to act in different ways upon the carotid. however. cords. As to vital properties. now. . to which the superior cervical ganglion furnishes branches from above . and by irritating them comparatively with the lumbar nerves. felt. much 1 raised in these nerves as in those of animal often laid bare the plexuses in the ting the animal rest a have let- abdomen then by moment. is think that in a morbid state this sensibility of being greatly raised. 2d. the cerebral much more pain to the animal. and which are seen in prodigious numbers in the plexuses. the animal remained tranI quil. greyish or reddish. am far. We know that very frequently the ligature of the spermatic artery cele. If in we draw out a portion the abdomen. is not painful in sarco- though the branches coming from the ganglions form for it a plexus like a network. as long as place. I have uniformly made this remark. and which appear to have nervous coats like the preceding. which can in no way be separated from tines it. Have It is these a nervous coat and a me- dullary substance? impossible to determine it. by the possibility of dividing their trunks into distinct these into filaments.272 NERVOUS SYSTEM the cerebral system. I did not touch the par vagum. by their white colour. the very acute pains that often attend the forma- . The properties of texture are ascertained with diffi- culty in the organic nerves. soft. it is is undoubted that the animal sensibility not as life. the of intes- by a small wound irritation is of the sub-mucous layer at the side of the vessels. those and medullary substance which present only little separate filaments.

of the nerves of the ganglions follows nearly the same laws as that of those organs from which Let us observe one that ought more. 973 in part to owing the dis- tension of the nervous filaments that surround the artery. As the general point of view in which he has presented these organs. These nerves occasion evident sympathies in certain cases. that there is no al- to arrest the attention of physiologists All the others present a series of phenomena ready well known. But in knowing the parts they do not perform we are ignorant of those to which they are really destined. in finishing this system.OF ORGANIC tion of aneurisms. differ ganglions. since as we shall see. will gress of science. in the organ branches that are accessible. together with his own. if we may so say. observed that the difficulty of making experiments upon the ganglions and the plexuses. but some of the negative attributes of the nervous system of animal life. does not present we have hardly any knowas yet. are probably LIFE. It Of this. upon the uses of the the exterior upon which I refer to what he has said upon this subject. we eafl cut or irritate them without destroying or hastening the motion of the muscles to which they go. by irritating their de Namur has produced. It is to this that must be referred the different afthat are produced fections that Petit of sight. ledge. . I nerves are have already said that it is probable that the organic much concerned in the different sensations by some peculiar neuroses. The development they emanate. Thus it is without doubt that the organic nerves do not have the same part as the preceding in animal sensibility that they are always foreign to contracthat they have no direct influtility of the same species ence upon the sensible organic. I have already . much retard the pro- We have scarcely any branches upon we can act. and that in which I offer them here. Scarpa has collected the opinions of all who have preceded him. 35 .

why Many organs should they be so constant in animals? vary. confers the this author has greatest honour in upon the state of anatomy at the period which we I live. in contracted in an evident manner in most worms. are presented under a thousand variare wanting. a work. upon the anatomy of the lower classes now. published. and a very minute division of their filaments. The brain and the nerves become less evidently marked in proportion as this life is less perfect. the In those species even in which is imperfect. only differences if these presented their interior of forms. The organic is. The ganglions and their nerves are also very evident. however. will terminate this article by an important reflection. the cerebral system is . This remark has struck different authors me in reading the researches of of animals . &c. animal organization ? would they be so invariable in the . on the contrary. Animal life diminishes and insects. like all work. if the ganglions were not the centres of certain important functions of which we are ignorant. and generally in animals without verterbras. essentially. ous forms in their different classes ganglions are constant. If the nerves were only divided in to form the ganglions. on the contrary. that of the ganglions complete is in its organization.274 NERVOUS SYSTEM OF ORGANIC the account that life I LIFE. have just given of the nerves of organic has necessarily a general stamp his wholly different from that of which. almost in its perfection in these animals.

the small or pul- monary. 1 divide the circulation also into two all one carries the it blood from the lungs to the parts. ALL authors have considered the circulation in the same way. the other brings from all parts to the lungs. the other. The first is the circulation of red blood. appears to me infinitely better calculated to give a great idea of I. The method in which I explain in my lectures this important phenomenon of the living economy. called the great circulation. . Division of the circulation. heart. being between the two. since the celebrated discovery of Harvey. is their common But in presenting in this point of view it is difficult the course of the blood. GENERAL REMARKS UPON THE CIRCULATION. ARTICLE FIRST. They have divided this function into two one has been . . The centre. it.VASCULAR SYSTEM WITH RED BLOOD. the second that of black. at first sight to per- ceive the general object of its course in our organs.

have proved to the satisfaction of most physiologists of the present day. as we shall see. then into the trunks of the pulmonary veins into the left auricle of the heart. . it In these varieties of the organs that are thus added to without. air. which tion of its course. which is delicate in the auricle. these pour From it system it passes into the divisions. that this change in the colour is not owing to the absorption of oxygen by the blood. commences in the where the blood acquires. and the Treatises of Ellis.* the peculiar character that distinguishes this it from the first . The experiments of Allen. . which it transmits arterial it to the ventricle. that this begins in the the theory of the oxygenation of the blood work was published at a time when was universally considered as explaining in a satisfactory manner the change that is effected in the colour of the blood by the lungs. the exterior of which is strengthened in the pulmonary veins by a loose membrane. by the mixture of the principles that it draws from the circulation of the The red blood capillary system of the lungs. but to the extrication of carbon from it.27G VASCULAR SYSTEM Circulation of red blood. upon the pulmonary veins. Circulation of the black blood. thick in the ventricle. Tr. Pepys. The circulation of the black blood is performed It in a manner * It the reverse of the preceding. upon the left cavities of the heart and upon the whole arterial system. and in the arterial system by a fibrous layer of a peculiar nature. and it this drives into the system this spreads into the general capillary system. lined with a The cavities that contain it are all continuous membrane this membrane spread . and others. may be remarked. black blood. in the heart by a fleshy surface. this membrane remains every where nearly the same. may be considered as a general and continuous canal. may be truly considered as the terminaThe red blood is then constantly car- ried from the capillary system of the lungs to the general capillary system.

they may however be in considered as uniformly independent their action. real termination. This system is its system of the is lungs. notwithstanding this difference of organs to which it is unit. except at their origin and termination. as the commencement of the circulation of the red blood. Difference. all contributes to form it those of the right side of the heart. lines the whole course of the black blood. it is here that it is formed. as the preceding enters into the composition of the valves of the left side. it From this general capillary system. fleshy fibres in the heart. which borrows from it the mem- brane that lines it. nature has placed a loose in the veins. A general membrane. 277 general capillary system. it is in this system. like the remains always nearly uniform. this purpose by In their whole course they are the two portions of the heart Though single are united in one organ. whose cavities lines. the pulmonary artery preceding canal. to the capillary which send it by the pulmonary artery. . enters the veins which transmit it it to the right cavities of the heart. that its blood takes the peculiar character that distinguishes it from the preceding . At the exte- rior of this great canal. evident that they are perfectly indepen- dent of each other. entirely separate. from brane all in which it is constantly carried parts to the interior of the lungs. by the subtraction probably of the principles of the air that it acquired by terminating its course in the lungs. I From the general idea that it is have given of the two circulations. and forms for it also a general and continuous canal. of the two circulations.WITH RED BLOOD. where the red and black blood are alternately transform- ed into each other. mem- and a peculiar fibrous texture in but. it ed externally. every where continued. and communicate for the capillary vessels. It is by the folds of this It membrane in the veins that the valves are formed.

nary is the origin of the circulation of the red blood. that of red blood into black. the limits between which the two kinds of blood move. Observe that this is a great character that In fact. only takes an opposite course at the place where they finish and at that where they begin . preferable the point of view in alone proves I how much which divides it have presented the circulation. at least as it respects the course of the blood. the the transformation of black blood into red. and the termination of that of the black. alone correspond this is The the lungs parts. . if in opposition to that of all the we except the parts from which the blood Each capillary system then is at of the vena porta goes. Both would be able perhaps to perform their functions as well When the if they were separate. to the red blood its termination. and in lary systems. if we may so say. a right and a left. From what has been said. that the black blood cannot communicate with the red. the blood not distinguishes the two circulations. and that the two hearts should equally be considered independent. the second. viz. first. as they now do united. which are evidently conit founded and identified. respect. is to that which into great and small. I have proved elsewhere that such is the arrangement of the two folds between which it is found. capillary systems. but its nature capil- changes also entirely. present to us the most important phenomena of the living economy. with all Their capillary system other organs. The pulmothe same time an origin and termination. foramen ovale remains open after birth. this respect the two pulmonary and general. two circulations it is This entire separation of the one of their most striking characters . its The to general gives and the black blood origin. appears that the origin and termination of each circulation take place in the two which in are.278 VASCULAR SYSTEM There are truly two hearts.

the General mechanical phenomena of two circulations. as it approaches the right cavities of the heart. that these cavities contain the greatest quantity of that from and them to the lungs. The two in kinds of blood circulate then on the two sides branches that diminish as they go from the heart. so as to form a general canal of which we have spoken. Authors have commonly considered the arteries and is veins as forming. 279 be examined with the origin . Each of the two parts of the heart between these trunks. is on one hand the In the mechanical phenomena of circulation. to regard to each of the circulations. which it serves to unite. 3d. that masses in in the great- these cavities. each by their assemblage. 2d. it is successively divided into smaller columns. sending their branches. than arise . that the black blood going from the general capillary system. the termination of each kind of blood. formed into larger and est numerous columns. the base of which heart. increase as they approach Represent to yourself for each of the two circulations two trees united at their trunks. on the other the phenomena of the transformation of the blood. continually dividing into smaller columns. is By examining we see. and it. is formed into columns larger and less frequent. that of the trunks from which they now in adopt- .WITH RED BLOOD. is course of this fluid there only the mechanical pheno- mena of the circulation to be observed. is at all the parts. one of them to the lungs. 1st. the other to all the parts. these phenomena less in that the red blood going from the lungs. and the apex at the This manner of describing them arises from this. There are evidently three things the course . it is as it ap- proaches the cavities of the heart. a general manner. In the origin and termination. 2d. there 1st. and that from them to the it is capillary system. that the sum of the branches is greater in diameter. a cone. it.

it is VASCULAR SYSTEM evident that each half of the heart is at the summit of two cones. as they only receive the blood and transmit their thickness is nearly uniform. The pulmonary veins represent one. one of these cones its on the other. From in the this we see. In each circulation. This consequence leads to another. and the vital % one.280 ing this idea. the pulmonary artery. the base of one to the base of the other that is to say from the general capillary system to that of the lungs. it is necessary that the portion of this organ belonging to the first kind of blood. Placed between these two cones. heart to the general capillary system. circulation these it is two cones communicate by evident that the parietes of the vessels that compose insufficient to them would be maintain the motion. which form the two cones. As the red blood has a greater extent to go over from the this . each part of the heart should be considered as an agent of impulse which hastens the course of the blood. which is this. which would be united without it. forces of the vascular parietes not sufficient to admit of hence the necessity of the heart. In fact. and the . absolutely relative to the me- . . there is on one part the venae cavae and coronary veins. that the part the heart performs is two circulations. than the black blood has from the heart to the pulmonary capillary system. on one hand towards all the parts. it is that of the lungs the other great extent it is that of all the parts. aorta the other for the red blood for the black blood. to the ventricles. if in each their apex. Nature has effected by composing stronger than the ventricle with red blood of fibres much it those of that of black blood. should be endowed with a this object o-reater force than that destined to support the motion of the latter. from . As to the auricles. on the other towards the lungs. and reciprocally from that of the lungs to the general The course is manifestly too long. 1st. able for for its is 5 remark- small size .

though the heart. was of less extent. can only 2d. since the black blood carried without the agent it of impulse. it phenomena of the course of the it has any influence upon the composition. of this 1st. there is still an oscillation. it then opened. it so that if an artery or vein at the opening. a real progression of the blood from one capilis lary system to the other. how the heart may we have many examples. there no heart. are distinct vessels and circulating The importance the animal pulse that of the part that the heart enjoys in is economy 36 only in relation to the general im- it communicates to all the organs and the con- . but we cannot deny that exists without the influence of is the heart. weak. though there fluids. how. of black blood and red. the two trees of distributing which what is their branches. chanical if it 281 blood. the abdominal . how the blood can oscillate from one capillary system to the other. 2d. in the This precisely what happens system of abdominal black blood. this oscillation flows a little . they might do without is this inter- mediate agent of impulse. can hardly any longer accelerate the course of . during a considerable time. 4th. in which the two great circulating systems resemble in a certain degree. then possible to conceive. 3d. one to the gastric viscera. hence fol- lows that the cessation of the pulsation of the heart a proof of the want of motion thors have thought. in is not the blood. the course of the two circulations. this organ having entirely suspended pulsation in syncope. and even this fluid its in part dis- organized. fail . from the intestines to the liver. unite by their trunk in called the sinus of the vena porta. &c. that be by the internal motion if it . enfeebled. as some authat in We know is many ani- mals of the lower classes.WITH RED BLOOD. the other to the liver. Certainly is very weak it cannot last a long time. which occu- pies exactly the place of the heart in the great system of black blood and It is in that of red. communicates to and that. asphyxia.

circulation that. an agitation so evident in the brain. which there the black blood goes. reflections This leads us some upon the general dif- ferences of the uses of the two circulations. differences which prove the necessity of presenting the single function that results from them in the view in which I have placed it. on the contrary. The . The circulation of the black blood. does not send to them the materials of secretion. the circulation of the red blood that alone fur- nishes the matter of secretions. medullary exhalants. the losses the .282 VASCULAR SYSTEM which it stant excitement in It keeps them by this impulse. It is the red blood that communicates to the is organs of the whole body that general agitation which necessary to their functions. the circulation General uses of It is of the red blood. if seems we may so say. The following are the differences. only destined to repair. having no connexion with any of the functions. of red blood is then the most whence are derived the great phenomena of the economy. except that of the bile. as in the lungs and the are vessels with red blood evidently for the purposes of nutrition. &c. it it only in this respect trans- receives from the lungs. that carry the matter of nutrition All the vessels of the organs are also continuous with the arteries and consequently their fluids come from the red blood. Reflections upon to the general uses of the circulation. this circulation that the serous. cellular. In the organs even in liver. exhalation and of nutrition mits what II. important it is General uses of the circulation of black blood. draw the fluids that they transmit upon their respective surfaces. cutane- It is from ous. a fluid which however deserves a further examination. and not in that in use in the treatises on phy- siology. of .

enters the great canal that contains These substances cellular tex- are internal or external.WITH RED BLOOD. air. The the product of digestion. by changes in their organic sen- often secrete fluids that are usually foreign to shall them. also received is by it. All that poured into the black blood. blood has sustained in the preceding one. if follows from this. when cutaneous is or mucons absorptions take first the black blood always the that receives the pro- duct of them. and that to enter it. 2d. that the circulation of black blood we may first is so say. place. it performs an essential part in 1st. The great trunks of the ab- sorbents constantly pour in the ture lymph of the and of the serous All that surfaces. in fact it is undeniable. The it prin- ciples it borrowed in the lungs and which gave left in a ver- milion colour. as the glands sibility. have been the general capillary sys- tem. is first which is to be thrown from within 2d. For this. is which chyle. marrow. then they admit what before they rejected. In the second mixed the substances of the which pass through the lungs in the act of respiration. the super-abundant fat. It is. a general reservoir in which is pour- ed in the all place all that is to go out of the body. it is with it that are it circulates. it cient that the organic sensibility of the chylous vessels should be changed . a variety of substances it. It is necessary that the black blood should receive lost . at first uniformly carried into the general canal. fact that a considerable part of the red blood in the exhalations. synovia and out. enters in from without. We prove in the article upon the cuta- . the residue of the nutri- tion of all the organs. what the other has now 1st. In this last respect. in which place. secretions 283 Observe in is expended and nutrition. that deleterious substances may be introduced with "the chyle into the less eviis suffi- economy. and produce ravages there more or dent in circulating with our fluids. diseases. In fine.

An evident proof of this assertion is this. the . pre- when the substances of these infusions are intro- duced by friction upon the skin.that the essential part which the circulation of the the economy. in causes . that tion VASCULAR SYSTEM it. Let us conclude from black blood performs in this blood different that has hitherto been said. alvine evacuations or vomiting ensue. by pouring artificially into the black blood those substances that are introduced in a natural w. 1st . diseases. J shall speak of these It is attempts in the article upon the glandular system. by possible to give to animals artificial making different substances infused into their veins circulate with the blood. or accidentally. The experiments I of many physiologists leave no doubt upon this point. new is 2d. the lungs and the skin are then a triple gate open. as my experiments upon asphyxia have The intestines. We cannot doubt that besides the principles that colour the blood. either naturally. many cases. but tions. that that of the system of red blood expend on the contrary. and afterwards disturb the functions by passing into the whole circulating mass. it is am convinced that diseases. there often passes through the lungs deleterious miasmata which produce proved. not until afterwards that they pass into the red blood. is to introduce into substances to . it has still real founda- and in many cases we cannot deny.aj\ Thus when a purgative or emetic cisely as infusion is introduced into the veins. all but that every thing arises from the disorders of the humours. is in order to prove that the black blood a general reservoir in which many substances can enter. The humoral pathology has undoubtedly been exaggerated.284 neous system. sufficient for me to mention them here. that we pro- duce phenomena exactly analogous to those which result from them. of deleterious substances. to different morbific now all these causes that enter thus into the econofirst my it is are received in the place in the black blood . is oftentimes the seat of the absorp3d.

stroyed. is manifest when more substances go from the red blood than enter the black.WITH RED BLOOD. and founded upon the most simple observation. the other diminishing the attribute of one. which soon unite into small branches. appears to me very proper to establish an evident I demarcation between the two divisions that ed for the general circulation. auricle towards its These trunks open into the left superior part. losses the red blood experiences. Thpse are tify I think sufficient characteristic attributes of the two great divisions of the general circulation. The capillary system of the lungs gives rise to many minute ramifications. in which I present economy. 2d. to justhe point of view different from this other authors. This sketch. have adopt- Health supposes a perfect equilibrium between the and the acquisitions the black blood makes. . That which is called the poverty of the humours. important function of the animal ARTICLE SECOND. FORMS. then into larger ones. SITUATION. and finally into four great trunks. distinguished . two for each lung. principles that constitute it. From the general idea that we have given of the two vascular systems. plethora follows. there is Whenever this equilibrium is de- disease. AND GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OP THE VASI CULAR SYSTEM OF RED BLOOD. 285 constantly increas- One to give is is ing. which perfectly true. 1st. If the black blood receives more than the red blood expends. This. we should form the following of the position in the economy of that with red blood. is to receive is that of the other.

than the portion belonging to the inferior parts. the all com- mon all trunk whence arise those that carry red blood to the parts. and that of the head and the hands become much mortification. there are many rior. From this ventricle goes the aorta. ment of the right. where they terminate in the general capil- lary system. whilst the branches of the second trunk are distributed among its all the organs of the economy. differences between the phenomena that take place and those that happen in the infe- in the superior parts. apoplexy. which is narrower than that of the other. the superior parts. communithe thickness of whose parietes. as as- phyxia. with the left ventricle. the trunk of the second and the heart that serves to unite them. later the seat of In general. and even to all extremities. is We penetrated with blood with infinitely more ease. is the inferior. distinguish it from the 3d. the arrangefleshy columns. and particularly the brain. it is sufficient force is first the extremity of the foot that affected. &c. require inevitably a very active and habitual excitement from the blood.286 VASCULAR SYSTEM from the right by having fewer fleshy columns. submersion. or the heart. that in the gangrene of old people. are found then concentrated in the cavity of the thorax. all of whose organs. by its smaller size. that found the agent of impulse of the red blood. cates by an oval opening furnished with valves. their functions in permanent activity. that the portion of the general capillary system which belongs to the shall see in the first. and the affections that arise to all from the blood not being driven with the parts. This position is important . by the greater elongation of its appendix. &c. The first tree of the system of red blood. different cutaneous erup- . dermoid system. it places under a more immediate influence of this viscus. It is nearly between the superior third of the body and. the head especially. in order to keep Thus observe.

blacken rather the face than the inferior parts now this difference arises evidently from the relation of position of the superior and inferior parts with the heart. then that of the branches. ap- proaches the opening of the aorta. there is between them and these the internal fibres a space of two or three lines that covers. membrane alone Between them and consequently between the valves. tions. the remarks belonging to the lungs of red blood. examine the I. first We have no general remarks to tree and It is then especially the second or arterial tree. we perceive three little empty triangular spaces. These festoons do not extend to the fleshy fibres . after having lined its ventricle. injections 287 even prove. This is the manner. offer here upon the upon the agent of impulse of the circulation In fact. origin. This article comprehends the origin of the aorta left ventricle. at the that of the trunks which arise from it. extremity is cut into three semi-circular festoons. covered by the membrane . it and stretching afterwards into the artery. The peculiar or fibrous membrane Its not identified with the fibres of the heart. covers It is in its whole extent. whose is distribution article to now to occupy us. forms by its folds the three semi-lunar valves. which correspond with the semi-lunar valves that they support.WITH RED BLOOD. Most authors have described inaccurately the manner of the union of this great arterial trunk with the heart. which in young subjects . this internal artery with the is membrane that forms the union of the heart. Origin of the Aorta. and the heart will be given in the Descriptive Anatomy. the smaller ones and the minute ramifications that go from them. is attached there. It is necessary in this it. course and termination of Origin of the Arteries. the internal membrane of the heart with red blood.

The latter having to go over a much greater distance than the other. .288 also. name of branches. after having first removed the we distinguish very well by the transparency of the internal membrane and the opacity of the three festoons that commence the aorta. owing to the less distance. the artery entirely separated from the This entire separation of the fibres of the aorta not the it from those of the heart. the origin of the aorta must be dissected well from without. preserves with more certainty by this arrangement the whole of the motion that is given to the blood by the heart . that if the artery accurately dissected on exterior. differs in this respect from the second. this does not prevent. smaller branches. At the supe- rior part of the pelvis. however. It follows its from this. VASCULAR SYSTEM To distinguish this structure clearly. the impulse from being more sensibly felt by the superior than the inferior organs. which are afterwards multiplied un- der that of ramifications. the aorta divides into two secondSoon after. and by examining valves. branches. . Arising thus from the left ventricle. Then by cutting this artery and the ventricle. the red blood. subdivisions begin under the ary trunks. which forms for a long time one trunk only. the aorta divides almost immediately into two branches. one ascending goes the other to the neck. and we detach from below upwards the internal that forms the great canal of the circulation of is membrane heart. abdomen and lower extremities. would alone be a strong presumption that their nature is same if many other con- siderations did not prove in the most evident manner. and stripped entirely of the fatty texture that surrounds it. head and superior extremities descending to the chest. Origin of the trunks. when held up to the light the union of one with the other. &c. the arrangement that 1 have just pointed is out. fyc. The first being very soon subdivided into four principal trunks. as I have said above.

from which the other is more or 37 less separated. they pass into the exhalant vessels. middle intercostals rare. that wherever there are larger than the other. the precise point of the natural circulation. and follow their course under a serous membrane. are acute. To be convinced of the this. when too fine. The origin of this the spermatic artery last is an instance of the extreme of kind of origin. We observe in is general. it will he seen in this way. .WITH RED BLOOD. to show the quantity of blood in When they divide. where they are every where very apparent . the abdomen is opened. at the time I was any engaged part. . It is almost impossible to ascertain by injections. one The largest fol- lows the original direction of the principal trunk. the peritoneum for example. and communicate to the whole serous surface a colour that is inspection of a living animal whose not natural to it. that the substated by Haller. divisions are not I more numerous than satisfied is have frequently myself of Besides. in demonstrating the insufficiency of injections. and even less. frequently performed this experiment. it is necessary to take the arteries at their origin. inject a dog and open the you will see abdomen of another of uniformly in one more or same size . which is more the superior intercostals most commonly they . than are seen in the other filled with blood. the arteries form among themselves very different angles. is almost the only means that can be employed without danger of mistake. In the inte- . particularly in the extremities. 289 Mathematical anatomists have exaggerated the number Many have thought there of the arterial sub-divisions. Haller reduced the numwere a hundred to one artery To ascertain what is really ber to twenty. as at the sometimes obtuse. as at Sometimes right angles. this. Injections when too coarse do not fill all the branches. less vessels inI jected. the case. two divisions. either fine or coarse.

you paid attention only to their course and distribution. and consequently the more opposed it is to it has acute. so that the is portion of the circle formed by this second eminence nearer the heart than that made by the other. this between the trunk itself and the branch it. are a remarkafor Take ble character in organic life to which the arteries belong. the angle of origin is 3d. These numberless varieties in the forms. corresponds with the angle entering from without. This eminence prefavours the change of its course. that is very variable. There is at the mouth of the artery an oblique circle. The origin of the arterial . the less sensible is this second eminence like the other a semi-circular form. the is prominent half of which nearest the heart. the union of which forms an obtuse aneminence is less conspicuous. the eminence has a circular arrangement and ly evident in the is whole circumference. and breaking the column of the blood. trunks is is generally pretty so variable. There is no symmetry in . things are then arranged in an inverse manner. which is internal owing to the angle of origin.290 rior of the artery. but that arises from gle. 2d. If the angle is a right equalis one. sents an arrangement. that in uniform but that of the branches hardly any two subjects have the same arrangement. The more obtuse is. If the angle is acute. if. This character must be placed at the side of the constant irregularity of the arteries. it would be impossible to form the least idea of its branches. VASCULAR SYSTEM an eminence formed by the fold of the membrane. as at the mesenteric. 1st. union with it a whole circle which is oblique . this respect. neglecting the manner they separate from each other. and consequently that form- ed by the branch with the continuation of the trunk is obtuse. and makes by its the angle . If obtuse. it forms even a kind of semi-circular spur or projection. then this eminence very evi- dent between the branch that arises and the continuation of the trunk . example the hypogastric.

There is hardly any. except the in &c. &c. internal iliac. the trunks. Thus the smaller branches. II. the hypogastrics. smaller branches and ramifications. &c. arise at distances very near each other. In their course the arteries present differences accord- ing as we examine. carotid. the axilla. they are prevented in others by divisions that arise to from them and hinder us from raising the artery considerable extent. WITH RED BLOOD. By dividing they form branches that are received into smaller and narrower interstices. the internal and external carotids. Those even of the extremities. their general distribution. can scarcely be made except upon the first of these. Course of the arteries. that correspond. and yet they are not so large as most of the divisions of the tibial. to open them. the sides of the pelvis. The branches. that contain much cellu- lar texture. a third division of the aorta. and .. The trunks are the divisions continuous with the two great portions of the aorta. as in the distribution 291 of the nerves of animal life. &c. trunks and branches arteries. go from the aorta. branches. thymic &c. that runs a considerable course without furnishing some. such are above. the branches and smaller branches. the neck. &c. does not take place in a gradual and necessarily successive manner. the iliacs. Generally they are situated in broad interstices. arise equally from for example. which is itself . and the ramifications even. below. as in the groin. smaller branches. differ frequently in their mode of origin and the course of their branches. any The origin of the arterial trunks. is Thus experiments which it necessary to introduce tubes into arteries. &c. the subclavians. Course of the trunks first and branches. the bronchial.

Besides this protection that the neighbouring parts and particularly the muscles afford them. a spontaneous rising noticed in that which supported. to be necessary to prevent the impetus of the blood from producing derangement in the deli- . as we do when the curves are great. and fat. in Usually straight the trunks. are crost. There is however some exception to this rule as trunks . The trunks and the branches are accompanied by this is To refer also the cerebral mo- which veins. an agitation that supports ergy. protects them from external injury.292 VASCULAR SYSTEM are consequently more exposed to the influence of the neighbouring organs. and a fall body ty is of considerable length held in the hand. they accelerate also the circulation of the blood. renders the circulation less evident. When the elbow becomes very evident upon mere inspecis rested upon the table. &c. tion. We have already said what should be thought of this opinion. its extremi- seen to vaccillate. that we must communicated to tumours that are situated over a great artery. as in the carotids. The direction varies in the trunks and the branches. so is the internal carotid. the it in- ternal and abdominal iliacs. and reciprocally the motion of the arterial trunks gives to the neighbouring organs and even to the whole limb. surrounded in general with a large quantity of a circumstance that has been considered favourable think that this fluid is to the opinion of those who exhaled by the pores of the arteries. &c. Both of them are covered almost every where by a thickness of parts that. en- This agitation. sometimes tion. When these trunks are exposed in a living ani- mal. we do not see any kind of locomotion there. to rise and If the legs a little at each pulsation. which has numerous curves. which are thought incorrectly. its vital a sensible motion. being is first bent upon the is thighs. it respects the direction of the is the arch of the aorta an example of it. which it is often difficult to per- ceive.

the bones and the In the smaller branches. in the circumvolutions . . between the lobes that form them. If in . supports the general activity of Besides. when blood ceases to agitate the brain. More branches. the windings are evident than in the branches. and the branches the smaller ones that separate particular organs. if cellular texture they disapit we separate from the vessels of all the Do these windings diminish the rapidity of the circulation. the smaller branches are found in the interior of these same organs. in the less vascular or- gans. that much more active wherever the arteries are numerous. the &c. fyc. &c. especially in the brain depend principally upon the pear in part. the cartilages. functions by supporting I its partial activity. parts. Thus we observe mucous surfaces.WITH RED BLOOD. they are interposed between their the brain. ramifications. an internal facilitates its motion communicated to the whole organ. Course of Whilst the trunks occupy the large interstices that are left between several organs. as the motion the of which the part. much more make them but as they very conspicuous. whilst on the contrary its phenom- ena are weaker and more obscure other white parts. this direction occasions the arterial locomotion that constitutes almost exclusively the pulse. and does the straightness of the arteries in? crease this rapidity as I much as physiologists suppose think they have exaggerated the effects of the direction . Thus fibres . without. proves the immediate connexion between this internal life is motion and its energy. as in the tendons. Injections . the muscles. as in the muscles. according to many physicians. By them. 1st. entering into their intimate structure. however. spoke above. cate substance of 293 tortuous in the the brain. of the arteries the following are proofs of it. in in in the glands. the sudden cessation of life. the skin. the smaller branches.

for a considerable time. and is no doubt that when strongly bent. have opened the carotid artery of a dog. though fulness renders almost straight the vessels of these organs. an artery being open. is thrown out. and the blood that all the calculations of mathematical physicians upon the delay of the blood from this cause. as much opened the abdomen of a living animal. that it is not my object to examine. If in another animal. is much less than is commonly thought. we open also the wind pipe. rest upon unsubstantial foundations. the fore arm stops even. as the sto- mach. I have observed that the circulation is intestines. in either case. whose numerous arteries had been first opened no difference is discoverable in the force with which Finally. increases their curves. in &c. and yet I have observed in case that the blood goes from the open artery with force as before. but this phenomenon does .294 living animals VASCULAR SYSTEM we expose the hollow organs. There is the it is essential when we feel the pulse that arm should be extended. I have also opened both sides of the thorax . alternately in a state of fulness and that of vacuity. and having is 2d. immediately the lungs are collapsed and consequently the windings of their vessels increased . after having . this organ is immediately reduced to a very small size j the vessels this become much bent. that the influence of the direction of the arteries upon the course of the blood. Let us conclude from these experiments. the pulse is weakened. 3d. almost equally rapid in both cases. after having ly sensible. It is which the blood escapes from the is gone through the lungs immediateis only gradually that the force destroy- ed by the influence of causes. notwithstanding this no diminu- tion in the force with artery. I have alternately contracted and stretched the mesentery. I observed the force with which the blood thrown out. and by a syringe affixed to the opening suddenly exhaust all the air the lungs contain. and that emptiness. 4th. by forcing them to wrinkle.

when the testi- very tortuous. and I not by a successive progression. not depend upon the angle the artery forms . that the muscles that press it. it is wholly different. they prevent the rupture of the artery that traverses this bone. that the dif- ferent curves of the internal carotid are much more evi- dent than the single curve that the brachial then forms. It is is would unaccount in filling.WITH RED BLOOD. for We see them very evident in those which are subject to an alternate dilatation example is in the intestines. these curvatures perform an important part in the preservation of these organs. as this fluid it would strike against the arterial curvatures. it. and contraction. and yet the circulation is performed there very well. doubtedly experience some delay. &. on this that in our injections a tortuous artery as the spermatic for in a slower example often remains empty. the force with which the blood will be thrown out is not stronger than it would be from the radial. full But number of tubes of fluid. is the impulse received at the beginning of them ly sudden- propagated into all the cavities that form them. a rupture which the displacing of the bone would pro- duce without them. . In the the abdomen. the artery untwists and takes the straight course it has in the adult.c. the artery foetus. open an intercostal artery which has but few curves. The arterial curvatures are adapted to the different states in which the organs may be found. &c. In the fractures of the lower jaw. In the motions of the this womb. If the whole arterial system was empty and the blood filled it going from the heart successively. 295 it arises from this. By them the arterial system is pre- served unhurt in the violent and oftentimes forced motions that the limbs perform. the bladder. as shall say hereafter. the pharynx. is in and the whole face. contract its cali- ber and even obliterate This is so true. When gland descends. the cle lips. Besides. the tongue.

. because there in. it thus that the ductus arteriosus and aorta are blended together in the foetus . The of the arteries would be insufficient for these motions in fact. or of the flexion of the limbs. I would remark upon arteries. I have invariably made this remark upon living animals. the bladder. arteries beat more or &c. Two trunks . being uniformly tortuous. its diameter is diminished. the arteries in their course. &c. can without the aid of their extensibility. have very different degrees of extent. Two trunks unite and form au arch . Two equal trunks sometimes unite at an acute angle. far more evident at the time of the contraction of the hollow organs. branches. space for the blood to move Hence why the arteries the parts subject to alternate dilatations and con- tractions.296 VASCULAR SYSTEM flexibility . &c. and form but one . before they go between the hemi3d. this subject that the locois motion of the observed by Veitbrecht. We can by emptying or distending the intestines. which mingle the columns of blood that each brings. sometimes a small trunk one. 2d. the vessels would impede then the of all circulation. By accommodating would be less themselves to the motions of our parts. We see then that there are three kinds of anastomoses between equal branches . than during the dilatation of the one or the extension of the others. when an artery is extended longi* tudinally. one . the convexity of this arch. &c. communi- cate at certain places by a transverse branch such are the two anterior cerebral. 1st. &c. Anastomoses of Anastomosis are two kinds is the union of many . this then branches arise from is the case with the mesenteric spheres. that the two vertebrals produce the basilary trunks. There sometimes two equal is joined to a large The is first has three varieties. the sto- mach. make their less strong. of anastomoses trunks unite.

They begin to be more frequent in the branches. more frequently they are the further removed from the origin. which the anastomo- ble to experience obstacles. ses favour in places. the more numerous are the anastomoses. as in the brain. The second kind of anastomoses it it is that of considerable branches with smaller ones. anastomoses between the fine taneous obliteration of one of these vessels. has no varieties. WITH RED BLOOD. we see the branches. almost always in regions remote from the heart that anastomoses are met with. above and below this obliteration or this ligature. especially in the extremities It is . Thus. but a tree parts of the as which communicate together. the abdomen. and only communicate with each other. the cavities in where the motion of the blood is liaIt is on this account that in which the influence of the neighbouring is parts upon the motion less sensible. and the blood escapes afterwards by secondary vessels. &c. &c. In the last ramifications they are so numerous that they form an inextricable network. more rare in the muscular interstices of &c. continue the circulation . the The more the smaller branches are subcerebral. finally in the last. is many cases.. two columns meet each other by their extremities. It is not then a tree with distinct all branches that forms the arterial system. that of obviits ating the obstacles the blood experiences in in course. whilst they are the extremities. is extremely frequent. of these is 297 which two columns of blood are united the two first 5 another in which two columns follow their first direction. This arrangement is cal- culated to facilitate the circulation. in that in together and take a direction between an opposite direction. We find scarcely any in the trunks that arise from the aorta. The fulfilled principal object of the anastomoses. after the ligature of a after the spon- wounded artery or one with an aneurism. divided. the anastomoses become more frequent. as in the mesenteric.

viz. ietes. the vitality of the trunks having scarcely any influence upon the blood. that the least alterations that they experience give rise to many engorgements that inevitably require anastomoat ses. which are in fact more the least irritation produced spasm last divisions. a reflux Would I not the least embarrassment occasion a trouble- some stagnation there? would remark upon first this subject that the anastomoses furnish the proof of a truth which we shall soon de- monstrate more in detail. rare there. in the different engorgements of our organs. but act them- selves upon the fluid they contain. and that by the vascular par- In fact it is because the vitality of the arteries is every thing for the motion of the last subdivisions. if all the small branches went to their respective destinations. which are extremely numerous the end of the ar- terial tree. in size is . there is less need then of anastomoses. Anastomoses suppose then the It is because these vessels are not inert.298 in the part. ing phenomena are subject to so many variations that oftentimes. but supported almost entirely by the capillary vessels. principally of the which by the anastomoses. &c. If the least cause. VASCULAR SYSTEM These collateral vessels then increase often more frequently still. is exclusively by the heart. of the trunks. This reflux is necessary is favoured also in inflammations. the course of the blood vitality of the arteries. and especially sions. the blood is especially influenced it in the capillaries. as they produce that of their it would be necessary that they should communicate as frequently together. A fleshy texture in the great arte- . How would the circulation be able to 50 on. it experiences but few obstacles in passing through them . the by the influence of the pas- spasm of their extremities. obliges the blood to flow back. that the circulat. that in the great trunks. On the other hand. without communicating among themselves? capillaries.

. Forms of the Arteries in their course. a cone all to say. or by cutting empty. because a variety of causes influencing these kinds of muscles. whether after having injected it perpendicularly it is when it is between the origin of two it. it Undoubtedly considered the branches furnishes in its whole extent. in all the and the relation being al- ways the same subdivisions. the effect of it . Many physicians of the present age have described each artery as forming a cone. goes uniformly This relation of the trunks and the branches has been exaggerated however by mathematical physiologists. as absolutely inverted. base at the parts and its apex at the heart in so that the aorta has a diameter the less considerable proportion. If we examine a portion of it branches. Considered in its general arrangement. or by measuring it find it when full of blood. than that of sum of all the branches. having . would have required inevitably these numerous anastomoses. ries. diminish their caliber and em- barrass the progress of the fluids that traverse them. than a series of cylinders successively joined to each other and always decreasing. and the apex towards the extremities. successive diminution it by a but in this sense is less cone. attributed to the last over the first a predominance who much greater than really existed. the base of which is towards the heart. they can at any moment increase unnat- urally their contraction. the arterial I system represents on the contrary. 299 involuntary and vital properties analogous to the muscles. takes a conical form. We have a proof of this by comparing a trunk with two branches that succeed it these surpass it in diameter. that is have its said. we its always cylindrical. WITH RED BLOOD. point A cause of error upon this at their ex- may arise from measuring the arteries . we conceive that in- the capacity of the arterial system creasing.

This observation upon the proportions of the arterial parietes proves the impossibility of judging of the relations of diameter between the two. when the diseases from a local cause for if they are the effect of a little I general disease. Besides. IN. the veins. why aneurisms are rare in the branches. and circu- lates tility by the influence of the insensible organic contracof the vascular parietes. hence. To point out where this system begins. especially . . and frequent arise in the trunks. the aorta has parietes thinner in proportion to its cavity. We can prove that there the blood ceases to be entirely under the influence of the heart. but it is evident that the genebetween the arteries and these ves. vital forces which vary themselves so much. arteries. have considered their continuity with the excretories. than that of the branches separately examined . are also affected . and where the arteries end. than the cubital artery . ral capillary system is &c. this examination cannot have the importance that was attached to it by the ancients. the caliber of the trunks greater. oftentimes the particularly. whose works are filled with calculations upon this ries . at least by examining them according as the in the interior. After being divided. that is to say. but to how can the eye? this line of demarcation be rendered evident Authors in treating of the termination of the arteries. in proportion to their parietes. point.300 terior after VASCULAR SYSTEM having injected them is . the exhalants. in fact. subdivided. and having the peculiarities we have just examined. without doubt. these relations are necessarily very variable. Termination of the Arteries. increase or contract the caliber of the small arteand in this point of view. the radial have already seen two examples of it. the arteries terminate in the general capillary system. other things being equal. would be very difficult.

nature has added a fibrous coat heart. but has essen- tial differences according to the different systems. speak here only of the arterial coat. 301 Thus I shall is treat of their origin in speaking of this all system. Finally the pilous.WITH RED BLOOD. I for the arteries. ARTICLE THIRD. The red blood circulates. and in which consequently the general capillary system contains much blood . under the relation of 1st. the fibrous. such are the glandular. sels. contain only nous systems. which is also that of the . epidermoid. At the exterior of this membrane. there are systems in which these vessels are distri- buted in great quantity. ternal As to the in- membrane of the arteries. the cutaneous. Other systems receive but few arteries. fleshy fibres for the and a peculiar membrane for the pulmonary veins. in a membrane arranged in the shape of a great canal. Textures peculiar to this organization. In fact. one in the organic muscular system. its continuity with the arteries. &c. as I have said. the mucous. The fibres of the heart and the membrane of the pulmonary veins will be examined. blood in circulation in that portion of the general capillary system that belongs 3d. little &c. ORGANIZATION OF THE VASCULAR SYSTEM WITH RED BLOOD. variable in its form. and consequently have but to them. cartilagiarteries. destitute of fluids in white the division of the general capillary system that has its seat in them. which spread in the organs. and having every where the greatest analogy. I. the animal and organic muscular. &c. shall the other in the system with black blood. extended from the pulmonary capillary system to the general one. the serous. 2d. as the osseous.

We see. by remaining in the fluids with which this part is moistened. The is thickness of the peculiar membrane of the It it very evident in the great trunks. that at the reddens in a very evident it manner foetus end of some days. If the branches appear red in living animals.302 VASCULAR SYSTEM it whole system with red blood. Peculiar in a Membrane of the firm. trary. very apparent last divisions the where it Its colour is usually every where the lost. in This membrane is compact. very analogous to that of the cartilages of the and of the fibro-cartilages of the adult. submitted to is however less uniform two systems. as we may be arteries easily convinced. This phenomenon often more evident in the branches than in the trunks. at the base of the For example. yellowish. The it colour of the arterial fibre in certain cases is However I assumes a grey- ish appearance. have often observed it in arteries ex- posed to maceration. to the blood left this redness which does not belong in the arterial cavities. less evident in the the trunks yellowish. the longer this remains in water the whiter it be- comes. maceration is continued. or rather that takes a rosy tinge. which I have found almost as thick . When the fibrous coat of the arteries has conit tinued some time with this redness. the arteries cranium become red very frequently in the dead body. This result in the arteries than in those never absent. and great arteries. constantly diminessentially ishes a circumstance that distinguishes from the internal membrane. we shall examine general manner. dens also. if gradually loses is it. . in which it is the same experiment. it arises only from the transparency of the one which allows the blood to be seen. Arteries. and the opacity of the others. is insensibly same. in opening the cranium. Sometimes the internal membrane redbut never the external or cellular on the con.

now it is impossible to examine these capillaries. as in the cerebral. I have clearly the thinness Has of their parietes an influence upon the sanguineous effusions. have sought in vain to ascertain by injections the vessels torn in apoplexy. There is no doubt that in the thinner in proportion vertebral and internal carotid it is than in equal trunks situated in the muscular interstices but by examining attentively these arteries. has appeared to me however. and even than in the muscles. I which are. ad- hering to each other. different layers we can without difficulty it is separate these has from each other. arranged such a manner that after having raised the cellular covering. so frequent in the brain ? cannot say. this serous hemorrhage does not resemble that of the membranes it is not an oozing through the exha. is This membrane in layers. of the liver. there are often small partial effusions there. this that made many authors believe that the great arteries were compos- ed of a great number of coats. Almost always these effusions take place even in the cerebral substance. distinguished circular fibres in them. ly affected The cerebellum is rare- by it. As to the arteries of the other parts of the body. It 303 has been thought the fibrous that in certain arteries. in the tibial artery as in the aorta. rather thinner than in the intermuscular spaces.. When the tuber annulare becomes so. fibres that form these the external ones appear . separated by medullary partitions that remain uninjured. WITH RED BLOOD. These effusions take place only in the ca- pillaries. Besides. their peculiar membrane It presents generally a pretty uniform arrangement. as we know. the trunks are never the seats of them I . . easily separated however. layers are circular or nearly so The . that in it is the interior of the viscera. in composed of very distinct fibres. of the spleen. coat is entirely wanting. lants of the ventricles for these cavities are very rarely the only seat of it. generally nearer the posterior than the anterior lobe.

fur- As to the internal membrane. rings formed by These circular fibres go even to the eminence of the common membrane. the circular fibres of the last separate and form on each side a half ring. those of the trunk serves to fix it is the internal membrane that them together. it But if we examine them is to . to the sub-mucous texture. is the nature of the arterial it fibre? Almost easy all anatomists have considered the same with the muscuattentively. by raising this. which embraces the small the circular fibres of the arising branch. When two trunks tals and lumbars upon the aorta. that arise at the fork that separates this origin. which is seen within the arterial cavity and of which I have spoken so that the whole thickness . arises a complete one. of an equal size go off. Thus the last rings of the aorta cannot be separated from the first of each iliac. When whence a branch arises from a trunk. &c.304 to VASCULAR SYSTEM to the be attached compact it cellular texture that is con* less tiguous. appears to me to have great analogy with the origin of the organic muscular fibres. which are attached in a great number of places. a number more or considerable adheres to always it it in an intimate manner. What lar. Those of the branch do not arise from . Dissection shows easily these branches set at their origin in the ring which arises from the separation of the circuWe remark this at the origin of the intercoslar fibres. does not appear to nish any attachment we raise easily. the last circular fibres inti- of the primitive trunk which they formed. There are no longitudinal fibres in the arteries. interlace mately with the origin of each of the two circular layers. In fact. membrane is serves as a support to their ori- But there but little continuity between the two kinds of fibres. as the iliacs. . of the peculiar gin. The manner of the adhesion of these fibres with the compact neighbouring texture. as fibres of communication. without bringing with it any arterial fibres.

internal coats is are cut the cellular alone it . pointed out by Desault. the arterial texture on the contrary it solid. is There undoubtedly no texture so brittle. an but would not cut them. arranged like the which the fibres are would produce a flattening. if I may use the word. the preceding experiment. the different morbid alterations to which the two are subject. We can observe by tying an artery . a dilatation of the cellular coat in the other an un- natural increase. breaks before yields. explains the frequency of hemorrhages after the operation for aneurism. In distinguish the arterial texture fact. .. approximation of these fibres. a rupture of the arterial . and especially . only one in Why is is it that this should be the ? which it necessary to apply them This phenomenon alone would from the muscular. But the muscular texture . I have often repeated this experiment. The aneurism of the heart and that of the arteries have nothing in common In one there is but the name. exactly similar to what a cutting instrument would have made. want this colour. though the ligature immediately applied to artery. none consequently less proper to be em- braced by ligatures. loose and is very extensible firm and this. is soft. by opening the section corresponding with the thread. upon the dead body. The want of red colour does not establish these differences. WITH RED BLOOD. and you will see that there is not a single relation in which they have the least analogy. is The two not. Moreover compare the properties of texture of the arteries with those of the muscles compare their vital properties. by examining the articles in which I treat of these properties compare their development. tight. since in man even. and upon living animals the result which is very uniform. as the intestines. made upon a portion of intestine in arterial. some parts really muscular. a real development of muscular fibres which preserve their appearance and 39 their properties. . 305 be convinced of their differences. as the arterial. a we observe. fibres.

is less than from the nature of Besides. The same when we . If we the carotid artery above. properties of the which its in this case contracts vio- lently. afterwards into its great force must be employed to break thing happens texture. This difference arises evidently from the latter. they enjoy in a natural state a very considerable degree of resistance and force. in the case. without a previous alteration of the arterial texture. sistance opposed to the injection. body is the But upon the opposite. found directly opposed to the effort. so different from a necessary consequence of the situIn fact. that no fibre. and drive a fluid it. another character that distinguishes them from the fleshy texture. is arterial texture.306 VASCULAR SYSTEM Notwithstanding the ease with which the arterial fibres are broken in cases of aneurism. . by the force of the impulse of the blood alone against the 2d. which takes place boih transversely and longitudinally. the vessel yields to a very it strong action made upon would be necessary that to divide the vital this action should be incomparably greater muscle. with more dif- when the dead subject of this comparative living the effect is experiment. I doubt whether these tumours can be formed. 1st. it. If weak parietes of the arteries. we ficulty the rupture of the first. force in air instead of a liquid. whilst the artery can make no further resistance texture. parietes takes place longitudi- we draw in a contrary direction. the two effect ends of an artery and of a muscle. The tie following are the proofs of this resistance. ation of the heart at the origin of the arteries. This resistance of the that of the venous. experiments prove and first it arises without doubt is from this. tion of aneurisms takes place only from the long continu- ed action upon the arterial parietes . the resistance of these nally also. Frequently the efforts of a man are insufficient to produce a rupture the heart can never cause it thus the force of so that the forma- suddenly . this longi- tudinal resistance to distension than the lateral reit.

are appears. But if we observe on it is hand if that this memin dis- brane can be broken. in the The structure with regular fibres. external the fibrous organs. if the least cause which increased the force of the blood could dilate the parietes of the arteries beyond the ordinary degree? It was necessary that their texture should render these parietes independent of the different degrees of motion of the fluid that circulates in them whence ries are it follows that a fleshy heart and resisting arteIf two things inevitably connected. WITH RED BLOOD. that the. is we be con- vinced that this external liar to the arteries . which is distribution analogous to the arteries. make us believe muscular nature of the arteries but the ligaments . This the great advantage of the arterial texture. she would have doubled alsp the arterial On .. they would have had but resistance. this 307 organ driving the blood with force into their tubes. little nature had doubled the energy of the heart. Why fleshy. resisting. that elastic and even dry. whilst the fibrous organs are compact. in my opinion. but softer and more it elastic. when its sensible organic is contractility raised to a high point. is the only circumstance that can. but forms a distinct and separate texture in the economy. the pulmonary artery thinner and less resisting than the aorta ? Because the right ventricle being less is not capable of so great efforts. . resistance. of the circulation and all What would become the functions that depended upon it. arterial From what has been said. the other hand. raised by layers and scales section. form a solid body. membrane exclusively pecu- that has no relation with the other systems. as characterized by an extreme resistthe other ance. I may shall so say. if there had not been an agent of impulse at their origin this is precisely what is happens by its in the hepatic portion of the vena porta. which. it membrane resembles we shall see. should find there a force capable of resisting the greatest efforts of which is it is susceptible.

that ceived in any other animal texture. the arteries in part their natural arrangement. Thus dried. cartilages in the same state. is whitish when raised up separately. extremely breaking in is the great trunks with a crackling noise. vital sensibility when when the and contractility are different? Besides. can we say that this the same. Action of different agents upon The action of the air by drying the arteries gives them a colour of a reddish yellow. to all the There are then general phenomena common solids. This covering remains pliable. when the physical properties. hut different peculiar phenomena that are distinctive. this is a phenomenon that distinguishes from most of the other textures. . very deep and even blackish in the great trunks. to be owing to the absence of In opening the arterial layers. It arises from the small quantity of fluid that is contained between its layers. more clear in is the smaller ones. a circumstance that appears the cellular texture. this preparation. little In drying. when comparfibres are ed with the moisture in which the muscular immersed. the action of different re-agents upon the arterial texture. proves clearly how much it differs from the muscular. and tendons are fibrous also forms to the intimate nature nature is of what importance are the ? Now. It is not per- especially in that we see how much it the cellular cov- ering of the arteries differs from their peculiar texture. the is kind of dryness they exhibit remarkable. We may satisfy ourselves of this. the arterial texture. assume Immersed again in water. the extensibility and contractility of texture. by com- paring the following article with that which corresponds with it in the muscular system. the arterial its texture loses but very of it thickness. the arterial texture almost as hard as the brittle.303 VASCULAR SYSTEM .

this is frequently seen in gun-shot wounds. to their final ramifications. in been a long time macerated or which are putrid. it is it like them for some time almost by itself. there appears to be less ammonia disengaged from remarkable in the The absence ter in of fcetor is also very wa- which the arteries have been macerated. By removing them even carefully the putrid substance. we can follow arteries left is This method of seeing the easy. . the spleen. it softens gradually without changing colour. is to putrefaction and maas in what is observed in the viscera. then is reduced also to a pulp. the kidnies. An evident proof of the resistance of the arteries ceration. &c. At the end of a period. there is left a kind of coal wholly different from that which remains . and when all the fluid part is evaporated. &c. which have In both cases. entirely separated from every neighbouring texture. the fibro-cartilages. the difference is striking. In the first case. An artery often passes through a mortified part without undergoing any alteration from it . the first especially. the liver. or In the living animal. these viscera are reduced to a kind of pulp. &c. the arterial texture yields finally to maceration and putrefaction. amid this general softening. the cellular texture. infinitely less susceptible of putrefaction than the skin. when is left to putrefy gives out an odour much less foetid than that of other textures it. WITH RED BLOOD. it incorruptible . Their tex- ture resembles in this respect that of the cartilages. and is ultimately resolved into a pulp In the second case. becomes greyish at first. By com- paring this water with that in which muscles have been macerated. the arteries putrefy with great difficulty. whether they are filled by injection.. these vessels are also empty. loses the adhesion of its fibres. it almost homogeneous and greyish. Exposed wet among other organs 309 to the action of the air. very different according to the degree of temperature. the arteries however have preserved their texture still hard.

nervous texture. in the production of this phenomenon. the arterial texture curls up. to a gelatinous and yellowish pulp. the small quantity of froth that arises from the greyish. that of caloric. with the same &x. first. as they are. want of adhesion fibres. it after the putrefaction of the muscles. but at the same time a greyish tinge succeed- ing to the yeliow colour. The want of adhesion and the change of colour are almost the only phenomena they experience. 3d. and blackish by the sulphuric. At the moment of ebullition. in the same relation. more sensible the direction of the a hardening accompa- diameters than in that of the axis nying this horny hardening. like the fibrous. so that they 5th. it. The action of the concentrated acids curls this texture. might say that this texture and the muscular present in this respect. . by the boiling. it. riority of the action of the air over that of water. contracts and exhibits the horny hardening water is in the highest degree. how few neutral salts the arterial texture contains. the following the result of tion. and a yellowish tinge of the liquor. re- much longer time to soften the arterial texture by maceration than by putrefaction which shows the supequires . break with great ease. 2d. among the increasing as the ebullition goes on. the arterial texture is never reduced. ebullition constantly going on. boiling. However prolonged may be the ebullition. there is an less however than that of the in . The broth. afterwards softens finally dissolves it in the form of a pulp. If the action of added to is which produces 1st. softening. two opposite phenomena in the economy . Successive or more.310 VASCULAR SYSTEM In general. Exposed to the contact of caloric. &c. This state continues for half an hour 4th. The fibres remain size. Very little froth rises before ebulli- we from the vessel that contains the arterial texture . is evident horny hardening. is 5th. produced a proof insipid and tasteless. the cartilaginous.yellowish by the nitric.

. It can be dissected with ease upon these two separate it organs. of very which adheres but It is to the preceding. though every where connected. and can be broken with It it is the least effort. for appears yellow only by being 3d. Most of the others have a two. to cut To from the arteries. raise this layer by laminae from below upwards detached from great extent. smooth and with a uniform texture like the serous membranes. loses but by cannot be broken as can after being in the diluted acids. It their fibrous appears that this membrane. have but little action upon the solution. by its white colour. the external fibrous layer. texture gradually softened. we come then little it to the internal membrane. never reduced to continue in the a fluid state. tenuity. to the Membrane common I system with Red Blood. it is necessary through by a very superficial circular section. The alkalies. which we may be convinced of by holding it up to the light. results from 2d. by the entire want of fibres. little this texture remains almost untouched. canal. arterial texture immersed a long time it in them. as after boiling. in the form from a 1st. even the . distinct by its extreme it . and the transparency that it . Besides. there the artery is ing at the its moment no horny hardenimmersed in them but . &c. it it is broken and torn by the least in The whole resistance of the arteries resides coat. lines call that the common membrane which the arteries. has however some differences of structure in . and can be of it. it differs essentially from applied to the preceding It is these izes membranes by j a kind of brittleness that charactereffort.WITH RED BLOOD. how long soever may acid. the left side of the heart and the pulmonary last veins. caustic. less sensible action is 311 than these When is they are diluted.

As to the action of the different agents. the blood could produce as great as it does in these organs. admitted. or the consequence of a serum remaining in the .312 VASCULAR SYSTEM 1st. It pulmonary veins. than in the corresponding auricle and in the yields in the heart and in the arteries. whether was merely a transudation little after death. every where continuous. to it determine. that is is immersed in boiling water. evidently more delicate in the interior of the ventricle with red blood. 2d. that in the small arteries. The internal surface of this membrane fluid. We know of no organ fitted to furnish if its It it would arise authors have from the exhalants. Only I have thought. the common membrane has the horny hardness more than this. appears to me to be the bles precisely that same every where. this internal the auricle and to in all the rest of its course. of the it of water. by an unctuous greater or less quantity. of caloric. and which is foreign in When we macerate membrane acquires it the heart for some time. was real. its existence. when this a whole branch this. a very remarkable whiteness. which on this account wrinkles on the interior in different places. &c. air. . analogous to that of the bile through the gall bladder. to dilatations much greater than those of which it is susceptible in the arteries. evident from though the common memit brane of red blood. It is does not take place in the great trunks. is not uniform in its structure we an analogous observation for the different portions of the shall have occasion to make two genera! mucous surfaces. upon the mitral valves. 3d. differences of size in if it. like the proper membrane. that found in Does ? this fluid exist in the liv- ing? does it serve to defend the arterial coat from the It is impression of the blood difficult it . in which it would inevitably break. and resemupon the peculiar membrane. It is the different regions. is moistened is in the dead body. 4th. as many would be well to ascertain as to existence.

which. no means. has not an intermediate cellular one. a texture that has properties entirely distinct. be considered in reIt is this. it is appears then that membrane itself. to transmit their respective substances. it the organic sys- tems. except the horny harden- ing. We cannot class them in in any system. in this point of view. As to the phe- nomena of the other re-agents. as takes place in the periosteum from the bone. &c. When we by dry the common membrane more pliable than of the arteries the other. and the different eminences at the origin of the branches. it is infinitely remains transparent. What is the nature of this . They form a separate texture the economy. they are nearly the same. can membranes from the it other. which serves to protect the it can. as that of the mucous tubes does. the other does not. as a kind of epidermis. that these arteries being deprived of blood. It itself. lation to the blood. it. in its entirely ignorant properties. the secreted fluids. would never be obliterated the because of It this fluid. which should they cease ple. contract intimate adhesions on their internal sur- face. are naturally stronger united . The external surface. is remarkable. smaller branches.WITH RED BLOOD. boiling detach one of water. 313 What makes me suspect so is. Notwithstanding these this slight adhesion. maceration. much I requires always the aid of dissection. for the singular tendency I has of being ossified in myself. that out of have been able to satisfy 40 . putrefaction. feebly united to the other membrane as we have seen. &c. which by its folds contributes especially to form the aortic and mitral valves. and not a fluid that escapes from artery . as the excrements for exam&c. arteries after the expulsion of the blood. in all This membrane old age. common membrane ? am though with a different appearance it has the greatest analogy with the preceding coat. which their fluid ought to prevent.

and composed of many pieces moveable upon each other. produced by the rupture of this ex- tremely fine layer of the the osseous plates. always in separate plates. begin uniformly on the external surface of this. As long artery is as these plates remain thin. is to the membrane in contact . But if many smooth and polished. is more or so that broad. having no connexion with the peculiar fibrous membrane. number in numerous the artery. the interior of the as usual saline substances are deposited there. is The covers them and is which continued upon the artery. These incrustations. \( there is Their a great unequal and rough. the never immediately with These incrustations do not follow any of the laws of ordinary ossification. I at the origin and even it in the course of the have noticed frequently in the dissecting . common membrane is that covers particularly This arrangement remarkable aorta. the whole internal surface presents asperities. are connexions. circumference is broken . that this exhalation the rarely the whole of . for there always remains it over the incrustation a kind of pellicle that separates from the bloody and which belongs earthy substance this fluid. the most external part of which they attack . The It is saline substance deposited immedi- ately upon the exterior of the common membrane made . and being able to a certain extent to adapt themselves to the circulating motion. then they adhere only by their external surface to the peculiar membrane.314 VASCULAR SYSTEM ten subjects. artery forms a solid continuous tube the membranous portions remaining between be considered as serving for articular the plates can that the arteries. they then have a and make a projection greater thickness fine pellicle that within. by the less exhalants. thus ossified. there are at least seven that have incrustations after the sixtieth year. The cartilaginous state rarely preis cedes them.

veins. have had hownature ever examples of these ossification in its This general disposition to its whole course. symptoms that accompany The rupture of the fine pellicle when the osseous plates be- come large. All the parts of the arterial system are subject to cation. and that notwithstanding the ferences pointed out. It is not only in the arteries that the is common mempenetrated with it brane of the system with red blood saline substance . opened three or four subjects that have I have already exhibited this arrangement. for as I have already observed. the fre- quency of old people. 1 have never seen these osseous plates entirely detached. We know how common to is to find the radial ossified. in which the heart was perfectly untouched. in feeling the pulse of an old person. The ossification of the . It is especially in the aortic and mitral valves. left I more and rare upon the internal surface of the auricle ventricle and the pulmonary last. which never take place the capillary sys- tem tend . of which it is an appendage. ossifications of this membrane in the heart of which renders extremely frequent the inter- mission of the pulse at that age. this often happens to in the heart. a circumstance that would induce me that the common membrane system. proves that is every where the same. and become loose in the artery. but that of the arteries does not exit to this changes gradually into a different texture. It ossifi- appears as frequent in the branches as in the it trunks.WITH RED BLOOD. but who died however with most of the diseases of that organ. Since I 315 have practised medicine in the hospitals. from the pulmonary capillary system to the general . The rami- fications appear be less frequently the seat in of these into believe crustations. an identity It is of diseases supposes an identity of nature. arises from the remarkable brittleness that we have observed in the common membrane. I difit have had reason to consider in an uniform manner. rooms.

common membrane of the had made me think that they had system with exaggerated a little the cases in which this ossification becomes. But the practice of the Hotel Dieu shows me every day. produces in the adult the most serious consequences. I have already opened many subjects. A phenome. &c. &c. in the adult and even in the old man. cough. serous effusion in the thorax. non has struck me many times upon ossification this subject such an as an old man can live with very well. does not produce the least derangement. Thus these ossifications do not follow the progress of age they happen in young people and in adults. necessity of an erect position of the trunk. if we may so say. whereas the others are accidental and often preceded by inflammation and engorgement. infiltration. and in whom in I have found only ossification of the mitral valves. as often as in old ones. frequent suffocation. and in the later periods. Before old age. but that of the trunks. those of aneurisms and those of other organic affections of which the heart is the seat. I our dissecting confess that even this natural disposition to ossification in the red blood. branches. whose assemblage forms the asthma of most physicians. this mem- brane are observed at this age. the cause of that series of phenomena. as I have ascertained . when it is very strongly marked. 316 VASCULAR SYSTEM upon the circu- origin of the aorta has an influence also lation. and which only makes his pulse intermittent. spitting of blood. irregularity of the pulse. The ossification of the common membrane of the system with red blood differs essentially from those that happen in other parts. . less than we see every day in the bodies of old people rooms. are a remarkable proof of this. the ossifications of also. that it is. in this. but infinitely more rarely than The diseases of the heart tion of the mitral valves accompanies which the ossificaand often alone constitutes. a natural phenomenon. that these cases of ossifications. who had been affected with difficulty of breathing..

Blood Vessels. are and in interposed between layers. WITH RED BLOOD. The bronchials furnish the paIn the arterial texture. whose capillary parietes. but furnish a number that penetrate the peculiar its membrane.. to which generally were referred all the diseases of the chest. they ramify there in a thousand ways. in pulmonary veins. To distinguish it well without injections. send some great divisions to the neighbouring organs. the aorta sends off the coronaries which are ori- spread upon the texture of this organ and upon the gin of this artery rietes of the itself. is necessary to choose on one hand a great trunk like the aorta. the vessels of the arteries. either by injections. it is especially necessary to examine the little arte- they wind at in the cellular texture exterior to the artery. and on the other to take this trunk in a young animal that has been killed for the purpose by asphyxia all the little arteries then are perfectly injected with a very black blood. Parts common to the organization of the Vascular System with Red Blood. sometimes from the artery itself. leave filaments there terminate before they arrive at the internal membrane. I have never seen. At its exit. 317 form a class of chronic diseases almost as numerous as that of the chronic diseases of the lungs. the carotid. These arteries come usually from neighbouring branches. II. I have never seen. first which ries. I say. Examine the arteries of the foetus. or by opening I a living animal an artery in which had first stopt the course of the blood above and below. the little arteries pene- trating even to this internal membrane. . divisions terminate in the texture of its The heart exhibits this arrangement. as for example. before the time of Corvisart. The parietes of the arteries contain secondary arteries destined to their nutrition.

analogous in every respect to the sub-mucous. these folds entirely disappear. filamentous and not lamellated. which is in the interior. &c. forms the first of their coats. firm. 1 have ob- served that the arterial fibres are accommodated to these folds . they follow nearly the same distribution. The veins accompany every where the I arteries in the parietes of the arterial trunks. as in the internal carotid in its canal. and on the other. have not seen them become varicose in the parietes of aneurismatic arteries.$18 especially if it VASCULAR SYSTEM has died by asphyxia at birth. which the ancients called nervous. contribute to support the folds of the arteries as when have carefully dissected the peculiar coat. differs essentially from the preceding. in no way distinct from the rest of the cellular system the other. uuites them to the neighbouring parts. The texture arteries . which very external. around or in the interstices of the organs. and which. sub-excretory cellular texture. is . are not subject fre- quently to disappear in yielding to the elongation of the parts. on account of its whiteness. We have spoken in treating of the cellular system. loose. as it differs from that arteries. the last especially. you will be struck with the great abundance of blood vessels that its great arteries contain and which are sometimes little as livid as in asphyxia. with distinct layers. These two kinds of Ave cellular texture. Cellular Texture. as in the tumours of tures of the animal many other tex- economy. favours their motions. in as evident a manner. compact. However when they are on one hand strongly marked. not fatty. that the fibres are more numerous on the convex . . of this particular layer that covers the which authors commonly call the cellular coat. have around them two kinds of cellular is one. full of serum. fatty.

of which Haller has said so much. a character in which it differs from the other sys- tems. from those of the muscular. then ob- As this texture varies in each system. venous textures. the pulp as Haller has ad- of these systems. elongations of the same nature as themthis have said that absence of the cellular tex- ture is observable between the proper and common mem- . &. this undoubtedly would not happen. or that they are held by selves. finally yield to they exhibit only a kind of pulp. But let us re- turn to the arteries. the organic texture itself that forms the kind of pulp that tained.c. to which all the organs are brought by maceration. it. end of a very long time. little I either that they are merely in apposition. a long time macerated. BLOOD. exhibits a extensive than is phenomenon much It is is less generally thought. vanced. The cellular texture forms the first membrane of the arteries. the arteries ance. does not extend into the interstices of is these fibres. in which there no cellular appear- In general. varies equally. these fibres being more pressed on the concave would make the artery thicker at that place. it this that distinguishes essentially the layers of the arterial texture. so that the thickness of the arteexactly uniform. I have never been able to discover I the cellular texture there by any means that could em- Maceration. ploy. the cellular texture was the only base. this inequality for side. does not show any thing like When is at the it.- 319 ry is than on the other. The most careful dissection does not show it.WITH RED side. have they do not contain it in their interstiall ces. When we separate the fibres from each other. said. the resolution of the organs into cellular texture by maceration. which it would not be without . and gives as we have seen insertions but it to the arte- rial fibres. we see. if. Not only but as 1 their fibres are not formed of cellular texture.

why never infiltrated in dropsies. renders it the least fit of all the animal textures. removed. has been wounded. Hence the necessity of the it peculiar structure which distinguishes the cellular texture placed around the arteries. as have observed. &c. and then leave them is free. Authors are astonIf ished at these ruptures which distinguish the dilatations of the arteries from those of all the other systems. they had compared the texture of the arteries with that of the other systems they would have seen the reason of this difference. . tumours increase we know. though Haller has pretended the contrary. either longitudinally or transversely. the impossibility even of arterial true aneurisms dilatations. why it why does not develop hydatids the different tumours. to supIt is port ligatures without breaking. when these the two cellular coat. the cellular furnishes these granulations. and cysts in its layers. cases in which I have had occasion to cut the arteries. after I having interruptcoat often if ed the course of the blood. but this coat is we never see them. I believe that this absence of cellular texture contributes to the kind of brittleness that particularly distinI much guishes the arterial texture. at all. of the formation of cysts by the parieties of arteries. we do not see fleshy granulations arise from the edges of the wound I do not know that surgeons have seen them in Never. have it. to this circum- stance also that must be referred the difficulty. in the numerous the operations for aneurisms. membranes of the artery break and the alone is dilated. for which the cellular texture serves as a base. is after what has been said. and which. .320 VASCULAR SYSTEM branes of the arteries. in animals. as we have When an artery seen. . and gives that it a resistance has not in most other parts. We there easily understand. it is why never fat in the arterial texture. There are never. do not appear in the arteries. observed any thing like If an arterial trunk laid bare.

after death. first almost exclusively embraced by the 41 class of nerves. as have said. re- ceives almost exclusively cerebral nerves. The first tree of the system with red blood. It is probable then that the absence of this texture produces also the absence of these vessels. and that they are wanting usually where none. upon the neighbouring which hardly receive any from the 2d. 321 Exhalanls and Absorbents. I would observe that on account of the want of collateral branches. that the the absorbent is absence of blood this. We there know is is cellular texture. from the brain. . There had been then no absorption. vessels of the inferior cervi- cal ganglion. that their the arteries. The great tree with is ganglions. 3d. the fluid of dropsies. Nerves. upon in their internal surface. the carotid is alone proper for these experiments.WITH RED BLOOD. water. take up the faculty for some serum which separated from the crassamentum. The middle is portion of this system. in the arteries it is ? Nutrition undoubtI but not probable. or the arterial. derives nerves almost as much and even more. between two ligatures made above and below on the common carotid. 1st. Are there exhalants edly supposes them that they open . arises from still lymphatics preserving time. as well as lungs. that its in which the heart found. I have enclosed blood. But lately experiments have undeceived me. thought for some lime. fact. the body of which had been so managed on the exterior as not to break the vesAt the expiration of a considerable sels that come to it. &c. and a varithat the absorbents abound where there ety of other analogous ones. I As to the absorbents. that We the know in the par vagum is spread upon all pulmonary veins. time 1 have not discovered any diminution in the fluid. than from the red blood.

322

VASCULAR SYSTEM
have
said

We
The

how

these nerves go

in

this

respect.

cerebral which

filaments to
tion as

accompany them, furnish hardly any There is merely juxta] posithe arteries.
it

we
&c.

see

in

the extremities, in the intercostal

spaces,
I

cannot repeat

it

too much, that the constant relation

of the arteries with the nervous system of the ganglions,

deserves the attention of physiologists, because

it is

too

general not to belong to some great object of the functions

of the economy, though the object

may be unknown.

ARTICLE FOURTH.
PROPERTIES OF THE VASCULAR SYSTEM WITH RED BLOOD.

What we

have

to

say of these properties, will refer

particularly to the arteries, as well as

what we have said

of the organization.

In fact the fleshy parietes of the

heart and the membranous ones of the pulmonary veins,
possess properties that will be

examined

hereafter,

and

which differ from those of the arteries, on account of the
the difference of texture.

As

to those of the

common
little.

membrane
I

they are nearly the same in the whole course

of the red blood, the organization differing but very

shall consider the properties of the arteries only in

the arterial texture and in the

common membrane;

for

the cellular coat belonging to the system of that name,

partakes of

all its

properties.
I.

Physical Properties.
is

Elasticity,

which

obscure in most of the other animal

textures that are characterized

by a great degree of
;

soft-

ness

is

very remarkable

in

the arteries

it is

this that par-

ticularly distinguishes
city

them from the

veins.

This

elasti-

keeps their parietes apart, though they may be empty.

WITH RED BLOOD.
These

323

tubes, with the cartilaginous, as the trachea, the meatus auditorius of the fetus, &c. which are equally endowed with elasticity, are the only ones that keep thus

open of themselves.
applied to each other,

All the others have their parietes

when

the fluid that runs through

them does not distend these parietes.
It is

to the elasticity of the arterial parietes that

must

be referred their recovering themselves when they have

been flattened so as

to obliterate their cavity, the

sudden

straightening of an arterial tube that has been bent,

&c.

This property takes also an evident part in that kind of locomotion the arteries have upon the entrance of the
blood.
In fact, lay bare a tortuous arterial trunk in a livit

ing animal, you see the whole of

rise at

each pulsation,
itself,

leave the place
larly at
its

it

occupied, and straighten

particu-

curves.

At the moment the injection pene-

trates a very thin small subject,

we perceive
all

also

through

the integuments, a locomotion of

the tortuous branches
if
r

of the face.

Now

it is

evident that

the arteries were

not of a firm and elastic texture, they
the motion that
is

w ould not thus obey

impressed upon them; besides, ob-

serve what takes place in the injection of the abdominal

branches of the vena porta, which having no valves can be injected like arteries. Nothing similar to the locomotion of

which
I

I

spoke

is

observed in driving the

fluid into

them.

have often made

arterial blood circulate in the

veins by the

means of curved

tubes, fitted to the vessels of

a living animal, for example,
external jugular communicate
;

by making

the carotid and

now, we observe clearly in

the veins carrying the red blood, a kind of pulsation syn-

chronous with the beating of the heart, and a distinct
rustling noise, but not a real locomotion.

The locomotion
1st,

of the arteries supposes three things,

an agent of impulse, that communicates a motion
less strong, to the

more or
rior
;

blood contained

in their inte=

2d, a tortuous arrangement

which allows the blood

324

VASCULAR SYSTEM
them
;

in striking their parietes to straighten

3d, the firm-

ness and elasticity of these parietes which facilitate this
straightening.

On

the other hand, the parietes must not

be too firm
proper for

;

thus the cartilaginous texture

would be imdeath

this

locomotion.
is

The

elasticity of the arteries
;

as striking after
it

as during life

it

is

essential to distinguish

from con-

tractility of texture.
ters,

There are many

distinctive charac;

the following are the most striking

1st.

The
is

con-

tractility of texture takes place only

when

there
is

a

want

of extension of the arterial parietes, that

to say,

when

these vessels cease to contain the blood which resists their
contraction, or

when they are

cut and afterwards left to
its

themselves.

On

the contrary, elasticity requires for
is

exercise, a previous compression and

manifested by the

sudden return of the parts to their natural state. 2d. Contractility of texture has a permanent tendency to contraction
;

we may

say that
;

all

the parts that possess

it

are in a forced state

so that as soon as this state ceases,

contraction takes place.

On

the contrary, elasticity has
3d.

not this
tic

constant tendency to exercise.
is

Every

elas-

motion

brisk, sudden, as quick to stop as to begin.

On
is

the contrary, every motion of contractility of texture

insensible, slow, continues often

many

hours and even

days, as

we

see

it

in the retraction of

amputated muscles,
is

&c.

4th.

Every organ

in

which there

contractility of

texture, enjoys necessarily extensibility.

On

the con-

trary, this last property
elasticity, as

is
it

not necessarily connected with
in

we observe
is

the cartilages of animals,

Sic.

5th. Elasticity

purely a physical property.
vital, is

Con-

tractility of texture,

without being

only inherent

in the organs of animals.
II.

Properties of texture.

Extensibility,

The
1st,

extensibility of the arteries
;

may be

considered.

transversely

2d, longitudinally.

WITH RED BLOOD.
The
dilate
arteries

325

have but
1st.

little

extensibility in the direction
efforts

of their diameter.

Whatever

are

made

to

them by

injections of water, air, fat substances,
is

&c.
3d.

their caliber
I

rendered but

little

larger than natural.

have said that their texture

is

remarkable by a

kind of brittleness, that when the blood distends them a
little in

aneurisms, this texture breaks instead of yielding,
it is

and that
sibility
it

only the cellular coat, which, by the extenit

has from the system from which
to

is

derived,

that
It is

is fitted

form the cyst that contains the blood.
distinguishes aneurismal from

this that essentially

varicose tumours.

3d. If

we

tie

superiorly the carotid

artery of a dog, the blood pushed against the ligature that
stops
its

course, reacts violently upon the parietes
is

yet the dilatation

hardly perceptible.

We
its

and must not

think however that the arteries do not yield at
the dilating cause acts slowly,
certain determinate point,
place.
it

all.

When
a

produces

effect to

beyond which rupture takes
is

The proof

of this,

in the dilatation of the

arch

of the aorta, in that which true aneurisms present in their
early stages, &c.

Longitudinally, the arteries are more capable of stretching, than

they are transversely.

We may

be convinced

of

this,

by drawing out these

vessels, to place a ligature

upon them in an amputated stump. By cutting upon a dead body a portion of artery, and drawing it in a contrary direction,
it is

evidently elongated.

It is

necessary

in these experiments, to

ment of the folds. opment of the folds performs a principal part
dilated.
It is

pay attention to the developIn fact, I have said, that this develin

the

elongation of the arteries situated in the parts that are
evident that in the extensibility in a transverse
it is

direction,

the circular fibres of the peculiar
;

membrane

that especially resist
sibility in

that on the contrary, in the extenit is

a longitudinal direction,

the

common mem-

326

VASCULAR SYSTEM

brane that opposes the resistance, since there are no longitudinal fibres.
It is

not astonishing then that the
less

first

kind of extensibility should be
second.

evident than the

Contractility.
It is

necessary to consider

it

in

a transverse and in a

longitudinal direction.

Considered in the

first

point of view, contractility

is

much more
is

evident than extensibility.
it

When

the artery

no longer distended with blood,
It is

contracts in a sensible

manner.

to this contraction, that the following phe-

nomena must be

referred

;

1st.

the umbilical artery and

the ductus arteriosus,

become

like

ligaments after birth,

by the adhesion of their parietes which are contracted. 2d. If we make a ligature upon an artery, the whole portion

comprised between

this ligature

and the
3d. If

first collatis

eral branch, soon exhibits the same phenomenon, as

proved by the operation for aneurism.

we

include

a portion of the carotid between two ligatures, and after-

wards empty
caliber.
in

it

by

a puncture,

it I

suddenly loses half

its

4th. In dogs in

whom

have transfused blood
I

order to produce

artificial

plethora,

have observed

the arteries to be almost double in diameter, to

what they
great

are in those

of the same size,

who had

suffered

hemorrhage.

Two

anknals of the same size, one killed

by hemorrhage the other by asphyxia, exhibit the same difference. 5th. These experiments shew me satisfactorily the cause of a large and small pulse, a cause admitted moreover by most physiologists. The artery is certainly

more or
but
it

less large,

according to the quantity of
a point of extension that
it

blood that

fills it.
;

There
it

is

cannot pass

contracts often for the want of blood,
6th.

so as to be as

were, but a mere thread.

Though

you

may

have opened but few bodies, you have no doubt
in those of the

been astonished, that

same

size, the arte-

WITH RED BLOOD.
ries

327
This arises
of death.
If,

have often very different diameters.
at the

wholly from what takes place

moment

from the want of blood, the arteries are for a long time contracted, they remain in this state, as happens to the
heart in death by hemorrhage, &c.
arteries of different diameters
injection,

This

is

so true, that

commonly become equal by
ex7th. In a longitudinal

which brings them to an uniform degree of
they cannot pass.

tension

that

wound of arteries
left

the ends of their cut fibrous circles sepis

arating from each other, a space, which does not close,

between them.
contractility of texture
I

Most authors have confounded
of the arteries with irritability.
to

have no occasion here
In none of the

show how much they are deceived.
is it

preceding cases,

necessary that a stimulant should be
;

applied upon the arterial texture
is

the only thing necessary

the absence of extension, a distinctive character of the

contractility of texture.

Moreover

it is

evident, that this

property continues after death, though in a less degree

than during
kind of

life

;

whereas some hours after death, every
I

irritability disappears.

think that

it

is

espe-

cially in the arterial system, that

may be

seen the advan-

tage of
all

my

division of the properties of our organs.

Read

the authors upon this system, and you will see that no
is

one

intelligible,

because they have not assigned the

limits of the vital properties

and those of texture.
is
is

Contractility of texture in the longitudinal direction,
in proportion less

evident than in the transverse

;

it

however real. 1st. Thus when we cut an artery between two ligatures, the two ends retract immediately in an
opposite direction.
2d.

This retraction

is

evident in

amputation

;

that of the muscles and the skin
little.

however

is

greater, the artery often projects a

3d.

An

artery,

cut transversely in a portion of
at this place a

its

parietes, often presents

broad opening, arising from the retraction

of the cut parts, as happens in a longitudinal

wound of

;

328

VASCULAR SYSTEM
I

which
dent.

spoke just now.
In

4th.
it

When we draw
its

an artery

forcibly and suddenly let

go,

retraction

is

very

evi-

making

this

experiment upon an animal, the

Hence why, the spermatic down by the weight of the testicle r artery and cord, drawn often ascend into the abdomen after it is removed, if care
vessel buries itself in the flesh.
is

not taken to prevent them.
It is this

circumstance that has induced

me

to propose

for the operation of sarcocele, a modification
sists, after

which confirst

having dissected around the cord after the
easily found

incision, 1st, in searching

immediately for the vas defer-

ens,

which
it it

is

by

its
;

extreme hardness; 2d, in
3d, in passing a bistoury
;

giving

to an assistant to hold

between

and the blood vessels
first

4th,

in

cutting the

blood vessels

and leaving the vas deferens untouched

5th, in afterwards tying the artery,

which
It is

is

easily disthis is

covered by the jet of blood; 6th, and then, when

done

in cutting also the vas deferens.

evident, that

by

this section at

two different times, we have the advanadheres,

tage of applying the ligature without fear of the retraction

of the artery, since the vas deferens to which

it

and which is uot cut, until it is tied, is sufficient to retain but it is evident I have not performed the operation it.
;

that there

is

nothing to prevent the execution of this plan,

since the parts are sound

where we cut. I have moreover always taught the student to manage in this way
with ease.
It is

especially

when

it is

necessary to cut the
its

cord very near the ring, because
that this

it is

diseased in
to

course,

method of operating appears

me

to have great

advantages.
I

think that the retraction of arteries that have been

drawn, and their contraction afterwards, perform an important part, in producing the absence of hemorrhage in

most wounds by laceration, a singular phenomenon, that particularly distinguishes these wounds from those by cutting, even when a considerable vessel happens to be

WITH RED BLOOD.
in their

329

course.
find

Many

authors have given examples of

this

;

we

some

particularly in the

works of Sabatier.

III.

Vital Properties.

Properties of

Animal

Life.

Sensibility.
?

Have

the arteries animal sensibility

Upon

this point,

facts teach us

what follows

;

1st.

The

ligature of an artery

sometimes produces a painful sensation, more frequently It is especially in the spermatic that the pain it does not.
is

frequently
1

felt,

but this can be referred to the nerves.
I

2d.

can without exaggeration say, that

have made exin

periments upon more than a hundred dogs,

whom

I

have forced various substances through the carotid to the brain, and have irritated this artery with the scalpel,

&c. but that the animals have never given any marks of pain. Many authors have obtained similar 3d. I would observe also, that it is an additional results.
acids, alkalies,

proof of the kind of insensibility of the nerves of organic
life,

4th. This

which as we have seen are distributed to the arteries. is what I have observed concerning the irrita-

tion of the

common membrane
effect
;

of the red blood

;

the in-

jection of a mild fluid at the temperature of the animal

produces no
arising

but an irritating

fluid, as ink, a solu-

tion of acid, wine,

&c. creates severe pain equal

to that
if

from the

irritation of the

most sensible parts,

we may judge by the cries and agitation the moment the fluid enters the carotid.
Contractility.

of the animal,

Animal

contractility does not exist in the arteries.

In

depend upon a relation between these vessels and the brain, by the means of the nerves; now, 1st, any irritation produced upon this last
fact this contractility could only
viscus, occasioning convulsions in the

organs under the
2d.

influence of the will, has no effect upon the arteries.

42

;

330

VASCULAR SYSTEM

Opium, which in a certain dose, paralyzes, if we may so say, the same organs, leaves the arterial motion wholly 3d. If we lay the spinal marrow bare, and unaffected.
irritate or compress
it,

the action of the arteries

is

neither

increased or diminished, whilst the voluntary muscles be-

come
is

the seat of convulsions or paralysis.

4th.

No

effect

produced upon the arteries by different

irritations,

whether of the nerves of the cerebral system, which accompany the vessels without giving them any apparent
filaments, or of the nerves

of the system of ganglions,

which are distributed irregularly and in very great number upon their external surface. 5th. To remove all doubt upon this subject, I selected galvanism, the most powerful kind of excitement. Without effect did I arm on the one hand the cerebral nerves, on the other, the the contact of the two arteries that are joined to them
;

armed
it

points does not produce in the arteries the motion

excites in the muscles in
effect is the

The

the ganglions.

which the nerves are spread. same in experiments upon the nerves of I armed on one hand the upper part of
stripped of their serous and cellular coat

the mesenteric plexus, on the other, the arteries of the

same name,

first

the contact was entirely without effect.

The

arterial sys-

tem does not possess
tion of the brain
is

that faculty of motion

which the acAll that has
in particular,

capable of producing.

been written by different authors, by Cullen

upon the nervous power, upon the action of the brain on the arterial system, is vague, illusory and contradicted by experiment.
Properties of Organic Life.
Sensible Organic Contractility.
is

The
in the

sensible organic contractility

evidently wanting
In
it

system of which we are treating.
irritate
7

whatever
remains

way we

an artery

in a living

animal,

uniformly immoveable.
surface with a scalpel or

1st. If

we stimulate

the external
it is

any other instrument,

easy

fluence of the heart tant that I this is it not correct. because we know that the heart is I have irritable internally than externally. layer by layer. we see nothing of that trembling. 8th. different irritating fluids in a portion of an artery there . in a living animal or one recently killed. I have repeated . 4th. or that comprised between the ligatures. it is only necessary to lay bare a considerable portion of ry . traction sides ture. and which from the impetus of the blood against the ligature nearest the heart. &c. 6th. An like the intestines. this arte- we see evidently that the whole tube. Instead of the blood have intercepted . that is by placing the finger I in felt. that a portion of blood being intercepted between two ligatures in an artery. If we raise the arterial plates. the con. in similar circumstances. the tube comprised between the two ligatures and filled with blood. tility. whether the portion nearest the heart. &c. an experiment that often made. An artery cut longitudinally in a living animal does not turn over at its edges like the intestines arterial tube. never gives the heart. that palpitation that the fibres of the organic muscles exhibit under like circumstances. any mark of contrac- 5th. to 331 make this remark. on the contrary. The same observation is made when we excite the internal surface. a contraction gous to that of tendinous. the parietes of it continue to contract. Lamure says. we observe in them a kind of inertia very analofibres. drawn out of the body. aponeurotic said. is agitated by a I comis mon motion. but it is only that of the common locomotion that arises it partakes with the whole artery. It is so importhis fol- have examined at least ten myself. though deprived of the in. or that which is beyond.WITH RED BLOOD. experiment times upon "the carotid the lowing has always been the result. more 3d. To be convinced of this. It is an artery. is agitated by a real motion. have often made this experiment. 2d. is infinitely less sensible than has been said be- it is produced evidently by the contractility of tex- 7th.

but the horny hardening. is The that contraction produced by the defect which characterizes the Irritability or sensible organic contractility. as that which we have spoken of taking place after death. In the great trunks and wherever . It is so true. tween two the ligatures. of extension. of texture. Insensible organic contractility or tone very evidently exists in the arteries. primitive state after a con- that the alkalies. that are as irritating acids when it is the vital forces are excited. same phenomenon takes place when we place only intercept's the influence of the heart. or of the fluid accidentally pushed there. motion. after this. phenomenon during as life. Observe also that the arterial its texture never returns to traction like this as the . &c. supposes on the contrary uniformly the application of a stimulus. it empties that is itself of the blood it con- tains. teries I think. Fill is not any portion of the its arterial system. the same . it empties immediately contractility by contracting. There can be no doubt. that the arlife do not exercise during any kind of contraction by themselves and under the vital influence. and 1 have also produced but not the result of contractility. Insensible Organic Contractility. same want of contraction in the parie- but the same motion derived from the general loco9th. is the evident effect of the conThus when we open an artery betractility of texture. have no the same effect here. afteritself wards open one of tubes. Many authors have produced a contraction on the part of the arteries by stimulating centrated acids.332 the tes Vascular system inertia. All that has been said upon this point. them with conit This it is is true. that all these phenomena and other similar ones depend upon the properties of texture. this effect is . that they one ligature that take place in the dead body as long as an artery putrid.

the effect of maceraand which even appears spontaneously in the dead body some time arteries. say. These simple fevers are so rare. 1st. which have only what is necessary for their nutrition. which do not believe. have found this but very few in which there were traces of inflammation in the arterial texture. In one the arterial fibres are really red. But when the influence of the heart upon the blood contained in these vessels ceases. in the other they appear so only by the injection of their vessels. which happens at the commencement of the capillary system. shall see. From ly the small development of the organic forces of the it arterial texture. As to organic sensibility. especially in hospitals . it after death. that the circulation of the small vessels is car- ried on . like obscure in the great trunks. takes place in the interior of arteries. as we have said. I Acute diseases are rarely observed all Among the bodies that I have examined. This also proved by observain the arteries. that it is necessarjr to distinguish accurately the redness which tion. is. it is tractility . the heart has no influence there.WITH RED BLOOD. Is the ? flamed in inflammatory fever common membrane inI am entirely ignorant. 1 would observe upon sub- ject. but also upon the circulation that is going on there it is even wholly by the tonic powers. to distinguish it from that which arises from inflammation. especially in the cerebral I is necessary. I shall treat of this property under the general capillary system. the pulsation is 333 sensible. here it performs but a very weak part. its functions are limited excluif this last I sively to nutrition and exhalation. it it evidently exists in the arte- ries. then the tone begins to have an influence not only upon the nutrition of the vascular parieties. over which these properties is particularly preside. tion. is evident that this texture would rare- be the seat of affections. as we . since cannot be separated from the preceding conit.

The difficulty with which the arterial texture inflames in and participates the different alterations of the neigh- bouring organs. most of the alterations that are so frequent in the other textures. the fibrous. a general derangement Dissect would soon be the motion of the blood. that they are very the second. the . 2d. as it respects the infrequency of organic alterations. secretion. What would become ? of this function. they preside only over nutrition will in observe. which you in a natural state. &c. especially the great felt in trunks. absorption. because there they preside over evident nutrition. the infrequency of these fevers considered in their simple state. the in the sensibility and insensible contractility two classes of first. exhalation. how little The arteries Except on are not often the seat of chronic affections. preserves the integrity of the circulation in many cases. in which the arterial texture is in hardly altered. the arteries in the organic affections of the stomach. their they become changed by in neighbourhood. if the arteries received as easily as the other textures. are not observed in this. &c. and quently part . patients this in- But by supposing that flammation existed. the muscular even. on the contrary. swelled parts. which are especially characterized by the frequency of these alterations. &c. you will see them very feeble in the in .334 that that VASCULAR SYSTEM we have hardly an opportunity of examining have died of them. textures. but merely broken. the fibro-cartilaginous. the one hand aneurism. These textures exhibit a phenomenon opposed to that of the serous. glandular. dermoid systems. the osseous incrustations. which conse- its organic sensibility performs but a very small on the other. Compare the organic properties. This texture must be ranked with the cartilaginous. if side of inflamed. the influence of surrounding diseases Placed at every mo- ment by the &c. would prove even the arteries are disposed to inflame. suppurating. mucous.

The red blood is moved the heart by a mechanism But an its which there motion in this no difficulty in understanding. it From the we have it is ab- ob- is evident that its part would be especially passive. inorganic it is But of this this adhesion is entirely a kind of agglutination. I will that so if we may so say. and not of the state of the arterial system. an irritation of the brain. and that con- sequently in almost all cases the state of the pulse vital the index of the state in which the in forces of the heart are found. is Thus in convulsions.WITH RED BLOOD. though conductors. which these vessels only obey. that the heart . &c. implies in this last Remarks upon the causes is of the motion of in the red blood. now examine in detail this important question. important question remains to be decided concerning in the arteries. that would imply life the small degree of common membrane. . are. of which &c. we are obliged to remove them with an instrument. the nerves. they are untouched. liver. whose life is not more raised the greatest and most fre- quent pulsatory motions. that the motion of is which is the seat communicated to it . than in the feeblest and most infrequent. the principle a Avound. passive. the great agent of the pulsation of the arteries that it is that which gives is the impulse. the state of the heart or that ? of the arterial system that he ascertains sence of sensible organic contractility. whilst a general swelling seems in to confound a new mass the neighbouring tex- tures. are these vessels active or passive motion ? When the physician examines the differis it ent states of the pulse. . The to the clots in aneurism adhere sometimes so intimately that common membrane. as served in this texture. many physicians have considered differently. and only a all increased in size. . the little 355 spleen. as the facility it with which colours are fixed in the epidermis organ.

the organic or the animal for we do not organs.: . to a certain extent. an increase of the fleshy fibres. as in the ? aneurisms which the left ventricle is so thick it becomes strong . at least this property cisely the contrary. is these two organs. is necessary that an organ should have the principle of motion. But here it is wholly different. that is to say. especially destined for the arteries. and were not opened by its impulse. If the arteries produce the pulse their vital contraction. In fact. see that this kind of motion is real. the astonishing activity of the organic contractility of the heart. or changed. Now we observe prethere in On the other hand. alternate motion when they They by are uni- formly found contracted upon themselves. that there was an active Grimaud admitted which opened of themselves. to move of itself. and know of other vital forces in the animal we cannot say that nature has created one dilatation of the vessels. as we see by drawing it out of a living ani- mal. The is first reason that induces me to believe that the heart almost every thing. the heart dilates of it itself when it it is empty. and that the arteries are the comparison of the vital forces of particularly passive on the score of vitality in the motion of the red blood. both in the heart and in the organic muscles. there ought to be an irregularity in the pulsations below an aneurysmal tumour. according to him. every organic Is disease of the heart inevitably affects the pulse. and the absence of this proit perty in the arteries. afterwards of the fluid its con- because it has in itself the cause of I dilatation. 2d. one of the two kinds of vital con- tractility in a sensible degree. loses in part its contractility. since the it is arterial texture being altered. But in no case have seen the arteries thus undergo an are empty. 336 VASCULAR SYSTEM Influence of the heart in the motion of red blood. to receive the We shall blood. and by emptying tains. 1st.

that when the irregularity of the pulse is uniform for a considerable time. but one. if at the origin of the aorta artery might or in the heart. are almost passive. and that the arteries are almost entirely disconnected with it. that the one essentially active in this phenomenon. affections of the have said of the chronic said of the acute ones. arrests motion. seem cardium to be a stimulant to they hasten also the arterial motion.WITH RED BLOOD. / and it at the same time the pleura of both that sides adheres to also. &c. and the blood would circulate there as usual. frequent these irregularities are in acute dis- Since then every alteration of the heart essen- tially affects the pulse. not in the tex- ture. in have seen four examples of morbid which the motions of the heart were much contracted in all the pulse was small. The more I open bodies. fear. no doubt that at the instant a ligature prevents an artery from receiving the influence of the heart. there are almost always organic affections of the heart . from which there is reason to believe if I that the irregularities of the pulse that are acute. and those of the arteries on the contrary. as anger. All kinds of inflammation of the peri- affect the pulse. An become a bony canal. the more I am convinced . This membrane often adheres to the heart in consequence of inflammation. irregular. If in old age. if obstructions exist at the mitral or aortic valves. and There it is that the others. on the contrary. arrests also the pulse. with the difference only of pulsation. ossification exists only in the arteries. but in the vital forces of this organ. so we might I say then that the lungs and the heart this made state. Certain passions. 3d. and intermittent. arise from an alteration. it is irregular. heart its What I may be it Syncope it. the circulation is unaffected . leave it unaffected. We know how eases. may use the term. ceases to beat. we is should certainly con- clude from great this. it is 337 irregular. All the phenomena of aneu- 43 .

but sufficient to be perceived even through the this singular in- teguments. With the difference merely of locomotion. The artery will have a kind of pulsation. It is absolutely false. you open a vein in which you have made red blood circulate by a curved tube. every throw of blood coming from the veins is uniform. this beats much Cut stronger than before. off the it 4th. On if the other hand. it it arises only from anastomoses. is true. ble by leaving for arm of a dead body. and with a velocity almost equal to that of the arteries. making the red blood circulate in it the veins. Fix . I have often repeated r and curi- ous experiment. without doubt. afterwards to the brachial artery a small tube place the other extremity of this tube in the open carotid of a large living dog will drive . treated by compression or by ligature. Often in aneu- rism the artery being compressed below the tumour. than in a natural state. immediately the heart of the animal blood into the arm. every arterial throw is by jets. of w hich again. establish this fact. This is las. and make it pliasome time in a tepid bath. that an artery never beats between two ligatures. It I shall have occasion to speak was suggested in in have given an account and which consists to me by another.338 VASCULAR SYSTEM risms. which are produced by the contraction of the heart. because the capillary system pours with- out a jet this fluid into these vessels.t experiment alone would prove that the heart almost the only agent of impulse of the blood circulating in the arteries . in fact. a vein presents during the circulation of the red blood. but with a rustling sensible to the finger. the Now same phenomena as an . less. and then is equally the heart that makes the artery beat above and below the ligature. which will correspond to the contractions of the heart. of which I my Treatise on the Membranes. If the contrary has sometimes been observed. the throw of blood will be in jets. as I have said. without the motion of locomotion.

to an intermediate 7th. for It is examre- corresponding vein. on the other hand. ends of the broken artery are separated the cellular membrane The cyst. that all these experiments. lakes place below the tumour yet at that part. gummed taffety. to a considerable extent. the blood will the heart.WITH RED BLOOD. and the other end of the same tube to the crural or carotid of the other. evident. fix the end of a tube to the ca- rotid of one. have shown me phenomenon. nrtery. on the side of the heart. so that the blood of the first may flow into the the artery will lose immediately its pulsatory other . experiments already published. 339 this Make. body that is alone serves to unite them. or . the heart of the first uniformly make the arteries of the second pulsate. The force of the heart makes the blood circulate through inert tubes. which has at the other a sac made of skin. Fix an artery one end of a tube. ries the arte- took an active part in the circulation by their vital properties. T cannot imagine what way those results. fixed to the arteries. motion. 5th. and substitute a tube fixed to the two open ends of in this artery. it be kept up in the collateral branches. the blood will go through this tube and the artery pulsate as usual above. Take two dogs . . this my experiments upon death. if does not happen the crural and we select great trunks. is thus that the aneurismal tumour pulsates. the two . have been deceived who have obtained different 6th. which is cellular. that to say. unless this ple. the reverse of is experiment. Besides. If we T cut an inch of the carotid artery. would give a result entirely opposite. by forming the blood passes then through not arterial. fit a curved tube to a vein and an artery. in aneurism the pulsation . fill it immediately then at each contraction of It it will have a sort of pulsation. which I have frequently if peated. All by sending blood to them. on the side opposite to this organ will .

It evidently requires a more powerful organ to produce tion to the leg that these phenomena. is 9th. if the active dilatation of the arte- ries could be sufficient to raise the brain. though like the arteries. ? No animal has arterial pulsations. provided received. and raise them at each pulsation. would be entirely without pulsation. and divided tractions. SYSTEM that contributes to it Whatever may be the organ cyst. as in vessel. the its great canal. Cases have been quoted. that the pulsation of all the arteries simultaneous. for the same reason that an artery can pulsate sometimes below a ligature. have the pulsations of which ? is a substitute for the heart.340 VASCULAR. How ? is it. though they . 1 red blood would have in tion. time. in which the motion of the arteries was said to take place as usual. or a fleshy vessel. knotty. the in &x. I would ask. 13th. 12th. 8th. derangement one part. with the blood. as I thought myself for some time. The two ends is of a cut artery pour out blood. that least the arteries contracted in by themselves. been well ob- served It is thus that the system of the vena porta its never has pulsations. but this the effect of the anastomoses. and this organ is the heart. the least pressure. Is it raised and pulsates at the same if not evident. by conthis many insects . the impulse of the heart. it form the would pulsate. has not a heart. to situated in their course. hepatic part is arranged 11th. and not of the re-action of the end opposite It is to the heart. a have no doubt but that without the heart. pulsation if a single centre does not preside over this arterial The whole is system. struck suddenly with the same blow. would produce a discordance if it the motions 10th. impart a mo- is crossed upon that of the opposite overcome the weight of the tumours that are side. a kind of mothe vena motion that would resemble that of it porta .

but that they have none of themselves dependant at least on their vitality. and produce the most serious effects by agitating it in an optheir caliber too posite direction this to the heart. the heart almost the only power that puts the fluid in motion . that since healthy no longer been presented with those extraordinary cases in which nature seems to depart from the laws she has imposed upon herself. the more we be convinced of the necessity of having but one agent of impulse for . the remarkable for the absence of them. I physiology has advanced. . WITH RED BLOOD. it we can be assured of this fact. very evidently. I 341 confess that Ldo not know how real. From is all that has been said. in the arterial would pro- duce death suddenly attentively system. will. and a desire only to collect facts. at the But if it was must be placed side of that of the soldier. tilaginous textures. that nature has thus formed the arteries. could stop the motion of his heart at who What can we is ? conclude from an insulated phenomenon. I think. has been studied with method. by contracting much. would arrest the circulation. same of in vital forces as the intestines Suppose that they had the what would become . It phenomenon only produces vomiting. fibro-car- &c.. in which life is the least evident as the heart arteries are is remarkable for its vital properties. life ? Any aorta convulsive contraction a or in little too strong the the great trunks. They must be ranked with the cartilaginous. it follows. which contradiction to all those that nature daily presents in It may not be useless. that the vessels are then passive that they obey the mo- tion that is communicated to them. to remark. It is that they may not disturb the unity of impulse by their motions. contained no blood. fibrous. shall The more we examine. Thus nature has chosen for the arterial texture one of those of the economy. that in the pulsation of the arteries. a love of truth. we have think. In the intestinal canal.

It is in this respect that the authors. arteries contract. But the cases are very rare. but also that of the general capillary system. of whom I have spoken.342 VASCULAR SYSTEM that I the arterial system. the undoubtedly weakened. heart is then the essential cause of the pulse in action in the arterial its it is which puts every thing motion. and the small by their insensible organic contractility. not entirely lost until at the place of the change into black . Of the. of the long course the blood runs from right ventricle. they have thought that impulse was sufficient to produce. As is impulse received vessels supply it it advances in the small vessels. so that the contraction of the left ventricle alone is the cause. by fixing them this fluid is where transformed from red to black in the general capillary system. . that to the But it is incontestably proved. When they exist they cause an ine- quality of the pulse on the two sides. and even that of the veins. establish nearly the limits of the influ- ence of the heart upon the blood. have erred. do not say that the arteries can never contract from the skin which is not irritable. and of having this system inert. an inequality rarely noticed in diseases. according to it them. so it cannot be able to arrest the course of the blood. We can. is but I believe that the motion received from the heart. not only the arterial motion. in which the the vital influence . Many authors have overrated its influence . as we when it this fluid is has arrived in the general beyond the influence of moves only by that of the tonic forces of the small vessels. and therefore for a stronger capillary system. and not under that of the impulse that they have admitted in the arterial system on the part of the heart. and that it reason. shall see. I think. wrinkles by cold. the left ventricle has no influence in the venous system. The this limits of the action of the Heart. absolutely the heart.

it evidently weakin the ca- becomes nothing pillary system. in the small vessels. the bladder. the arteries must inevitably be the cannot be. On the contrary. &c. the heart the motion of the blood it is . almost every thing for 2d. the urine. and the column of blood so great. the It is branches. The other when divided into small causes the motion of the fluids streams lation . that the influence of this kind of contractility is really nothing. the aliments. Irritability alone could have influence. in the ramifications. in a considerable mass. blood 1st. in the branches and even in is the smaller branches. except a kind of essentially distinguishes the tility. exha- and secretion. 343 so that we can establish for a general principle. with insensible contractility. the is shock on the one hand impressed by the heart bly weakened so fine. The ened pulse exists in its fulness. the heart As long as the blood is agent of impulse. and the smaller branches. that in the ramifications. an insenthis that sible vibration of the vascular parietes. is provided. only in the trunks. from their want very small streams. in part this organ and in part the vital action of the arteries. It is duce their motion. two kinds of organic contrac- The one is exerted only upon the fluids in mass. mach. . it presides over the capillary circulation. But the impulse received by the heart is on the one part so strong.WITH RED BLOOD. as upon the blood. but this does not exist in the arteries. . that in the great trunks. which contributes to this motion. that finally it is this vascular vital action alone in the general capillary system. This . the intestines that of the other takes place only in the small vessels. the streams of blood being they have no occasion for any thing to prooscillation. then it of irritability. The influence of the is first is very considerable wherever there a great cavity. 3d. as The arterial texture of the great trunks we have seen. insensi- on the other. as the sto. When it is in moves by the insensible contractility of the vessels.

the trunks. it is are evident that at the very instant which the piston shall push the fluid in the body.344 then is VASCULAR SYSTEM the part which this property performs in the system . that instead of a piston. the fluid at the instant of the contraction sides will from these open branches. 3d. would spout out on all Another comparison one end of a long the opposite felt at render this more evident strike at timber. Now suppose. and formed by the two ounces of blood that are poured into the . if. you could make the parietes of the body of the syringe suddenly contract. the impulse that the left ventricle. and even to ties. What following part then have the arteries in the pulse? is The what takes place full in this great phenomenon. Finally. That of the heart being its weakened in the ramifications. the motion will be suddenly one. is felt at its blood in them receives from the the instant in the whole system. . We can from this form an idea of what takes place at left the instant of the contraction of the thors have spoken of a ventricle. it exists in . Phenomena of the impulse of the Heart. the branches effect is and the smaller branches that of the heart is but its nothing where evident. being propagated through (he whole arterial system. which afterwards give origin successively to a number of smaller ones its . Au- wave or undulation of blood. is the sole cause of motion. the tube of which gives rise to an infinity of branches. the heart ceasing to agitate the blood in the general capillary system. 2d. the arteries are always of blood. body and it. the insensible organic contractility or tone. with red blood 1st. all the branches and smaller branches arising from of fluid. own contractility be- gins to have an influence. extremi- Imagine to yourself a syringe. it will go out on all sides through the open branches. when you push already in full the piston of the syringe.

ventricle said. 44 . the water will spout out of the tibial or any other artery. their contraction and relaxation would alternate but with those of the heart arterial if it was so. The arterial be thus considered. to the tube of which is fitted a series of elastic pipes arising from each other j push the piston. this we I see how very inaccurate which believed myself for the common many years. arteries Now if the drove the blood to all the extremities. that is the auricles contract at the same time with the arteries. Fill with water the arteries of a dead body. if and the fluid flow at the same time to the extremities. the contrary of this is the case as I have just From opinion. you taneously. not the contraction of the arteries that drives the blood to their extremities. . pulse is generally and suddenly and with almost as much ries . by con- tracting. going out. It is they are open.WITH RED BLOOD. arteries at 345 motion should at the in- each contraction. wholly incorrect. force at the extremities as at the origin of the arteit is only in the ramifications that the motion be- comes a little weakened. Do you wish for another comparison? Suppose a syringe. it it is not so. commonly entertained is of the progres- sive motion of the blood. if you loosen an opening that had been previously The idea that is made in them. This is so true. experiences suddenly a general motion that is felt at its extremities. at the instant you push the piston. At each contraction of the ventricle. stant of contraction the arteries in were empty but their state of fulness. that if you open one of these vessels each jet that the at a distance blood will make in from the heart. the imfelt. and fix a syringe full at the aorta. This fluid has been considered as flowing in the arteries almost like water in brooks. each jet of the throw should correspond to each relaxation of the . will cor- respond to each contraction of the ventricle. will see all these pipes swell simul- become straight. if . viz.

as extend- by considering the wave or undulation of blood ing itself at each contraction in the arteries. . thus explained. sends it to . a great artery laid bare but does not dilate hardly at it all in an ordinary left state. the entrance of this blood into the capillary system. the aorta which dilates at the instant of conit traction parts. the pul- monary veins drive the blood into the left auricle. it is that is felt at one end. which 3d. It is like the blow on the timber. nor does contract. and all the consequences are inaccurate. 1st. 4th. It is impossible to form an idea of the arterial motion. Examine it rises. . at the same time that received at the opposite. at each pulsation you see them all simultaneously rise and pulsate at their extremity as well as at their origin. Contraction of the ventricle general mo- tion of all the arterial blood. than that of the course of the arterial blood. driven at each contraction into the capillary systhe portion of this fluid which tem it is found nearest . This last contracts afterwards. then this contracts to drive last to all the This it does not take place. It is not the wave of blood going from the is ventricle. in a living animal. and yet there is no one in which you are left in more doubt and obscurity. that is . This by contracting forces it into the ventricle. Read all the is you will see that there more at length. We can form a very accurate idea of the circulation by examining the mesenteric arteries through the peritoneum. after having opened the abdomen of an animal. are three things that take place at the same instant. Why ? because all go upon a false principle. and the veins at the same time with the circulation of red blood is The 2d. as it closely as possible. and arriving afterwards successively at the extremities. dilates to receive it. authors upon the circulation . you can never ob- serve like the others.346 VASCULAR SYSTEM ventricles. where the principle itself is is no subject that treated oftener or not correct.

that it is only at the end of some time that the blood arrives from the heart. have seen in their experiments that . by the All anastomoses which give an opposite shock. that it remains during a number it of contractions in the arteries. &c. evidently impossible that the curves can injure this motion. because the blood would then have in them. besides proved by many facts. would be true if the arteries were empty in the at the time of contraction. and that sively expelled . inequalities. 4th. it is is the only real and admissible one. internal projections. this system. at the general capillary system.WITH RED BLOOD. if is which would have some instant the blood the arteries were empty at the driven into them. if the tube and the instant we push piston. But general and instantaneous impulse that the whole mass spread in the arterial system experiences. is only succes- which favours the mixture of the different principles that compose it. friction . and by the conical form of the general arterial sys- tem this . by the angles . effect. the &c. that many judicious observers. who even admitted the delay. return now to the trifling but very accurate comparison of the syringe. I all these causes are evidently nothing. have none in their ordinary state. &c. 2d. upon all the causes of the delay occasioned in the course of the blood. whence it follows. by by its passage from a narrower to a broader place. From which this I is this manner of considering the arterial motion. It is much was straight and so true that all the causes of delay. the water will escape suddenly from the extremiforce as if it ty of this tube with as short. with numerous angles. truly a progressive motion. 3d. as in the syringe. consider also as destitute of every kind of foundation that has been said in the books of physiology. it is 347 is the portion that in the it tube that the piston forces out and not that with which is in contact. 1st. in Suppose that a tube twisted a thousand ways. was fixed to body of the syringe are full at the it .

we may so tends inevitably to straighten the arteries. in canals in which they are enclosed on at and are acted upon one extremity. their particles are successively displaced. which causes the pulsation of the artery. because the motion flow. . viz. that takes place all sides. to speak correctly. in which calculate any thing. not successive. Why is it did not this undeceive them lay ? ? We know that . and not in a successive progression of a wave or undulation that goes from the left ventricle. if I may so say. it driven thus from the heart towards if by a motion of the whole. in the smaller branches as in the trunks. point rial . the blood does not it is suddenly driven by a general impulse. the idea that is attached to the velocity of the course of the red blood. as in the course of a river. that the peculiar agent of the arterial motion. say. especial- ly when they are tortuous. the pulse the same in all parts of the arterial system how could be if there was this de- What has greatly retarded the progress of the phyis siology of the circulation. and . At the instant but is the mass of blood the extremities. felt at the same time at the extremities and in the trunks. because. we cannot where Philosophers have calculated the motion of fluids. 1st.3-18 VASCULAR SYSTEM the motion was every where the same. This velocity is cannot be rightly estimated. the Pulse. but they have paid less attention to that brisk motion of the whole or of the mass. that the arteries are almost passive in this motion that it 2d. It remains for me to examine how the upon this heart produces the pulse by this brisk and instantaneous motion. There is still much to be elucidated we cannot deny that the locomotion of the artesystem does much in this phenomenon. Remarks upon Two things the heart is are already evidently proved. consists in a general impulse suddenly experienced by the whole mass of red blood. This straightening necessarily produces a locomotion.

In the instant of contraction. As to the dilatation. this is the period of the systole. of the arterial system by the blood that enters it general locomotion passage into the capillary system of a por. these same time. effort to dilate . it is hardly any thing a little it nary state the blood however if you press makes an it. and this effort init creases the sensation of the pulse Jadelot thought that if alone constituted On the other hand. and not because but it is actually distended. but not their return upon themselves or contraction that drives the blood into the capillaries fact. Hence how the arterial ventricle it. . motion of the red . contraction can alternate with that of the it is left not in the sense that authors have understood in the There are then two periods blood.. the upon themselves all take the . it is the period phenomena happen when the pulse is felt at . since they Then when there is a conarise from the same impulse. the arteries can be also dilated. if a resistance exist3 in the general capillary it is system. much blood enters the arterial system at the instant of the contraction of the heart. is 2d. contraction of the ventricle slight dilatation . In the next period. and goes on the other to enter the capillary system at the . 349 in an ordiupon an artery. less full of blood. because the blood has been driven into the capillary system at the instant of the contraction. the venitself tricle relaxed to fill arteries contract a little anew. this return is subsequent. that it returns upon itself or contracts. it that of the diastole. a motion which is only the contractility of texture put into action. . while some have thought it a very active one for the arteries. at . all these the same time is . traction in the artery. the blood enters on the one part into the arteries in going from the ventricle. 1st. place they had lost during the locomotion . 'his contraction two phenomena take place does not drive the blood 5 but it takes place. it is because iht artery ceases to be distended. a period purely passive. WITH RED BLOOD. tion of this red blood .

because the blood that has gone into the capillaries prevents their being ciently dilated sion. that the eye always distinguishes. manifest in would observe only. but merely that they contract upon themselves. that it is so living animals. the ventricle. as this author has understood relate here the it. and not consecutive. thus. at the same time it enters the it arteries goes out from the side opposite to the heart. . accord- ing to the common opinion. that when we have often extheir means. viz. The dilatation and contraction of the arteries being ordinary state. which would be entirely the reverse. it almost nothing in the appears that the peculiar cause of the pulse in the as Weitbreck has observed. a locomotion that general and instantaneous in the whole system. is locomotion of the arteries. correspond with the dilatation of these vessels. . and on the other hand. they cannot the arterial dilatation and. it is not that they have contracted to drive the blood. suffi- it is contractility for the want of exten- Hence why the throws of arterial blood going from an open artery. a effect of irri- real tightening.350 VASCULAR SYSTEM little As but as. that if there is a slight contraction in the arte- ries at the instant the pulse ceases to beat. and produces a motion this fact. if the contraction really took place. would hardly be apparent that is . tability is whereas contraction. it produces a slow insensible motion. I cannot insist too much upon which is cer- tain. it is amined the circulation by doubt its impossible to realitv. is. consequently. instantaneous. be perceived. are almost nothing . the abrupt. and the weakening of the throw with their contraction. blood is driven at each pulsation out of which does not wholly empty itself. for when it is the contractility of texture in action. 1 shall not proofs of this locomotion I they can be found every where. . it Be- sides. contraction.

1st. altered sympathetically or any other way. make the pulse vary these causes heart. or with new sented the first facts. which are. &c. of the We see by the I have presented. we shall cease to wonder at the prodigious variety that the pulse exhibits in health. La- mure. relative to the 351 . we know. and especially in diseases. produces necessarily numerous varieties in the pulse. Jadelot. either with the materials that many respectable authors have already amassed. work that requires to be entirely done again. slow- or more irregularly than its common its . thus the diseases 2d. can make er. I Besides. Weitbreck. views that I shall hereafter develop the as importance to the physician. tem. its it whole extent the quessufficient to tion concerning the . Experiments have only served to confuse them it is a . and the influence the curves of these vessels . There are but few causes relative to the arteries themselves. We have seen how favourable the firm and is structure of the arterial texture to the locomotion of the arteries. I have only preelastic bases of this work. of organization inevitably alter motion. that almost all authors have described in an inaccurate manner the motion of the blood. Different causes can are. If now we consider the great number of causes that to these can be referred three principal heads. is have angreatest different nounced the principles consequences. it with the same stimulus contract quicker. almost the only agent of impulse . in diminished. The blood charged with different natural or morbific substances is a stimulant more or it less capable of putting in play the motion of the heart. especially Haller. &c. shall not examine here in pulse .WITH RED BLOOD. thus its sensible organic contractility. The general capillary sys- receives a greater or less quantity of blood. increased. according as 3d. Spallanzani. and what loose ideas they have had of it. or refuses admission to that which the arteries send there.

the loco- much is less sensible in this trunk. if the arterial texture that produced it ceased to be the same. and their uniform position in the cellular texture. the other arises from anastocut. we should feel under the finger a kind of rustling. If it an artery to is wholly divided. is an artery opened laterally. and is not essential to the circulation. which resisted We cannot then judge of the velocity of the blood by the throw from the open arteries. 2d. texture. VASCULAR SYSTEM I will add that the loose union that they form with the neighbouring parts. locomotion of the arteries. its impulse of the blood. it forms two currents of blood in an opposite direction. which are driven to- wards the opening. We have seen that the arteries are rarely the seat of diseases either acute or chronic. more blood flows from it in a given time. serous textures. because less* resistance offered there to the course of the blood. it depends upon this an effect produced by this fluid . is When motion If is an artery cut at the end ©f its trunk. on account of the ob- . Sympathies. it would vary. upon the arterial parietes which transmit it. It is the same as when an artery is and the blood flows at both ends. sudden and general motion of mass by the contraction of the heart . than passed through before in the same lime more. .352 have upon it. The first is the most essential as to the second. instead of the motion of the pulse this is what happens in varicose aneurism. There are then two things in the pulse . and which unite of these currents is in one throw. &c. 1st. go to the capillary system. There would be no locomotion if the arterial parietes were made of the dermoid. If the red blood flowed in the veius. mucous. there would be different phenomena with the common impulse. One direct. moses. singularly favour this locomotion.

this influence of the arterial texture upon the other systems I is merely nothing. the arteries are not connected with them. Besides. or in the act of coition. They can but a very slight influence upon the other organs thus. it is ally into action in necessary that it should and even be conspicuous. property should be brought sympathetica part. Thus the innu- merable variations of the pulse. Now its it. motion. the sympathies make the heart contract or arrest as stimulants or sedatives directly applied to say. 353 exert then . which are the product of sympathies. On the other hand. himself. they are violent tremors or It may be imagined that these experiments should not be made in the carotids. scurity of their vital properties. and not from a sympathetic relation. except some sympathetic pains that are experienced in aneurism. In two or three cases It is have seen convulsive motions produced by the injection fluid in of a very irritating distinguish the arteries. injected fluids. irritated by the would produce convulsions arising from the stimulant that would be then directly applied to it. if it was made upon the carotid. it ia the motion of the blood. in order that a exist there. a case of have seen with Desault. easy to these sympathetic motions. the other organs can with difficulty de. velop in them sympathies by vital their influence for. hardly any animal sensibility. ? has been affected by the passion.WITH RED BLOOD. because the brain. it is not the arterial texture that Besides. death would be the immediate consequence of the experiment. upon what could not be can the sympathies act in the arteries 45 It . that is which the cause of it . is that to by acting on is its sensible organic contractility. in When an aneurism broken a I fit of anger. from those that pain produces in an animal who is struggling to disengage stiffness. and but little tone. like tetanus. have all essentially their seat in the heart. as the arteries have not sensible organic contractility. which is suddenly increased.

which in fact takes place after birth. because they are themselves a vital. however. and the ductus arteriosus on the other.354 either VASCULAR SYSTEM upon the elasticity or the contractility of texture. it would be difficult to distinguish it what belongs to is them. especially as respects sensibility. 2d. as the arteries are ever}' where spread in the organs. much more evident at the period nearest concep- these openings contract towards the period of birth. ARTICLE FIFTH. in this. vital also. tion tion 1st. from what peculiar to these organs. if we may so say. in the first months. a part with them. capable of contracting these vessels. Stale of this system in the. The ductus arteriosus contracts as the pulmonary artery dilates. I. is . Besides. by two productions space. The foramen ovale is formed. Observe. because these two productions constantly approximate and have a tendency to cross each other. that the sympathies put in action only the properties. that two great vascular systems in di- form but one. phenomenon purely influence . since the foramen ovale on the one This communica- hand. . form a rect communication between the two. which is in the form of a crescent. the only properties. The physical properties and the properties of texture cannot be exercised under their this is an important observation. and as they form. The reality foetus differs essentially from the infant that has its breathed. whose concave surfaces are opposite. DEVELOPMENT OF THE VASCULAR SYSTEM WITH RED BLOOD. and leave between them an oval constantly contracting. Foztus.

the blood of the veins and the arteries has It is appeared is to me to be uniformly the same. markable difference between the two ages. The same carotid remark applies 2d. the blood that circulates there must be entirely of the same nature. true that this not a very conclusive proof. since the mere standing of the red blood in the vessels. Hunter has observed. 4th. in the foetus. When one of these sacs is open. then the abdomen of the small animal. The transparency parts easily allows us to see the uniformity of the colour of the blood of the vena cava and the aorta. which is constantly the case in the foetus. as is sufficient to make it black. a re- as there always in the adult. in fact. we successively open each of the separate sacs that the womb laid has for each foetus. 1st. that there cannot be is two kinds This is. accoucheurs have the fcetus 5th. we cut the memof the branes. like the venous blood of This experiment is easy. remarked this. to the superior parts. their vessels have uniformly contained the same fluid. The abdomen of the mother being divided. I have many times dissected small Guinea pigs in the womb of the mother. 355 While these two openings are free. leaving the umbilical vessels untouched. 1 have dissected many foetuses that have died in the womb of the mother. red arises from the contact of air in the lungs not breathing. The change of the black blood to . the foetus of a dog. which is blackish. umbilical arteries is We know that the blood of the all always black. facts are sufficient to establish incon- testibly the uniformity of the blood in the two systems of in external an uniformity that exists at least . for a considerable length of time. as I have said . The preceding the fcetus . cannot then have this kind of blood. the adult. The and jugular pour out the same blood I when they are opened. have three times made the same observation upon 3d.WITH RED BLOOD. the two systems evidently make whence it clearly follows that but one.

then death. Fourcroy discovered did not take the verit no fibrin in he observed that it milion colour by the contact of the air. an injury. follow. that contained if no phosphoric salts. is it. unlike the other. soon asphyxia. the . is a very great difference in the functions of the and the adult. like it. the chemists to elucidate this point. that it arises from the difference of the nature of the one and the other. yet it does not appear to be the same It it has an unctuous feel. similates this blood In ta< t. How that the instant the black blood enters the in system of red blood the the adult. and in those with red and cold. alarming consequences in. It is for VASCULAR SYSTEM if it is not real in its intimate composition. lished No kind of analogy ever can be estabfoetus between the and the infant in this respecU life Thus we have observed and death give a red and result that the experiments upon wholly different in animals with warm blood. though the colour with that of the veins of the adult. take place. which approximate nearly the organization of the foetus in some respects. is never found in the dead body coagulated those but always fluid. Besides. and yet are equally true. like the blood of who have it . We cannot then establish any kind of parallel in respect to the injury of the respiratory phefoetus nomena. died of asphyxia. observe that there foetus . &x. . these two contradictory facts The difference of the nature of the blood of the foetus might perhaps serve to remove this difficulty. The first scarcely has animal life it wants many func- tions of organic. whilst foetus.$56 appearance. between the and the infant. is of a nature wholly different from what be after birth. whilst circulates with impunity in those of the foetus. if we belter unas- derstood this difference. The relation of the organs with it each will other. It is then very probable that the black blood it is fatal in the arteries of the adult. the black bb>od circulates with impunity in the It is arteries? a difficult question to resolve.

so that when we examine we in see that it is really with the left auricle that the inferior vena cava auricle it is continued. as systems is have said. which. either from the capillary system of the inferior extremities. All the blood that the trunk of the inferior vena cava receives. in had only to receive the is blood of the pulmonary veins. From this which transwhere it meets the carotids and subclavian. carry it to the auricle the blood passes to the left ventricle. . which transmits it to the pulmonary artery. The following is the manner in which the circulation of the blood 1st.WITH RED BLOOD. I Although. it to the aorta. confounded in the fcetus. for would be very contracted. as in the adult. since differ so have sought in my the organization relative to these essentially in phenomena the one and the other. the quantity of which merely nothing mits the first periods of life. instead of stopping in the right auricle. other blood from this auricle it passes to the ventricle. causes of which I 357 experiments. and which is the result of the arrange- ment of the foramen ovale and the ductus arteriosus. or from the placenta by the umbilical vein. yet there especially in the first periods. a separation that was first accurately observed by Sabatier. which sends . or from that of the abdomen. This separation divides the mass of blood into two. that nothing can . the superior edge is of which so arranged. the blood of the two vascular is. the blood returns by the different branches of the superior vena where the superior edge of the foramen ovale prevents it from communicating with the cava to the right auricle. Hence why this is proportion as much if it dilated as the right. 2d. is performed in this respect. After having remained in this system. capillary system of the head and the superior extremities. a kind of separation in the general mass of blood. mix with the blood at- of the superior vena cava tentively. by numerous ramifications. passes entire into the left through the foramen ovale.

its agent of impulse. as has been remarked by Sabatier. for termination all the capillaries of the head and the superior parts. 2d. 4th. semblage of capillaries is carried in each. inferior extremities. of the capillaries of the inferior parts. This is carried by the of branches and ramifications of the aorta to the capillary system of the abdomen and inferior extremities. hut transmits almost the whole it by the ductus arteriosus to the descending aorta. two systems wholly from those which in the adult. for agent of impulse the left side of. if be so said. it moves between the superior and inferior part of this last system we may then say in this point of view that the inferior . for termination. the heart. and even those of the placenta 2d. a kind of separation of the blood they contain. which carry the other blood. for common trunks. for . The second commences in these last capillaries. as in the adult. 1st. of the superior vena cava and the descending aorta . of the . there the first months after con- ception. that there different is even if we may so say.358 a small part of it VASCULAR SYSTEM that returns to the left auricle by the veins of the same name. . will afterwards exist in a sepa- rate manner first The of these systems has. lost in the It follows from what we have is in just said. below the inferior vena cava. the re- mainder is afterwards carried by the umbilical artery and placenta. for its trunks. for origin all the capillaries of the abdomen. Only instead of moving between the pulmonary capillary system and the general one. which cross. below the origin of the carotids and the subclavians. 1st. from one as- to another of the same vessels. The may blood is then evidently divided in the first months it after conception into two circulations. that notwith- standing the continuity of the two great sanguineous sys- tems in the foetus. of the right side of the heart its 3d. and is composed. 3d. in the form of the figure it 8. above the quadruple branch called the aorta.

and then more to the blood goes through the lungs. still really exists. ? Bordeu. as < we shall see. that it turned almost the whole of it into the descending aorta. in the first differ- months of the foetus. which transmits which sends it to the arch of the aorta j then the mechanism of the circulation described above begins to hange. and approximate that of the infant. and another as that of those from below. have observed this difference in diseases. The quantity of blood passing by the pulmonary artery was at first scarcely any thing. This canal gradually contracting. and that ulcers are infinitely more common in the inferior extremities. and that on the other hand. things begin to change. because the dilatation of the duc- tus arteriosus was so great. who rior has said much of the division of the body into supe- and inferior parts. considered one pulse as the pre- cursor of evacuations from above. and superior parts of the body are in opposition foetus. that is the manner of the it. to the left auricle. is probably the origin of the ence that takes place afterwards between these All physicians If the parts. he has however without doubt exag- gerated this opposition of the two parts of the body it . most cutaneous eruptions take place in the superior parts.WITH RED BLOOD. median line frequently separates the affections of left. between the upper and lower part of the body. the pulmonary arteries dilate. circulation of the fcetus the primary source of After the first months. &c. and is brought by the pulit monary veins left ventricle. that scorbutic affections appear particularly below. the right side from those of the often to be the boundary of the diaphragm seems diseases. This complete opposition on the part of the circulation. and I think that it is very probable. as the lungs in 359 in the the adult are in opposition to the rest of the body. that serous infiltrations are most frequent there. many Who does not know. .

In proportion as the contracted. For instead of passing from them it the whole of would return to them by the auricle and the ventricle of the same ductus arteriosus is side. and For. and which makes it susceptible. and the heart is further from the inferior than the superior parts. Now as the parietes of the first are evidently thicker than those of the second. the blood of the inferior vena cava.360 Still this first VASCULAR SYSTEM mechanism predominates . the pulmonary arteless passes ry sends more blood to the lungs. This arrangement evidently requires a corresponding one all in the foramen ovale. Though it before it undergoes no alteration there. whilst the inferior receive theirs by the impulse of the right. new source of the difference of the two halves of the body hence nutrition is more active in that above. This perhaps is a . these last receive a stronger impulse than the others. begins to mix with that of the superior. hence the degree of vital energy that it preserves a long time after birth. the whole of which cannot pass through there. the foramen ovale being lessened also. then the . the blood would finally accumulate in the superior to the inferior. as 1 have the ductus arteriosus. it is the left ventricle that sends the blood to the superior parts. is in The in quantity of blood then a direct ratio to the age the pulmonary artery. enters the right auricle. and in an inverse one in the duc- tus arteriosus. less. in fact. it is fluid. comes finally at birth to go through the lungs. it does not circulate the which it is is undoubtedly to habituate to the passage that constantly to take after birth. of many more affections than the lower half. if in proportion as the ductus arteriosus contracted. the head especially. As the period of birth approaches. contained in the body. over the second est part of the hence it for a long time happens that during the greatis time that the infant in the womb of the mother. left parts. gradual manner that the whole of this through only in a said. this was not diminished also.

we err in suffi- supposing that their change cient to is sudden at birth. so that a long time if the foetus should remain in its womb beyond period. they are gradual- produced b) the gradual contraction of the two openings of communication. But as the period of birth approaches.WITH RED BLOOD. to see that they contract successively. The sudden change ticularly of the circulation at birth. it appears. What is the conse- quence of the left this ? that this artery begins to receive from ventricle a much greater quantity of blood than can pass it into the carotids and subelavians. from both of these to those of the lun^s then goes and reciprocally. the lungs receiving scarcely any except by the bronchial arteries for their nutrition. the circulation goes on in the mother's . In considering the circulating phenomena. From what in the first has been said. the foramen ovale and the ductus arteriosus are much contracted. these two portions of blood begin to mix. and the contrac- tion should continue in the foramen ovale and the ductus 46 . inferior vena cava goes ascending aorta all from the superior passes into the descending. a portion of is then goes into the descending trunk and distributed to the inferior parts. and that consequently these pheno- mena the are successive. right ventricle. The blood gradually ceases to it move from the inferior to the superior capillaries. that the two por- tions of the blood of the foetus are almost wholly separate montns. because respiration has not taken place. afterwards returns 361 to the left by the lungs auricle and ventricle and the aorta. womb almost in the same is way as is it does after birth the whole difference that the fluid of the same nature. As ly mechanical phenomena. It is examine the foramen ovale and the ductus arte- riosus at different periods of pregnancy. At birth even. arises parof from the introduction to the red blood into the econ- omy. and the circulation then has an arrangement between that of the adult and that of the first months. into the all that comes from the .

The arteries are in proportion larger. more abundant is the second this last evidently exceeds that which goes to the superior parts. 3d. and that which the first left sends to the inferior parts. arteriosus. that which from the left ventricle goes to the descending aorta. heart. it is the same thing to it. 2d. and passes with it into the right auricle . system. the increases. which corresponds with the at this size of the it is which is much developed age. These three things. uniformity of first I its The only difference would it be in the colour. below the origin of the carotids and subclavians. its parietes constantly increase in a uniform manner. the of the blood of the inferior vena cava which mixes with that of the superior. in fact. . that which from the right ventricle goes left through the lungs and returns to the auricle . though the air cells were empty. the quantity The more . or whether this fluid comes directly to it from the left ventricle. the blood from the pulmonary to the general capillary system exclusively. all depends upon the successive generally remarkable in contraction of the ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale. there is a constant relation between the quantity of blood that the right ventricle sends to the lungs. The descending tions aorta does not undergo by these varia- any change in its caliber.362 VASCULAR SYSTEM would circulate as in the adult. The whole vascular system is the fcetus for its great development. but this kind of sudden turn takes place only in a part of the blood of the pulmo- nary artery. and reciprocally. nearly the same as the nerves in relation to the brain. a part already passed through the lungs before birth. through its arch . without coming in contact with the do not say that the entrance of the air does not suddenly bring to the lungs the remainder of the blood which passed by the ductus arteriosus . whether it receives the blood of the ductus arteriosus. 1st. con- stantly increase as the period of accouchment approaches. In general. because would pass through the air.

is pelvis on the contrary. their arteries are already very large the supra-renal In the are much larger in proportion than in the adult.WITH RED BLOOD. the in proportion arteries are a little more contracted is than in the superior. the layers and arterial fibres are indistinct. &. we should But it say that the coat of the has however artery is homogeneous. the cerebral arteries are much more evident than the is fa- among these. for towards birth.c. arteries . which are so rare have never observed this alteration. the arteries ought necessarily to precede the other organs trition. In the inferior extremities. to distribute every this Destined in their where the nutritive matter. all In the abdoman. nu- This early growth. as this have said. wind upon the parietes of the great livid. vessels follow in general the These same order as the parts to which they are cial. ries are In the thorax. in the to exit less ligatures applied upon the arteries break Aneurisms are extremely rare little Many ones tinctly. but little nourishment. always concomitant with that of the heart. . the palatine. would alone prove that the arteries are made . consistence than most of the surrounding textures consistence corresponds with that of the heart. the thymic arte- much larger in proportion than afterwards. able. to in the foetus it is they are often 1 necessary. Thus in the superior parts. the proportion nearer equal. distributed. the ophthalmic more so than the nasal. is it The tension easily. The development of the arteries however is 363 not like that of the nerves. especially in the earlier periods. as they receive tracted. Does I abundance of vessels dispose the teries in the first afterwards? In the age to inflammations. first periods of the foetus. the arterial system very conbecause the viscera are small. to see them disexamine them at ar- this age. arterial texture infinitely foetus than in the adult. will yield more pliable more easily in infants. much more . nearly uniform every where. the gastric viscera being very consider.

place in the system with red blood 1st. impulse. its in the interior of our this mechanical manner is evidemlv contrary to the kno\«n laws of the animal economy. organs by the force of Besides of considering their formation II. then enters alter- the lungs. lively sensation is generally moment is Now. a chemical one. surrounding objects are the causes of great excitement the cutaneous surface. I will now examine this last. foetus comes in contact at is and every abrupt change in the sensations pain- Habit soon familiarizes this sensation. and it may be said that this as painful for the infant as the mother. ful. ration then is. as every accompanied with great moall tions a general agitation succeeds the impression that the foetus perceives from without. a mechanical may be . and there colours the blood red. 2d. in the phenomena of the course of the blood fluid.364 VASCULAR SYSTEM to develop themselves. all the origins of the mucous. Stale of the Vascular System with Red Blood during growth. the intercostals aud the diaphragm filled like the others. all . and that the heart does not hol- low them out. The chemical revolution depends upon the formation of red blood. are strongly stimulated. because the difference is very great between the waters of the amnios trie and the bodies with which birth. the the muscles move. a phenomenon analo- gous to ail the motions that the change of external ex- . The sensations they experience are even painful. so said. in the nature of this The mechanical revolution depends upon the en- tire cessation of the passage of the blood through the ries foramen ovale. two great revolutions take . as Haller has said. The it is air which already mouth and wind-pipe. the ductus arteriosus. The Icetus finds at birth that. then nately expired and inspired until death. At the moment of one. but it is not less real at birth. the umbilical arteand veins. The first inspi- in this point of view. if it birth.

The small quadrupeds seek the breast of their mother. and I more to especially perhaps to the last. and of which I cannot give the least idea. and not a uniform motion If we examine birth. &. At the that . at I believe that the res- motion belongs the same time to the two causes. induces the foetus at the costals moment of birth. is. the very acute external impressions that these if impressions produce agitations. a kind of instinct. change to red the black blood that enters them by the pulmonary arteries.c. from those which are the result of a kind of instinct. directed by instinct. 365 citement suddenly produces at birth in the voluntary muscles of the foetus. the gallinaceous animals the grain that is to nourish them. they receive all which before passed through the ceases to transmit any to the ductus arteriosus this . pass now the mechanical revolutions of the course instant the lungs of the blood. if to nurse. We certainly cannot say that this motion an effect of feels . This instinct. to get rid of these impressions.WITH RED BLOOD. I commences a new kind organs. the small carnivorous birds immediately open is their bills. all animals separately at the instant of their see that every one performs particular its we shall motions. of a cause of which piratory we are ignorant. The since it respiratory motion however. too important. to contract the inter- and diaphragm. to that an depend exclusively upon presume unknown principle. which. irregular motions. at the instant of birth. arise from new excitements that the body of the foetus receives. contract its lips. as evidently directed towards a determinate object. as if to receive the prey the mother nest. it is essential to distinguish accurately the motions. afterwards to bring to them in the In general. which 1 do not understand. is the same that makes the infant the its moment as is it it comes from mother's womb. of relation between the this cause.

dilated . though they pass their orifices . the dilatation. so when they are pressed against each other. its not it really does not. because the kind of sensibility of the ductus arteriosus repels the new venous blood of the foetus. because that which the lungs have reddened will not mix with it. Why does the blood then cease to flow there? As the aliments do not enter the ductus choledochus. edly this takes place. lungs. and I still passes by the ductus arteas which was very much diminished. facilitate that of the two pulmonary trunks. for at birth hardly ever entirely obliterated this contraction varies singularly at this period. and give the is blood a tendency to pass there rather than through the ductus arteriosus as 1 . and especially the new excitement that the external air produces there. happens suddenly to the blood that riosus at birth. by rendering considerably more active the capillary circulation. it that that valves approximate so as to cross. the blood from the pulmonary artery. and it evidently depends upon the vital laws. as were. pushes the valve of the foramen ovale correspond- . the lacteal or panso undoubtcreatic ducts. of which certain tumours are the seat. though. the is foramen ovale in fact. this foramen so arranged at birth. the motion of which the lungs become the seat. ali have said. by the successive contraction of this canal.366 aorta. it in this way that the langs attract. Now the auricle by the pulmonary veins. For the same reason that is the blood of the pulmo- nary artery goes through the closed its . which comes no longer from the placenta. Besides. the comis munication of the auricles red blood entering the left really closed. Does not the great irritation. VASCULAR SYSTEM however. have said. draw there more of this fluid ? Is it not on this account that the arteries of these tumours dilate and ? acquire a double or even treble caliber What takes place in these tumours in a gradual manner. it is it often remains still more or less . We cannot certainly give any mechanical reason for passing .

no more blood passes through it. Though the foramen ovale may be open the black blood ceases to pass through it . insinuate itself between The as obliteration of the foramen ovale. and consequently opposes the blood of the vena cava inferior that endeavours to enter there. we see. this assertion have seen a great number. far from forcing ovale. and the cessathrough its tion of the passage of the blood opening. the blood which forced by them from without within. against the other. still I say further. how life is supported when the foramen ovale is open it is the same as if it was closed. weak they are rather in contact than united so that by forcing between them the handle of a scalpel. other. This blood flows back this contracts to it to the right Now when drive the blood into the ventricle. it is impossible that the blood can pass them either in contraction or dilatation. If they were arranged so that the blood could them. the blood enters the left auricle by the pulmonary the right by the venae cavae and the valves are crossed. for the blood to pass the two auricles contract at the same is When time. In the greatest number of is cases. phenomena to a certain degree mechanical. it through the foramen with care the necessarily brings the two valves against each obliterates it. 367 ing to this auricle. may appear extravagant at It is impossible from the arrangement of through it. it would soon separate them and re-establish the communication. they are easily separated and hardly any traces of rupture are found. . auricle. extremely . and By examining it state of the heart of the foetus. is evident that when veins. two valves crossed. its two valves.WITH RED BLOOD. and thus itself creates an obstacle to its passage. though first. the adhesion of the . at birth. Authors need no longer attempt to explain. are. . Many authors have related examples of this. brings the valves together. oftentimes this foramen remains open during the whole of I life.

ty of the left auricle. as ing its I have observed. it does not arise from is this contractility. this ob- literation not made by a contraction. now by contracting side the blood against the and consequently the two valves against each . blood no longer passing through the ductus arte- riosus. all Why solids does the trachea convulsively reject ? fluids and why does the air alone enter it ? Why is does not the blood enter the thoracic duct. but by a real ag- glutination of the two valves. is Without doubt the course of the blood but the laws that govern a mechanical course are phenomenon vital . they press from each partition. and sometimes even has none in coition ? Why a fault does the urethra repel the urine of all It is authors that they seek only for mechanical causes in all the phenomena of the circulation. by the blood that each contains. incapable of oppos? passage. this closes it immediately by its contractility of tex- becomes a kind of ligament. which fixes to a degree the aorta and pulmonary artery in their certain respective position. they contract from without within thus. j this it is the . without doubt. stimulated ar-d modified anew by the red it blood. their part if this occasion. As to the obliteration of the foramen ovale. Who knows the sensibil. same vital. the cause is The ture . which it is obliquely to This agglutination appears is be the effect of a pressure that made in an opposite direction. between situated at birth.368 VASCULAR SYSTEM vital The on laws perform also. does not repel the black which tries to enter by the foramen ovale ? We see every day in the econo- my. which often furnish- ed with a valve. as a bone that is is moved by muscular contraction the effect the mechanism of the lever. fluids passing at the side of openings. In fact their fibres are so arranged that . though they that their sensibility is may be wide. for the sole reason not in relation with these fluids. without enter- ing them. upon the partition between the auricles.

the passage of the red These four things. the umbilical arteries begin to pulsate. place. interruption of the passage of that of . that of the descending aorta by the umbilical artery these four things. of that . there this reason to hemorrhage of artery.WITH RED BLOOD. the blood no longer flows by the umbilical artery. as have observed. 369 Now this agglutination is sometimes does not take always exerted when the be distended. and if the ligature is loosened. is. that there may be other causes for this interruption of blood. Baudelocque has frequently observed In general. of the pulmonary artery by the ductus arteriosus 4th. this fluid is stopt in the umbilical artery and vein. since. it property than the action of the heart the circulation in the trunks. some time after the foetus has and the black blood con- sequently returns. confess. they pour out considerable this. though diameter continues very large at birth? pears to The principal cause ap- me in to be the nature of the red blood. On I the other hand. the ductus. itself. when is respiration is well established. the ligature of the cord then useless. the three last especially. is when fear this function is badly performed. which 'he cause of This subject deserves the most attentive examination of physiologists. however. other. 1st. respiration stopt. perhaps only accesless this is sory. A proof of this that if is breathed. 47 . ap- pear to depend upon a cause that stand. of . blood. Why its does the blood cease to flow in this artery. 2d. the cessation of the entrance of the blood into the umbilical vein. which is no longer relation with the sensibility of this artery. I say. At the same time that the ductus arteriosus and fora- men ovale cease to transmit blood at birth. bility we do is is not yet under- The change 1 of the relation of the organic sensi- with the nature of the blood. whilst the contractility parts in which is it exists cease to arteriosus uniformly obliterated. the inferior vena cava by the foramen ovale 3d.

the facial arteries are in their more evident. in fact. only the sur- rounding parts being developed. that to dissect living animals of different ages. more parts then than it does afterwards. in the adult the arteries contain only what is des- tined to the first. The boundathe system ry is then rigourously established between with black blood and that with red. in . life have said elsewhere. The first are the period of conception. After birth the vascular system with red blood pre- dominates some time by its greater development and In fact the red blood enters its more numerous branches. In proportion as the infant advances in age. is gradually established in the system with red In the head. These vessels are more prominent less in them. We all see the necessity of this predominance to distribute to the parts the materials of their nutrition and growth.370 VASCULAR SYSTEM Respiration being once well established. In the infant. we cannot see the connexions so well. of which as I we are treating 5 so that. than of that of the nerves. to the level of and come gradually development . the lungs are in opposition to the whole body send it . it sends blood to all the parts. and things then go on as we have for before described. much more abundant towards The second always predomi- nate more towards the last age. It is sufficient of the greater quantity of blood in young animals. the equi- librium blood. order to contain more fluid. the two opposite ages of it exhibit an inverse arrangement as respects the fluids and solids. and they all to the lungs. is Hence the caliber of the arteries proportionably larger than afterwards. they contain moreover what is destined to the second. The predominance mains evident to the of the system with red blood re- end of the period of growth. to be convinced the system contains. Injections demonstrate this and on this account small subjects are not less favourable for the study of the arteries.

pelvis III. the seat of hemorrhage. which happens shortly after puberty. cease be as frequent. &c. The new first from it is the secretion of semen. their nutritive arteries follow an in- verse order tract. the cerebral. Their vital energy is increas- ed. of the head especially. about the period of puberty that the increase in in height ceases. . and tastes a general impulse of the individual towards and desires.WITH RED BLOOD. As the lungs are connected in an intimate. The genital parts. the 371 as thymus diminishing the lungs increase. tinea capitis. hitherto without influence. the increase thickness continues always. towards those relative the species. in youth ularly from the lungs. then effect that results becomes greater. though unknown manner. State It is The it. In the thorax. as the termination of the predominance of the superior parts. it takes place partic- We may consider the increase of the energy of the lungs. to the propagation of Another phenomenon is soon the consequence of this. The portion of the system with red blood that belongs to them. and then begins the period of the affections of this viscus. that the of the superior parts. abdomen less blood goes to the capsular arteries but most of the others receive as much of it. seem to be then a centre of more active vitality than most of the other organs. ceases enThus whilst in infancy the nose is frequently tirely. the bronchials dilate and the thymic con- In the . the cause that would in the adult produce a gastric affection. Convulsions. and all the diseases that arise from the extreme suscep- . with the genital parts. then. of the Vascular System with Red Blood after growth. and the inferior extremities have more of and their development is proportionably evident. they acquire also a predominance with them. The cutaneous to eruptions of the cranium. brings on a It is pulmonary one. predominance truly only at this period.

but this activity . that is.572 tibility VASCULAR SYSTEM of the brain. period. is subject to many exceptions. become also more rare. begin especially to manifest themselves. hitherto had each performed a part more or in less conspi- cuous in the phenomena relative to the different ages. which. making the phenomena of the animal economy vary. some time after the in height. and it arises from the following cause and whilst as the blood contains before puberty. Towards the fortieth year. As the system with red blood in proportion to its is uniformly. and seem to give place to a great It is towards this number of acute pulmonary affections. the equilibrium that way established between . The predominance equilibrium is of the lungs is gradually lost . &c. growth. the established among all the organs. of the mode of life hitherto led. About the end of growth generally. some predominated. it every part. in the different ages. the gastric viscera seem to acquire a more decided vital activity. der the influence of temperament. if this is expended in the system with red to But when the parts cease system still increase in length. Thus all that is said upon the disposition to dif- ferent diseases. this their age. continues to receive the materials of growth. a true arterial plethora takes place. to which is in especially contri- butes. some affections appear that indicate a predominance of the blood as this is however un. which. rarely permit us to establish exclusive general principles. the different parts at twenty-six or thirty years of age all the arteries have a proportional size. of the season and a thousand other causes. may be said to be . Whilst until then. but also those of growth. according to the predominance of the growth of the organs to which they are sent. analogous to what they will always have afterwards. that end of the increase the diseases that are considered as the product of an arterial plethora. not only the materials of nutrition. this con- tinued the whole blood.

by the general equilibrium that is established in their development. so that as this these are IV. their arteries consequently enlarge. its Observe augmentaforce. Though the growth in height may end about the six- teenth or seventeenth year. 2d. first difference that gave me the idea of distinguishing growth. and that in thickness. hence why tion. in the same proportion as the fleshy fibres of the heart is more able to send the blood with more able to resist it. so that the internal viscera still grow. by the cessation of the increase of the caliber of the arteries . their pliability is lessened. WITH RED BLOOD. less felt at the extremi- . the system with red blood is remarkdimin- able for the following phenomena. that the density of the arteries follows. Stale of the Vascvlar System with old age.. is For the development of the arteries cessation of growth in thickness the constant index of the state of the growth of the organs. in subjects beyond thirty-six or It is this In the last they are uniformly larger. that in thickness uniformly continues. then remarkable. is The period of the 1st. into that in height. is elasticity increases. Their fibres become more evident. The number of the ished. it and with duces The general vibration that is pro- the whole arterial tree. it sends less blood. with those forty. they increase in compactness and thickness. 373 has no influence upon the size of the arteries that are distributed to these viscera. in comparing arteries injected in subjects from sixteen to ceases. As the arteries grow in the years that succeed tbe end their of the growth of the body. Red Blood during In the last years. the age of the adult that of aneurisms. arterial ramifications is much As the heart less force. until the last twenty years. in loses its energy. and growth This phenomenon has constantly struck me.

we shall see that it keeps them it also in a state of constant excitement by the shock gives them at its entrance. &x. is The trition.374 ties of this tree. the muscles &. when the perios- teum separated from the bone. The is general proposition that I have established. less quantity of red blood that is found proportion- ably in old age. as the subjects are more advanced alone are tions . VASCULAR SYSTEM The small vessel? that form these ex- tremities gradually contract.c. of the preceding ages. In fact the use of the circulation is not only to car- ry to the different parts the materials of the secretions. a shock. of exhalations. have a dull colour. espe- why the section of a bone does not furit nish hardly any blood. why youth the skin. remarkable even upon the we see it in the dead body. only a few drops of blood escape . in years. no tint longer exhibits the rosy cially of . the dura mater from the internal surface of the cranium. I have dissected many old and the small quantity of blood their compared with those of young animals very remarkable. Observe with the weakness it of the motion that animates the blood. This oblit- eration of the small vessels parietes of the great vessels i is . is a cause of the small degree of excitement which the parts have in old age. difficult. have observed it in the living. whilst foetus . All anatomists know that injec- tions succeed less in proportion. that united of infancy. that in filled it is . having hardened like horn. that the solids are constantly ac- quiring the predominance. the principle of . even coarse injections oftentimes so the ramifications. referable especially to the state of nu- which is merely nothing when compared with that also. are or«literated and become so many is little ligaments. viz. extreme old age the trunks that that the fluids never enter the ramifica- that the reverse in young subjects fill . was so abundant in the why the mucous surfaces look pale. perfectly true. as to render dissection living animals vessels contain is . nutrition. Hence why.

I have often examined to see if there was a similar dilatation at those places in the arteries where the curves are very evident. in the internal carotid. Now this shock is in a ratio compounded. which is always without rupture of the fibres. the exthe force with which it is sent. have not discovered any. as age advances. In the last periods. at the place I where it passes through the carotid foramen. . also that all Observe the functions of the infant.WITH RED BLOOD. 2d. for example. which has hardly any influence upon the circulation. citement constantly diminishes. a phenomenon opposite to that of infan- cy. I have said that the internal membrane is very often the seat of a kind of peculiar ossification. 375 which is evidently in the heart. which constantly undergoes an enlargement more or less conscarcely siderable. after what we have said. The There caliber of the arteries does not dilate in old age. both organic and animal. foreign to the arteries. the pulse is remarkable for its extreme slowness. The layers that form the fibres of the peculiar membrane become drier. They indicate only the state of the forces of the heart. consequently supposes an extensibility of these fibres. is any except the arch of the aorta. The arterial texture always becomes more and more condensed as age advances. except when it is seated at the origin of the aorta. which is the agent of the general impulse of the red blood. 1st. of the quantity of the fluid. and undoubtedly depends upon the habitual and direct impulse that the blood exerts against the concave side of this curvature. if I may be allowed the expression. in which the blood moves with great quickness. These two opposite facts are. of In both respects. are characterized by a vivacity and impetuosity that form a remarkable contrast with the slowness and want of energy of those of old people.

mor. of feeble oscillation. and by which the cardiac cavities a municate to the contracted. shall observe. &. that the pulse was kept up as usual. as life is weak oscillatory motion. retaining which these two mofibres little their natural in character. is that ordinarily has. Then when the tremor extended to all its the pulsation of the artery changed to a kind of undulation. many which in kinds of contraction. a kind of undulation. made in such a manner that the other can still perform 1 respiration. those which the less only oscillate. life. Now I am convinced that is the heart alone the agent of this undulation . easy to be convinced of this upon living animals. time. in which there a contraction and a dilatation that succeed suddenly and regularly. of scure. then of its fibres. on one hand the carotid. SYSTEM the same of the pulse in the last periods of it is life. of the heart. are irregularly connected. the pulse was successively weakened. ob- served that as long as the heart beat by a sudden impulse. By placing the finger upon the artery. coma general tre- blood a sudden shock. it The principal are. because the contact of the air increased the quickness of the contractions of the heart of a little .c. the precursor of the cessation of I all motion. contracted by a kind of general tremor In proportion as the weakness of the mo- tions of the heart increased. fibres. and the more obmore feeble. It is not a real pulsation of the arteries. that it was even acbut at the end in its celerated. on the other the heart by a section of one side of the thorax. have not . in have laid bare many dogs. I am conI vinced of it by the following very simple experiment. that authors am astonished the who have disputed so much upon cause of this phenomenon. 2d. this organ began to be it weakened motions. under the system of the muscles of or- ganic that the heart has 1st.376 It is VASCULAR. an undulation. there It is I Now with each kind of motion is a peculiar pulse that corresponds. that tions. 3d.

I have seen the motion of the heart always correspond with that of the arteries. &c. In general the theory of the pulse requires as I have this said. with V. in the evident in the ligature of aneurismatic spontaneous cure of aneurisms. 377 thought of having recourse to experiment to elucidate the question. during the moments that precede death. the intermittent. have had occasion to make these experiments many times. undulatory. heart could not be perceived but that of the slow and frequent pulse. either directly for this object. or with others in view. can be immediately discovered. . that whatever may be the modification of the arterial pulsation. this 1st. an obstruction to 2d. The dilatation of the arteries by is the circulation. if the pulse depended I especially upon the vital contraction of the arteries. which in particular this is produces kind of undulation. There are undoubtedly many modifications whose coincidence with the motions of the . of the blood 1st. as under other circumdepend almost exclusively upon the heart. We see then uniformly. a phenom- enon of which within a few years a great number of ex48 . As new oues are never formed but often- times. on an obstruction to the course on the growth of any tumour. those that depends on two causes. new researches. by laying the heart bare and placing the finger at the same time upon the artery. of oscilla- tory motion which state between the pulsation of the natural and the complete cessation of this pulsation. in the pulse. the strong and weak. do exist acquire a remarkable size. Accidental development of the System I Red Blood. there analogous modification in the is always an motions of the heart. in the different ages. this certainly would not be the case. of the accileft dental development of the to the arteries. shall speak under the organic muscles. portion of the heart. but I have faets enough upon it point to be convinced that the varieties undergoes stances. arteries. .WITH RED BLOOD.

&c. most tumours that give great pain to the patients exhibit this phenomeis suffi- non. 2d. we see this dilatation in cancers.378 VASCULAR SYSTEM WITH RED BLOOD. their thickness increases in proportion with their breadth least I . the sper- matic in hydrocele. the lum- intercostals. the mediastinal. the stomachic. great collaterals increase in size. of the womb. retain their ordinary and under some circumstances they become even smaller. and it is by the ramifications that the communications are made. hemoris often to be feared. Then. As the branches dilate. &c. in ascites. the renal that in diabetes. in hydro-thorax. the branches go to the parotids after a size. as in the preceding case? I have no data. we know more that in the operation for lithotomy. which is analogous it to that which the left ventricle presents when becomes aneurismatic. &c. In general. We should say even that pain in a part cient to attract there habitually more blood. do their parietes in proportion. I After long and copious secretions or exhalations. &c. their parietes never contain arteries tu- proportioned to those that are developed in cancerous mours. the mesenteric. All tumours do not produce a dilatation of the arteries . when rhage the patients have previously suffered much. from which 1 could determine this point. in osteo-sarcosis or spina ven- tosa. remains the same. glands or around the exhalant organs. sometimes the sometimes their caliber amples has been published. &c. have not observed that the arteries were more dilated in the How large soever the cysts may be. When thicken the arteries dilate iu tumours. The cerebral in hydrocephalus. and dilate the arteries . in the different fungi. in those of the breast. bar. long salivation. at have twice observed this fact. the epigastric. .

terminates in the pulmonary capillaries. We shall shall now examine inversely. and As the portion of the heart that belongs to it will be examined hereafter. DIVISION AND GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE VASCULAR SYSTEM WITH BLACK BLOOD. the general system. from the whole of the is tem. the abdominal. spread upon the whole system with blacl? ARTICLE FIRST. membrane of the other ar- we shall now particularly examine the veins. to the veins as we have the arte- ries. great analogy with the peculiar teries. 2d. it Only we to the do accommodate our ideas course in which the blood flows in their channels. as The general vascular system with we shall see. THE red blood circulates in a single system. in their origin. FORMS. course and termination. and the pulmonary artery. blood on the contrary is The black contained in two separate sys- tems. has collected towards the heart in great trunks. by its peculiar membrane. black blood arises great capillary sys- We shall now examine the first. the common mem- brane that blood. SITUATION. 1st. the branches of which every where communicate. which have nothing in common but the form. and which are. . but we shall describe in a general is manner.VASCULAR SYSTEM WITH BLACK BLOOD. and afterwards the second.

In the liver. as the tendons. shall point out in this system. that the venous ramifications can be best observed. it perhaps acquires there new ones never created. sometimes same time that the less more or of cellular in texture serves to unite the small vessels that are sition. There are however some exceptions to this rule. &c. Besides the venous origins corresponding with the arterial terminations. We see then that they are soon last arte- one accompanies the from them. as the last arteries at their entrance into it. not formed the general it leaves there the principles that . is never arise from any organ that the arteries do not enter. is. the first enter below. appo- sometimes there is a space between them. . venous branches go same place that the arteries enter. as in the muscles. I how the veins are continued with would only remark here that these vessels cartilages. where the small veins go out small arteries enter. It is in from penetrating so subjects that have died of asphyxia. the nerves. the veins go out above. This circumstance in general. &c. &c. divided into two orders ries. apoplexy. made red. the arteries enter below. because the valves prevent injections far. but It is not as easy to distinguish accurately the veins at it is their exit from this system. it is modified in fact.380 VASCULAR SYSTEM I. there is an order of veins which is separated from the arteries at the exit from the capillary system. Origin of the Veins. I This origin the arteries. indifferent to the circulation. In the brain. for In the greatest out at the example. which evi- dently proves that the blood capillary system it . the hair. the other is distinct number of organs. which goes on the same whatever may be the In those places at the relation of the arteries with the veins. This order is particularly remarkable at the ex- . the others go off behind. is in the general capillary system. in . the &c.

we do not see any great sub-cutaneous branches. others that go to the exterior become sub-cutaneous. At their exit from the general capillary system. seen. terior of the body. and numerous divisions in the superior. as we have just said.WITH BLACK BLOOD. In the trunk and the head. . the veins are differently arranged. a disproportion of which we shall soon speak. basilic. and deep ones. as We see many spaces that arise from their interlacing. we frequently make . &c. the same veto nous division It is observed. 2d. II. and to form trunks of which we shall soon speak. 2d. In the extremities and external organs of the trunk. sets. see that all the organs that are found there furnish. In many internal organs. except the external jugular in the neck but their . 381 We 1st. and that with black. the saphena in the lower. a similar ob- thus there are superficial veins of the kidney. where there are considerable branches. 1st. veins that go to the interior to accompany the arteries. Course of the Veins. which sub-cutaneous. that accompany the arteries all but oftentimes the veins unite themselves to those that follow the artery. in the places where they can be under the serous surfaces. they form two arteries . cutaneous portion of the veins is very remarkable in the extremities. there is a number of smaller branches proportioned to the minuter ones that are distributed there. capillary system than there are is This the principle of the dis- proportion of the capacity existing between the system with red blood. at The veins their origin frequently communicate little among themselves. which accompanies the is the other exterior. In the internal organs servation . the one interior. follows from this general arrangement. The viz. that many more veins go from the arteries that enter it. the cephalic.

which has no corresponding arterial trunk. are remarkable by the predominance of the trunks with black blood over those with red. and which on a this account requires in desones of the trunk criptive anatomy. Oftentimes these trunks can be traced through the integuments. as less the brain. In the interior of the body. they have. as extremities. be- cause the course of the arteries theirs. . like the superficial and the extremities. the liver. Finally. is almost always accompanied by two veins. particular examination it. the Proportion of the capacity of two systems with Black and Red Blood. &c. as in the extremities. the veins are separate. besides. upon which they show themselves much more than those that are whiter and more delicate . where the is. they follow the same dis- so that they are not commonly is described. wherever there an artery and vein united. it is easy to prove. This assertion is evident that their sum total has a capacity much greater than that of the arteries. as the azygos. the spleen. sufficient to represent Usually a common cellular space receives both the trunks of the two sorts of vessels and those of the nerves. where each - artery III. as I not a sensible. much more con- siderable than that of the arteries most usually they are more numerous. for example. in the kidneys. there have just said. and an ac- curate dissection to obtain an idea of The deep-seated veins have a caliber . the &c. however. Sometimes. the veins almost every where accompany the tribution 5 arteries . no connexion with the tinge that colours them. After the observation I have just made upon the origin it is and course of the veins. arteries are separate it is from the veins. then.382 VASCULAR SYSTEM The external parts. in . in detail. which arises from the blood contained in the general capillary system.

after drinking copiously. transparency of the integuments sometimes they are more. &c. &c. Many physiologists have endeavoured to calculate the relation of capacity between the two systems with black and red blood . Is it upon a animal that the attempt difficult. sometimes less apparent . hardly distinguishable. is never find the veins exactly equal any two though there may its be a great resemblauce as to living &c. on account of their firm and ture. asphyxia. compact texit. Always when the mass of blood minished.WITH BLACK BLOOD. age. the veins contract by their contractility of tex- The arteries arc infinitely less subject to variations of diameter. they show much of . often observed the same phenomenon have is in dropsies. drowning. and the second deless them of kill it. because the when the first subject kind of death accumulates much blood prives in the veins. besides being very you will not then have a in result uniformly applicable. they have a diameter almost double that which they exhibit has died of hemorrhage. ture. but this relation varies too Is it much ever will . their size sometimes apCertainly pears double. You can subjects. We can give a greater or capacity to the veins of an animal. diameter as they are more or subjects in vessels in Examine these whom you can see them by the . at others. according to the manner in or contract the which we him. phthisis. di- marasmus. though. upon the dead be in body that the attempt is made ? But the veins more or less dilated according to the kind of death apoplexy. however. by which the black blood has its received a great augmentation of fluid. the vessels are more dilated than in an opposite state. because the veins less full. The veins are I remarkably contracted after death from hunger. size. as we can enlarge in right cavities of the heart by similar means. 383 is which evidently one more than the arteries have. made? vary But. to be the subject of any calculation. division of sub-cutaneous veins.

The same heart. in the lungs. is it in fact. Let us. in a may be said. rigorous proportions that some physicians have endea? voured to establish between our parts in the explanation of the They are nothing dis- phenomena of health and this ease. hut fluid under that of the that distends is it. the right side of the heart has almost always a greater capacity than left.384 Let us VASCULAR SYSTEM reject. it is because contained more blood at the mo- ment of death. We . the In the living animal. because the quantity of blood it contains is greater. those that possess their capacity every viz. except in diseases of the heart. This is the great difference between inert cavities and life. that the great tree that terminates the system with red . then. whilst the others remain always the same. one of veins. two things generally true. that the venous capacity surpasses the arterial. not right has commonly precisely under the relation of the fleshy texture. 1st. be content with general asserIt tion. this is so true. then. There are. the last will be less in find it size than the Always when we it larger than the other in the dead body. that these last can change moment. can only calculate what is fixed and invariable but that which varies at every instant can only be the object of Besides. that given time there is more blood in one than the other. as this fluid ordinarily stops first flows back to this side of the heart. observation applies to the two sides of the and the other which belongs to the same system with the to the one with the arteries. which almost always the largest. and the emptied by puncturing first. then. every kind of calculation upon the proportions of capacity of organized canals. viz. of what importance are the general assertion. is that if in an animal whose thorax in opened. The a greater capacity than the left. the blood made right to is accumulate the left side it. by ligatures.

This arises from the difference of the velocity . tion of diameter. there form each vascular system. las!. The four pulmonary veins united are a little larger say? if it smaller. 49 . what do than the aorta. the capacity of the cavities in which it circulates. that they also should be in proportion to them. however. notwithstanding what in favour of the veins. than in the other parts. given time. as great a quantity of blood passes through it. if the aorta equalled in capacity the two venes cava? and the coronaries united. Why ? more blood pass by the aorta than by the four pulmonary veins. The pulmonary artery and the veins of the same name exhibit a disproportion of capacity. the circulation could not go on. that the same observation is applicable to the two sides of the heart. this fluid in circulates quicker in the pulmonary artery than since it the veins of the same name. 1st. As to the tree that terminates the system with black blood. commences the system with black blood 2d. are then in an inverse order in the two opposite trees that In that with red blood. ? it How is it does this happen would seem that since the one continuous with the veins and propels the same fluids. a disproportion which real. 2d. has the impulse of the heart. which correspond with these two trees. ought to have the same propor- and that since the others are continuous with the arteries. the same thing does not hold true. of the blood in fact. then. blood that is 385 in general of less capacity than the great tree .WITH BLACK BLOOD. and is which. and the blood had the same velocity there. less it is is true. These two things. however. which these in a want. the circulation would cease. which. makes. the left all the blood Because the impulse that ventricle communicates. the velocity of the fluid . many authors have said. transmits received from them. though the diameter of I this artery is was equal. in a given time. In the same way. compared with that which commences the system with red blood.

. as it were. is Without this double opposite arrangement. with the aorta. why the four pulmonary veins surpass also in diameter the artery of the same 3d. then the velocity is the venae cavae and greater there. to be made upon this it that the capacity of the four pulmonary veins united. which 4th. portioned to the pulmonary artery. of the venae cava? and the coronary artery . that the circulation could not take place. than the pulmonary as the and this is the reason of pulmonary veins run a very short course. We . there velocity and greater capacity from the general capillary system to the agent of impulse.386 is VASCULAR SYSTEM and greater capacity from the pulmonary . that the red blood has received from the pulmonary capillary system. and the caIf pacity should be therefore in the pelvis. however. is less In the vascular system with black blood. there on the con- trary. this agent to the general capillary system. the lungs were situated pulmonary veins would certainly have a greater capacity. the impulse. which their continuation. the less. evident There subject . really a continuation of why the venae cavae and coronaries are so disprois. greater velocity and less capacity. is not so much larger than the aorta as that is it . can easily understand now the cause of many ar- rangements that have engaged the attention of anatomists viz. the velocity of the blood would be more retarded. why the sum of the arteries coming from the aorta has less capacity than that of the veins going to the right auricle . is preserved there more . there is more velocity and less it capacity. a remark is. because having a greater extent to go over. 1st. why these four veins are not exactly is in proportion . 2d. this fluid is there free from numerous causes of in delay that the blood experiences coronaries. is. name them . less velocity capillary system to the agent of impulse and from is. on the other hand. on the one hand. and from this agent to the pulmonary capillary system.

we might be it. The ry. 3d. whilst the little absence of this agent requires but resistance in the veins. 2d. . 2d. the organs exterior to this membrane are. The velocity is less in the general veins and in the pulmonary. appears to me so evident.WITH BLACK BLOOD. . weakness of the parietes and red blood less capacity. If 387 there was no agent of impulse in the two systems with red and black blood. The that inverse ratio of the velocity of the motion with the capacity of the vessels. opposite reason explains the velocity of the course of the blood in the general arteries and in the pulmona- We have seen in the preceding system. why these three things. slowness of the motion 3d. clearly. We then. however. because the velocity of the fluid would be every where nearly the same. why these three opposite things. great capacity. because there is is nearly as no heart be- tween the two. in which the hepatic portion of the vena porta large as the intestinal one. as I have said. make . very different. We see also from this why. This is precisely what happens in the system with black abdominal blood. requires there a considerable resistance of this texture. see. strength of the parietes. velocity in the motion. able to judge nearly by the inspection of the vessel of the velocity of the blood that runs through if many causes did not. we see there only a capillary system. their capacity would be every where nearly the same. though the red and black blood form in their whole course a continued column. though the common membrane over which they pass may be in the whole extent of each system nearly the same. because they have not at their extremity an agent of impulse. 1st. that the presence of an agent of impulse at the origin of the two great arteries. characterize the arteries of both sanguife- rous systems. are the attributes of the veins with black . 1st.

as it respects branches. Small Branches. less difficulty in circulating in The blood has the . except that it takes place inversely. these into last into branches. In going out of the organs. &c. part . that the relation of the arteries and the veins is not every where the same thus the renal. than the hypogastric veins in proportion to the corresponding artery. in the muscles between the fasciculi. The ramifications are nearest the they soon unite into smaller branches. We that know that the causes that lessen in the veins the it is velocity of the blood. than those of the superior parts exceed theirs. planation of the following same reason that must be referred the exphenomenon viz. of these organs. thymic veins. the small venous branches run into the branches. It is to the . smaller branches and ramifications. The integral fibres. #-c. ramifications and most of the small branches are found in the interior of the organs. . The first make an . that preg- nancy enlarges those of the inferior extremities. than the veins of the spermatic cord in proportion to the artery of the same name. . increase their capacity. &x. an arrange- ment analogous origin to that of the arteries. as we have seen. Angles of Union. first than in the second. &c. where it rises against its weight hence why the veins of the inferior parts. bronchial. the second in their great interstices in the glands between the lobes. The veins present in their course. thus we make them prominent by ligatures .388 the vascular VASCULAR SYSTEM parietes all vary at the moment of death. and these trunks. and are between their lie &c. which take. Ramifications. Branches. between the circumvolutions. two . surpass their arteries more in diameter. especially at a certain age. are in general smaller in proportion to their arteries. in the brain. that long-continued standing produces the same effect.

positions. that they are infinitely less tortuous this is remarkable under the skin and in the interstices of the organs. The branches are often united to the trunks. the vians. Hence a series really longer than a corresponding . in the manner we have . &c. supposing that there was an agent of impulse at the origin of the veins. deep positions. like the arterial trunks. far from external agents. branches. they are placed in the interstices of the sin- dura mater. and form with them what are called The venous branches differ from the arterial . The deep branches lie in the interstices that the organs have be- tween each other. from which many organs defend them. the ramifications to the branches.. accompanying almost every where the The cerebral branches have a peculiar ararteries. the azygos. smaller branches and ramifica- 1- do not always arise necessarily from each other. The tions trunks. rangement uses. venous lubes this facilitates less extent to the motion of the black blood. The venous branches unite to form a certain number of trunks that are connected with those that are immediately discharged into the right auricle. They are still less tortuous than the branches they have. driven by a greater than the red blood. The sub- cutaneous branches go in the extremities between the aponeurosis and the skin. WITH BLACK BLOOD. iliacs. the other deep. and which is would find causes of delay in the curvatures. This is a reason that would prevent locomotion. 389 one sub-cutaneous. as a hemorrhage from them would be followed with serious consequences. . in this. . in the trunk between this and the cellular layer that covers the muscles. these trunks are the internal jugulars. which has a besides go over. and that their parietes were not so of arterial tubes series of is loose. the subcla- &c. &c. because this strong agent of impulse. just pointed out. and the other is not. as it is with regard to the arteries.

&c. . the venous system represents three trunks . The same 1st. This form arises from the smaller branches. as in ]y some of the of the intercostals . in almost every subject. A trunk. of the general characlife ter of irregularity that the organs of internal It is exhibit- necessary only to attend to the general position and distribution of the branches. branch. different Forms of the Veins. they partake. smaller branches. because the sum of their divisions. that its are successively united to this branch. But by distending them with air. apex at the auricle and their base thus system. &c. and increase capacity as it approaches the heart. Considered as a whole. In the living body they appear round. and the third with the coronary vein . and this is owing to the absence of blood. 3d. water. as in the lumbar. 2d. are cylindrical. &c. so that the base of the cone towards the heart and the apex towards the general capillary sys- tem. another with the vena cava inferior. Their is union with the trunks and among themselves. they take their primitive form.c. Examined in a considerable extent. sometimes they are right The angles. . &.390 VASCULAR SYSTEM angles of union vary. renal veins. sometimes they are obtuse. In the dead body they appear flat. one corresponds with the vena cava these three trunks have their at the general capillary superior. Anatomists represent the whole of the veins. which arises from the collapse of the parietes. observation may be made upon the forms of the veins as upon those of the arteries. The arrangement branches ries 5 smaller branches and the is as variable at least in the veins as in the artein this respect. most common* they are acute. a venous branch is appears conical. like the arteries. when ex- amined in a space where they receive no branch.

if even they have a solid they do not lead relation to a useful result. Now as these causes of dilatation vary ad infinitum. sometimes they even surpass them. responding venous trunks . is however an observation is. internal jugular injected. that affected that have preceded by the manner of the death. by the habits of the subject. for example. and especially than the smaller branches. by the diseases it. in fact. thus the sura of certain divisions considerably surpasses their trunks. when standing. When in the living subject. they dilate the trunks means of estimating this much more than the branches. this if Let us disregard then. to be made upon this and that that the relation between the trunks is and their divisions not as exact in the veins as in the arteries. point.WITH BLACK BLOOD. sometimes the branches are much dilated by this fluid. the dilatations themselves are very variable. There subject. is infinitely less But all this arises still from the extreme variation of the venous parietes. From these varieties in the dilatation of the venous it branches and trunks separately. 391 has a greater capacity than the trunks from which these divisions arise. as upon every basis. &c. and the trunks remain the same sometimes an opposite phenomenon is observed. upon other. Injections are also a deceptive . according to the quantity of blood they contain thus in dead bodies. 1st. lungs are obstructed . a limb has been situated for a long time perpendicularly. . 2d. This last takes place especially when the . The becomes of an enor- mous size when compared with the sinus that empties into . has been long continued. whilst this relation in other cases. then in fact the blood flows back then into the great corthese are then almost equal in to the right cavities of the heart. for example. capacity to the divisions they furnish. then the branches are more dilated than the trunks. lation existing it is is evident that the re- between them is extremely variable. all calculations.

The veins communicate the arteries. In the branches. Hence why. the two great venous divisions can then evidently supply the functions of each other by mixing their blood. by agitating the muswe increase the throw of blood in though the muscles do not furnish many open vein. cles of the fore arm. and their numerous divisions spread upon the fore arm. the su- . The communications between unite immediately in an evident manner the cutaneous a to the deep division . between the external and internal jugular by one . comparison with that of their branches injected. . &c. cephalic. venesection. two considerable branches between the basilic. veins. VASCULAR SYSTEM The two is venae cavae. but still we find many of them. In the smaller 3d. between the saphena and crural. which then receives the blood branches to the from 2d. branches. 1st. and it branches from the is this that particularly distinguishes these which are almost always sepathe branches of the veins rate from each other. for example. ligature is left a for a long time applied to the arm. the brachial. dilate a little less than the jugular but their size howin ever remarkable when they are injected. on the other. 392 it. Though separated. the subclavians. they are still less numerous arterial. 2d. . in general more frequently than is In the ramifications there a real net work. if the circulation continues as usual. tibial. from which it is forced out by the muscles . roneal. they are not so frequent. the radial and by different branches that penetrate deep into the muscles. pecubital. the anastomoses are so numerous. 1st.. on the one hand . occipital veins. the azygos. why. &c. by analogous branches. Anastomoses. thus there is communication between and even the cerebral sinuses and the temporal. why in external pressure that obstructs or even en- tirely stops the motion of the superficial venous blood.

the blood passes if easily into the neighbouring ones. venous blood returns as usual to the heart. and the. but all the compression is made upon the trunks of a limb. That they show in fact that these modes are less dangerous than some physicians have thought. are The anastomoses between the superficial and deep veins more necessary in man than in any other animal. is much less than they have said. by which the neck. the arms. on account of his clothing. The mode of the venous anastomoses to that of the arteries. and this the most common case . notwithstanding tight bandages in fractures and luxations. the . 50 1st. a kind of stoppage in the capillary system. but the injection goes into the crural. When is a single trunk is compressed. expe- riences. is there is merely a branch of com- munication. perficial veins at 393 first swelled. we see . that the danger of apoplexy from a tight cravat. the ham. sometimes the trunks communicate among themselves. does not 3d. saphena vein it fill injected below. are subjected to compressions that would be dan- We can say that upon them alone is founded the possibility of a variety of modes in clothing. though in less quantity it passes by the superficial veins. a certain time It requisite for this fluid to dilate the anastomoses. when the arm is covered with too tight a sleeve. gradually become empty. gerous without these anastomoses. &c. &c. If a strong band is is applied high up on the leg.WITH BLACK BLOOD. In the last mode. In the same manner the internal jugular may be filled by the temporal. is very analogous Sometimes the smaller branches anastomose with the trunks. before this dilatation takes place completely. &c. that of the hand or the foot when the bandages of the fore-arm explains the or the leg are too tight. above the band. by pouring their blood into the deep ones why. a stoppage that momentary redness of the fore-arm in women. of varices from tight garters.

the circulation cannot the legs are horizontal or inclined position. In fact. The in- fluence of position upon many tumours and ulcers of the . Notwithstanding this. except There are many in a cases. the form there a plexus so extended. 3d. its The cases. weight in certain we remain standing a short time the veins especially after diseases in which the forces have If . that a real net work in which the course of no one branch can be traced. and that for the respect- ing the necessity there is communications being more numerous in this than in the arterial system. there anastomoses are the most numerous. frequently together. if we compare the course of the black blood with that of the red. Sometimes instead of a trunk. it increases remains perpendicular. &c. superfi- cial veins Two branches unite by their extremities and form an arch. Hence why the veins that surround the spermatic cord so communicate bottom of the it is why the smaller in branches of the hypogastric vein which are spread pelvis. the arm. been diminished leg 2d. the mesenteries afford an example of is this.394 this VASCULAR SYSTEM between the jugulars. they are even in the dead body on account blood experiences there in rising own weight. between the deep and of the thigh. 2d. so numerous are the communications. we shall see that there are many more causes to modify that of the first. In general. in which the forces being very go on in perfection. is this swelling if it soon disappears if the inclined . there an interlacing of the smaller branches . black blood evidently obeys 1st. swell. Aveak. that form a real venous plexus such as that which surto the rounds the cord of the spermatic vessels. where there are the most obstacles the blood. these two portions of the venous found more frequently dilated of the against difficulty the its system are the frequent seat of varices. to a general reflection This leads us system upon the venous is in relation to the anastomoses.

which. can also disturb the course of this fluid. in which there is no agent of impulse. we can understand why it is so powerful in the veins. which influence at every On the contrary. The tined to counteract the effect of gravity. a centrifugal motion. &c. a giddiness pro- duced by the against its difficulty the blood experiences in rising valves are particularly des- weight. is independent of most of the causes. in which the parietes. if we may its so say. 4th. and hence the ziness that It is is not only gravity . it from diz- natural direction. and a variety of other mechanical causes. and independent of gravity. 3d. the greater the force with which a projectile is thrown into necessarily nothing.and every other external cause of moment the motion of the blood in the veins. Every violent motion communicated to the black blood. We know that the is first effect of the attitude with the head reversed. a shock. vessels.WITH BLACK BLOOD. at the extremities at the its same time as at the origin. Why? because the rapidity of the motion is motion. evident that effect is nothing. produces a stoppage of experienced. where the motion is consequently slow. turning it it. . that of the artevies so great which the heart gives to the red blood. and preventing from going entirely to the heart. but there are also external and internal pressures. . the venous cerebral blood receives. that the is influence of gravity and every other analogous cause Let us take a comparison . of weight especially. legs is ' 395 undoubted. the air. For an opposite reason.and capillary system alone produce the motions. the less influence the weight has in in the case of the making is it de- viate blood in its influence still less. it is thus that when we move violently in a circular direction. and of the internal motion. If the blood was driven effect in empty . gravity in would have some the arteries fluid but that the sudden shock impressed upon the whole the effect of which is felt it is fills them.

it is the membrane is common to them. which only destined to the neck. it From is easy to see the reason of the very different arrangement that the arteries and veins exhibit in their branches. superior vena cava does not answer. head.396 ' VASCULAR SYSTEM these considerations. that their separation can be well perceived. IV. and . the other for all those that are below it. cones distinct from each other one for all the parts which are above the diaphragm. and the other with the left. which empties separately into the right auricle . the coronary vein. viz. than between the right side of the heart and the pulmonary artery. The rior veins terminate by two cavse. The. but as this trunk only brings back the blood that went to the heart. since one corresponds with the right auricle. principal trunks. into the same Some authors have thought. that the two venas cava? were continuous and formed but one vessel but it is easy . There is behind the right auricle a of the black blood that to kind of continuity of the membrane between the one and the other. Termination of the Veins. entirely to the union of the arteries that form the aorta of the is same name. but in this respect there no more continuity left between them. trunks and the branches we can say that there are two great venous . and but to those small it venous au- branches that empty separately from ricle. as ses. it respects anastomo- which are as rare on one side as they are frequent on the other. between the and the aorta. By considering the whole of the as a cone. to see how different their direction is. It is particularly in the foetus. &c. the supe- and inferior venae There is also another. and which passes from the inferior is the superior. we shall pay but little little attention to it in our general remarks. then.

can likewise occasion them in the latter periods of the alteration of their texture. 1st. Has not this ar- served rangement some influence upon the difference that is obin certain diseases between the superior and infe? rior parts Should not this cause be connected with those ? pointed out under the article upon the foetus there is As yet I nothing certain with regard to this. in the production of dropsies. they are but a symptom in the greatest number of cases. some of the lumbar arises and that the semi-azygos that renal or to the lumbar is from it. in respect. physicians have not paid sufficient attention to It proves that when an obstacle is situated in the trunk of the inferior vena cava. But. bourhood of the diaphragm the azygos is the great means We know. in the neigh. especially in the neighbourlimit. whilst the other belongs moreover to the chest by the vena azjgos. the descending aorta has a destination For a contrary reason. the two venae cavee communicate. and a symptom . 397 superior extremities. fact. diseases that belongs to the lungs. that is to say. a great part of the blood of this trunk can flow into the superior. The is limit between the two cones of the ascending and is descending venae cavse. much more ex- tended than the inferior vena cava. the heart. into the vena cava left itself. the this spleen.: WITH BLACK BLOOD. that the production of these every kind of organic affection . that its trunk opens or into into the right renal. It especially in this respect that body into we can say that this mustwo parts. Though forming each hood of their common of communication. but think it not improbable. it is ascertained by the numerous examinations of dead bodies in modern times. however. and that. Much has been said of the compression of this trunk by the enlargements of the liver. cle divides the placed at the diaphragm. a distinct cone. the womb. &c. in veins. goes also to the of the same side. This anastomosis very important it.

from the vena cava to the insertion of the azygos. then the blood of the trunk of the vena cava enters by one extremity of this vein that from the kidney . suppose that the anastomosis takes place in the renal. is evi- especially to counteract the obstacles the may experience. phenomenon to the this. as Haller has seen. would prevent the effect of this compression. it is evident that the anas- tomoses of which 1 have just spoken. is a remarkable places to be uniformly so. the adipose of the kidney. all the lumbar. it and 1 have ascertained This absence of valves at the of the anastomoses of the azygos. as is the course of the trunk of the it vena cava superior consequently very short. site established. the same anastomoses would undoubt. which most often happens . at least in great measure. . and both pass into the azygos. Now the renal veins never in fact have these folds . comes by the opposite extremity. 2d. edly answer the same end but as the azygos is inserted very near the dent that inferior it is auricle. the capsular. When it the blood of this vein passes thus into the supenatural to them. By supposing that the liver could exert upon the vena cava an analogous compression. goes through certain branches in a direction oppothat to which is For example. it proves very well the use that 1 attribute communication of the two venae cavse by means of / .398 VASCULAR SYSTEM wholly disconnected with any sort of compression. A similar motion evi- dently supposes the absence of valves in the renal. vein crosses its in the place where this posterior part. By vena supposing that an ohstacle was encountered in the cava superior. are also desti- tute of them. that these anastomoses have been rior.

3Q9 ARTICLE SECOND. it In order to see this membrane. may be said„ that they are also first more marked the divisions of than in those of the second. these fibres being more separated. 1st. the cellular layer of a pe- culiar nature that immediately covers them. but it are connected exteriorly with is membrane. Texture peculiar is to this organization* This organization system.WITH BLACK BLOOD. are less evident than in a state of contraction. peculiar to the veins. In the heart the texture fleshy . in the pulmonary artery veins . it has a peculiar character in the it is this that will now particularly engage our attention. forming a very first often difficult to be seen at view. longitudinal fine layer. it is analogous to the texture of the divisions of the aorta. and of which we have spoken in the Then we distinguish fibres all parallel to article in upon the cellular system. dissection has con- vinced me of this. . Membrane move. in nearly the same for the whole dif- the common membrane is that forms the great canal in which the black blood fers in the textures that this contained . When the veins much dilated. each other. the great trunks. ORGANIZATION OF THE VASCULAR SYSTEM WITH BLACK BLOOD. is necessary to re- the loose cellular texture that unites the veins . to the neighbouring parts 2d. in which it . than the These longitudinal In general in all it fibres are seen more clearly in the trunk of the inferior vena cava in that of the superior. I. Undoubtedly this arises from the greater facility that the blood experiences in circulating in the second than in the first of these veins. but always having are a real existence.

also seen this have . that forms. assist the cir- is less of this as- The branches have fibres in proportion greater than the trunks. The membrane of the arteries infinitely exceeds that it of the veins in this respect is this delicacy that fa- vours to a great degree venous extensibility. that I mounts against its own weight this man was designed to go erect. that the neighbouring parts culation in the deep veins. united. hence the proportional excess of the thickness of their parietes. Venous fibres oftentimes approach each other. whilst there sistance given to the superficial ones. are . is it delicacy. especially is a little it common memcontracted. except in these places. to see It suffices to its in its course. the venous fibre. whose fibres are not a continuation of those of the trunk. By cutting this. At the place where any branch arises from a trunk. and give a greater thickness to the vein this is 1 frequently observed at the origin of the saphena. their less frequent dilatation. in the hypogastric vein Boyer has likewise noticed remarkable peculiar for its In general. that in the much more open it evident than is in the deep-seated ones . that the structure of Observe each kind of vessels is adapted to their peculiar circulation. very distinctly if it fibres through the brane. their greater resistance to the blood.400 VASCULAR SYSTEM . motion . which arises without doubt from this circumstance. superficial veins these fibres are is moreover a proof it is. &c. have uniformly made another remark. If the blood circulated in the its veins with parietes like those of the arteries. for the little thickness that it consequently gives to the membrane . a circumstance that distinguishes them from arterial branches. arrangement it. the internal saphena a remark- able example of this. it is the crural vein to compare with easy to per- ceive the difference. we observe that the fibres change their direction and go upon the branch.

The venous the arterial.WITH BLACK BLOOD. where we which its cannot discover either external or external cellular the case with the cerebral sinuses. the frequent causes that retard its progress. it it softness. believe that it is a peculiar nature. tures not allowing of this dilatation. lines sinus. branches. which. of Wintringam have proved inferior veins especially. very considerable weight. have the following arrangement. the arterial tex* capacity of the vessels is increased . There are places texture. it muscular? and does of the not look like the muscular fibres. is though infinitely more extensible than also more resisting. If then the agent of of the arteries. the tard the venous blood now. The jugular vein at and keeps only the com- mon membrane. Its What ance. but then they are always very evident in the the venous fibres. they are hardly distinguishable upon the great trunks. essentially different from that of all other textures. this is in the venous apparatus fibres. . is The experiments and In the superficial very remarkable. particularly in the superficial ones. it life and do not think capable of much motion. We have. 401 A thousand causes rewould be continually disturbed. impulse. demand a texture of an opposite character. its direction. I its peculiar properties. fibre. having organization. Is it distinguish completely from the arterial does not appear to be irritable. however. its is the nature of the venous fibre? elasticity its appear- want of and brittleness. when its motion is languid. colour. placed at the commencement requires a firm and unyielding texture. I fibre. it will support without breaking. the slow motion of the blood in the veins. this this. it There is a great difference in individuals as In respects . but few data upon this point. sinus. and extends below into the inferior longitudinal 51 . its great extenits sibility of texture. it is evident that the circulation would be interrupted. entering the lateral sinus. loses its peculiar texture. it. some they are very apparent in others.

that the its common membrane. differs as easy to see that this surface it much from texture of the dura mater. a word. we It is see clearly. in many other sinuses. into all the Hence every sinus supposes. passing over angles. is common membrane is always the same. sinuses of the dura mater. 2d. but in opening it. having the all common membrane of the black blood ex- tended into little it is the separations of the dura mater.402 VASCULAR SYSTEM in a and above into the superior. like the union of the arachnoides with the internal surface of the dura mater. as surface of the veins. which I shall describe in the cavernous sinuses. resembles the internal The cerebral veins. evident that the coats of the dura mater supply in the sinuses the place of the fibres and their external dense cellular texture. makes it this is very evident. easy. It is . This common mem- brane of the black blood is . it is easy the superior consid- longitudinal sinus. it is From venous the this general outline. separation of the layers of the dura mater. of the black blood lining this sepa- not then is circulates it upon the dura mater that the blood upon the same membrane that it flows to establish this fact in is elsewhere. of which the sinuses are the terin minations. This sinus triangular when ered in relation to the separation of the layers of the dura mater. 1st. but the texis ture that added to it externally different. but hesion is in the greatest membrane number the ad- close. are analogous to the arteries of that part . How the soever we examine the internal surface of a sinus. the common membrane ration. by round . 1 know of no author who has thus considered the cerebral as sinuses. to separate in certain places this from the dura mater. spread over the folds of the it superior longitudinal sinus forms a singular net-work. the common membrane in its of that sinus connects itself with it passage and lines to its extremities. At the it place Where each cerebral vein opens into a sinus. also.

WITH BLACK BLOOD. and . me the same thing. because . it will not break. When it does take place. or in the semilunar valves of the pulmo- nary artery. whilst they are so frequent on the this is left side . It number of respects. 403 a tenuity that ap- pears to be owing to the absence of the cellular coat. Tie a vein. So the pulmonary its though analogous to the aorta by is peculiar membrane. . as I of the red blood almost a natural have before observed. It differs essentially from that of consequently the red blood in a great 1st. com- mon membrane the arteries. appears to be this in delicate we have a proof of visible the valves. This from their extreme tenuity. and which only a is so great. It common membrane much more first of the arteries. the bodies of old people dissection has always shown artery. admits of much greater distension it is less brittle. the uniform result of observations made at the in Charity. There are no Common Membrane of the Black Blood. . common membranes of the black to in and red blood. like that of its organization seems to resist the deposi- phosphate of lime. which at view are hardly 3d. the extreme tenuity of their parietes. is every where nearly of the same nature. This differ- ence between the two eases of the heart. gives a distinctive character the disthe tri- We never see ossification cuspid valves. it is almost as pliable as it This pliability renders much easier of dissection than the 2d. . never the seat of these ossifications. This membrane generally extended from the general capillary system to the pulmonary. it an unnatural state whereas the ossification of the is common membrane state in old age. tion of is is never ossified in old age. when they are lying against the external surface of the vein. circular fibres in the veins. unless the constriction be excessive the cellular coat. that you might believe that there was common membrane.

analogous to that of the semilunar valves of the aorta and the pulmonary ar- They have not. they line the veins. the pulmonary artery. would ences. This hardening supports the it valves. whether. the left side of the and the pul- monary veins. It appears to be of the same nature as the ve- nous texture. like the one corresponding to in the semilunar valves. except at its where we find the semilunar valves . The common membrane of the black blood has nume- rous folds that are called valves. which are sepaits rated with difficulty. and the right side of the heart. the black blood. there is a kind of hardening. valves are in part formed by venous valves are wholly made by it we are particularly concerned. When line. and nearest that organ. but the it is with them that their . Of the Valves of the Veins. .404 the • VASCULAR SYSTEM differs essentially common membrane from its own. so striking branes. sp2k. the venous texture On is a level with the attached firmer . in the heart. the it common membrane folded to arrives at . edge is attached. like these valves. they are spread heart. This single phenomenon.ce There between them and the vein a tery. edge. or in the red blood. which makes a prominent line of the same curved form as that edge. the tricuspid this . from extreme tenuity. upon the arteries. These folds are wantorigin. a granulation upon their loose edge. ing in the pulmonary artery. prominent if is form the valve so that seems to be made of two layers. and most remote from the heart their is straight edge is loose. The form of these valves is parabolical membrane. while it in both these mem- incontestibly prove their organic differestablishes the necessity of considering in them in a general manner. the direction of whose fibres are changed to form this it. convex .

&c. noticed this arrangement . the effect of this reflux. In the first state. of the trunks in which they are found the azygos. All authors have it they have thought that . that has been written by authors upon the size of the valves. 405 valves exist in the inferior vena cava. the divisions of the hypogas- of the crural. are in the full of them. and that consequently the pulsation. &c. have twice proved From what tends has just been said. in the azygos. does not extend as far as the second. we shall see that sometimes they If can entirely obliterate its cavity. they become more All lax and are capable of closing completely. and still plantar veins. very distinct in less so in the The size of the valves is always in proportion to that . de- pended upon primitive organization but I am convinced that it arises wholly from the state of dilatation or contraction of the veins. nor this as far as the third and so on. depends then wholly upon the state of the veins at the moment if of death. The venous the superior. Many veins have no valves. the valves being drawn and not dilating in proportion. I and this he dies of asphyxia. we compare them with the caliber of the trunk they occupy. takes place it is evident that the easier reflux of black blood much is and ex- much further first when the vein dilated. as they do not contract in proportion to the it vessel. become smaller compared to the caliber of the veins. in the emulgents. In the second state. as we see in the trunk of the inferior vena cava. internal and external saphena veins. presents many of them external jugular. and that at others they are too narrow to produce this effect.WITH BLACK BLOOD. tric. as in In the first. tibial. less so in the saphena. if the animal dies of hemorrhage. in the facial veins. in the veins of the arms. It is this that happens in the cases that . in the cerebral sinuses. whose cavity they cannot entirely obliterate when they fall down. The second &c. This is so true that they appear large small fact.

which passes in the whole course of this vessel. at Sometimes they a greater distance. at others in this respect is a great variety. as to go to the extremities. this fluid. In fact. an important part the venous circulation. are very near each other. We find in the works of Haller very minute which we are treating. &. In fact if they contracted like the heart to drive the blood.: 406 VASCULAR SYSTEM of before. if they are not very considerable. are rarely arranged three by three. Let me observe.c. it soon stops by losing all the motion received from the heart. and sometimes they are insulated in this is the case especially the small vessels. and at a greater distance in the large ones. most often in . form and position of the vascular folds of in These folds perform. open would easily escape by a retrograde motion. in those of the foot. They pairs. valves constitute an essential difference between The of the veins and the arteries. there would be at intervals in first the arterial tubes. The reflux never extends to the capillary system. but their situation and number there are very variable. especially in parts at a distance from because there being many valves and each checking in a degree the blood. as we shall see. of the hand. tending as much to return towards the heart by the effect of this contraction. of the absence of vital contractility in their texture. Generally in the small trunks they are nearer. without them. the blood poured by the collateral branches into the vessel. to dispense with tying the venous trunks. by them we are enabled in most operations. whilst now none can escape except what flows between the opening and the first or second valve. valves to counteract this motion . The existence of valves is generally constant. and then we might fear the effusion of all that. descriptions of the general arrangement. that the want in addition to them in these last vessels is a proof what has been already named. we have spoken the heart.

which has been driven In order that this reeffect through them during the diastole. in mains pliable and can be bent to uses. reany direction so that . This texture becomes putrid also more easily than the arterial. flux might take place. it is 407 why? itself only necessary in the arteries to resist the effect of the contractility of texture. same time they become more evident. which. by a mere contraction. can return but very little blood to the heart. might in this respect. which might be the caused during the systole by the conarteries. effect of the reflux sufficient then to prevent the derangement of the circulation. This texture exposed to drying. muscular venous trunks and portions of intestines of layers. A single obstacle at the beginis ning of the arterial system. The horny hardening of the venous fibres is very evident when they are plunged into boiling water or the concentrated acids. but in more than the others rated by itself is water which it has been macein much less fetid than that which an equal portion of muscular texture has been placed. for ordinarily the return of is the arteries upon themselves. now we because only see them at the origin of the aorta. a reflux tractility of texture of the which only have said. to becomes yellowish. To ascertain this. at the they can be studied better. in this way I have used it often. it would be necessary that the in of the contractility of texture should the systole ex- ceed what the arteries have lost of blood in the diastole.WITH BLACK BLOOD. be applied which the arterial could not in the same state. their . particularly the musI cular. but less so than the others. It resists fine maceration . They contract then more than half. the dried venous bands. produced as I by their containing less- blood. have exposed at the same time. Action of re-agents upon the Venous Texture. exerting without a jerk. takes place in certain cases. less than the arterial texture. to the contact of a moist air.

forms for them a proper coat. send small branches to the neighbouring parts. they in size. The veins have in their texture little arteries and veins. by the new combinations which II. appeared to me to receive more Cellular Texture. which take very much the same course as in the arteries. than upon the arterial long ebullition to a fibres they can also be reduced pulpy state. like the arteries. more slowly by in the first. if they remain in boiling water or the acids. but evidently lose their principles. as in the acids. and serves only to connect the veins with the adjacent organs. No . as that it which found in the interstices of contains fat and serum. give a remarkable precipitate.408 VASCULAR SYSTEM contraction thickens the parietes of the vein. When they are hardened in this way. the other dense and compact. Paris common to the organization of the Vascular Sys- tern with Black Blood. do not entirely dissolve. it forms. then penetrating the venous tions fibres. common membrane. Blood Vessels. The tion caustic alkali veins. diminish it is true and become elementary liquid. they become soft very soon in the second. wind there in a thousand different direc- and finally terminate about the which when injected has than in the arteries. Boiling acts upon them quicker . and always render the liquor less strong. seems to have a very remarkable ac- upon the After remaining a short time in a solution of this alkali. become diaphanous. kinds of cellular texture one which is is exterior and of same kind the organs . have around them two . to which we can never bring the arteries. The the all veins. They ramify at first in the cellular membrane.

it When we veins. was in fact a fluid would prevent the adhesions of the venous life when during the blood ceases to flow through is them. which appears to contain it in its texture. it as in the arteries. in dryness. parietes. Now is every vein that empty is obliterated into a sort of ligament. its uniform want of fat and serum. this cellular texture of a peculiar nature analogous to the &c. raise its it. than exhalation. though the vessels are empty this but I attribute phenomenon. I no more absorption upon the internal surface of the veins. &c. forms for them a kind of sheath. in the dead body. with which their texture has in other respects no kind of analogy. would observe that the presence of the cellular texis ture in the venous parietes a distinctive and striking character that distinguishes them from those of the arteries. like the arteries in similar cases. the same experiment before 52 noticed. sub-mucous. To satisfy myself of this have tried upon the external and internal jugular veins. Exhalants and Absorbents. the great extensibility possesses. haps in part that I it to this circumstance. exhaled. passes between the longitudinal venous fibres. as having been . This surface always moist . separates them. to a transudation that If there has taken place after death. It appears that there is no exhalation upon the internal is surface of the veins. 409 author has yet distinguished the cellular system of this particular texture from that which from is it generally spread so essentially in over the organs. it by tearing if it with the fingers from the infinite appears as was formed of an number of little filaments interwoven with each other.WITH BLACK BLOOD. and which owes persub-arterial. remarkable power of resistance. though its it differs its filamentary texture. and terminates in the common membrane. After having formed this external covering to the veins. There fact.

that the system with red blood has many more nerves than that with black. it is By easy laying bare the vena? cavae. but 1 do not believe that any in thing similar can be demonstrated It the trunks. from the opinion of many ries. although the pulmonary artery may have a few more than the cor? . who thought that the ab- sorbents arose immediately from the veins and the arteIt is possible that this is the case in the smaller I branches. 3d. they are scarcely spread 2d. as in the absorbent shall say system . I monary artery has yet the relation that exists between veins in this respect. are confined to venous parietes. but whole of the vascular system with black blood.. In fact being nearly equal at the heart. The veins differ essentially from the arteries by the few nerves of the ganglions that accompany them. receives as The side of the heart with black many nerves as that with red. few. 1st. The pulknow not as an equal distribution of them. as it is evidently weaker on the right side than the if it is whereas as there was produced by the nerves but very few nerves. I have been induced to make these experiments. and that they are consequently- This remark is applicable not only to the veins. this left proves that they have no influence upon the contraction. Whilst these nerves form for most of the arteries a kind of covering. and the difference being very sensible in this particular between the aortic arteries and the veins that go to the right auricle. to the the nutritive functions. distinguished anatomists. jugulars and azygos. it it would be equal. 410 VASCULAR SYSTEM made upon the carotid artery. at all upon the veins. I obtained the same result and drew from it the same conclusion. appears then that the exhalants and absorbents of the like those of the arterial. to observe this. It and the pulmonary appears from this general survey. blood. in the capillary system especially. Nerves.

In the living. little which are so trans- very extensible longitudinally. and ani- they partake of the character of many of the mal textures. we have seen are very We I. Perhaps however this depends less upon the deficiency of extensibility of texture. exhibit a greater deIn the gree of extensibility transversely. less evident than in the is and of course the development the cause. fatty substances. The veins stretch but little in the first direction. dead body. The loose . after little amputation upon the dead in proportion to what they though here they experience an actual increase of size. which arise in the great trunks. from the obstacles to the course of the blood in .WITH BLACK BLOOD. and are essentially distinguished shall in this re- spect from the arteries. but very versely. veins are in general but little elastic. responding veins. When drawn out of a stump body. Few organs. on the other hand. we know the varicose dilatations. What- ever may be certain and uniform. than upon the circumstance that the folds are arteries. dilated. Properties of Texture. yet the short course of these vessels would not prevent the dispro- portion from being very apparent. they can be enormously of air. ARTICLE THIRD. the fact is less. which as elastic. by injections water. which I 4U think very probable. soft. PROPERTIES OF THE VASCULAR SYSTEM WITH BLACK BLOOD. an arrange- entirely opposite to that of the arteries. The ment veins have in regard to this property. Extensibility. than the veins. they lengthen but dilate in varices. &c. now treat of the vital properties and the properties of texture in these vessels.

the veins quadruple. and that it even takes place at the same time with that. it can certainly come from no other source than the venous trunks. wounds upon that part. The whole of the vein. Very commonly this docs not happen. VASCULAR SYSTEM While the to arteries do not appear very often treble. and even quintuple their diameter without this rupture's taking place. in We see these ruptures take place during pregnancy the veins of the lower extremities . without rupture. the jugulars. The two I arterial coats break easily. when the dilatation carried to a certain point always happens.c. Haller has related many great work. they often take place when the dilatation is infinitely less than many instances where the veins remain whole. pass through this cavity to go to the cerebral sinuses. more than their double their diameter without breaking peculiar common and membrane. with the cellular tunic containing it. Every one knows of the hemorrhages that rhoidal veins. The artein rial rupture in true aneurisms. We have seen the venae cavae. the cellular is remains whole. Why ? . arise I from the rupture of the hemor- think that the extreme tenuity of the parietes of the cerebral veins exposes them to being fre- quently torn by blows upon the head. Is not apoI plexy a sudden rupture of the venous extremities? already observed that have we have no data upon this point. We have however numerous examples of in his this accident. &c. is found separated by an effusion. When there is an effusion in the tunica arach- noides. &.412 the lungs. do not believe that there a solitary instance of a great aneurism. in which the dura mater being detached from the cranium. Now we know that this case is very common. bursts. is is on the contrary uniform it . All these cases are very different from arterial aneurism. which being surrounded by a fold of the arachnoides. the subclavians suddenly break and produce death. there are examples of them also in the external veins of the head in violent headaches.

lessened in the cold bath. and wait further observation shall discover to us If all their causes. though much less decided. in winter. &c. we shall then see why the first resist much longer a distension in the direction of their diameter than of their axis. &lc. the superficial veins appear very various dilated in summer. The numberless varieties of caliber that the veins exhibit after death. of the parietes of the umbilical vein. 3d. according to the quantity of sibility blood they contain. as expanded in the warm we see the saphenas. It manifests a decided influence on the flow of blood 4th. and on the other that they are very thinly scattered on their vessels.WITH BLACK BLOOD. much greater in the transverse. It Slight in the direction. certainly. in venesection. that the arterial fibres are very nu- merous and all circular. are on the one hand longitudinal where they exist. that the venous. of any trunk that is tied. produces the contraction upon themselves. 413 because the arterial extensibility can only yield to a certain point. prominent by a long continued perpendicular position. are the result of their exten- and contractility of texture. life. 5th. flattened by a horizontal one. on the contrary. It produces in a trunk that is pricked. 2d. Contractility. there is number of cases . this The . Let us be content ences between arterial and venous ruptures. property ruptures take place then from a want of they are disconnected with this cause in the veins. contracted bath. longitudinal 1st. especially in pediluvium. and why the opposite phenomenon is observed in the second. &c. the sudden evacuation of the blood contained between the two ligatures by the return of the parietes upon themselves. an affection of the venous texture this is undoubtedly the case in heto point out the differtill morrhoids. This corresponds with the extensibility. During . . In a great We do not know yet how they are produced. we bear in mind.

Irritated exis ternally by any mechanical instrument. diminish. 3d. that this is stilet very far into one of these vessels. have many times pushed a also. that would increase. or made many rieties experiments upon living animals . is Have of the veins sensibility The following 1st. would have undertaken their labours. goes to the heart. the right side of the heart. a ligature put upon them it is done upon living animals. in great amputations. the velocity of the blood. Irritated internally. without making the animal cry out. Properties of Animal ? Life. without any accident. I would observe a good method of examining the producing sensibility of the heart. in which it is recommended I well as the artery. the result my experiments upon the subject. II. in certain . numerous varieties. for example. by introducing the right external jugular vein. I very much doubt whether those who have calculated so much the capacity of the vessels. if they had opened many bodies. as Haller has seen gives no pain. by straightening out the venous angles. pain . Vital Properties. with it stilet. however. by the econo- general derangement that it would occasion in the my. the motion of the pulse in always accelerated. they exhibit the same phenomenon. at different times. into as- We a might easily reach a man. or to tie the vein as in certain surgical operations. &c. opened as stilet in the operation for bleeding. This I force then a long stilet into the right external it is jugular vein. he is does . Why. The animal often- times gives no sign of pain . or alter this property in any manner.414 VASCULAR SYSTEM they present to him who observes them. without in the chest a disturbance. without accident. sometimes. not pro- duced. now all the va- depend upon the extensibility and contractility of texture. whether 2d.

It has appeared to me. On the contrary. that a manifest contraction took place. for usually there an interval pos- the cries and the injection of the air. This property does not appear to be an attribute of the veins. the animals rarely show any sign of pain. though is incline The question much more to As the the belief that there no venous irritability. in two or three cases.WITH BLACK BLOOD. after having passed through the lungs. might we not employ of the heart? 4th. . observe the effect of irritants applied to them. then. upon this subject to the preceding at the system. Urine. is a passage which constant. Haller. bile. have made them vessels. perinternal or ceived no sensible motion the have usually made same observation. same time upon both kinds of then. the animal cries out. this method to re-animate the action When we inject a foreign fluid into the veins. &c. fully settled. I in different I ways. I refer. phyxias. and struggles before dying. There is evidently no animal contractility in the veins* The same experiments that demonstrate it its absence in I the arteries. whether employed external irritation. 5th. however. sible that the pain happens at the instant when the air the brain. by irritating in them them. is As the venous it and as they are very few. Sensible Contractility. the narcotics^ &c. fibres are only longitudinal. when a bubble of air enters them. Properties of Organic Life. as I have observed else- where. is is agitated. difficult to it it would be very is not. in syncopes which resist all 415 other stimulants. evident that in admitting that they are muscular. wine. however irritating it may be. prove also as it respects the veins. this owing ? to the contact of the fluid I upon the is common It is membrane between strikes believe not . though might be I real. are transfused with impunity in this respect.

this insulated de- rangement. method of discovering them. the irregular impulse of the heart. is evident that they possess at that place the contractility of which we are treating. corresponding to these. that this observation arteries . Observe. the blood is The irregularity of the it motion of always general. which certain portions of the intestinal canal sometimes exhibit. which. deserves an importhe examination of these this tant consideration in forces. stagnates the . that it is never increased in property exists. All the organs. disease. A proof of the great obscurity of the sensible organic is. as the blood finds an . do we see this local disturbance. also applicable to the never in a determinate portion of the arterial system. pulmonary so that arteries and in the right side of the heart when this contracts. especially in children. must not be taken for an effect of the venous irritability. in the bladder incontinence of urine. if I make us believe in the exis power of which so say. that this way of discovering the presence or absence of tions this or that vital force in a part. this derangement is the ex- may Observe. contractility in the veins. of pronouncing consequently upon their presence Of The the Venous Pulse. in the stomach vomiting. by the affec- which increase that force there. pulsation that the veins have under certain cir- cumstances. because arises from a sin- gle cause. in its which this are remarkable for in the frequent increase. Authors have not employed or absence in the organs. Now the veins never exhibit a derangement. would istence of a cess. It is an effect of the reflux of the blood. in the intestines diarrhoea. viz.416 VASCULAR SYSTEM it venae cavae have evident fleshy fibres at their origin. &c. which constitutes heart the quickness and the force of the pulse. to which not being able in go through the lungs.

when . . that it is less the blood than the artery itself . when they it are very of water. 417 obstacle in the ordinary course. which contracts in an 53 . The rea- no locomotion. when animals. of contraction of the veins in the motion of the re- which we are treating. is only the contractility of texture. it is often very evident in the jugular vein. after having been dilated in . it is nearly the same in the dead body. it lakes place three or four times. then it contracts. as when the aliments are unable to pass down. which we full fix a if syringe in the veins. is immediately the as fluid returning. it contracts from a puncture that evacuates the blood imply any irritability. The flux. as it does when would produce nearly the same sensation . it flows back whence it came. we draw back the piston a little. is it when empty. they take the other direction. sub.WITH BLACK BLOOD. you apply the finger above. mitted to experiments. Observe. breathe laboriously then it is discontinued ceases. notwithstanding the valves . . this a remark that should be added in the to what I have said upon the pulse preceding system. then . as the parietes are loose. contracts. is sufficiently strong. moments of is life. you do not. 2d. when the lungs are embar- The But if vein then sensibly dilated . to a certain distance. This reflux takes place. the vein contracts. if there was a similar change of place. experience will per- a sensation analogous to that of the pulse there you ceive only a wave of blood which flows back. its When it the heart ceases to propel the blood in cavity. and returns irregularly it is observed also in the last rassed. this does not I believe that sometimes this reflux may depend upon an irregular motion of the heart. they could not strike the finger venous son of it is plain 5 1st. which by if it it is its firm texture gives the sensation of the pulse itself could straighten full.

I which appears that right reflux if to be determined by am persuaded this the diseases of the heart were as frequent on the side as the left. tracts. . which receives the black blood that colours from the arteries that then circulate that kind of blood. now the accelerespiration. cause cannot evidently extend system. a portion flows back ventricle. that the colour of those who die of asphyxia. rarely goes beyond the great trunks. or by a sudden heart. it Haller has observed as far as the iliacs. it. the veins into them. ration of the pulse is always prior to that of respiration. evident that judge by it of what ordinarily takes place. though there obstacle in the lungs. be- Death. all the In when the right auricle con- blood does not pass into the corresponding being open. by making the animal suffer . A very rewith markable thing in experiments is the quickness which pain disturbs the motion of the heart. does not depend on to the capillary it. on account of the valves. In general. It is difficult to determine the extent of authors have spoken. but it in' is this case. though in an nitely less degree. in the action of the infi- natural state. they would often produce and this pulsation of the veins. &c. is. we might we cannot then ascertain extent. no What induces that frequently in experiments. produced in preceding cases. takes place in a derangement fact. we observe its distinctly . &c. the reflux takes place before the lungs have had time to be disturbed.418 VASCULAR SYSTEM is opposite direction to the ordinary one. renders it irregular. The in the reflux of the black blood in the veins. respiration not being performed as usual. of those who it are drowned. moment the ani- mal begins to suffer much. either by an obstruction the lungs. I have demonstrated in my Researches upon this. of which all When the thorax is opened. at the me to think so. The limits of the reflux of the venous it blood vary. accelerates We can always at will hasten it. it this natural reflux.

from the difficulty with and slower than their adwhich the arterial texture Hence the frequency of hemorrhage after the operation for aneurism and other great operations. that the cure may be complete. from the want of disposition in the arterial texture to inflame. most often cut and brought into contact. is mation of the hemorrhoids. ed. 1st. in like circumstances they did at When by an artery has been it is necessary that its parietes. nothing inflames. or the surgeon should always be upon his guard tied when he has when these great trunks. closes gradually by the contractility of texture.WITH BLACK BLOOD. This property. the artery is Frequently obliterated. the veins alvvaj's adhere soon when they are tied Now . and the ligature difficult come off without danger. the other parts js insepara- ble from the organic sensibility. which. by the ac- tion of thejhread. fast. it presides only over nutrition . which arrests the blood after the thread has fallen are off. it is not by inflammation. 419 Insensible Contractility. Every one after is acquainted with the 3d. and forms^ a kind of ligament. . thirty. The cicatrization of venous wounds tion. like the preceding. it ap- pears more evident than in the arteries eases at least the disin which particularly increase it are more frequent is the veins. if last would not all. texture of these vessels it. to which the arteries are subjected hut certainly these heal so tied. exists in the veins as in . the want of impulse. Whilst the ligature stops the blood. The blood often bursts out forty days . I do not know but that these cases more numerous than those of inflammation. inflamed it. often inflam- Bell relates cases of the effect of external inflam- violence. is more hesion. bleeding a product of inflammais Without doubt this cicatrization promoted by . The 2d. their . the portion of artery comprised between it and the first collateral branch. should form adhesions. at the end of twenty. Now.

420 wounds cicatrize VASCULAR SYSTEM immediately. From what is has just been said. then. and could not exist without it. Observations on the motion of the Black Blood in the Veins. suddenly received by the contraction of the is left ventricle . the blood poured from all parts by the is capillary system into the veins. The capillary system. 1st. or of an undulation of which they are the seat. are and resistance. that the vital activity is much greater in the venous than in the arterial system. or sation in the irregular motions of the heart. and afterIn great it wards. evident. in the The necessary conditions for in its production in the texture of the vessels elasticity which it takes place. now. then. This is what takes place its in the venous motion. arteries. tie I almost always useless to account of the valves. it appears. and not as long after as in the Every thing proves. by tinually into the insensible contractility. either of a pulreflux of the blood in the de- which occasions the rangement of the lungs. pulse. in respect to the tonic powers. this agent of impulse wanting. when arterial blood accidentally circulates in is them. because the cut ends contract. added to what is already there. it in either. now. This fluid. 2d. then. that the veins can have no This phenomenon depends upon a single im- pulse. They are only susceptible. which are also wanting in the veins. is at the time of the injury. and this presence in the may have an influence upon phenomenon. as wounds it is them at the first moment. on have said above. pours con- venous system a certain quantity of blood. and soon inflame and adhere. the cause of the pulse does not exist veins. com- . that the blood it beyond the influence of the heart when It is arrives in the veins. If there are venous hemorrhages. the heart the principle of motion. lular texture in the second The absence its of the celfirst.

Hence. 401 as Now. however. too weak. the necessity of anaslo- . As this fluid enters these vessels. and. the venous parietes would dilate have a resistance by which they can act this fluid to a certain point upon the blood. attracted by them. on the one hand. and the blcod would not reach the heart. but the valves counteract by supporting tances the column of blood. una- ble to dilate when the blood . as it is were.WITH BLACK BLOOD. when. it the blood propelled in the veins. to extend instan- taneously from one extremity of the veins to the other. on the other. is constantly full. as they the fluid enters at one side should go out at the other. we have seen. it is it necessary that while but. by which they draw blood into this system. their circu- would be every instant embarrassed: it is appears that not only the insensible contraction in of the capillary system which propels the blood the veins. but that the ramifications of these vessels have a kind of absorbent power. especially where the blood rises against its weight. . The impulse given by the insensible contraction of the is capillary system. Now the insensible motion produced by this power tends evidently from the ramifications towards the in is trunks. municates a general motion to it. flows towards the heart. source of motion that it evident that the primitive is obeys. Weakness of the venous parietes and the existence of valves are necessarily con- nected. enters them. the whole venous system if not. they would neif cessarily transmit the surplus to the heart. as the lymphatics . then. the is weight of that which before it not being overcome. exceeds but in the resistance which this fluid experiences . If the veins were as strong as the arteries. not being able to dilate the veins. this. it would produce a geneat short dis- ral dilatation. This impulse communicated very its little to the blood. motion so that the least resistance deranges this as mo- tion. in the capillary system. destitute of valves lation It they were but on the other hand.

This what we see. A slight compress. that this motion state lary system. this one of the advancircu- tages of dry frictions. like that of the arteries. embarrass the venous is culation. &c. when we see the flow of blood in venesection accelerated by the motion of the muscles of the fore-arm. since the time of Theden and Desault. which continually rising and falling. propels it in the veins of the abdomen. know. evidently facilitate it.422 moses. such as. the muscular action. especially externally where the . after a rapid cir- veins situated when we observe that varices are as rare in the among the muscles. the palpitations of the heart. in a single organ. the sub-cutaneous ones. the pulsation of those which are in many places joined to the veins. that be more rapid is must vary according to the . when the external organs are weakened. as they are common in . even for varices. cir- they are not so violent as 5th. 1st. and that of the pectoral viscera. often promotes We lation. accelerates the circulation of the blood of the sinuses in an evident manner. and communicate to them a kind of motion 3d. External frictions. of the capillary system in the different parts in that it can in fact some veins. Since the principle of the motion of the venous blood is generally spread throughout the whole general capilevident. for varicose ulcers. these vessels often dilate. instead of being concentrated. VASCULAR SYSTEM Hence also the necessity of other assistance to aid this motion. &c. produced by the blood that flows there culation . not suffiits cient to check the venous biood. arteries 2d. that if a limb is a long time immoveably to fixed when frac- tured. It is so true that the veins de- rive assistance to their circulation from external motions. and slower in others. the in- fluence of which we cannot doubt. th» which motion of certain parts. constant locomotion of the gastric viscera. the advantage of tight bandages. it it is cannot be uniform. if 4th. so also the . like that of the brain. in those of the thorax.

I believe that this parallel carried further at some future day. Rapidity of the course of the . This is the summary of this parallel. The susceptibility of the blood in the veins. . that we do not know pre- what is the kind and form of motion communicated is to the blood in the capillary system. the motion is every where the same it is a general and sudden shock. the influence of the vascular parietes upon this &c. others more culates there . which. place in with that which we seek to know in the other. according as the blood cirmore or less rapidly. what fluid. an impulse. and which are particularly relative to the parallel between the motion of the blood in the veins and the arteries. in the arteries slowness of the same course in in the the 3d. the uniform flow from the Gth. as the first motion much more easily understood than the second. from the second. &e. Our knowledge upon this point is reduced to certain views which I have just presented. Greater capacity . from this. saltern. for the venous circulation the inutility of this assistance 51 b. absence of this general pul- sation in the veins. an ob- in These cisely difficulties arise which we perceive but [ew rays of light. to There are numerous researches tion of the be made on the moall is blood in the veins. of the arteries. 1st. Notwithstanding there that authors have written upon scurity in it this question. empty. and thinner parietes veins less capacity and greater thickness in the parietes 4th. 2d. to be in- . blood veins. and we are acquainted with in one. is necessarily every where uniform so you never see some arteries more full. for the arterial circulation. will throw . every where felt at the same time. as it happens in the veins. In the arteries on the contrary.WITH BLACK BLOOD. is we must known to what is unknown. much light is upon the venous circulation in fact. veins are 423 more or less swelled. Necessity for accessory assistance . though imperfect. The blood flowing per first. Genproceed from what opposition what eral pulsation in the arteries.

Sympathies of the Veins. in the veins on the contrary it flows in vessels always in- creasing till it arrives at the right auricle. Some upon authors have insisted much. which offers no resistance. we know but of the influence they exert upon the other textures. and from the varieties of the principle of the in the second. 424 fluenced by is its VASCULAR SYSTEM gravity and other accessory causes . and yet the motion is analogous to that of the veins. there some of this influence in lowing are the of impulse at The folphenomena.. ones upon being intro- the veins. which. and of the absence in the arteries of this agent at that of the veins. in a series of decreas- ing tubes to the capillary system of the liver. of the veins are very obscure. ever when we into transfuse substances into the irritating Howvessels. evidently depend upon the existence of an agent the origin of the arteries. to the capillary system that resists. produce sudden convulsions in . 1st. as kinds of tumours do not frequently exist them. in explaining the causes of the difference of the arterial and venous motion. that in the arteries the blood is propelled in de- creasing vessels. motion of the blood &c. we dif/ have often seen acrid and duced ferent muscles. and as little they are hardly ever the seat of pain. from what we have the arterial motion. like those As the textures of these two kinds of vesinflammation and the different in sels are rarely affected. this. dilatation and contraction generally the same in all the arteries of dead bodies. extreme variety in this re- epect in the veins of the different parts . Constant uniformity of the motion . The sympathies of the arteries. » . these are the other phenomena which arise from the unity of impulse in the first. variety of motion in every part of the venous system 2d. But the black abdominal blood is also car- ried without the agent of impulse. just said.

much larger than they really are It is in the branches and the ramifithe comparison . as in the venae cavse. which the seat of the sympathetic phenomenon. is extended from found in proportion much greater 54 . Slate of this System in the Fatus. is uniformly the case in However. ARTICLE FOURTH. that the is very short trunk of the vena cava. &c. but are not superior to them. viz. that of the arteries they are in proportion much less de- veloped. as the adult. and the pulmonary artery which make apart of the system with the veins. exert upon the veins. This arises not only from their receiving and transmitting the blood of these vessels. iliacs. but also that of the umbilical vein. to this last circumstance that It is must be attributed also an in anatomical fact always existing the foetus. that the veins nearly equal the arteries. As to the influence that the other organs 425 when affected. cations that we should make now it is easy to see there. As they are every where disseminated. The veins have in the foetus an arrangement inverse of . so as to make us believe that they are in a natural state. subclavians. the side of the heart with black blood. which the liver to the heart. It is not in the great trunks. that we should compare mo- these vessels. like the arteries and the nerves. I.WITH BLACK BLOOD. itself it is difficult often it to know is it it is the vein or the organ that forms. we know also but very little. DEVELOPMENT OF THE VASCULAR SYSTEM WITH BLACK BLOOD. are proportionably larger than these. because the reflux of the blood at the ment of death often dilates these trunks.

according to the increase of them. compared with that of the arteries. that much substance being employed This phenomenon however is for nutri- which is very rapid in the early periods. as easy to see upon the aorta. It is to this that I attribute the absence . that they then contain much fewer small vessels than the arteries. the more of this carried in the veins. and that the exhalants pour blood enters out less upon their respective surfaces.426 VASCULAR SYSTEM is than the trunk of the superior vena cava. not peculiar to the black blood. We can hardly distinguish fibres at this age in the exist. returns by the veins. being in the foetus the seat of a more active nutrition than the inferior. almost remains the organs to form them. less returns by mit the veins. the general capillary system of the foetus arteries are very large. It is thus that most of the superior parts. not the The from tion less development of the venous system. I venous parietes. to be as strongly organized their parietes are very re- sisting. in In the early periods. phenomenon of the venous system in the the proportions are always preserved between the veins of the different parts. by the glands. they dilate less easily. little goes out of the general capillary system for little secretions. to nourish them. much but of the substances that contains. this continues during the whole of youth. the veins there are also more developed. The more blood all is the foetus advances in age. Towards the period of birth. In this general foetus. these things approximate to what they will be in the adult. hence why the in There remains it the organs. appears to arise in the foetus this. though they no doubt in proportion have only remarked. which case in after life. whose trunks are covered it is with them. the veins appear . Though less dilated than afterwards. less fluids We shall see that the excretories transMuch . the brain in particular. and exhalations.

birth. completed.WITH BLACK BLOOD. Make the muscles of all man contract strongly. and you will see the will veins considerably swelled. as A remarkable revolution takes place at we have seen. in children as that of a Compare the arm of a man with and the difference will be perceptible. less. the veins have a real infe- tinues during the be satisfied This inferiority conwhole time of growth of this you may by examining the external veins they are respects the arteries. never as evident. 427 less As on the one hand it blood circulates in the veins. not produce a proportional atures applied The same experiment effect upon a young man difference. in the system of black blood. which years of I shall point out the Descriptive Anatomy. the veins begin to have a larger diameter they become more prominent an adult externally . it appears that more blood constantly passes through them. is evident that they must yield II. The right auricle and ventricle receive the whole of the blood. When the growth in length and thickness . This difference has not much influence upon the size of the right auricle and ventricle. because the brain does not continue to predominate so much in its nutrition. At the period of puberty. and towards the end of growth in height. . of which a part until then went immediately to the right side by the foramen ovale. the veins partake of this general plethora. . proportion of the cerebral veins over the others. child. and on the other they appear to be in proportion more resisting. During the riority as it first life. State of this System during growth and afterwards. and which is. differences only in in their form take place. is The gradually lost as we advance in age. j lig- show the same . the source of many diseases. of varices at that age. which seems to manifest itself. as we have is seen. or as much developed in an adult.

More subat stance is taken from the organs than I is added to them. which carries the materials of their composition. and dilate them. instead of inThis dilatation is owing to the loss of their a simple dilatation of these to and the greater quantity of blood they carry. verse arrangement. not astonishing that should be dilated in old age. which become more slender.428 VASCULAR SYSTEM III. the increased size of the bones depends upon the super-abundance of the phosphate of lime. In considering the external appear- ance in the two ages. It is are weakened. this period. their withering. tends to stagnate. so the system with red blood. predominates in the first year of life. is as the all system with black blood is which poured it is the residue of the decomposiit tion of the organs. The superabundance is of black blood in old age however. elasticity parietes. know not but that the bones receive a greater quantity of the substance that nourishes them. we may be convinced by the exami- nation of the superficial veins. and creasing. hence their horny hardening. blood. Slate of this System in Old Age. that this greater developin ment supposes an addition of substance the venous parietes. as for example. Let us not think. the two extreme ages exhibit an in- to . . moved with difficulty on account of which the the weakness less of the capillary system. of the truth of this assertion. as I have said before. In fact the motion of decomposition evidently predomi- nates in old age over that of composition. an opposite phenomenon is evident. In the last years of oped compared that in this life the veins become much develwhat they are in youth we can say respect. however. so that though there would be . In all the other organs. to a certain degree deceptive it depends in in part upon the slowness of the circulation in the veins. if I may use the term. that in Now.

supposes a plethora like that of the red blood in infancy. is whole system. what exists in a varix. for. there would be . and on with greater velocity. Anatomists ries know very at the to well the difference of the arte- and the veins two extreme ages of . this arises from the habitual weight of the column of blood. in which. the venous circulation to the is much influenced in the by mechanical causes. give an idea of what passes in the venous system a river which is very broad above a bridge. veins would be very difficult. There takes place example. these subjects are wholly improper for arterial injections. that the capacity of the veins is always in an inverse ratio to the velocity of the fluids that go through them. and much velocity and but capacity in infancy. life . than in the adult the velocity of the circulation then would be much less. though may . and sometimes too to well. not necessary then to believe. which constantly acting. produces finally a real effect . flows slowly but its bed being much contracted under the arches. so that the equilibrium is little may be estab- lished. become vascular. on the one hand. its velocity is much increased . which succeed so fants. more in the in in the veins. a further proof of the principles established above viz. there velocity and much little capacity in old age. for its which the blood accumulates because It is velocity diminished. i)lack blood returning 429 from the organs. as we have said. So in the veins. it It ad- mits of but an inaccurate comparison. . the arteries contain more the other they propel it fluid. that the superabundance of the black blood in old age. they choose old subjects study the veins on the contrary. We know is from this that the dilatation of the veins in old age . The veins of the inferior parts are generally more di-- lated in old age than those of the superior. in in- and in whom every thing appears whom the examination of the and even impossible. owing want of power . in well.WITH BLACK BLOOD.

The motion . which has been taken for a characteristic of can- cers and other analogous tumours. the whole venous system of is diminished. is only a consequence of the blood is is of the increase of nutrition. &c. . in which they are hardly ever found. in fungi. I hardly know an example of it in infancy. The pulmonary proportion to the veins tion of foreign bodies. there is less than in the ordinary state but is because the venous parietes having in part lost their elasticity. Observe that this disease seems to be the companion of old age more particularly than that of every other age. it is not because there is more blood . the abdominal parietes is often increased in ascites . There are cases on the other hand. 1st. cause that circulates hence why varices are infinitely more frequent in the inferior than the superior parts. like the neigh- . we see dent manner this dilatation of the veins of the inferior parts in a very evi- very often there are varices in them. In cancerous tumours. because the blood cannot easily circulate in them. as rapid there as in the other veins tion to it. which the veins dilate. we see more easily their increase than that of the arteries. The rupture of the veins has been almost constantly observed at this or the adult age. On the contrary. Accidental development of the Veins. we rarely see aneurisms in old people. they acquire a size the arteries . In women who have had many children. this in- crease. it has not been in the habit of yielding like them. removed from the acat its origin and provided with an agent of impulse formed of a firm and resisting texture. because. circulated it . IV.430 VASCULAR SYSTEM it . proportion to that of now. and because the velocity of its course For example. as they are superficial. in in which more red blood enters. artery does not dilate in old age in . The veins are accidentally developed in two ways. there no obstrucin 2d.

bouring parts. ARTICLE FIFTH. then a kind of general varix in a division of the veins. Though in the exposition of the I and red blood. though added to the membrane with black blood. and. in point of thickness its nearly of the same nature as that of the aorta and visions. since the re- . yet their nature There are in truth but two general membranes. are the same pulmonary artery as those of the red blood in the So the laws of the general venous circulation are . though united to the membrane with in red blood. it must be so. making a part with the wholly different. There is not more blood brought by the arteries. and this really the case. di- So the texture of the pulmonary veins. Thus the texture of the pulmonary artery. the same with those of the pulmonary veins inspection proves this . forming the two great tubes in which are contained the two kinds of blood. moreover. the circulation becomes slower. as in the preceding case the same thing in part happens in old age.1 WITH BLACK BLOOD. The textures added to the exterior of these two common membranes are essentially different. slower it 43 now the is. as two systems of black have considered the pulmonary artery as veins. and the pulmonary veins is a continuation of the arteries. The mechani- cal laws of the circulation of black blood in the aorta. from the capillary system to the pulmonary. the more the blood accumulates and the It is more the venous parietes are dilated. which are every where of the same nature. REMARKS UPON THE PULMONARY ARTERY AND VEINS. is. is the same as that of the other veins. . This uniformity texture supposes an uniformity in is the functions.

. as is of this fluid in the veins many separate orifices. &c. slowness in the course of the blood. Thus. . &c. this we have seen. not the progressive undulation of the a pulsation by a real locomotion. Each system of blood. are always the same they are but different modificaartery of the . does not seem to me to have pulsations as evident as But these general phenomena those of the aorta. &c. . straightening. the motion not uniform. necessary for the unity of the impulse of the blood. a general straightening of all the divisions of the same trunk at each impulse of the heart these are the general mechanical characters of the artery with red blood. the weight has scarcely any fluence upon the blood . whose branches are less tortuous. they never become varicose the motion of the fluid is have blood less time to lose that which more rapid in them. on account of the short course in- of the pulmonary veins. has its two modes of cirSudden motion.. since. thus the same name. generally communicated. that arise Thus. great and for the simultaneous pulsations in all the di- visions. each of the two arteries go off from a ventricle by a single orifice. Absence of want of pulsation. but may be acceby the influences it lerated or retarded in a part. the veins pour into the heart the red and black blood by is of no consequence. the veins lation of the heart to the and the arteries. There are no doubt general modifications from local causes. 432 VASCULAR SYSTEM two kinds of vessels. On the contrary. is the same. receives . in the pulmonary capillary system. whether they culate red blood or black. since they is communicated to the . This is why the general arrangement is nearly the cir- same in the veins and in the arteries. its for the uniformity of its course in the divisions of vessels. tions. then. and fluid . as well as that with black. culation. for example. these are the general attributes of the veins of each kind of blood.

arranged precisely like it. that if regard but to the mechanism of circulation. found in most ani- from that part of the general capillary system to the intestines. and that it has no agent of impulse. the This system. It arises name of Vena Porta. There is in the abdomen a system of black blood wholly independent of the preceding. the which belongs omen- 55 . as first in we have done. then in the aorta and the general venous system . and slowly through that of the vena cava inferior. car- and which is indispensable to the support of life. Situation. that its course is shorter. it From we have no that it is the preceding considerations. the course of the blood. ABDOMINAL VASCULAR SYSTEM WITH BLACK BLOOD. &c. thus. exhalations. and of the change of these fluids into own substance. for which it they furnish the materials. it 433 the opening of may pass with velocity through the vena cava superior. &c. with the difference. of the introduction of foreign fluids in the body its I of the animal. Anastomoses. usually is known by mals. then have done it. the pulmonary veins and the aorta. almost of no consequence whether with the ancients the small studying first we consider and great circulations by the course of the blood in the artery and the pulmonary veins. or of studying. the stomach. then in the general veins and the pulmonary artery. in the important But if we consider this great function relations of nutrition. I think it must be described as ARTICLE SIXTH. of the general stimulus ries to all parts. General Arrangement. Forms. secretions. seems.WITH BLACK BLOOD.

Thus rising from the whole tem forms into two or three into a single one. pour their are the black blood into the preceding system. in their whole extent. the abdominal parietcs themselves. the urethra. Why digestive viscera. gastric apparatus. we must know the uses of the sys- tem of which we are treating. &x. the pancreas. which spread ramifications. this sys- trunks. &c. then again. the diaphragm.434 turn. now. origin is This remarkable. the small the general venous sj'stem. and In the is divided first. Place an agent of impulse at these summits. the branches and the trunks are arranged very nearly as in The ramifica- tions are found in interstices. the genital organs. presents the same general arrangement as the preceding it is composed of two trees united by their lopped summits. the bladder. in the destination of their black blood? To answer this question. divides This common trunk soon again into many branches. carried in streams not larger than the abdominal portion. This system. the VASCULAR SYSTEM spleen. are also foreign to eign to the phenomena of the origin of this system. &c. and generally to all the abdominal viscera connected with digestion. the organs. the ramifications. other. as the glandulae renales. the liver into an infinity of and are spent upon the texture of that organ. the will arrangement be the same as in the two preceding. &c. The viscera in the abdomen. branches. the ureters. different from the others. that intermix with each . then. the small branches in their in the layers most of the branches are situated . The kidnies and their depen- dancies. fordigestion. of these we are ignorant. The blood is moved from one capillary system to another. it is Divided at first into small streams. which soon unite which occupies the superior and right part of the abdomen below in the liver. formed into masses it is constantly increasing to a certain point. &c.

We see all along the small intes- tines arches exactly like those of the mesenteric arteries. and which pressure the veins support only by their resistance.WITH BLACK BLOOD. Now in the different mo- tions of the small intestines. which go immeThus the branches do not communicate with each other. as upon the stomach in the . and a thousand other causes. As to the abdominal tree. As it is divided there nearly like the preceding. go separately. of all the arteries and of all the veins contained in the interior of a viscus. of the peritoneum. they are. the blood has no occasion for the means by which viate from one place to another. in very evident them. accompanying the and the trunks wind along the subjacent cellular texture. can yield to the least effort. The anastomoses this fluid system of black abdominal blood are necessary there from the frequent delays that may experience. lation is not subject in the liver to increase or diminution. however. Thus the great diviand veins. contained wholly in the liver. to the hepatic portion. and ramifications. quently that the force that can circulate the blood there. the pressure of these organs veins. often too great a fold. smaller branches. are most commonly without communication. filled with aliments upon the when we are lying on the back or the side. the solid texture of this organ protecting the vessels. less frequent in the great intestines. &c. in the branches and the trunks they do not exist. anastomoses are very frequent in the smaller branches. as in the kidney. that the circuabdominal portion according and that conse- lation is performed to the same laws as in the other veins. Its hepatic portion appears to want them all the branches. 1st. The anastomoses the system of present the following arrangement in which we are treating. for the For observe. there 435 arteries. impede the course of the . its 2d. the spleen. As the circu. sions of the it can de- pulmonary artery diately into the lungs where they are wholly distributed.

gastro-epiploic. of a it.436 blood in VASCULAR SYSTEM one branch. I doubt even if they exist . but by raising is covering we see that the internal membrane of the same nature. The this influence of gravity is evident in the blood of see system. makes this first appear thicker. splenic. if there are anastomoses. have admitted them ture superior to that of the other veins. only in ? I the last divisions. is &c. Thus you all the hemorrhoidal veins. fyc. it is become much more to find dilatations frequently varicose. and in the superior even rare mesenteric veins. strong impetus that given to is very important to the two circulations of black blood. as in that of the preceding. but after examining it attentively. The is cellular covering. Organization. these veins at and which little is analogous to that of the this only a more evident. but very frequently below. which receive but a feeble impulse. Properties. considering that destitute of an a force of struc- the system of which we are treating in is agent of impulse. Haller in particular. and force it to flow by anastomoses into others. is on account of the very it. We do not discover the venous longitudinal fibres so well as in the preceding system. do these anastomoses exist as believe we may consider these two systems independent of each other. Many authors. only perhaps a little less extensible. that an obstacle which is of no consequence to the red blood. The system but very with black abdominal blood communicates little it with the general system is . which they exist more Thus we have seen (he preceding system dilated rarely above. which surrounds other vessels. Observe also. more exposed than to this influence the others by their position. I am convinced that it is precisely the same. &c. peculiar nature. whilst there no part in often than in the hemorrhoidal.

I have often irriupon which it is extremely the results have easy to act. I In fact. The two ture. it the blood being shorter. right auricle sends. and which is the capsule of Glisson. to this. on the . but by its The common membrane are treating. adheres more loosely when they are empty. does is not appear to suffer. the abdominal and general. and the experiment not fatal . The analogy between the systems with black blood. as into the veins. This capsule. is wanting an agent of impulse. a portion of its which resist by the valves. the hepatic and abdo- minal. domen a portion of the intestinal canal in the always been the same as preceding system. supposes them the same in properties. but whose nature is not yet well known. at every contraction. which appears to be cellular. the have said. it is this that makes them I think that we fold up when we cut the liver in slices. that the air action on the brain. that is it is of the system of which we distinguished from that of the preceding. that This appears the course of to be owing to two causes.WITH BLACK BLOOD. Here. ed with the substance of the to the veins . tated the mesenteric veins. to this. wholly destitute of valves. there the preceding system. affections. appear to be completely uniform in their struc- Only the first is every where accompanied by a called kind of membrane. injurious. sympathies. and 2d. portions of this system. 1st. in 437 to see which we should be able them better. in the trunks. Only when we this inject air. &c. proves still more. there is often a space between them and it. that it is not by is its contact upon the veins or the heart. intimately connect- liver. in this. has less need of being supportno reflux as in blood ed . the animal does not struggle. by drawing through a small wound of the ab. so that are entirely ignorant of the object of this anatomical ar- rangement. that the middle part of this system.

the course of the fluid always uniform from is one capillary system retrograde motion. we do not discover. the numberless and contraction. deprived of the fluid which acts incessantly upon the lungs. and are alike in trunks so frequently exhibit. liver. and which. You will rarely . as system . so as to interrupt the passage of the blood. to the other. there no cause of Remarks upon the motion of in the Black Abdominal Blood. why we . regard to the other. Add to this the want of the agent of impulse. but also of present as the liver does not many obstacles to as the lungs do to the preliver ceding black blood.438 VASCULAR SYSTEM is contrary. The and granulated substance. is the course of the motion of this not merely the result of the absence of the this. This deserves a particular consideration. and you will understand. the great venous which the right side of the heart. so that scarcely two subjects this respect. that it. except those of having a solid the general locomotion of the organ. we observe always in those of the other 2d. loaded with different foreign substances. why. which the abdominal system sends there. in which no extraordinary motion can take place. when the abdomen is open. can often alter the vital forces oi these organs. whilst . the it is same place as the lungs in the termination of the circula- which we are treating. find there nearly the same quantity of blood in 3d. here the arrangement the liver is is always nearly the same to 4th. consequently. why not subject the innumerable varieties in size that the lungs are. or varieties of dilatation all in its branches. tion of Observe also that the occupies in regard to this system. a reflux in the veins of the abdominal system. why. 1st. Having no dilatation or contraction. &c. agent of impulse. we never see a pulsation. either the com- mon trunk that corresponds to the heart. This uniformity black blood. is evidently incapa- ble of frequently interrupting the course of the black blood.

veins. that of the arteries. as happens to the lungs. It unlike that of any other part of the economy. has no analogy to is them the heart to almost every and here there is nothing is correspond to that sysin the tem . because there last is no agent of impulse. find the lungs twice containing the 439 . for certainly there no kind of contraction . the right auricle consequently distend- we may also be sure that the liver contains more of this fluid than usual. contain always nearly the same quantity of blood . same quantity of blood the weight varies enormously in arises this respect. animal. for in thing. which enter into the vena cave infethey arise from the greater or rior just below the heart kind of death. less reflux of blood that takes place there. why the liver exhibits a firm. more or less heavy according But these varieties belong only to the hepatic veins. Now this from the greater or less obstacles the blood has met with in passing through these organs in the last moments We can make them more or less heavy in an of life. suppose. of which I shall speak when treating of the liver. the hepatic extremities of the abdominal system. when we see that they are loaded with blood. is wholly discon- nected with the system which I am describing. But this phenomenon. to the it is Sometimes the blood enters it in greater even. not extensible like that of the lungs. that more remains than usual in this system at the moment of death. drives the greatest quantity to the liver. all the al- great venous trunks they consequently arise almost so that ways from the lungs ed. it is generally distri- buted.WITH BLACK BLOOD. . We understand from this. or less quantity. at the moments. resisting texture. consequently by tremities of the with blood. or emptying the ex- pulmonary artery. as in . by making him filling die of asphyxia or hemorrhage. . which. of the circulation of the abdominal is precisely the same as it is that of the As to that of the hepatic part. The mechanism part of this system. Whatever on the con- trary is the kind of death.

that the absence . to in observing the enormous size of this viscus compared have suspected that it had another use. gives it an importance unknown to all the other secretory organs. There much obscurity to be removed concerning this motion. Some authors. thought. The uniform eleva- tion and depression of the diaphragm. and spouts in the same manner from an open vessel but we observe a the . which continuis still ed from the gastric viscera to the liver. then the same motion. in being the termination of the black abdominal blood. that the circulation could not go on without In fact. The use of the liver. This suspicion appears to me. of most of them contributes to is to retard this motion in the in hemorrhoidal veins. not however such as Boerhaave it. as the lungs are that of the black blood of all the rest of the body. the quantity of fluid secreted it. abdomen of an animal is opened. and This influence . &c. the constant locomotion of the small intestines. that there is Every judicious mind perceives what has been written upon the motion of the general venous blood. besides the secretion of this fluid. the alternate dilatation and contraction of the hollow viscera of the abdomen. when sensible weakness in a short time.440 VASCULAR SYSTEM trunk of the two trees. by Compare the hepatic excretories and reservoirs. with the . and upon this. in reading well as the preceding. occasion varices them. td amount almost to certainty. all these causes certainly have an influence upon the motion of the black abdominal blood and I even think. and this before the general circulation is enfeebled. the corresponding motion of the abdominal parietes. as It is I common have been frequently is convinced. the blood is transmitted the same to the liver. as a great void. Remarks upon the Liver. We cannot deny but that external agents do in much in this last circulation as the first.

the mucous is. of effect upon whilst a great them have an exclusive number of the other glands 3d. we open I different periods of digestion. not the only object must have some other use are ignorant. it hardly perceive them at evident a part as the takes as In first viscera in the economy. in hypochondria. and that they are inferior to those of the first. the bile. many nervous &c. In those The liver exists in all classes of animals. and on the will see other. the other glands united now. it. and you will see that they hardly surpass them. many all. In diseases. disproportioned to the alone equal in size to all This viscus . &c. the pancreas even. the pancreatic juice. We easily its functions are deranged. you how enormous it the difference is Since then the secretion of bile of the liver.WITH BLACK BLOOD. of the vary glands. Then compare sali- the size of the liver with that of the kidnies. &c. it is impossible not to be convinced. It has undoubtedly no connexion with some affections called 56 know how . stools Avill see the difference. same 441 parts in the kidnies. all the secreted the urine. the salivary glands. if in order to tie accumulate by we the ductus choledochus to re- tain the bile. it affections. to prove that this use 1st. is is that the quantity of this fluid size of the liver. voided with the the intestines at the which it colours. and is especially relative to this system. place on one fluids. it What this is we is in the economy. juices. let it we keep an itself animal without food in the intestines. however undoubtedly connected with the existence of the system with black blood of which it is the termination. side. melancholy. to see the if quantity of this fluid that is poured out. has a great influence compared to other glands. it is well developed. &c. Most of the passions even in affect it particularly. the saliva. which most of the other essential viscera are very imperfect. The following considerations appear is among the most important. 2d. as have done. If on we examine if the bile. and you the other hand.

Shall in the animal economy so frequently. . the passions. to all the glands. the character even. among the most important. in this respect. a peculiar shade which the ancients have noticed. the bile circulates or not with the blood. prove .442 bilious. I think. 5th. but it is from being equal to that it. it is incon- is occasioned by affections of the liver. those of the liver. the functions. now the numerous cases in which it how much this viscus is often affected no gland I there is certainly 4th. beis sides the secretion of bile. with those of the other organs of the same class. that the unknown part which the liver performs in the animal economy. incomparably superior. but is it no doubt that the jaundice depends wholly upon a serious affection of this viscus. and w hich is not sufficiently powerful to produce jaundice. takes place. and which modern observations have confirmed ? Now see if the other glands have a similar influence in the economy. From I all these considerations. Who does not ? know does the influence of the liver upon temperaments not Who know its* predominance gives to the external ap- pearance. arises 7 many of these from a cause existing in this viscus. The liver is. is one of the points most worthy of arresting the attention of physiologists. speak of organic affections? compare in the examinaall tion of bodies. no one equal far to it in this respect . Whether in order to produce this tinge. 6th. the kidney approaches its in the frequency of the alteration of texture. it precedes all the other organs in its development. with the heart and the brain. testible that it is of no consequence . The study of this part. and from many others that might add. we ought certainly to con- clude that the yellow tinge of the face in affections. VASCULAR SYSTEM and which are seated exclusively in the stomach? Since there certainly has a part in most of them. we may conclude. and you will see that there is it. the organ that is first formed it is .

I cut the portion intercepted between the two liga- and where the hepatic veins opened . 4th. This viscus. is of the if same colour as that of the vena cava inferior now the blood went red from the hepatic the veins. of nature of bile a bitter taste even. they certainly have no influence its upon colour. tied needle the vena cava at entrance into the heart and above the kidney. that the liver corresponded to the lungs in their functions of removing from the blood this fact can I know not how its hydrogen and carbon. but I am positive that the liver does not turn the black blood of the abdominal system into red. It 443 has been said latterly. its consistence. cut in slices in a living animal.WITH BLACK BLOOD. examine immediately its veins. said that the hepatic more oily. is The is general opinion that the black abdominal blood serves for the secretion of bile. uncertain. I brighter tinge to that of the auricle. but I am what Haller far from it as clearly to . Having opened with a curved abdomen and thorax of its a dog. is has adopted considering I have also admitted be it . it we ought It is to consider as an hypothesis somewhat blood. The blood of the right auricle . and that the hepatic artery only destined to nourish the liver. If the black abdominal blood receives any modifications of its nature in the liver. 3d. or sensible qualities. the blood came out as black as that of the rest of the system. Tear out the liver of a living animal. tures. be proved by experiment. 1st. except some small red streams furnished by the last small branches of the hepatic artery . this is wholly different in the same experiment made upon the lungs. approaches nearer the . demonstrated as it has generally- been thought that the following observations prove. pours out behind an analogous fluid. impregnated with the«vapours of the excrements. it would certainly give a 2d. you will see that they contain a blood analogous to that of the others. then by detaching the liver from behind. blacker. 1st. this .

that it is we should make the com- parison .different I experiments have convinced doubt whether it me was an error. is But upon ? what positive data this assertion founded Why is slowness of motion more necessary for this secretion than for others? 4lh. on the contrary. It is said that the hepatic artery having been lied. . external attributes I did think that in an experiment observed fatty drops swim- ming that it in it . the least reflection cient to convince us. It is . I do not know whether this blood . and that consequently more but proper to form it.444 VASCULAR SYSTEM it is than the arterial blood. attempted it before. It is said that the slow motion in this favourable to the secretion of bile. is 3d. true but it is not with the size of this viscus that this artery. the biliary ducts are manifestly disproportioned to the vena porta. once. now this artery is exactly proportioned to these ducts there is between them nearly the same relation as between the renal artery and the ureter. . vein. but could not finish it . that a ligature of this kind cannot made without producing it a derangement that will preI vent us from distinguishing any thing. could ever be demonstrated that the alkaline particles of aliments and of excrements pass into the vena porta gratuitous supposition. is it But what contains the reason of it? because this blood ? more carbon and hydrogen But it is then the . 5th. this passage is a said that the volume of . has been analyzed comparatively not found any difference in its I 1 have certainly . should be destined to secrete bile ducts and their reservoir. the liver this is is considerable compared to the hepatic artery . to we it should compare that of nishes the materials of secretion. 2d. the secretion of bile continued. But when is suffi- we know be the relation of parts. It is said was almost persuaded of that the black blood is more I proper to furnish is the materials of the bile than the red. since is know if it furwe have seen that with the biliary impossible that the whole substance of the liver .

black blood that furnishes the are agreed. that ties it is . 445 fat also . tie undoubtedly difficult to the trunk of this vein below the duodenum than is the hepatic artery. and that this example the opinions most generally received in physiology. in the liver ? ? How Do we can we examine what judge by the fluid going on flowing from the will not hepatic duct But open the duodenum. observed after is a ligature applied. those consecrated by the assent of rest all celebrated authors. moreover lit- there does flow towards the time of digestion but too tle bile by the ductus choledochus. blood in in an injection from the 7th. wax. to decide whether the secretion of bile I is from the abdominal black blood or the red. said that at the instant the tied. is many experiments prove vena porta less it is 8th. bile ceases to be secreted. this fluid But the secretion of without the spleen It is . now all anatomists exhaled from the exhalant extremithe of the arteries in same all is true of the marrow. can evidently take place this. function more to one than the a proof that other 1 say that these things should be subjected to a is new examination. to be able to estimate it. and you bile very often see the running out at the opening of the ductus choledochus. In fine. the 6th. A fine made the hepatic portion of the abdominal system with black blood.WITH BLACK BLOOD. . But a similar passage takes place hepatic artery. that we have not sufficiently direct proofs. and injection. is This phenomenon. passes into the biliary vessels. often upon very uncertain foundations. general of in the oily fluids. not then conclusive . this science will We are yet far from the time when facts rigorously be only a series of deduced from each other. what inference can be drawn from an animal whose abdomen is open 1 These different reflections prove. this do not attribute . It is said that the black abdominal the spleen has qualities essential to the bile. undoubtedly because the air contracts and irritates this duct. I think.

but which retard science. positive fact. play upon words. I have proved above that those of the two last Let us wait. to their it author. Though eign to this question may be to a certain degree for- my object. only a it it is. perhaps a real influence upon the secretion of the . true. before deciding. nor the vena porta. porta malorum. by introducing into a manner of seeing hypothetically. which do honour. let us doubt till then us not attribute the secretion of bile to the hepatic artery. If we would express by the fre- quency of affections of the liver. nor to tainly it them unitedly. is does the black abdominal blood perform not from it that this fluid is secreted? what. Cer? is by one of these three means but which what is vessel furnishes the secretion of bile? what part in the liver. for vessels are not similar. freed from these ingenious. think. vena portarum. it is vague and does not rest The more we open dead I bodies. contains a very true meaning sent state of our knowledge. . not connected to be resolved. but certainly in the prein a strict sense. it is without doubt just. . the upon any more we cise shall be convinced.. and contrary to the spirit of observation. Un- doubtedly the expression. is hypothetical ideas. Remarks upon the course of the Bile. but what the proof of as it regards the functions ? On the con- trary. of the necessity of a preall it and accurate language. and the hepatic vena porta the pulmonary ar- tery. in if it is the function of the hepatic artery. this is is true in the general arrangement it . further and positive researches let . if it fine. in- with this secretion ? These are questions Physicians have also hazarded opinions upon the fluence of the black abdominal blood in diseases. but if it is employed to express the influence of the vena porta in diseases. yet as the black abdominal blood has bile. 446 Vascular system hepatic artery has been said to resemble the The bronchial.

if one was of a different nature from the other. 2d. as Haller has observed. These experiments. of this secretion is to be found in works of physiology. by giving to a dog large pieces of meat. we find the bile in the ductus hepaticus . the stomach and small intes- tines being empty. . and ductus choledochus yellowish and clear of the the surface duodenum and jejunum tinged by bile which has the same appearance the gall-bladder much distended by a greenish. of digestion and during the abstinence of the animal it had not been done with precision. are not however.WITH BLACK BLOOD. mechanism. are of precisely the same colour as the common hepatic bile. relate animals. Contrary and even opposite opinions have been supported by numerous experiments made upon living cision the course of this fluid. &c. During digestion in the stomach. &c. was convinced by repeating them at different periods . and that which is found upon the duodenum. that of the ductus choledochus deeper find the we coloured. as 447 my experiments upon this point determine with pre- I do not think it useless to them here. During abstinence. the bile of the hepatic duct. which he swallows without masticating. At the beginning of the bile of the hepatic duct always yellowish. that in the gall-bladder. full and its bile already beAt the end of digestion and imme- diately after. to which I refer. of the ductus choledochus. which I have used my experi- ments. the gall-bladder less coming clearer. which may be prolonged for a length of time. All that is known further upon the uses. though as I at first view contradictory. if their quantity increased or varied. bitter bile. There has been much discussion to ascertain if there was cystic and hepatic bile. 3d. so. I The following in is what have observed in dogs. things are nearly in the same state. of a clear yel- . much deeper coloured and more abundant if the abstinence has been long. 1st. 4th. that is. intestinal digestion.

towards the duodenum exit . which increased during digestion is 2d. necessary. bile takes place. into the gall-bladder. to digestion acquires an acrid character and a deep colour. which was before divided. and the other assumes a different one sity of in the gall-bladder. and a it part begins to flow into the duodenum. pass into the duodenum. 3d. The it diver- colour in the cystic according as has been retained long or not. and that the cystic flows back. flows into the intestine. After intestinal digestion. having been digested abundance. The gall-bladder is about half it is flaccid. except during digestion. the manner in which the flow of all is appears that at times the liver secretes a certain . VASCULAR SYSTEM little bitter. during this function. When the by the stomach. it found clear and in small quantity. because has had neither time to be coloured or accumulate. which is then completely penetrated with 4th. during abstinence and digestion. and in which. not contracted. if then examined. 1st. that the hepatic flows almost in a continued manner into the intestine. and a full . in which. . of which a part always preserves the same charac- ter that it had at its from the liver. that which is furnished during abstinence is divided between it. These observations. which is to follow. bile.448 low. the hepatic bile diminishes. or rather it is the same fluid. as has been for a longer or shorter time in the bladder. the gall-bladder pours it which contains upon the alimentary mass. has much analogy less to the colour of the urine. and a part to flow back is into the gall-bladder. repeated a great number of evidently prove that is it this. also that On the other hand. it. quantity. times. the intestine that always coloured with it. no doubt. and the gall* bladder which retains of it without pouring out any portion it by the cystic duct. There is then this difference between the two biles. and even in greater aliments. thus retained. and flows. then all the hepatic bile. which it is found more or deep coloured.

the duodenum in that the hepatic bile abstinence. In a state of fulness. gastric never has this colour. and that bladder.WITH BLACK BLOOD. some- times mixed with small bubbles of hydrogen. As I 449 stomach. in other states. in which the cystic bile flows. It can then. and even the colour of the bile. question. especially if it had been so for some Human dead bodies are not proper to decide this time. that the aliments going continuit ally out of the pylorus. we find there a mixture of less gastric juices and mucus more or abundant. but mass itself The I bile that flows into the stomach has always apbile. it to the course of the bile in relation to the believe that this viscus contains a certain quantity of at all times. fluids. Haller says that this reflux of bile into the stomach does not always happen. that hardly ever found very green. viz. think that have opened a sufficient this bile is number of living animals to convince me. evident. which burn when brought flowed in contact with flame. flow into the mach. the nature. in whom it has not been seen when the stomach was empty. When empty. between the alimentary mass and the parietes of 1 the stomach. to be an effect of the affection agrees with that alone flows into made above. because the kind of disease alters almost inevitably the course. prevent from passing there and 57 . as it it we should draw from respects bilious vomitings. During it is intestinal digestion. this have seen yellowish. I shall say in another volume what conclusion this. The reflux of this bile appears itself. Morgagni says that it always does in men. peared to me I to be hepatic from its light colour. as we may be convinced. has sometimes appeared to me impossible to estimate the reflux of the bile. and that ing in it it acquires this colour from the gallthis that is is brought up by vomitThis observation alone sto- some affections. and almost always tinged with a yellowish colour from the bile that has up through the pylorus. I have never opened a dog.

In the foetus. we see its that the bile there exhibits. there is a in the form of a valve. it with red. dif- The liver is a centre. it is especially with the umbilical vein is that the abdominal system with black blood continued. cannot enter there. that which we find during fulness. but yet existing. the vomitings in which is black as Ought we then to be which the cystic bile is that brought up. according to diseases. from ink to a kind of transparent astonished. placed between the end of the vena porta and the ductus venosus. so that it is evidently narrower than the . or entered there before the peristaltic motion had begun to evacuate this organ. less evident. on lit- the contrary. two with black blood and one not insulated . there are three separate ones. of the umbilical vein that that of the vena porta. the system of black abdominal blood is becomes a part of the two others.450 VASCULAR SYSTEM . directly. tle fold In fact. and which contracts the orifice of this. if fluid. than many others. and in which they unite. in which both arrive from two ferent sides. In the fetus. of blood that they circulate. examine attentively the orifice of the in the trunk. should contain matters of such various colours? Development. that has flowed into the stomach against the ordinary course of things. in a common trunk. by means of the ductus venosus. entering the stomach When we open the gall-bladder in a dead body. The two columns meet angle. made by the union of these two we see that it presents itself naturally to the blood . it is true. This fold is only a kind of projection. a variety of shades of colour. do not their course forms a very remarkable ductus When we venosus veins. There is then truly but one vascular system in the foetus. was there then. whilst after birth.

45 j caliber of its own The blood coming from the it vena porta and passing at the side of this fold. why when we of a cut it . . it is penetrates the liver. is tion this is the same as with the brain. I would observe. This viscus then. this all is the same arrangement as in the other veins. is which the liver receives in this way. very large and the ductus small in proporevident that the greatest part of the blood it. that the liver is predominant. this. till From the observations of Portal. however. and especially of an old person. The is disproportion of the size of the liver of the foetus evident. by the different ramifications that enter its substance. is. and thus forms an obstacle that com- ing from the umbilical vein. Hence. I say the residue . when we dry slices of the liver foetus. that the small quantity. why. on the contrary. . examined after concepAs the foetus adit vances towards birth. so great 1st. more than compensated by that of the umbilical vein. It hence follows that the ductus venosus is evidently destined to carry to the vena cava the residue of the blood of the umbilical vein as this vein tion to is .• WITH BLACK BLOOD. there flows out a greater quantity of blood 4th. tbey are reduced to a less size. presses . in slices. in fact. canal. and enters the canal. habitually entered in the foetus. why it is. of the same thickness as others taken from the liver of an adult. heavier than in the after ages 3d. against the orifice. The abdominal vascular system . that which will have in the especially adult. per- pendicularly on this orifice. removes this fold. that This circumstance appears to arise from the . in proportion to its size. the sooner it more . falling. it is the seventh month. by a size greater quantity of fluid than at any of the other ages. the liver approximates in ks proportions to the other organs. is less developed in the foetus than afterwards it consequently carries less blood to the liver. why its nutrition is so developed and its 2d.

which increases a little in size. is obliterated by the effect of the contractility of texture. calls to cal blood . ~ the vena porta evidently mix. and consequently more is returned by the veins. as pass through it it. I have any tendency its because this canal is not in direction passes rather into the hepatic vessels.. for very certainly form beyond 1 this viscus in the circulation of the foetus. because digestion. has not. the umbilical blood appears to uni- lose this redness in the liver. Is no experimental knowledge upon There But Bau? delocque has ical vein is many 1 times observed that that of the umbil- redder. in to the vena porta. it As to the ductus venosus. lution takes place in this viscus. in umbilical vein transmits as tion to the foetus. now. as it will always continue to be. At the period of tion of the black birth. the liver becomes only the termina- abdominal blood. but they trans- mit exclusively that of the vena porta. but this difference can be in fact more evident it is in man . in this case. which begins in the gas- them more arterial blood. have not accurately observed this fact pigs. as have often ascertained. This slight increase does not compensate for the absence of the umbilitric organs. and the circulais tion of the liver established then. The blood coming said. . 452 VASCULAR SYSTEM much more blood advanced in age. in in any animals except guinea in whom the want of transparency the cord does not allow us to see a great difference in the bloqjj of the arteries and of the umbilical vein . in the is common trunk. the blood ceasing to come by the umbilical vein. at least in a great measure. and even approximates the nature of arterial blood. the blood of the umbilical vein and that of their nature analogous this point. Then a kind of revoThe different tubes that carried to it umbilical blood do not close up. as it is propor- less At this age. thus the liver diminishes proportionally in size in an evident manner.

where this vein is distributed. like is the general. It is is difficult to name the period. to There ought be a precise relation between the oblit- eration of the ductus venosus. proportional diminution of the size of the liver. supposes also in it another important function of which we are ignorant. The birth. &c.WITH BLACK BLOOD. patic circulation liver. it arises exclusively from the umbilical is thus the proportional volume of this organ con- stantly diminishing afterwards.. that in the adult the dis- proportion of the organ to the though less sensible. 2d. . an interruption of . and the size of compared it. less blood and only one kind enter- all communication between the general and abdominal black blood 3d. there is Hence an inverse phenomenon for this organ and for the lungs. the abdominal system of black blood. does not suppose any in the system of black abdominal blood vein . that is seems to be in its greatest activity. at which the equilibrium generally established. especially on the left side. In youth. it is a proof moreover. weak. the other diminishes in activity and size. The latter increases. great quantity of blood that enters the liver before this organ.53 the difference that birth brings to the he. of the foramen ovale and the ductus arteriosus. and of melis ancholy. without knowing it. which connected with the state of the liver. because a foetus. it It is towards the thirtieth or for- tieth year. this the age of gastric diseases. between the increased activity of the lungs and the diminished activity of the liver at birth. to the small quantity of bile that escapes from are an evident proof then that it is destined for other uses besides the secre- tion of this fluid. There cannot be a doubt upon fluid. 1st. I is still spread over the circulation of the would only observe that the predominance of the liver before birth. This then ing the is 4. . of hemorrhoids. as Portal has observed. this point. We judge veil of this relation.

.424 VASCULAR SYSTEM WITH BLACK BLOOD. In old age. in a peculiar manner from that of the END OF VOL. I. less sensible than that of the pre- ceding system vessels as in the adult age have nearly the same caliber which supposes a less diminution in its the velocity of the course of ples established above. from the princi- never becomes the seat of any to that of the veins. the dilatation of the system of hlack abdo- minal blood is . kind of osseous incrustation. It blood. much its . a phenomenon that evidently assimilates its common membrane it and distinguishes arteries.