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GS Study Guide

Study Guide 2009-Key Concepts Pillar 1: Governance, Pillar 2: Markets, Pillar 3: Culture

12/6/2010 10:37:00 PM

-Why keep coming back to the IT Revolution? Information a function of technology; technology a function of markets; markets a function of governance. IT reduces transaction costs; the lower the costs, the easier it is to move ³things´ around the system. y Transaction costs o 1) Search and information costs (how much time is spent; time=money) and money (i.e., subscription to Consumer¶s Digest) you spend to find the thing you want to buy at the lowest price. o 2) Bargaining costs: (how much you lose by bargaining) i.e. you spend three days at the car dealership trying to get a better price-that¶s three days of some other thing you don¶t have) o 3) Enforcement costs: (how much it costs to be sure the contact is fulfilled) often associated with government. y We are mostly interested in enforcement costs when thinking about Pillar 1; we are mostly interested in bargaining costs when thinking about Pillar 2 -Not enough to say that ³technology has changed things.´ Technology always changes things. y What is globalization? o Movement towards greater interdependence and integration o A social process-requires choice o Process that moves at different paces with different levels of ³stickiness´ y National interest-the traditional explanation for the policies of nation-state. Assumes that it can be defined (i.e. it is objective) o At a minimum, nation-state prefers to be as independent (in choice) as possible -State based theories of international politics assume a competitive international system -Interdependence-precursor to Globalization y Reflects growth in the number of links between nation-states


These links reflect nation-state¶s self-interest you wouldn¶t do it if it

didn¶t benefit you y Functional-they are intended to achieve some discrete goal y Risk: They can create dependence-leaving a relationship imposes costs y Nothing fair about them-as long as your utility increases by 1, some deal is better than no deal y Complicates sovereign decision-making: now you have to take someone else into account y These decisions are still Governmental Politics! -Trans-governmental politics y Non-governmental politics-things that affect states but are not done by states y Role of Institutions -Institutions y A venue within which nation-states can interact y A forum for accomplishing some discrete goal (i.e. Functionalism) y Can take on their own identity (don¶t always) y Creates possibility of weakened nation-state y BUT a nation-state itself is an institution y Can be rules, norms, processes-formal or informal; can also be a ³thing´ (UN, NATO) y Problem resolution y Provides transparency confidence -Institutions can-but don¶t always (or even often)-lead to Integration y Integration=the process by which global (or supra-regional) institutions replace national or bilateral ones y An upward shift of sovereign authority y Creates a common and more widely shared understanding of Some Thing y By joining an institution (i.e. European Union), each sovereign gives up authority to make decisions over some issue-related area the closer that issue-area is to a national interest, the ³weaker´ the nation-state member is. o Example: bulls in Spain (look in notes) -We live in a hybrid or mixed system

Some strong states, many weak states: some (few) strong institutions, many weak ones; many that simply perform functions for states -PERHAPS moving from an International System-systems have rules, hierarchies-to an International Society-less rule-bound, less formal -What would an International Society look like? y Difference between Government and Governance y Government=institutionalized control (law, law enforcement, consequences) y Governance=informal systems of control, including self-control (i.e. good manners) y Systems of rule at all levels, from family to government y If International Society exists, then the effects of rule at level of (for example) family can be ³felt´ at the level of the international system y International Society would transcend borders, in the same way that ³American society´ transcends state lines -End of the Nation-State debate: asks what will be the effects of these changes on the nation-state, if we assume that the nation-state is all about power and power-maximizing y Firms (Markets) always resist state control y States want to control markets, to capture resources y If (see page 1), IT makes it easier for firms to move around because transaction costs are lower, states have less control y Debate question: Does that mean the State is no longer relevant? -Why would markets have that (possible) effect? y Trade requires cooperation; cooperation leads to more cooperation and, therefore, more peace. This is a self-interest argument. y But as states come to depend on trade, they will depend on the firms that trade. y Therefore, they are not capturing the benefits of trade directly y Trade also produces a fourth kind of cost-distributive costs -Distributive costs y Who pays and who benefits from trade? y More important: Can the state ³help´ (insulate, cushion the blow) those who pay? y

NOT government) y New norms (i.e. Can the Nation-State ignore them? Some nation-states? All nation-states? y We tend to like hierarchy-everyone knows his/her job y HOW is the old-school theory still powerful? Does Realism (or NeoRealism) still explain most of what we see because the Nation-State is comparatively cohesive and strong in comparison to NGOs? . horizontal patterns of communication and exchange y These networks can lead to fragmentation in Nation-State system y ³Which rules do I follow´? NGOs can produce a rival ³narrative´ (i. story) y Governance can be less hierarchical than Government y But these groups are often very fragmented themselves. voluntarism. strictly speaking answer = No But ability of the state to provide for citizens-Satisfy Citizens¶ Expectations-is a central part of its legitimacy y If this form of Institution. Zimbabwe in 2007-hyperinflation undermined ability of states to do anything-one fell.If the state is weaker. one didn¶t-why? Hint: something about government/governance -Governance (i. the Nation-State.e. is no longer legitimate. reciprocal. progressivism y Each rule on its own jointly can challenge some or all nation-states y y -Governance Networks y Voluntary. why do we have it? And if we feel we can get rid of it. individualism. doesn¶t that mean the End of the Nation-State? y Or just some Nation-states? o Example: Weimar Germany.e. ³universal human rights´)-is this the same as new ³rules´? y New ways of understanding y Do these create new expectations? Think of the Abolition movement y NGO¶s and other activists attempt to change the rules of the game by redefining what things mean y Could these new identities create new ties that we have as individuals. away from our flags? y NGOs are predicated on a different set of rules than nation-states: universalism.

if it forces the Nation State to give up some core interest y In weak or failing states. by contrast. then reveiled stock laws changed to prevent new Robber Barons from y y y y y rising) If you change the way you think about Some Thing. embed states in moral order.NGOs tend to focus on single issues-seems very important to them. rooted in moral beliefs BUT an important limitation-must have shared understanding of what things mean (Huntington) Requires SOME globalization of culture in order to lay the framework of that understanding .´ y Moving toward Pillar III-Do ideas have power? y NGO/TAN compete to define a new set of ideas -Re-introducing Norms into International Relations y Set of expectations about routine forms of behavior y Can become habitual-if so. NOT a FLAG y Seek to limit the power of states. esp. not always. limit ability of states to act independently. but may not be at all important to Nation-State. you change the way you deal with it as well Often. and ultimately redefine what things are IN and OUT of the ³national interest. NGOs can effectively become the government -Transnational Activist Networks y Groups of like-minded people worldwide y Beholden to an IDEA. they change the rules of the game (impacts on Pillar II and I-Robber barons were once admired.

Study Guide Part II 12/6/2010 10:37:00 PM Pillar II: MARKETS Lecture 8) Did we miss the memo? Who said Free Markets Were Fair Markets? 9) Gaps in the Global Market 10) Organizing the Global Marketplace: The Intersection of Pillars 1 & 2 11) Resisting Economic Globalization PILLAR III: CULTURE 12) Three Yawns for Cultural Imperialism 13) Fundamentalism as Resistance 14) Fundamentalism as Trans-national Activism 15) Setting Rules: Culture as Governance. y Economic integration y Homogenization of consumer tastes Anti-globalization Backlash: y Trend towards low-wage labor y Resources are exploited and exhauseted y Inequitable (unfair) distribution of gross world product o Growth is an aggregate measure of changes in GDP o Development differs from growth o Free market is the best way to produce economic growth but this does not necessarily lead to economic development o GROWTH and DEVELOPMENT CONFLICT with EACH OTHER y y . Governance as Culture 16) Selling Identity: Cultures as Markets. A Society of States. y Trade is inherently global y There are very few self sufficient parts of the world Globalization of Markets: y Economic globalization political/cultural globalization Specialization: Nation-states wish to capture resources Efficiency: participating in markets is ALWAYS more efficient. Markets as Cultures 17) Culture as Information: Can Information Cultures be a Threat? 18) A System of States. or a System of Societies? PILLAR II: MARKETS Markets are the oldest form of globalization and pre-date European nationstate system. We change as the market changes.

: Nation-state prevailed as an Institution because it was more efficient than any other form of organization at war-making . became the most important trade partner y Systems of government directly related to markets -Ohmae/Strange Thesis is challenged y Not clear that trade is sufficient enough to ensure stability in governance y Not clear that all systems of governance support trade y Enforcing your individual rights in this marketplace = conflict y ADAPTATION: Chinese/Cuban communism o Both actors gain through free trade because both value the exchange -The Main Story in I. that¶s still ³your globe´ for purposes of understanding) -How old is the globalization of markets? Historical context: y Greco-Roman. if the Earth is flat and the edges of the map have dragons.-Globalization of Markets is the oldest form-we need to know what has changed. all branches were equal. o Celts did not have a central government. women/elder/children¶s rights o Duty to protect the sick o Shipped throughout the known trading world.R. by 600 BCE even ³barbarians´ understood benefits y Celts had a sophisticated trading culture o Social contract. no matter how you define the globe (i. no unity between branches so it was easy for Rome to conquer the Celts y Rome had superior military technology because it could compel service and sacrifice.e. overland and overseas transport of goods  Economic specialization improved their system of governance y Celts traded throughout the Mediterranean and Atlantic Coast they were defeated by Rome because their systems of governance were not hierarchical enough. -Trade is inherently global.

so we should get more) y Pushback against idea that wealth is concentrated and stays that way (counter-narrative: we use more because we generate more. the goal is to maximize the ³joint benefits´ y FREE TRADE: both participants get A benefit BUT don¶t necessarily get an EQUAL or EQUITABLE benefit y But which self-interest? You can get more aggregate trade but harm workers in a key industry-how do you balance the costs and benefits? y Pushback against differential costs-poor people.-Theories of trade were also based on self-interest y Nothing equal or egalitarian y Distribution of benefits of trade doesn¶t have to be ³even´-this could be part of what leads to anti-globalization pushback. poor countries tend to have ³disproportionate´ share of costs (through counterargument is that rich people & countries tend to create the wealth. there isn¶t ONE type of markets -Reflects Appadurai¶s notion of a ³Global Cultural Economy´-what ways of knowing do we have about markets? y A transactions-based understanding y ³Global Cultural Economy´-do different cultures produce different effects in the global marketplace? -Is this a ³globalization of markets´ or ³globalization of culture´? y BOTH y Example: Student with a cultural artifact on (Italian sweatshirt) could mean he is VERY Italian or he could be wearing his friend¶s sweatshirt that has no ties to him need to be careful when imparting meaning from this situation. so we should get more) y Nation-state systems still matters because no nation state wants to give up benefits for an alternate system LECTURE 9: MARKETS y In the same way that there isn¶t one globalization. .

e. systems Transactions=exchanges-essence of market activity y y y Introduces all-important concept of CHOICE This idea is similar to our earlier concept of ³transcendence´ People engage in transactions with people they have never interacted with before produces change (gives one a more educated viewpoint) -2 ways of change: y 1) Evolutionary: moves slowly over time-probably not globalization the way we think of it-possibly reversible. non-threatening o Immigration is a source of evolutionary change  Example: Britain exports Chicken Tikka Masala to India (tastes change as Indians move to Britain. Institutions. threatening System is characterized by long periods of stability so a sudden change (can materialize from any number of domains) produces massive ripple effects citizens become vunerable. tasted light ³Indian´ food and actually liked it) NATURAL y 2) Punctuated Equilibrium: a sudden change to a customary way of doing things-at level of Pillar III culture.Globalization is a set of transactions-by individuals. leads to a sacrifice of constitutional rights to government in order to feel safe again BOTTOM LINE: y Things tend to change slowly because quick change in inefficient y A community¶s growth changes its culture y Adaptation to a place changes its culture o Example: Chicago style blues (urban) versus Delta Blues (country). comes about in a natural way. o Ex: Hurricane Katrina devastation creates major changes (composition of city is shifting as African American neighborhoods were destroyed produces a cultural change) y CANNOT PREDICT THIS TYPE OF CHANGE o Ex 2: 911 culture of fear. states. governments) depend on routine y . groups. we¶re confronted with the need to redefine WHO we are. sticks! y IS this one of the things that weakens that Nation-State? States (i.

we look for NGOs to fill gaps for those people. Different kinds of domains that exist out there What is a landscape? . focus=impact of markets on human societies.-Can the evolution of a global marketplace be a source of cultural change? (Kelts says YES) y y y y Assume a group with a specific culture is brought into the global market. o Sting¶s Rain Forest Foundation o ³Every year an area of rainforest the size of England and Wales is cut down. y Appadurai coins many new terms.´-BAD unless you are in the logging business (however. most are entrepreneurs from those regions so what do you do?) o These two belief systems are in conflict o Sting is trying to make his particular understanding of culture prevail versus Brazilian logging entrepreneurs/Brazilian government understandings  Australia got rich from cutting trees but now Brazil can¶t do the same Is it normally correct to exploit your environmental resources for your own economic gain? ³This leaves local people homeless. Assume the group has NO agency (power) Question: What type of actor in global governance (Pillar 1) would we expect to see? For those who don¶t have a voice.´ What is this Rain Forest Foundation trying to do? How would we describe what it is doing in global governance? NGOs try to get ³their story´ recognized in governance Promote a different way of thinking about the problem y y y y y REPRESENTATIONS-Look at the intersection of Pillars 2 & 3. ³scapes´ ignore specifics but y y understand what they imply.

etc..´? -Global media market=a market for meaning y Human. we never start from the presumption that there is any other way Mediascapes: global information market (info in itself is commodity) o This is a problem for governance: it is transcendent and is unable to be controlled. the meaning of the word ³gay´ has changed) These ³blank-scapes´ are useful for what they make us think aboutchanges in market activity at the level of system forces us to engage in new transactions at all levels. goods. American. new source of influence? Addadurai scapes: meanings are NOT fixed (for example. from ideas to identities to goods and services -Globalization as a system of representations-³What does it mean to be. black. opportunities. Some other thing the next-a rational response to market opportunity-I will trade my Melanesian identity for a new one in order to capture benefits of trade-What does this assume (didn¶t value identity much)? Or just valued trade more? y Back to IT-what role does it play in these kinds of transactions? y What role did it play in the movement from Complex Interdependence to Globalization? ORGANIZING GLOBAL MARKETS -There are two ways that the global market is organized . encounters with new ideas. Catholic. y Information itself is a transaction (between the individual and the market or culture) y Culture is NOT FIXED. who are you? What is your place in the system? y Example: John Frum cargo cult-Melanesian one day. female« y All of these can be changed through transactions.y y y y y o Literally the contours of the earth but also a representation of the earth (like a painting) Globalization=the actual changes and why we about them Appadurai argues that we support globalization and while we criticize the effects. if your culture is not fixed. white. creates a threat to traditionalists.

o Nokia has facilities in 10 countries o Employs over 125. nation-states were independent. how do they control a company from Finland? . trade policy) y GLOBALIZATION CHANGES THE STORY because now the key actor is THE FIRM o We have to create situations where our companies are welcome. -A state-centered story. India are 4 Nokia countries. hierarchical-suited Nation-States y Now it is horizontally organized. UK.y 1) By private economic actors (like NIKE) y 2) By nation-states -What is the relationship between changes in markets to changes in global governance? y Market=a source of rules by which the system is governed y Private economic activity is changing the rules of the game in the international system y Nation-states essentially become buyers as they compete for commodities this activity is a set of governing rules -Complex Interdependence is a theoretical analysis of how Nation-States can become embedded in each other. Now conflict is less likely because all states have economic ties to each other y Complicates their decision-making y What is the ³national interest´ when MY well-being depends on YOUR well-being? y Driven by economic activity that the state could-at margins anyway-control (taxes. Hungary. -Under Globalization a lot of that economic activity is all-private-states can¶t capture it y Does that get to the End of the Nation-State idea? y Economic activity was once vertically organized.000 people worldwide o 5th most valuable brand in the world y What makes it ³Finnish´? -These types of highly diffused business model also diffuse authorityy China. tariffs.

the entire globe is part of a global supply network y y We are all vested in one production process (i. can the state refuse? o How does that affect legitimacy-do we lose faith in the state? o How does that affect change-do we start seeing ourselves as something different? Labor is part of that global chain o The more freely capital can move (because Nation-State is weaker). mobile phones) Each bit of the globe is linked backwards and forwards-much greater dependency than Complex Interdependence. but often not at the same level of the nation-state (individual level) Where Nokia is located is influenced by governmental politics-not rational to be in a hostile environment Presence of Nokia influences government politics-once you have them. you don¶t want to lose them. cuts them off from the familiar o Risk to cultures? o What price is the trade-off? Is that a fair price to demand? Is it fair to demand a price? Global north-south split o South is where the production takes place because labor is cheap and laws are more forgiving.-Global Commodity Chain (Chapter 18) In essence.e. Normative question: What does one make of being a cog in the machine? Commodified? If a Nation-State is part of a Global Commodity Chain. etc. how does it enforce its particular social contract? o Do Chinese workers at a Finnish factory get ³ideas´? o If Nokia wants the state to relax environmental protection standards or risk losing the factory. ³Developing´ versus ³developed´ Richard Rosecrance: ³head´ and ³body´ states o ³Head´ states do all the thinking (white states) and gain all the economic benefit o ³Body´ states do all the work (not white states) y y y y y y y y . the more Labor has to be prepared to move o Movement of labor uproots people.

y 3) Global climate o Climate change is a negative economic effect y 4) Incentive structures o Outsourcing is the best known example. and the poorer get richer BUT the distance increases.-RESISTANCE TO GLOBALIZATION There is resistance to global markets-6 reasons (all relate to the impact of global markets on societies) y 1) Culture y 2) Global poverty o The rich get richer.  Being in the transit zone (most in developing world) doesn¶t exempt you from negative consequences. 3) target country. there is always spill over/contagion -But migration is also a (weak) source of economic development y Developing countries have an interest in migration because immigrants begin to send money back home. Capitalists outsource always (Iowa Missouri) but now with cheaper labor available (Iowa China) 5) Exploitation o There are more people being economically exploited because there are more opportunities to exploit people. the harder it is to protect nation-states¶ values -Risks of market globalization y Locks in economic disparity o Economic growth is NOT synonymous with economic development y Produces migration (Joe the Migrant) o Presence of migrants undermines the culture of the host nation AND can destabilize countries in between. they are still not able to close the gap. Demand driven business created by a market (human trafficking) y 6) Norms o The more exposure you have to the marketplace. 2) transit zone. y . source of revenue. o 3 zones: 1) Point of origin.

y Lagos. Nigeria 58 people immigrate an hour but 58 jobs are NOT y created an hour. y This becomes part of the cultural narrative -Inequity also creates opportunity -Climate change y As climate changes. The people that are needed for development are the first to LEAVE. o Bush: ³poor people are vulnerable to religious extremists´ terrorism in the poorest countries (defense y department¶s belief) Air pollution in NYC is 13. growing patterns change o Example: spruce bark beetles in Alaska y As growing patterns change. This is why immigration is a threat to governments. firms. rural workers lack the skills necessary to compete for jobs in the city o Example: Rio de Janiero: groups of Brazilians that are unable to make it in an urban environment so they turn to crime. to the incentives that govern our lives y Of these. to the environment. o All of these overpopulated countries are Muslim. agricultural workers move to cities for work (urbanization) y Unfortunately. the impact of globalized markets on the incentive structures of (states. to the poor. people) is the most important in GS y Negative effects: o A) Urbanization in places like Mumbai and Mexico Cityoverstressed urban environments are Labor chases . Shanghai¶s is 99 this has a huge impact on the market of Shanghai -Resistance to globalization is a reaction to the GCC concept y ³Unfair´-to culture.Brain-drain: people with smarts are moving because there is NO incentive for them to stay. y Migrants¶ remittances that go back tends to be less compared to the amount of people who leave because citizens are migrating from countries that are less impoverished.

88 billion (less than 30% of total need) o Member-states have not gained enough economic capital so they continue to throw people under the bus -As mean world temperatures rise.e. especially per capita GDP is low o Rural communities suffer exploitation to keep urban communities relatively quiet -Global food crisis y Reduction in transaction costs for Capital means wages don¶t rise with the costs of living y Capital accumulation is the key to economic development more you y have to direct to basic needs.4 billion for 2010. UN member-stats donated poor cut off from traditional ways of knowing. as of June.N. by Capital or Ideologues) o Illiteracy. more pollution. o Wages not rising as fast as prices of food (wages are often fixed) Remember: Capital Accumulation. how can you accumulate capital when the prices of food are rising way faster than your earnings? Yet you need capital! o Unalienable rights The less surplus capital you have. U.N.-charity cases. the greater the percentage of your wealth goes to sustaining it/providing basic sustenance. poverty make accumulation of surplus capital nearly impossible o More densely crowded the city. 100 million people in 74 countries across the world depend on food from the U.¶s World Food Program-capabilities directly related to economic conditions in member states o Economic health of the world food program memberstates globalization of markets (source of hunger in the first y y y y place) y WFP needed 6. less likely you¶ll accumulate capital Less money to go around at preciously the same time food prices are rising. social contracts easily exploitable (i. amount of arable land decreases .

but in terms of need. US gave the least in foreign aid which is why it is so hard for UN to predict how much they will be able to do per year. aid U. food aid depends on contributions Contributions depend on changes in GDP Joe is completely isolated from politics yet an economic crisis way beyond his understanding produces a material. In absolute terms.y y y y y y y Joe is physically able to make less Depends more on U. US gave more money to world aid than any other country in the system but in 2007.N. o What incentive does the US have to give more than .000 farmers in India committed suicide because they couldn¶t feed their families Of 36 countries facing food crisis. you have the money to absorb the hit (of costs in prices of food rising). global pop=9. If you have surplus capital. grain prices 2010-2020 will increase 15-40% in real terms than 1997-2007 (Joe will need 25% more money to feed his family. it gave almost nothing. As prices of grain rise. Australia experienced 60% reduction in wheat crop in 2007 y y y -Human y y y y y .N. the demand for food will DOUBLE in southeast Asia and Africa (doing most reproducing) by 2030 By 2050. US gave a lot of money. 25. price of downstream commodities rise o The bread-maker will charge MORE because everyone is a rational actor. negative effect on his life. even as there is less land for him to farm on) effects 2007.1 billion o Will require 70% increase in global farm production Hunger kills more people worldwide than AIDS. etc. Avg. 21 are in AFRICA o Even as prices of food are expected to rise.16 %? The idea/norm that it is the right thing to do in insufficient because states purely exist to do what is BEST FOR ITS CITIZENS JOE¶S PARADOX.

y Joe the Subsistence Farmer suffers because there is less market available to him. -Complex interdependence. we are referring to both inputs and outputs y Labor is an input y We are referring to the Global Commodity Chain (look in last week¶s readings!). y None of us is insulated from price change BUT some of us can absorb price change better because we have capital accumulation. . Joe the Subsistence Farmer suffers (but not enough for us to actually care). etc) Drives up the cost of produce cost of finished commodity drives up cost of food. experiences the effects of changes in technology available to Joe the Industrial Farmer in Denmark/USA/Canada. we all become inputs but we also become targets. o In US we provide farmers with subsidies to help out with this but we can do this. Joe the Chicago Commodities Broker and Jane the Malian Subsistence Farmer are ³neighbors´ Joe sets the price for Jane¶s produce. etc. This is why you need to think of GOVERNANCE AND MARKETS together We expect the government to keep us from starving-and government mostly does BECAUSE we have a social contract. y -A society that is getting richer can eat more meat. y If Joe the Industrial adapts technology. not every country can. y Demand for meat creates a need for cattle/grain to feed cattle SO there is less grain for other things/people. they begin to eat their livestock as a last resort.y y y y Why no Australian food crisis? GOVERNING CAPACITY-Australian¶s governance were able to absorb the problem and find solutions. fertilizers. meat-consumption is usually a sign of economic health of a country y When people are in famine.-->So government must be a rational actor. -When we say ³globalization of markets´. y Increase in the price of oil makes farming more expensive drives up y cost of farming (need oil for transportation.

50% of global population is in India. governance? Is there an ³American´ way of doing things (is this why we are failing in Afghanistan?) y Culture=how we represent ourselves-how we ³know´ y Problem of ³Culture Imperialism´ -Cultural Imperialism y Go back to Appadurai if people choose that transaction. which feeds back into the market-globalization loop y About half of all adults in South Asia. not the business model 97% of global population is in the ³Global South´. can it be y y y ³Imperialist´? Supply-push: We force McDonald¶s down their throats (only apply here) Demand-pull: McDonald¶s is a firm: rational choice: if there is a market. Pakistan. our ways of knowing. Bangladesh & Indonesia (no change. go there because people want it. China. severity of droughts (matters to us!) y Direct effects: 45% of Malawi¶s population are malnourished cannot y y work as hard.Resistance is about human effects. Cultural artifacts-if Lebanese do hip-hop. Have to admit that what we ³know´ is American (for example) might not be recognizably ³American´ elsewhere-may be instead exotic y . no governance) -Climate change increases length. y 162 million on < $1 per day -Education is a key part of the developmental story y Economic realities produce ³externalities´ on culture. but which comports with our pre-existing culture. Africa. are they ³Americanized´? Must be open to possibility that we give things a meaning they may not ³really´ have. and the Middle East are illiterate our literacy goes up much more rapidly and much more significantly -What does it mean to Globalize culture? y What is culture? y What role does it play in government. Nigeria.

had governance and market implications. Serbians trading lands«gets very confusing y For the Joes. consumers want this in the market) y Consider enabling conditions o What makes supply/demand interaction possible?  Basic globalization enabling condition spread of  information and technology Culture is nearly infinitely elastic (culture is not fixed or brittle. all of these forces were out of their control. all they had was their culture all of this got upset.S. it is your choice) -Why do people adopt ³American´ cultural forms? -Is it U. market power or consumer preference? y Consider ³supply-side´ function o Why do American firms export cultural commodities? o *Are things recognizably American? o Supply-push (capitalists need this and so they force it on individuals) or demand pull (no capitalists are innocent. your place in a particular political ordering y Example: Ottoman empire: Greeks. y Professor Brown: you had to completely change your life in order to save your life y Markets & Information: o Culture is a subset of information that tells you things about yourself o Change is being forced on people o Consider ³demand-side´ function  We need to take into consideration that people WANT these cultural artifacts  Expressing individuality (nobody compels you to do this. it is flexible) Example: US lack of culture IS its culture Innate appeal  .-Messages that we can take from the video« y Culture was a signifier of who you are.

 Weakening of traditional cultures in face of globalization (Pillars 1 & 2) Micro-level of human systems gets broken up homogenization of tastes y People take what¶s available (reflect market domination of tastes) Consider implications (or reasons for resistance) o Loss of tradition o ³Cultural tourism´  If you overvalue traditional culture«bad o Weakening of ties to government/regime delegitimizing government/regime Today we look more closely at information as a challenge to governance Broader definition of ³cultural´ o All forms of ³other´ information o ³Ideation´ or systems of ideas Historically not ³new´! Information and IT have undermined governments in the past o Example: Axis Sally. can be jammed but Internet is much more mysterious o G) Can consume the Internet much easier than you can the radio (agents for the state would look for signals) o ACCESS TO INFORMATION o Threat to illiberal regimes o Threat to whichever cultures legitimate those regimes o A ³technology of freedom´ why it is viewed as a threat y y y y y . worked in Nazi Germany + did propaganda broadcasts to US troops o Example: Lord Haw-Haw ³ ³ Radio threatened states in the same way Internet is said to today o A) Speed of information o B) Identities of people involved are blurry o C) Diversity & amount of information o D) No costs (no barriers) o E) Much harder to regulate o F) Radio travels through the air.

y y Assumption that your identity is fixed and cannot be changed«assume that information will change the minds of the citizens The radio also threatens cultures o 1970s: Carol Rubenstein (ethno-musicologist) collected love songs of the Dayak people introducing radio in Sarawak eliminated indigenous language within 20 years (the people didn¶t seem to mind) o Russell Means is very aggressive about promoting indigenous languages on US reservations  Means argues that within 10 or 15 years the Lakoka peoples will all be dead no language = no people Not rational for a young Lakoka su to learn Lakoka because no SATs. etc in the language o States are very concerned about language because language strengthens political and creative processes (France is very concerned with this) Why would this be inconsistent with exposure to ³outside´ ideas? Intersection of Pillar II and III effects Pillar I Is culture an ordering principle for the state? Think about the stories a nation tells about itself Cultural narratives what function do they perform in governance?  How does a market for information threaten them? o If you accept information that has been proven false. jobs. which isn¶t a transaction at all. what else was I wrong about? o America is a ³Christian nation´ (?) y y y y y y -Hybridization vs.e. y If Globalization means ³democratization´ in some sense. Homogenization y Cultural Imperialism assumes a one-way transaction. limits on Internet)-threat to systems of Control-Global norms of Governance can threaten Local norms of Government y -Cultural Narratives . should people be free to choose? y Why would a government resist (i. if I was wrong about that.

´ what stories do we tell? o Are these stories ³true´ or are they rationalizations? Or both? o How does the presence of market for info-culture. women¶s rights) loses its association with a specific place or country no land association y Makes it more dangerous (from some POVs) y More easily adopted. threaten that? o Corollary-market for Fundamentalism  Assumes ³foreign´ is identifiable and ³local´ is identifiable  Assumes that ³foreign´ must be a threat  Fundamentalisms tend to be about protecting status quo  Threat posed by de-territorialism -De-territorialization y Literally globalization y Some new way of understanding something (i. broadly defined. more readily available-compare Pentecostalism with Catholicism y Notion that there is no ³one space´ for Thing X-movement toward ³Global Culture´? -Pillar II Links-the IT revolution and the spread of IT globally makes the spread of new (and potentially rival) ideas possible (tech makes pillar II more competitive) y You can easily acquire alternate avenues for gaining information-go around the state y Changes in IT always come faster than governments can adapt -New ideas impact Governance-from Pillar III to Pillar I (thanks to Pillar II) y ³Hybrid´ International System y Governance takes 2 forms-Formal (Government) and Informal (Norms) y Similar to ³hybrid culture´-neither one nor the other but both simultaneously-is this the same as a new ³third´ Thing X? y New or ³foreign´ can impact both kinds of Governance .e.o When we make arguments about ³protecting culture.

would THAT be ³cultural imperialism´-what if natives want to be like John Frum? FUNDAMENTALISMS y There exists a market for ³fundamentalism´ y Certain ³fundamentalisms´ (Muslim) are held to be a ³threat´ y WHY? y Working assumption: fundamentalism=rejection of some modern and alien thing ³X´ y Why aren¶t others (i. home states might repress even more as pushback against ³Western´ ideas that don¶t square with ³tradition´ y What is the relationship of Rules to Culture? Of Culture to Rules? -Pillar II & Pillar III-Kelts-How did Incentive Structure within the changing markets of the Developed World lead to cultural globalization? y The problem for Nation-states: Firms always move first to capture new opportunities y If Nation-state is weak. ³capitalist fundamentalism´)? y Threat isn¶t actually to culture but to systems of governance that free-ride on culture (³this is our way´) y Fundamentalisms try to protect something we value when it is under attack . it loses more control every time a new opportunity emerges y The globalization of culture in the form of artifacts is a Developed World past-time y Requires Surplus capital y Risk of exploitation we like ³natives´ because of their exotic ways y y Is it also possible that we want to keep ³natives´ native to satisfy our own consumer desires? If so. Christian fundamentalism.Fundamentalism: even of Governance (we have to get back to the Constitution!)-is a reaction to the availability of new ideas (AGAINST) y But also a Pillar I to Pillar III link-is it ³Cultural Imperialism´ to tell Somalia to treat its women better? To reject Shari¶ah law? y Women in the developing world MIGHT benefit if new ideas are adopted/adapted by their home states y On the other hand.e.

foreign way -Religion is both an agent of change in tradition and guardian of tradition -Fundamentalisms are themselves artifacts of culture -A ³clash of civilizations´ Prof thinks this is wrong. -A fight for identity/authenticity y A big fight is going on in Spain concerning the ³mosque´ cathedral. It allows us to set up ³us versus them´ y Spanish language in Mexico versus Spain -³The West´ y The system=governance y The idea = a fundamentalism y The term = a narrative (story) about a system (governance + culture) that we are not supposed to challenge . Catholics want the ³mosque´ removed from the name (Muslim) -Fundamentalisms ask ³who are we?´ -We often see debates among fundamentalists over ³authenticity´ y Pocho poster: used to describe those were are not ³pure´ Mexican. maybe we have a clash of ³ideas´ y American exceptionalism: You cannot say that other people think that their country is a rarity/special.y y o When is it truly about protecting culture? o When is it about rationalizing cultural practices? o When is it about defending things legitimized by m? Other fundamentalisms may promote n specifically to undermine m o Secularists and the traditionalists LECTURE 14: FUNDAMENTALISMS -We look at culture as a system of control -Conflict between fundamentalisms and governing norms -Recall 2 definitions of governance y Formal: y Informal: -Resistance is often said to be ³protecting tradition´ y Our way versus the new. however this is silly because we are all a mix of cultures. cannot speak for them.

³The spread of globalization is a threat to the West´-you are not supposed to ask what the ³west´ means because it is a FUNDAMENTALISM -Religion can be conceptualized in many things y Def: system of ideas y We associate certain systems of ideas with certain parts of the globe (this is important because these truths/ideas are held close to governance systems) y PART OF ³Who are we?´ o We define ourselves based on our conceptions of others -The Catholic Church was an agent of cultural globalization y Why less ³threatening´ than spread of Islam? o Catholism is US. follows Western ideals o One theory: Catholicism=´sacerdotal´ ideas about hierarchy of priesthood translated into hierarchy of rulers -The debate of the Islamic headscarf in France y People are going to get riled up about different things in different countries y Helps us understand what the real issues are in France -Pentecostalism=fastest-growing Christian belief system y Transcended from its origins in Los Angeles (1906) now y y y y y y y y y y everywhere in the world. VERY decentralized Lechner & Boli: Most faiths try to transform cultures. horizontal Literally an individual firm No Vatican. Pentecostalism transformed by cultures A model of HYBRIDIZATION (a new thing) o Example: African + honey bee = killer bee (hybrid) Oliver Roy (Chapter 44)-³deterritorialization´ o Separating a cultural artifact from its ³home´ territory . Compare to the ³Firm´ in Pillar II-vertical vs. very characteristic of the thicker variance of global studies theory Pentecostalism is the most ³globish´ Faith without governing rules (other than belief in the Bible). perfect example of globalization. Mecca or Salt Lake City of Pentecostalism Spatially unbounded literally everywhere and nowhere.

or Christian. etc we are y y y literally without roots This is important because they are mechanisms of control TRADITION Social hierarchies o Prefer your sports team to be higher in ranking/win games o Racial (apartheid. or whatever? y Oklahoma issue-look up & take notes -2008 German Marshall Fund surveyed on immigration -42% of Americans said immigrants should only come from ³Christian´ countries -46% of Americans and 53% of Europeans said Christianity and Muslim cultures are fundamentally incompatible y y So what do we do? -You must construct borders but how do you do that in an era in which borders are blurred? y In a sense. claim that the spreading of Islam beyond ³Muslim´ countries is a threat y ³Their ways´ are not only different from ³ours´ but contrary to them SO cannot have co-existence y They undermine our governance y ³US´ or ³THEM´-the basic discourse of threat -Globalization of faiths rooted in changes in norms of governance -Emergent norm of basic human rights includes ³right to freedom of conscience´ -What happens when that norm collides with ³traditional´ systems of governance? y Why is it important for Israel to be a Jewish state as opposed to a Muslim state. we¶re all Fundamentalists y Do we reject/fear ³cultural imperialism´ in part because we are afraid of being disconnected from ³our´ place? y The idea that there is a REAL and AUTHENTIC thing«globalization weakens the assumption/significance of governance. Jim Crow.In USA. Chinese exluded«) .

so government legitimacy (P I) is now dependent on markets (P II)-strong state is now strictly weaker so must employ government policies to make capital happier (Ohmae & Strange) Where we have been« -We are interested in process. relationships and interactions (of the three pillars) -How do the interactions of« y people and states or markets. and markets and states «change those relationships as the process of globalization moves through time? REVIEW: -On Day 1 our goal was: y To understand the dynamic relationship between the three pillars . 2010: A Globalization Story« -Pillar 1: climate change means that governments must cooperate/coordinate -Pillar II: result of global economic activity -Pillar III: disrupts social life affect global economic activity (II) affect governments (making them less able to cooperate/coordinate) y Example: Sub Sahara Africa Final: Do NOT describe but rather EXPLAIN & ANALYZE y Do not employ ³shotgun method´ but SHOW & ASSESS how each pillar affects one another A Different Globalization story« -A strong state-a state with ³capacity´-can change its laws to attract Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) (Pillar I) state reacts to opportunities -FDI can lead to job creation and capital accumulation (Pillar II) -Capital accumulation helps make civil society stronger (key element in economic development) (III) -Stronger civil society (III) leads to more stability.Last Lecture-Overview 12/6/2010 10:37:00 PM Tuesday November 30.

horizontal vertical integration o To keep this new unit functioning. (Culture is a form of governance and vice versa) o Formal & Informal rules International politics is rule bound o Anarchy is a source of rules Sovereignty may be getting weaker because it is LESS FUNCTIONAL y y y y y y y . and people y Spatial organization: all human life is tied into space y Globalization changes the meaning of space and distance changes y y the way we are organized The ³relevant´ world expands challenges all three pillars y The rules are no longer applicable to this new global landscape 1) Governance y Strong state theories (sovereign) y Primacy of ³national interest´ provides overarching explanation y Social expectations embedded within national interest o Story of Westphalia order. EU) o Unlikely because nation-states are still very efficient in organizing people Globalization complicates definition of ³national interest´ Governance=Rules. we came up with the idea of citizenship (owed your loyalty to the state.. Complex interdependence o Interdependence of states as economic units was about capturing financial gains produced a different set of social expectations Role of institutions coordination. governments.This will change everyday because the process is constantly changing Globalization is a process defined by movement towards greater integration and interdependence (works both within countries and within the system) -Transforms the way things are organization of markets. collective action o Change the incentive structures of states Integration (i. uphill flow) o NOW. there is a downwards flow because peoples expectations are changing.e.

R. kings). commodities) . driven by internal logic) weaken states¶ ability to control markets o Example: Sarah Palin tweet y Globalization reacts to changes in. firm. you cooperated because it was in your national interest (American companies. empires) y The emergence of a global consumer marketplace challenge governance o Keep Kelts in mind here (read!) o Consumer is a key part in this equation y Changes in markets (i. autonomy is challenged by integration y Governance is NOT LIMITED to governments y NGOs are a form of governance o Informal rules (abolition movement during African slave trade) o Embody these emerging norms that are challenging the way we look at sovereignty o Changes social expectations y ³Legitimacy´-? o Old: used to be about formal authority (rules.e.e. not about constitutional authority anymore o New: 2) Markets y Oldest globalization y Interacts with governance.o Made the developed world secure but war is no longer on our minds so we don¶t need this protection o Power seeking o Importance of conflict y Norm of separation. interested in effects NOT internal logic y Global markets made governance possible (i. o Technology o Capital o Consumer preference y Logic of trade must cooperate o Ex: Marketing the new Coca Cola o Downstream effects! o In I.

this cannot be done anymore. 3) Culture -Defined broadly as information or ways of knowing y Links to markets (Kelts). governance (climate change) y Demand-side and supply-side²³cultural imperialism´ misses the demand side (resistance movement side) o Citizens can benefit from trade and globalization o Example: John Frum cult y BIG QUESTION: What is the relationship of culture to nation-hood? y Is there a relationship between the artifices of culture and who people really are? y OTHER BIG QUESTION: How goes global market for culture affect culture? o Globish-a threat to the French? y 3 positions: o 1) ³Cultural Imperialism´-homogenization of world of Western (American) standard (Prof. the less you wanted dependence) Logic of the market punishes those who avoid interdependence there are always winners and losers o Chinese dominance of Afghanistan Burqa markets o Looks to government to cushion the blow (legitimacy) o National Conservative Union: everything is more expensive when market is exposed to global forces so government must shield citizens from these forces«however. disagrees) o 2)´Skeptical´-³global´ culture not as embedded as individual national culture o 3) ³Hybridization´-globalization transforms culture intermingling  Adaptation  Cross-fertilization  Creation and destruction DOES NOT HAVE TO BE LIMITED TO CULTURE ³Hybridization´ can define globalization in all three pillars Job is to analyze the process by which this hybridization occurs y y y .y o But cooperation produces dependency (the greater your power.

Blank blue book & Scantron (write essay in pen) -Study key terms (in red). interdependence).RESISTANCE: Governance: y Not all rules or systems of rule are equal Markets: y Distributional effects Culture: y Fundamentalism y Is global culture coercive? How do we assess choice? EXAM DAY: Readings matter because you need examples! Use terms that have been used A LOT. MOST OF ALL THE PROCESS Understand all FIVE globalization stories and why they function the way they do . concepts (integration.

child moralities. REAL ISSUE is the DISTRIBUTION of GLOBALIZATION¶S BENEFITS. etc. CHOOSE ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION AND INTERNATIONAL INTEGRATION (globalization). Globalization should not be ABOLISHED but rather REFORMED. Chapter 20: Incensed About Inequality (Wolf) -Globalization has not increased poverty but rather has REDUCED it. y Examples: China & India . y Global inequality is falling because of GROWTH«´rapid economic growth in poor countries has powerful effects on inequality among INDIVIDUALS and WORLD POVERTY´ y Successful countries are all moving toward a MARKET ECONOMY. planning and PROTECTION. Globalization is a historical process that has offered an abundance of opportunities and rewards in the past and continues to do so today. one in which property rights. free enterprise and competition are increasingly taking the place of state ownership. Counterargument/negatives of globalization aren¶t about globalization itself or the use of markets as institutions but the INEQUILY in the overall balance of institutional arrangements produces UNEQUAL SHARING of globalization BENEFITS. hunger. ARGUES that globalization is NOT WESTERN and that it is not REASONABLE to withhold advantages of globalization (such as technology) but that we need to rather figure out how to MAKE GOOD USE of the benefits of economic intercourse and technology that pays attention to the UNDERDOG.GS Readings-PART II PART 2 READINGS: PILLAR II: MARKETS: Who said Free Markets Were Fair Markets? 12/6/2010 10:37:00 PM LB Chapter 2: ³How to Judge Globalism´ -Comparing globalization with Westernization is a-historical and distracts from the many potential benefits of global integration. Bottom line: Countries who pursue globalization and development are proving to be successful in lowering overall poverty.

etc of different actors. World Bank study shows us that the notion that the richer get richer and the poorer get poorer (disparity increases) is FALSE. . push-pull models (migration theory).y o India: abandoned policies of Stalinist ³control raj´ in favor of individual enterprise and the market«. y 1) Warfare (large scale political systems generated by it) y 2) Religions of conversion (Islam) Intimate small scale communication was favored over large scale ecumenes. -The CENTRAL PROBLEM with today¶s global interactions is the tension between cultural homogenization and cultural heterogenization. -³SCAPES´ are building blocks for ³imagined world´ worlds situated by historically situated imaginations of individuals around the globe. larger focus is needed. cultural transactions were restricted (commodities were the only transactions)«the two main forces for sustained cultural transactions in the past were. -³Print capitalism´: new power unleashed in the world of mass literacy and large scale production that is free of face-to-face communication. TECHNICAL EXPLOSION media creates communities with ³no sense of place´. ADVOCATES ³SCAPES´ to explain the irregular fluidity of cultural landscapes. surplus-deficits (traditional market theory). deeply perspective constructs inflected by historical. Bottom line: The new global economy has to be seen as a complex order that cannot be any longer understood by core-periphery revolution & liberalizing revolution. linguistics. y Homogenization: either an argument about Americanization or commodization (closely linked) new forces become rapidly ³indigenized´. Individual actor is LAST in line. Individuals are becoming more successful! Gaps in the Global Market: Chapter 11: ³Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy´ (Appadurai) -Before the present day. or consumers-producers (Neo-Marxist).

y Cultural trends that have made fitness more popular . etc) -Nike corporation development of twin strategies of overseas subcontracting and domestic marketing corresponds to three distinct periods. NIKE SUSTAINED COMPETITIVE EDGE THROUGH IMPLEMATION OF FREQUENT INNOVATIONS IN GCC.ORGANIZAING THE GLOBAL MARKETPLACE: INTERSECTION OF PILLAR 1 & 2 Chapter 18: ³Nike«´ (Korzeniewicz) -Production and distribution of goods take place in complex global networks that tie together groups. Nike is segmented by consumer age groups & price. y GROWTH has happened by increased control over material production of shoes AND the CREATION of the market (marketing symbols. organizations. DISTRIBUTION. -Use Nike as an example/way to explore how commodity chains are embedded in cultural trends« y Athletic industry has been characterized by phenomenal growth. y 1962-75: emphasized control over the import and distribution nodes of its commodity chain. Nike has been successful due to. y 1976-84: enhanced its relative competitive position by extending control to marketing and redesigning subcontracting strategy to take advantage of Southeast Asia y 1990s extended control to product design and advertising/marketing. ideas. y Growth data shows that a limited number of large firms compete within the athletic footwear market in the US but also that the organization of the market provides considerable permeability for successful entry and competition by new enterprises. and MARKETING are underappreciated but CRUCIAL. and regions Global Commodity Chains concept is helpful to mapping new forms of capitalist organization. GCC nodes of DESIGN.

y Supply chains: generic label for input-output structure of valueadding activities. drew attention to the variety of actors who could now exercise power. Governance & Development (Gereffi) The three NEW ASPECTS of modern world trade are. Nike promotes symbolic nature and gets more money from sales. y International production networks: focus on international production networks in which TNCs act as ³global network flagships´ Global Commodity Chains: emphasis on internal governance structure of supply chains and on role of diverse lead firms in setting up global production and sourcing networks. y y RESISTING ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION Chapter 24: ³Globalism¶s Discontents´ (Stiglitz) . distribution.y y Strategy of responding to this trend by accumulating expertise and control over. Industrial upgrading: process by which economic actors move from low-value to high-value activities in global production networks. y 1) Rise of intraindustry and intraproduct trade in intermediate inputs y 2) Ability of producers to ³slice up the value chain´ by breaking a production process into many geographically separated steps y 3) emergence of a global production networks framework that highlights how these shifts have altered gov. -Global Commodity Chains: tied together concept of value-added chain to global organization of industries (based on importance of global buyers). Korea and Chinese produce actual shoe. marketing and advertising. import. beginning with raw materials finished product. Kelts. structures and distribution of gains. Chapter 3: ³The Business of Anime´: Chapter 19: Global Economy: Organization.

o Huge amounts of money pouring in (booms) and then suddenly removed (leaving economic devastation) IMF IS WEAK.-Different meanings of globalization: has both brought great benefit to the many and hurt the majority«why? y Globalization means different things in different places! -The countries that have managed globalization on their own (East Asia) have ensured that they reaped huge benefits and that those benefits were equally shared. y EACH OF THE SUCCESSFUL GLOBALIZING COUNTRIES determined its own pace of change. Negative globalization: y y Adverse effects have risen from the liberalization of financial and capital markets posed risks to developing countries without commensurate rewards. institutions have done POORLY. Beneficial globalization: East Asia: growth is based on exports-by taking advantage of the global market for exports and closing technology gap. each made sure that as it grew the benefits were shared equitably and each rejected the basic ³Washington Consenus´ which argued for a minimalist role for government and rapid privatization and liberalization. -Countries that have had globalization managed by International Monetary Fund and other int. PROBLEM IS WITH GLOBALIZATION MANAGEMENT. lacks democratic accountability. y Chapters 52 & 53 Chapter 52: Chapter 53: PILLAR III: CULTURE THREE YAWNS FOR CULTURAL IMPERIALISM: Chapter 38: ³Cultural Imperialism´ The American show Dallas is shown in 90 countries world wide and is seen . ³structural adjustment programs´ do NOT provide jobs.

domination of western cultural norms Cultural syncronization is a threat to cultural autonomy ‡ The survival of cultural autonomy is dependent on the freedom from the process of global synchronization ‡ ³the failure of a culture to µsurvive¶ in an µoriginal¶ form may be taken itself as a process of adaptation to a new µenvironment¶² that of capitalist industrial modernity y IE capitalist industrial modernity is changing the world environment Chapter 40: ³Why Hollywood Rules the World«´ Hollywood is the epicenter of the cinema industry today. lavish settings. highly visible.´ Hamelink then draws the conclusion that: ³the impressive variety of the worlds cultural systems is waning due to a process of ³cultural synchronization´ that is without historic precedent. their responses more complex and American imperialism as it projects images of ³dazzling skyscrapers. BUT the American films are also affected by the global culture as they are trying to appeal to as large of an audience as possible.. and their cultural values more resistant to manipulation and ³invasion´ than many critical media theorists have assumed. . expensive clothes and automobiles. clustering occurs in Hollywood Brainwork of movies in Hollywood even when outsourced elsewhere for production because its cheaper **With US films accounting by far for the majority of the global cinema industry. they naturally export American ethos behind the films. have broad global appeal Also the global use of English helps As the US specializes in producing films and theatre and TV.´ ‡ Less of a two way cultural exchange and more of a one way. the celebration in the narrative of power and wealth´ But empirical studies show that ³audiences are more active and critical. y Europe cannot compete y US is successful because it produces films that will be successful on a global scale So as a result the films are entertaining.

Two way street as holly affects global culture while global culture and a striving for universal success affects Hollywood ³Hollywood strives to present the universal to global audiences. As Hollywood markets its films to more non-english speakers, those films become more general´ Critics allege that American culture is driving the world, but in reality the two are determined simultaneously, and by the same set of forces. The American and national component to Hollywood moviemaking also cannot be ignored. Hollywood has always drawn on the national ethos of the US for cinematic inspiration. American values of heroism, individualism and romantic selffulfillment are well suited for the large screen and for global audiences. ** For this reason, dominant cultures, such as the US, have an advantage in exporting their values and shaping the preferences of other nations. Similarly, McDonalds shapes its product to meet global demands, but builds on the American roots of the core concept. Hybrid of global demands and American core values Hollywood¶s universality has in part become a central part of American national culture. Commercial forces have led America to adopt ³that which can be globally sold´ as part of its national culture In doing so, Americans have, to some extent, traded away particularstrands of their culture for success in global markets. WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? Means that in order to be competitive in the cinematic industry, and other industries, a nation cannot be globally successful without appealing to global ideals. Excessive insulation from competitive pressures can virtually guarantee an unfavorable result, whether economically or aesthetically. Fundamentalism As Resistance: Chapter 36: Global Information Revolution (Price)

-The government wishes to keep control over what information the public has access to, ³state is interested in maintaining control of information flows through their boundaries«´ -National boundaries are increasingly irrelevant and new technology traverses boundaries very effectively, breaks down divides between countries and cultures -Market is now so powerful and technology so ubiquitous, is there still room for old-fashioned law & policy making? -For many centuries, control over participation in the market was a condition of political stability«what differs in today¶s market is the RANGE of participants, the SCOPE of its BOUNDARIES, and the NATURE of regulatory bodies capable of establishing and enforcing rules for participation/exclusion. y National identity=the set of political views and cultural attitudes that help maintain the existing power structure y Incentive to change media law occurs when governance can no longer maintain its position of civil dominance. Media globalization creates a crisis when barriers of entry are lowered in response a government can either redefine the cartel and accommodate new entrants or raise the barriers for entry. Chapter 41: ³Global Fundamentalism´-Lechner Fundamentalism is a reaction against modernity; an effort to preserve or achieve a certain cultural authenticity in the face of a greedy, universalizing global culture. ‡ A global culture is the target of the fundamentalist groups. ‡ Anti-modernism But at the same time, fundamentalism is one of the crucial features of the modern global condition and represents a form of sociological realism rather than Western wishful thinking. ‡ Essentially, fundamentalism is contaminated by the culture it opposes as in the modern world system, no fundamentalist can simply re-appropriate the sacred and live by its divine lights. ‡ Fundamentalism is not in an iron cage of otherness, it is a full participant of common discourse, a common society. Societies are now inherently oriented toward each other ; they are involved in processes that encompass all; even the object of the comparison, namely

the propensity to engage in fundamentalism, is no longer an indigenously arising phenomenon. **Fundamentalism is a mere facet of modernity which gives it a problematic future as hybridization is now becoming a normal feature of globalization ‡ if the point of fundamentalism is to restore authentic sacred tradition, this means that fundamentalism must fail.**** As the global society becomes more structurally differentiated, religion loses social significance. **The liberal-modern view of social order thus far has prevailed against challenges issued by various kinds of anti-modern movements and regimes. Fundamentalism has its origins in real discontents experienced by real people; the tensions inherent in the globalization process cannot be resolved in any permanent fashion; in modern global culture, fundamentalism has found a place as part of a movement repertoire, to be activated when conditions are right ‡ Cannot make clear cut predictions, but it does enable us to say, more modestly that fundamentalism has a future²albeit one less bright than that of liberal modernity. Fundamentalism as Trans-cultural Political Activism Chapter 47: ³Pentecostalism..´ -Pentecostalism culture is created from the bottom up by millions of the ³culturally despised,´ who walked out of established churches to join independent, locally administered churches, usually led by authoritative male pastors. y Has no dominant center but maintains many transnational connections, is a sphere of multiple, ever-evolving networks that increasingly strive to evangelize and bear global witness, offers a model of GLOBAL ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE. y Make use of the biblical text but also rely heavily on believer¶s physical involvement, culture is embodied in the way people move. y Spread through transnational networks but enacted by independent groups of believers, faith and practice are eminently ³translateable´ from place to place. y Succeeds because of it¶s always LOCAL nature, ³find need and meet need,´ does well in periods of societal crisis.

‡ Permitted the church to play a key role in recent transitions to democracy throughout the catholic world.´ ‡ The recognition that modern democracy is not only a form of government but a type of polity based on normatively on the universalist principles of individual freedom and individual rights. The political mobilization of Catholicism had been oriented toward the state. The pope and the Vatican today have taken a strong stance on religious freedom across the planet and that it is the governments duty to protect this sacred human right. Pentecostalism grew without hierarchical direction or central sponsorship. is highly varied. often bypassing Rome.y y y Attracts women through the ³feminine´ work of the Spirit and a ³feminized´ Jesus. ‡ As national churches transfer the defense of their particularistic privileges to the human person. its aim being either to resist disestablishment or to counteract state-oriented secularist movements and parties. Catholicism becomes mobilized . ****Traditional position and attitude of the catholic church toward modern political regimes had been that of neutrality toward all ³forms of government. In the last decades there has been a remarkable increase in transnational Catholic networks and exchanges of all kinds that criss-cross nations and world regions. It¶s capacity for indigenization gives it an edge in global diffusion. ‡ This could transform the pope from being the father of all Catholics to becoming the common father of God¶s children Catholic church is working towards the establishment of automuous civil societies and toward the constitution of one free global civil society ‡ Church at the forefront of a new worldwide democratic revolution ***the catholic church has become such an important transnational organization in the emerging world system that no state can afford to ignore it. Chapter 48: ³Globalizing Catholicism«´ Globalization has opened the way fro a realignment in the relations between religious and worldly regimes.

at the same time. ³must not leave the house without her husbands permission. ‡ Women are expected to be obedient to their husbands as they are essentially their husbands property Similarities between a contract of marriage and a contract of sale. this time to defend the institutionalization of modern universal rights and the very right of a democratic civil society to exist. o **objectifies and commodifies women o Men view women as objects to be owned and jealously controlled. as objects of indispensable value to men¶s sense of power and virility ³a permanent wife´ argued ayatollah Khomeini. ‡ Exchange of goods and services o When a woman agrees to marry she relinquishes all voluntary control and autonomy she may ever have over her legal and social persona. Obedience is a cornerstone of the Islamic vision of a just social order. and to discard. and. and must submit herself for whatever . as objects of desire to seclude. ‡ Many perceived such reforms as a form of capitulation to the West« an all too eager attempt to find an ³Islamic justification´ for an essentially Western approach to the issue of interpersonal relations The theoretical concepts underpinning the argument are those of obedience and autonomy. SETTING RULES: CULTURE AS GOVERNANCE.again. both of whihch are enextricably associated with the reciprocal rights of the spouses and derived from the contractual form of marriage in Islam. to veil. and Islamic fundamentalists of the late 1970s and 1980s in Iran and Pakistan After centuries of resistance to changing Islamic family law. the muslim reformers of the 1950s and 1960s adopted elements of Western Law and applied them within an Islamic framework. GOVERNANCE AS CULTURE Chapter 45: ³Women and Fundamentalism in Iran & Pakistan´ Ongoing dialectical relationship between Islamic secular reformers of the 1950s and 1960s.

‡ This is because much of the strife of living that the new testement talks about is real life to them²they can relate to ideas of martyrism and death as they are surrounded by it much more than the western world The dominant churches of the future could have much in common with those of medieval or early modern European times. or sleeping. housing. hoping to retrieve what they thought they could agree on. namely. Iranian revolution found a place for women and as a result it formed tension between the Islamic regime and women. an Islamic identity o Unambiguous call for Islamic identity ‡ While there was a law earlier that prohibited women from wearing veils. ‡ Women criticize and scold the regime for not allowing women to develop to their full potential in a just and equitable Islamic state. ‡ An overwhelming majority or Iranians took a collective plunge into an idealized past. literal stance and understanding on the new testament. ‡ The Christian church is growing most strongly in the south: Africa and Latin America and such populations are taking a very conservative. yet without appearing to undermine their own revolutionary Islamic rhetoric. Khomeini repealed it and made it so women had to wear veils.´ Chapter 46: ³The Christian Revolution´ It was expected that as Christianity spread from the western world that it would take a more liberal stance.´ Virtually no female rights or autonomy ****1970s was a period of dramatic change and restlessness in Iran and Pakistan. ³new Christian-dom´ evokes medieval European age of faith.pleasure he wants«If she does not obey him she is a sinner and has no right to clothing. of passionate spirituality and a pervasive Christian culture. . ³the fundamentalists dilemna has been how to deal with this ³new woman´ without themselves being dislodged from their traditional position of power and privilege. but it has done the opposite.

Chapter 13: ³How Sushi Went Global´ (Bestor) y Japan¶s emergence on the global economic scene in the 1970s coupled with a rejection of hearty red meat American cuisine in favor of healthy food & appeal of Japanese aesthetics and design prepared sushi for takeover & American preference for sushi y grew. while it atrophies among the rich and secure. governments. the image of the government as Antichrist is not a bizarre religious fantasy. etc. Christianity is flourishing wonderfully among the poor and persecuted. Japan is the CORE now. ³global´ culture better suited to the needs of a capitalist world order? . -Globalization doesn¶t necessarily homogenize cultural differences nor erase salience of cultural labels but rather GROWS the FRANCHISE. Chapter 14: ³McDonald¶s in Hong Kong´ Important questions to remember: -Does the roaring success of McDonald¶s and its rivals in the fast food industry mean that Hong Kong¶s local culture is under siege? Are food chains helping to create a homogeneous.This causes regionalization and the tendency to bear with ones religion more than ones nation-state. environmentalists. conflicts with customers. -Ability of fishers today to visualize Japanese culture and the place of tuna within its culinary traditions is constantly RESHAPED by the flow of cultural images that travel around the globe continuously. owners take great pains to create Japanese culture within ambiance. o Restaurants are being converted from Chinese Japanese. Ramifications of sushi globalization: o Fishing communities changed from close knit communities fishers all talking/interacting with each other. ‡ As a result it leads to a weakening of the nation state in the face of globalization. but a convincing piece of political analysis. To a Christian living in a third world dictatorship.

carry a tray. economy. 5 DO THIS READING Culture as Information: Can Information Cultures Be a Threat? Chapter 36: LOOK ABOVE Chapter 12: ³The Global Ecumene´ (Ulf) -Core and periphery is a negotiated culture« y Is military presence in a country a form of imperialism? y Military presence changes the culture because soldiers buy things from the venders. The chain has become a local institution that has blended into the urban landscape are packed with all ages/types of consumers. etc.y y y y People of Hong Kong have embraced American style fast foods but have not been stripped on their cultural traditions in any but the most SUPERFICIAL of ways.. Markets for Cultures READING: KELTS -. y Democratic countries should listen to the culture y Religion affects governance y Restriction of a technology or commodity increases the culture¶s desire for it -France & women¶s headscarves -The process of cultural meaning and how it changes the relationship between the core and the periphery y How do certain things become American. Hong Kong shows that the transnational IS the LOCAL. politics. y Sushi (commodity) had to change the business of sushi. etc? y Are we going toward homogenization or hybridization? y Hybrid identity not only heritage but also environment based (living y in rural areas as opposed to living in LA) Asymmetry between culture. and military . bring home local commodities (or a wife) -Study the degree of cultural influence in the periphery and core y McDonald¶s changed local cultures by teaching population to wait in line. McDonald¶s popularized the ³snack´ and made cleanliness important to consumers (provided a clean restroom/place to clean up for consumers) Selling Identity: Cultures as Markets. etc.Chapters 1-2. use clean bathrooms. Japanese.

Trying to account for the fact that all nation-states are structurally similar and change in unexpectedly similar ways. multidirectional influence o Example: gay marriage (culture heavily influences government in this regard). and institutions. grassroots efforts o Language lacks political salience A System of States. Boli) -Worldwide models define and legitimate agendas for local action. o Despite all possible options for economic. medicine. science. citizen rights.o Sides do not look the same/influence is not equal. -Nation-states are enactments of a world cultural order. etc. in the present day than at any earlier time because WORLD MODELS applicable to the island society are more highly codified and highly publicized than ever before. economy. shaping the structures and policies of nation-states and other national/local actors in all domains of rationalized social life (business. to certain self-evident goals like socioeconomic development. education. . A Society of States. presents view that nation-states are constructed entities (individuals are enactors of scripts rather than selfdirected actors) -RESISTANCE to world models is difficult because nation-states are formally committed. discrimination. y AND world-society organizations can spread facts faster & easier. or a System of Societies? Chapter 9: ³World Society and the Nation-State´ Chapter 9: World Society & the Nation-State (Meyer. y All this would happen more rapidly. etc nation-state choices and world pressures derive from same over-arching institutions. as a matter of identity. y Hypothetical example: Island society o Government would form modern state. and with greater importance to daily life. political and cultural processes. family and religion). -Most see nation-states are collective actors (products of their own histories and internal forces) Meyer. it would promptly take on the standardized form of classic nation-state. citizenship.

Globalization is restructuring the control over resources in such a way that the natural resources of the poor are systemically taken over by the rich and the pollution of the rich is systematically dumped on the poor. Commitment to sustainability and justice was replaced by the rule of trade and the elevation of exploitation. especially glaring in the context of the environment. We are creating growth by destroying the environment and local. being used as a dumping ground Many of the importing units do not possess the technology or the expertise . greed. education. Chapter 57: ³Ecological Balance in an Era of Globalization´ World affairs have grown increasingly dictated by trade and commerce. The state and the community are increasingly becoming mere instruments of global capital. and society. ‡ Exporting to India. Counterargument by micro-culturalists explain for diversity and resistance to homogenization but can¶t explain why most nation-states are similar. sustainable livelihoods.. US is leading waste-exporting country in the world.´ Property of the powerful corporations that is being protected by the state in every part of the world under the new free trade regimes.Counterarguments by realists explain markets and governance but fail to explain autonomous nation-state actors. and profit maximization as the organizing principles of the market. **Globalization has in a deep sense been a globalization of apartheid. while the property of the ordinary citizen has no protection.*** ‡ Globalization is thus leading to an environmental apartheid ‡ Liberalization of markets as well **North attempts to maintain their lifestyle of the rich by exporting the environmental costs to the third world Former chief economist of the World Bank supported the migration of dirty industries to the less developed countries. the state. health care. Food provisioning. and social security are all being transformed into corporate projects under the code words of ³competitiveness´ and ³efficiency.

Globalization and their associated violence are posing some of the most sever challenges to ordinary people in India and throughout the world. . ‡ Also eroding the level of governing control that people have over their process the chemicals they are importing therefore. ***Dumping on the developing world becomes justified on the grounds of economic efficiency*** **Economic liberalization is threatening to sever this link by treating biodiversity as a raw material for exploitation of life forms as property and of peoples livelihoods as an inevitable sacrifice for national economic growth and development. they inadvertently cause more harm to the environment and their communities because of their ignorance concerning the chemicals that they are dealing with.

history.R. Theory Chapter 5-Clash of Civilizations (Huntington): What is new about world politics today. language and culture will not be easily changed (much more important than political ideology) generates the worst conflict y 2) World is becoming a smaller place. o Beliefs in religion.Readings 1 12/6/2010 10:37:00 PM Sept 28 Foundations: A 60-Minute Guide to I. Facism-Nazism & liberal democracy)-Cold War y The peoples of Non-Western civilizations will now be movers & shakers of the world Why Civilizations will Clash: y 1) Differences between civilizations are not only real. according to Huntington? Does this image of a world embroiled in clashes of civilization contradict the conventional view that globalization is a process that creates new bonds across cultural boundaries? Does Huntington demonstrate that civilizations are now the primary forms of identity and organization in world society? Claim: The great divisions among human-kind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural nation states will remain as actors but major conflicts will occur among civilizations. o Increasing interactions due to technology intensify civilization consciousness & awareness of differences o Example: US most resistant to Japanese investment because they are very different than us 3) The processes of economic modernization and social change throughout the world are separating people from longstanding local identities. History: y Conflicts of Western world were among empires/princes created nation-states French Revolution: conflicts with nations rather than princes Russian Rev lead to conflict between ideologies (Communism. they are basic. o Weaken nation state as source of identity y .

rich to poor but CAN¶T change your cultural identity (i. etc. o Can change from Republican to Democrat. they are more likely to see an ³us´ versus ³them´ situation. ethnicity/religious preference) 6) Economic regionalism is increasing o Ex) Japan is a culture unique to itself and so may have trouble relating in trade to Europe/US. economics. and international relations y Responses of non-Western civilizations to West: o 1) Extreme: non-Western states. Macro-level: states from different civilizations compete for military and economic power. Velvet Curtain of ideology now divides Western Christianity from Orthodox Christianity & Islam. Contrast. ³As people define their identity by religion. o Peak of power West confront return-to-the-roots West 5) Cultural characteristics and differences are less mutable and hence less easily compromised and resolved than political and economic ones.e. The West and the Rest y West is unparalleled in terms of military.y y y o Revival of fundamentalist religion groups provides commitment that transcends nation-state boundaries 4) The growth of civilization-consciousness is enhanced by the dual role of the West. common culture is quickly facilitating trade between China and Taiwan.  COSTS are HIGH . like Burma and North Korea. control of international institutions and in politics/religion. can attempt to pursue a course of isolation-insulate their societies from Western influence.´ 2 Levels: Micro-level: adjacent groups along the fault lines will struggle over control of territory and each other.

 West will have to gather a better understanding of different cultures while maintaining the power necessary to protect its interests NO universal civilization but many coexisting with each other  Chapters 8.Realism and Complex Interdependence (Keohane & Nye): How does ³complex interdependence´ constrain the behavior of states interested in enhancing their power and security. when complex independence prevails. to attempt to join the West and accept its values & institutions. superpowers use the threat of force to deter attacks (especially US) BUT (must remember): 1) drastic political/social change could cause force again to be very important y . y No longer can all issues be subordinated to military power y Perceived safeness has increased-countries do not fear attack every second force is NO LONGER an influence/can be held over lesser countries as an instrument of policy However. o 3) Balance the West by adopting political & military & economic power while preserving indigenous values.o 2) ³Band-wagoning´-international relations theory. can still be used politically. according to Keohane and Nye? What traditional assumptions about world politics does this new situation call into question? How can international organizations transform world politics? -Absence of hierarchy among issues mean that military security does not always dominate the agenda military force is not by governments toward other governments within the region/on issues.  MODERNIZE NOT WESTERNIZE  Only Japan has succeeded in this.

acting in self-interest only. . country that uses military force to protect another may have significant political influence over the other country. Societies.2) Even when elites¶ interests are complementary. int. Int. when an issue becomes a matter of life/death (oil) realist assumptions are relevant Role of International Organizations: y Existence of multiple channels=different role for int. Ex) When an issue doesn¶t call a lot of attention/little interest in it complex interdependence. y Also allow small and weak states to pursue linkage strategies. Concepts: Systems. y C. all institutions of the island would form much faster in the present day than at any earlier time because all world models are highly publicized/known.I.: When war does not dominate. y Hypothetical example: If a new island were to form. organizations y Realist theory: War dominants everything. just in layers and depending on the situation. and Globalizations Chapter 9-World Society and the Nation-State (Meyer): What do Meyer and his colleagues mean when they say that nation-states are not ³collective actors´? What surprising similarities among nation-states do they note. agenda. REALIST & COMPLEX INTERDEPENDENCE both exist. act as catalysts for coalition formation. institutions have a minor role in this portrayal. organizations have great bargaining rights and help set int. constant struggle for ³power and peace´. and how do they account for them? Do they identify a driving force in globalization? Many features of the contemporary nation-state derive from worldwide models constructed and propagated through global cultural and associational processes.

a rush to colonize the island. ³Fundamentalism within limits´ is what makes globalization work. Model of order: national societies. -Fundamentalism as a reaction to. challenges are increasingly presented to the stability of particular perspectives on the overall process.o Unlikely to happen are theological disputes about moral order. rather than an aspect of or a creation of. humankind. y His approach is meant to explore the differences rather than the traditional sociological view of culture as integrating. as globalization proceeds. -Sum of argument: The search for fundamentals is both a contingent feature of globalization and an aspect of global culture. modest citizenship would NOT be argued for. globalization. relationships between national societies/world system of societies. one must understand the four features and how they are constantly constrained by each other. y To understand globalization realistically. Empirical focus is in line with the increasing acceleration in both concrete global interdependence and 20th century consciousness. y Relativization: the ways in which. individuals (selves). -Purpose is to inject flexibility into ³totality´ of the world (our perception of it) y Model is an attempt to make analytical and interpretative sense of how quotidian actors (collective or individual) go about the business of conceiving the world. and how does his ³model of order´ capture its key features? What is the ³take off period of modern globalization´? How does globalization trigger debate about world order and a ³search for fundamentals´? Globalization: as a concept refers to both the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole. . y Complexity is a moral issue in its own right. Chapter 10-Globalization as a Problem (Robertson): How does Robertson define globalization.

and environmental destruction. in time it may come to inflict an equal amount of suffering Ex: 100 million Chinese peasants becoming migrant workers. Concept C: A global free market presupposes that economic modernization means the same thing everywhere. rule by organized crime. -Real history of our time shows this to be incorrect . Cons: USA has the worst social breakdown of any developed country (families weak. Chapter 3-From the Great Transformation to the Global Free Market 19th century England/Great Transformation: -Far-reaching experiment in social engineering -Objective was to free economic life from social and political control -Did this by creating a new free market (new type of economy in which the prices of all goods and services. changed without regard to their effects on society) -Goal was to demolish social markets replace them with deregulated markets that operated independently of social needs. universal community founded on reason) Example: United States. believe in the need to impose free markets onto the economic life of societies throughout the world. exclusion from work/societies. Concept A: All great thinkers of the time believed that there was going to be a switch from separate cultures creation of a single worldwide civilization (new.y Globalization is linked to social awareness Does Globalization Undermine the State or Simply Ignore It? Boli-Lechner. use jail as a way to control system) -Huge levels of inequality Concept B: A single global market is the Enlightenment¶s project of a universal civilization in what is likely to be its final form. -Although it does not rival Communism yet in loss of lives.

actually promotes new types of regimes as it spawns new types of capitalism. Free markets: modeled policies on laissez-faire era (government claimed no intervention) actuality: an economy in which markets are deregulated and put beyond possibility of political/social control (CANNOT BE REINVENTED) Cons: did not meet human needs. Concept F: Central paradox of our time states that economic globalization does not strengthen the current regime of global laissez-faire but rather UNDERMINES it. Concept H: Technological advances have made the managed economics of the post-war period unsustainable. and access to work/quality of life. -Trigger a new competition between remaining social economies and free markets. -Will not last for very long (social costs are such that it cannot last long in any society) Economic globalization: worldwide spread of industrial production and new technologies that is promoted by unrestricted mobility of capital and freedom of trade-THREATENS the stability of the global market that is being created by America. Concept E: A world economy doesn¶t make a single regime-³democratic capitalism´-universal.Ex: Asian market economies diverge deeply from one another (none are converging on any Western model) Concept D: The emergence of a truly global economy doesn¶t imply the extension of western values means the end of the epoch of western supremacy. wealth. . Concept G: Reinventing the free market has no chance of success unless one understands that many of the changes produced are irreversible and grasps the technological/economic transformations to harness. free market has encouraged new inequalities in income.

y Argue for the end of the state -In economics as well as politics. and needs.-Make full employment policies of the traditional sort unworkable (many occupations are disappearing. circumstances. regimes and market economies as a permanent reality. Does not meet the needs in a time in which western values are no longer universally authoritative.  Efforts to assert traditional forms of economic sovereignty over regions is having the opposite effect. y Cumulative effect of fundamental changes in the currents of economic activity around the globe nation-states have already lost their role as meaningful units of participation in the global economy. o 2) Nation-state is increasingly a nostalgic fiction . o 1) These political units have much less to contribute. the nation-state older patterns of linkage have begun to lose their dominance. Works to set up sovereign states against one another in geopolitical struggles for dwindling natural resources. are less secure) Solution: A reform of the world economy is needed that accepts a diversity of cultures. Conclusion: A global market does not work.  Nation-states have become very vulnerable to decisions made by people elsewhere that they have no control over. It does not allow the world¶s manifold cultures to achieve modernizations that are adapted to their histories. Chapter 25-The End of the Nation State (Ohmae): -Ohmae/Strange make the argument that states should not interfere with economy YET economy CANNOT exist without governments. Doesn¶t meet the human need for security laissez faire restricts governments from protecting their people greater political instability Global democratic capitalism is as unrealizable a condition as worldwide communism.

Can¶t look at Russia as a single unit. Give the logic of this argument. control of land-now power can spread without redefining boundaries) BUT NOW cycle of decay ruins it. civilizations will be the dividing lines but are they really a good way to understand economic activity? -Argues that Huntington¶s argument leaves out historical context however  different we are culturally. -The citizens of the world will not wait passively until nation-states or cultural prophets deliver tangible improvements in lifestyle want to build their own future now! Swing of the pendulum: nation-states were the key unit to manage economic affairs (right grew out of military strength-now great burden. while also showing how technological change can also work to the benefit of states. each country is a motley combination of territories with vastly different needs and contributions o 3) Goods and services can no longer be attached to a single national label  Is a car really American when its compenents come from/are assembled in different parts of the world? y Outsourcing provides people with better access to low-cost. control of natural resources-now drain on finances. preferences. this connects us. y Whatever culture one is in. . highquality products when they are not produced ³at home. y ONLY HOPE: reverse centralizing tendencies and let the economic pendulum swing away from nations and back toward regions. they get access to info about how other cultures live (styles. Chapter 26-The Declining Authority of States (Strange): Strange argues that rapid technological change and the extensive resources required for technological innovation force states to do the bidding of transnational corporations. we all have the same sources of global information. traditions.´ y Absence of vision and with panic rising. etc) technology connects the younger generations around the globe VERY much.

y 2) Power over outcomes is exercised impersonally by markets and those who buy/sell in markets. In your opinion. Premises: y 1) Politics is a common activity. y 2) Societies that want their own state are increasing in number but once achieved. etc) o B) Were exempted from the pressure to conform to the norms of the open liberal economy. -Argument: Accelerating technological change. o Desire for ethnic autonomy is universal.  Were allowed to limit foreign imports yet given great access to the market. not confined to politicians. o A) All Asian states were very fortunate (geographically.Logic: y Markets are now the masters over the governments of states y Paradoxes: 1) Intervention of state authority is actually increasing State still exits because there is still a need for political authority of some kind (but many states are becoming deficient in this regard). the political means to satisfy that desire within an integrated world market is not. should business and markets be totally free of government regulation and oversight? How large a role should government play in managing the economy and seeking solutions to social problems? . escalation in the capital cost of most technological innovations while cost of labor has fallen. y 3) Authority over economic transactions and society is exercised by agents other than states now. Oct 7 The Politics of Globalism Chapter 28-Has Globalization Gone too Far? (Rodrik): Rodrick suggests that globalization may have gone too far. it does not seem to give them any control/real power over their society. y 3) The Asian state has achieved great economic success with very strong government invention.

Review Question #8: Garrett challenges the claim that expanded governments interferes with economic growth. and without reducing the ability of citizens to choose how to distribute the benefits/costs of the market. Types of positive externalities: -Although it is easy to point to specific costs of discrete interventionist policies. it has actually be strengthened. ³Partisan Politics in the Global Economy´: Argument: The relationship between the political power of the left and economic policies that reduce market-generated inequalities has not been weakened by globalization.Chapter 29-Geoffrey Garrett. The benefits of globalization can be reaped without undermining the economic sovereignty of nations. the deepening of social fissures can harm all. 1) Existing societies have significantly underestimated the effects of domestic political conditions both on the way governments react to globalization and on their impact on the national economy there remains a leftist alternative to free market capitalism in the era of global markets based on the classic ³big government´ and corporatist principles that is viable both economically and politically. . despite the higher taxes and lowered flexibility that government expansion often entails? Counter point: Rodrik¶s argument: Cumulative consequence of globalization will be solidifying a new set of class divisions between those who prosper from the economy and those who do not« ³Social disintegration is not a spectator sport-those on the sidelines get splashed with mud from the field. Ultimately.´ Primary: Globalization and national autonomy are NOT mutually exclusive. big governments seem to produce positive externalities that are overlooked by critics. What are some of the ³positive externalities´ of expanded government that may help economic growth.

y Global. has increased the importance of economic. Combo of powerful left-wing parties and labor market promote stability in wage-setting process macroeconomic performance under social democratic corporatism has been as good than any other time. development. and social stability to the investment decisions of mobile asset holders. and the economy« y Global. research. has generated new political constituencies for left-of-center parties among the increasing ranks of the economically insecure that offset the shrinking of the manufacturing working class balance of power b/w left and right remain. has increased political incentives for left-wing parties to pursue economic policies that redistribute wealth and risk in favor of those adversely affected by market dislocations relationship between left-labor power and big government has not weakened with market integration. y Governance from Below: Challenging the State Chapter 34: Chapter 35: Chapter 30 (Section): Governance From Below-Challenging the State . political. roads. Global.1) Very specific and relates to new growth theory government investments in infrastructure (bridges. education. etc) 2) More general and central to claims about social democratic corporatism policies that redistribute market allocations of wealth and risk are unlikely to provoke capital flight among asset holders. Evidence: There are three basic propositions about the interrelationships among globalization. partisan politics.