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Embryology Lecture 1: from fertilization to the first week

Today  Embryological terminology • Fertilization • Blastocyst formation • The embryonic disc
 Implantation

Terminology Embryo: To grow within: within the egg for a reptile and within the uterus for a mammal Embryology: humans – first 8 weeks. Embryonic period: is the first 8 weeks, crucial time when the 4 tissue types are being formed – forming organs. Fetal period: from 9 weeks to birth: getting maturation of the structures – and they develop further. Most differentiation has also occurred. Teratogen: as the embryonic period is the most critical time – most susceptible to agents from the environment that disrupts development. Agents from the environment that disrupt normal embryological development DNA is arranged in chromosomes in humans  Since all cells have the same genetic makeup, it implies that all cells are derived from a common cell  One cell – is actually made from the fusion of two cells: a spermatozoa and am egg cell: to form a zygote (a fertilised egg)  Is a special cell as this cell has the capacity to form every other cell in the body: totipotent  It does so by a series of mitotic divisions  BUT: mitosis is not the only method – as this would double the number of chromosomes in each cell  Therefore meiosis occurs (reduction division)  Occurs in the gonads to form the gonads – gametogenesis  A fertilised egg is very large (0.2 mm) – can see it with a naked eye. WHY? as it will go through many cell divisions rapidly: needs a lot of stored organelles and materials  Are accumulated in the ooecyte through the process of oogenesis and gametogenesis making the ooecyte a large cell  Spermatozoa are tiny? WHY? Because the sperm moves! – need to deliver the genetic material to the site of fertilisation: and need to travel large directions. There are also many of them Results of fertilisation  Can tell it is a fertilized zygote as it contains pronuclei (one from the sperm and from an ooecyte  DNa replication takes place inside the pronuclei – and the pronuclei fuse together to reform the actual zygote and restore dipliody (46 chrom)  Sex is determined at this time: the ooecyte has an x chromosome, and the sperm may carry an x or a y chromosome  Within 24 hours. The ooecyte undergoes mitosis: called cleavage – frst three cell dvivisions  Each cell is known as a blastomere: a precursor cell. Embryology notes Aditya Eranki

4 – 8. proteins and excess organelles stored in the oocyte.  Takes place in the uterine tube. which is a gelly layer which surrounds the oocyte – and forms with the ooecyte in the ovary 2. CLEAVAGE divisions produce a solid ball of cells called the MORULA  By three days. and still encompassed in the zona pellucidiia. and enters the uterine cavity during this stage 3. CLEAVAGE DIVISIONS produce a ONE LAYERED embryo  The first few mitotic divisions are called cleavage divisions. 1. have a solid ball of cells called a morula that have become compacted and are developed a polarized phenotype  This occurs through ¾ cleavage divisions.  Till the 8 cell stage.CLEAVAGE TO IMPLANTATION: Embryogenesis 1 What are the mechanisms involved in embryogenisis:  As discussed before. that two regions are now identifiable – upon the formation of the blastocyst  The BLASTULA cavity begins to form in the interior at 5 days  Contains fluid that is absorbed from the uterine cavity environment that displaces the cells to the outside  The fluid filled cavity is called the blastocoele  After the third division. and within 24 hours the embryo has started to undergo a cleavage division – 2.  Each cleavage cell has occurred to reduce the daughter cell as the original zygote was VERY large  This can occur because the daughter cells can initially use the mRNA”s. transforming it into a BLASTOCYST  NOTE. and have a polarised phenotype where the nucleus is basal and the organelles are apical – is important as the polarisation allows the Embryology notes Aditya Eranki . mitosis is one  The processes have inputs from the environment: induction mechanisms: cells that send signals  Have cavity formation: to form tubes that is done by the pumping of fluid to form cavities  Cell migration: the movement of cells from one part to another  Folding: rearrange flat layers into tubes within tubes. These have taken place without increase in size of the embryo. the cells are loosely arranged. the cells become tightly adhered. a CAVITY forms within the MORULA.

).which diffuses to nourish the embryo By day 10..   development of the next stage: some cells become the embryo blast (body of the individuall) and others are the tropoblast (which forms placenta) An outer tropoblast (forms the embryonic part of the placenta Forms an inner cell mass (ICM) which forms the body of the embryo. it needs to hatch from the zona pellucida (that surrounds the blastocyst. called the syncytiotropoblast. WHY? because the tropoblast must interact with the endometrium – it exposes the tropoblast to the endometrial lining of the uterine cavity  The embryo secretes a product that bores a hole in the zona pellucida and the embryo squeezes out (5 days)  Implants in the posterior uterine wall (or in the fundus). called tropoblastic lacuna and they are filled with uterine milk. The outer layer looses the cell membranes and becomes a mss of cytoplasm with nuclei. the ICM is also starting to differentiate (discuss later) By day 9 –spaces begin to form in the syn. (cells from this area) Still has the zona pellucida. the tropoblast starts to differentiate into two layers. endometrium grows over the site        Embryology notes Aditya Eranki . Starts implanting at about day 6     The chorion: originates from the combination of the tropoblast and ICM Amnion : from the inner cell mass Placenta: from the tropoblast. implantation is complete. the mitotic divisions continue until the daughter cell is about the same size as normal cells .tropoblast. and during this time.> and from now the embryo starts to grow in size  4. Day 6 – the blastocyst is making attachment of the endometrium. Is derived from the underlying layer of the tropoblast now called the cytotropoblast: as the cells here remain as cells and don’t “melt” The syncytiotropoblast secrete enzymes that erode way the endometrium and glands – the glands contain uterine milk – nourishment Also signals the mother that maintain structure of the endometrium and stop menstrual bleed The endometrial layer increases in thickness in preparation for implantation each month The image has been rotated 90 degrees clockwise => At the same time that the tropoblast has differentiated. IMPLANTATION  The next stage – the blastocyst implants into the uterus  Before it does this.

 Cells derived from the yolk sac form the primordial germ cells – and also form the blood cells. END result? The dorsal central axis is established Extra embryonic development  Note: that implantation is actually completed during this period: the endometrium totally covers the embryo at the end of the second week  Simultaneously another layer also forms at 12 days that is CRUCIAL for subsequent development  Called the extra embryonic mesoderm (whose origin is unknown).  Differentiation (two layers) termed a bilaminar embryo  Lower layer: hypoblast lines the blastocoele cavity  Upper layer called the epiblast  Fluid filled space fills the epiblast called the amniotic cavity – more and more fluid – a layer of epiblast cells is displaced and form the amniotic membrane. This is also known as the chorionic cavity.Topic 2: Embryonic and Extra embryonic development • Epiblast formation – the embryonic disc • Gastrulation • Notochord development Embryonic development: formation of the TWO layered embryo from the completion of implant  FROM DAY 8: at the same time. It is outside the embryo.  Migrates around and fills the space between the cytotropoblast and the yolk sac. and also eventually covers the amnion also  Spaces form in the extra embryonic mesoderm – forming a large cavity (extra embryonic caelom). (NOTE: the fetus is actually enclosed in the amniotic membrane) and the AM grows  The embryonic disk is bilaminar – epiblast is continuous with the amniotic membrane  Hypoblast migrates around the inside of the blastocoele cavity and forms the primary yolk sack. there is differentiation of the ICM.as will be seen later Embryology notes Aditya Eranki . IT GROWS VERY LARGE.

(migrates ventrally     Embryology notes Aditya Eranki . we have the bilaminar embryo with the yolk sac below and amnion below suspended in the chorionic cavity with a thick stalk of embryonic mesoderm called the connecting stalk Topic 3: Gastrulation Change from a Bilaminar to a trilaminar embryo Change the point of view (from above embryo)      Are looking at the dorsal view of an embryo By the second week. Also has dorsal and ventral (dorsal is the image) Epiblast cells are adjacent to the primitive streak start to proliferate (towards and then through the primitive groove) and fill up the space between the epiblast and the hypoblast. these are known as the primitive streak Gives the embryo bilateral symmetry: Why is this important? Tissue on the right side of the PS gives rise to the right side of the body and vice versa.SUMMARY: By the end of the second week. Also have cranial and caudal differentiation: the ends The primitive node points towards the cranial end and below is caudal. a depression /groove forms along the longitudinal midline of the embryo called primitive pit A mound forms at one end – called the primitive node Together.

skeletal muscles and the CT of the skin FAILURE to do so results in spina bifida – the vertebral coloum does not fuse in the lumbar region  BUCCOPHARYNGEAL AND CLACAL MEMBRANES Embryology notes Aditya Eranki . The epiblast cells are migrating throught he primitive streak. the mesoderm migrates cranially and laterally – forming different structures. epiblast cells now fill in the space between the newly formed endoderm and the epiblast and is called the mesoderm The bilaminar embryo becomes trilaminar (during the third week) The non migrating epiblast becomes known as the ectoderm SUMMARY: first wave – endoderm second wave – mesoderm and non migrating called ectoderm – form the four primary tissue types that make up the body. NOTOCORD? Induces changes in the other tissues Induces the ectoderm over it to form nervous tissue. Forms then endotherm Then. and initially they replace the hypoblast which is displaced laterally and lining the yolk sack. It also induces the mesoderm adjacent to it form somites which then form the vertebral column. Notochord formation:  Same view as before (looking at the dorsal view) from the amnion  Looking at the wave of migration of mesoderm  As the epiblast cells move down.  The epiblast that migrates down the primitive pit and forms the mesoderm migrates cranially along the central axis of the embryo. To form the notochord!  Now looking at a sagital section of the embryo The migrating epiblast cells that form the notochord join up with the underlying mesoderm and eventually detach and form a rod      a transverse section (cranial end) the notochord has already formed At the caudal end has not already forms Therefore is growing in length by adding from the cranial – caudal sequence.     .

parts of the face and jaw The neural tube forms the CNS => the brain and the spinal cord.  the migration of the mesoderm fills up the space between the ectoderm and mesoderm EXCEPT the cranial end (depression where the ectoderm endoderm are adhered). and form the cloacal membrane (anal/genital/urinary opening) Embryology Topic 4: germ layer and folding  Neural tube formation and its derivatives • Development of the mesoderm including Somites formation and body cavity Formation • Embryonic folding and formation of gut Tube Process of folding causes some of the endoderm to be incorporated into the body of the embryo to form some of the gut Formation of the neural tube: fate of ectoderm        This is a transverse section. This is called the BCmembrane (forms the mouth) At the caudal end. the endoderm and the ectoderm are also adhered. they eventually start to fuse in the middle in the middle forming a TUBE called the neural tube which is the bases of the CNS The tube closes up cranially and then caudally last – to form a complete tube Along the tips of the folds are neural crest cells: which separate once the tube is formed and form a flattened mass (as you can see =>) over the top of the tube to form the PNS. looking at the dorsal view The notochord sends signals to the overlying ectoderm to thicken and form neural plate – particularly in the cranial region AS the ectoderm thickens. it goes into waves – folds and between the two folds is a depression called the neural groove At the top of the crest are neural crest cells As the folds form. The neural crest cell separates leaving the surface ectoderm fusing and forming the epidermis layer of the cell   Embryology notes Aditya Eranki .

some of the endoderm that is lining the yolk sac is incorporated into the body of the embryo (more later) and forms the gut tube Mesoderm development Embryology notes Aditya Eranki .Neural tube. The neuroectocderm (neural tube in the cranial region is a lot more thick as you can notice). Occurs late week 3 Have neural plate formation – grow into waves – neural folds fuse together – proceed cranially and caudally – and two opening remain – cranial and caudal neuropore – spina bifida and exencephaly A saggital cross  Note: the mesoderm is starting to form block like structures – somites !!! (later)  While the ectoderm is forming the neural tube – this occurs at the same time  NOTE: discussed separately.  As a result.  End of week 4 / beginning of week 5  Notice: that the cranial regions is growing faster than he caudal region (the neuralectoderm) causes the embryo to do a head – tail fold.different view   We are looking at a dorsal view (directly).

.        Taking place at the same time as the neural tube As soon as the mesoderm forms.Towards the end of the week 3 – start to see fluid filled spaces within the lateral plate mesoderm which eventually fuse to form a horseshoe shaped cavity that runs around the embryo – its called the intra embryonic coelom and this gives rise to three cavities – peritoneal.note that the somites are forming as blocks. it starts to differentiate into block and sheet line structure Differentiates into Block like structures: somites – form in a cranial and caudal sequence (cranially and caudally). they differentiate into three regions. The cells of the dermatome migrate around innervating the various parts of the skin – forming a segmented pattern downwards in stripes. the sclerotome.. The vertebrae are segmented . \ Can date an embryo by number of somites present Next to (paraxial) the notochord – have the paraxial mesoderm – forms somtes The intermediate mesoderm – next to somites – forms urinary and gentital system Lateral plate mesoderm give srise to most of smooth muscle.The parietal layer and the overlying ectoderm form the body wall Embryology notes Aditya Eranki . cist CT and the cardiovascular system (the cranial to the oral membrane). The heart starts of in front of your mouth – folding moves heart SOMITES  AS the somites start to form . pleural and pericardial cavities. dermatome. NOTE: that the nerves from the neural tube follow the segmented pattern as well Lateral plate mesoderm: The mesoderm that is lateral to the somites .  Sclerotome (hard): forms the vertebrae and the ribs It migrates and surrounds the neural tube. CONSERVED through evolution – ribs also segmented  Myotome (muscle) forms the skeletal muscles of the body – the mass of cells migrate around . Again – these are segmented  Dermatome: forming the dermis (CT) of the skin. .The IEC (intra embseolom) separates the mesoderm now into to two layers – the visceral layer and the parietal layer . forming the body wall.The visceral layer with the underlying endoderm form the organs that make up the gut and the resp tract . myotome. thus forming the vertebrae.

AS it folds.With the head tail folding. and the parietal layer will be on outside of the inside cavity CONTEXT => in the adult: the visceral peritoneum lines the organs.Note that the heart bulge is in front of the buccopharyngeal membrane (mouth) . the heart is caudal to the mouth Embryology notes Aditya Eranki .- When it folds. part of the endoderm that is on the ventral surface (lines the yolk sac) is incorporated to the inside of the embryo forming the gut tube . it folds towards the ventral surface so the visceral layer is going to be on the outside. FOLDS VENTRALLY . The aural and cloacal membrane are still fused – but in week 5 they open and there is a continuous tube from the BC membrane/ amnion to the cloacal membrane – neural canal .Has a foregut (bounded by the BC membrane).parietal lines the walls. - - EMBRYONIC FOLDING The rapid development of the mesoderm and the ectoderm forming the neural rube causes the embryo to fold – folds towards the ventral surface There is also a lateral fold – by the end of the fourth week.The rapid growth of the ectoderm growing especial rapidly at the ectoderm to form the neural tube causes a head and tail fold. Both take place at the same side HEAD TAIL FOLDING (with the pictures) .Is best viewed in a saggital section => . and the hindgut bounded by cloacal membrane and a midgut still continuous with the yolk sac.

The CT is formed from the mesoderm. Embryology notes Aditya Eranki . part of the endoderm lining the yolk sac is incorporated inside the embryo to form the gut tube and runs the length of the embryo . . that the organs grow off the Gut.The edges of all three germ layers grow rapidly in a ventral direction causing the embryo to do a lateral fold towards the ventral surface.The endoderm forms the LINING of the digestive system (epithelium).This is best viewed from a transverse cross section .Lateral folding . AND the epithelium components of the accessory organs.AS a result. Remember.

Peritoneum is on the side of the Embryology notes Aditya Eranki .- The IM celom forms a cavity.is the peritoneal cavity in the diagram. The body wall is the parietal peritoneum and the visceria.