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Assessment of Assumptions in SLR

1. Linearity: There is a real linear relationship between the mean response and the explanatory variable. Assessment: Scatterplot of Y vs. X: Look for a linear pattern! Non-Linearity
Mortality (Y) vs. Wine (X)
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Linearity
log(Mortality) vs. log(Wine)
2.4 2.2

10

2.0 1.8

8

1.6 1.4
6

1.2

MORTALIT

LNMORT

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1.0 .8 .6 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 Rsq = 0.7384

2 0 20 40 60 80

Rsq = 0.5559

WINE

LNWINE

Assessment: Scatterplot of Y vs.2. Lack of Equal Variability Scatterplot Dependent Variable: Y 8 2 Equal Variability seems Satisfied Scatterplot Dependent Variable: LNY Regression Standardized Residual Regression Standardized Residual 6 1 4 0 2 -1 0 -2 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Regression Standardized Predicted Value Regression Standardized Predicted Value . Fitted Values: Look for an equal spread about the horizontal line at zero. X: Check for roughly the same spread about a line across all values of X. Scatterplot of Residuals vs. Equal Variability: The spread of the responses about the line is the same at all levels of the explanatory variable.

Normality: At any fixed X.3. Assessment: Check study design. . Assessment: Normal Probability Plots: Look for an increasing linear pattern. 4. the response variable is normally distributed centered on the line. Independence: All responses are independent on one another.

Y vs. lnY vs.An Illustration On Original Scale: In the scatterplot of Y vs. The scatterplot of residuals confirms the lack of equal variability. X the assumptions of linearity and equal variability appear to be violated. X the assumptions of linearity and equal variability appear to be satisfied. X 3000 8 2000 Scatterplot Dependent Variable: Y Regression Standardized Residual 6 1000 4 2 0 0 Y -1000 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 X Regression Standardized Predicted Value After a log transformation in Y: In the scatterplot of Y vs. X 8 2 Scatterplot Dependent Variable: LNY Regression Standardized Residual 6 4 1 2 0 0 -1 -2 -2 LNY -4 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 X Regression Standardized Predicted Value . The residual plot confirms the equal variability assumption.

0 -.5 -3.5 0.0 Scatterplot Dependent Variable: LNMORT Regression Standardized Residual 1.8 .0 .5 -1.5 -2.0 Regression Standardized Predicted Value Regression Standardized Predicted Value .0 -1.0 2.0 1.0 3.6 1.0 -1.8 8 1. log(Mortality) vs. log(X): The assumptions appear to be satisfied.0 -1.5 0.5 3.5 4. X: Non-linearity and Unequal Variability Mortality (Y) vs.7384 2 0 20 40 60 80 Rsq = 0.5 -1.0 .0 .0 -.0 1.6 1. Wine Consumption Y vs.0 -2.5 -2.5 -2.5 2.5 0.0 .2 MORTALIT LNMORT 4 1. log(Wine) 2.5 Regression Standardized Residual 1.4 6 1.0 1.5 1.0 -2.5559 WINE LNWINE Scatterplot Dependent Variable: MORTALIT 2.4 2. Wine (X) 12 log(Y) vs.5 1.Example 2: Heart Disease Mortality vs.5 -1.5 0.0 .5 1.5 Rsq = 0.0 4.5 -1.0 -1.0 -.2 10 2.0 2.5 1.0 -.

20 .5 .1 .3 .40 DOSE DOSE .4 .10 .0 .Example 3 SLR Fit 40 Separate Means (SM or I-Means) Fit 40 30 30 20 20 BPDROP BPDROP 10 10 0 N= 6 6 6 0 0.2 .