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Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................................. I LIST OF TABLES .........................................................................................

.................................. I LIST OF FIGURES ...................................................................................................................... III ABSTRACT…………………………………………….……………………………………….IV 摘 要……………………………………………………..……………………………………….V CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Preface ......................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Background to study .................................................................................................... 1 1.3 Statement of Problem .................................................................................................. 2 1.4 Purpose of Study.......................................................................................................... 2 1.5 Research Objective ...................................................................................................... 4 1.6 Significance of the Study............................................................................................. 5 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................ 7 2.1 Volunteer, volunteering ............................................................................................... 7 2.2 Altruism and Caring .................................................................................................... 9 2.3 Motivation ................................................................................................................. 10
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2.4 Development of factor sub-groups ............................................................................ 12 2.4.1 VME (Volunteer Motivational Effort) Index ......................................................... 12 2.4.2 VMI History ........................................................................................................... 12 2.5 Volunteer motivations ............................................................................................... 13 2.5.1 Learning and understanding (or 知識與學習)........................................................ 13 2.5.2 Environmental Concern (環境關懷) ...................................................................... 14 2.5.3 Utilization of the Environment (環境利用) ........................................................... 15 2.5.4 Values (價值觀) ..................................................................................................... 15 2.5.5 Career and business (事業)..................................................................................... 16 2.5.6 Social Participation (社交參與) ............................................................................. 17 2.5.7 Organization -identification (組織) ........................................................................ 17 2.5.8 Personal (個人因素) ............................................................................................... 18 2.6 Participation in the Environment ............................................................................... 18 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................ 29 3.1 Questionnaire survey ................................................................................................. 29 3.2 Interviewing ............................................................................................................... 29 3.3 Analysis of Results .................................................................................................... 30

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3.4 Pretest ........................................................................................................................ 30 3.5 Expert review ............................................................................................................. 31 3.6 Survey administration ................................................................................................ 32 3.7 Coding ....................................................................................................................... 32 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS .............................................................................................................. 34 4.1 Quantitative analysis.................................................................................................. 34 4.1.1 Ranked survey items ............................................................................................... 35 4.1.2 Education comparison ............................................................................................ 36 4.1.3 Number of interests ................................................................................................ 37 4.2 Statistically significant data presentation .................................................................. 39 4.2.1 Career orientation by age in Taiwan (p=0.057) ...................................................... 41 4.2.2 Organization orientation by age in Taiwan (p=0.024) ........................................... 42 4.2.3 Career orientation by age in Canada....................................................................... 44 4.2.4 Social orientation by length of participation in Canada ......................................... 44 4.2.5 User orientation by length of participation in Canada ............................................ 45 4.2.6 Personal orientation by gender in Taiwan (p=0.041) ............................................. 46 4.2.7 Personal orientation as meaningful comparison cross culture (p = .04) ................. 47 4.3 Hypothesis testing...................................................................................................... 48
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................................ REFERENCES ................................ 53 4.......3..........................3... 58 CHAPTER 5..6 Social orientation will be significantly different cross-culture .........3.........................................4.................3........ 49 4.....7 Organization orientation will be similar cross-culture .............................................................3.........4.......................3...............................................3...... 53 4.....................3 Environmental concern orientation will vary with education levels ............. 54 4...1 Analysis of means for open ended statements ............................................. 60 CHAPTER 6..............................................................2 Discussion of first question ........... 55 4...4 Career orientation will vary significantly across cultures ................ 56 4.... 74 A..............8 User orientation will have interesting cross culture comparison ............... 51 4................. 54 4............................... 55 4......9 Discussion of Government and Religion .............3 Discussion of question two ...1 Females will represent majority of sample ..................................................4 Discussion of question three ............................................. CONCLUSION...1 Progress of survey statements and factor selection ............................................ 53 4.............................................................................5 Environmental concern orientation will be a top priority.......................................... 74 IV ....................................................................................... 54 4................................................ 64 APPENDIX A .....................2 Actualization will encourage social participation orientation .....................4.......3.... 51 4........3.............................................. 58 4..........................4 Qualitative Results ..4.............................4.............

.........................7 Expert review handout (中文) ..................9 Volunteer Function Inventory: Clary....... Snyder......................... country mean statement value and discussion .6 Interview summaries .........................................................................10 Factor Labels.......14 Website blog.. 112 A.... 111 A..........................................A.......................... Stukas.... 74 A...............18 Expert review participants Chinese language majority) ......13 Preliminary handheld survey brochure .......................................... contact card etc.. 93 A............................ 83 A........8 Reference Statistics .. 93 A.......... downloadable PDF of survey........4 Verbatim.................................................. 110 A....... 2001 .............. 88 A............................................................. Individual Scale Items: Miles.......................... 78 A.. 86 A............... 78 A...19 Author Dedications………………………………………......... 94 A............ 112 A....………………………112 V ......................... Kuo...................5 Likerton value ranked statement mean values by country and discussion ..............................................................................12 Further comments .....11 Open ended questions from final survey ......................................................... online survey...................3 Comparison of volunteer motivational indices .............. Sullivan.2 Survey History .............................................................. 93 A..........................

............................05 ........ 47 Table 20: Cross culture independent t-test results for personal orientation ....................................................................................... 44 Table 13: ANOVA table for different length groupings on social orientation variable ...................... 39 Table 6: Results from SPSS calculations of 8 Taiwanese motivation orientations and demographic variables sig< 0............................................................................................ 36 Table 4: describing the number of different subjects of interest selected for environmental volunteering participation ........... advanced degree participants on country orientation ........................................................................... 41 Table 9: ANOVA table for different age groups on organization orientation variable ................................................ 35 Table 3: Demographic composition of high school...................... 48 I .... 47 Table 21: Cross culture mean values .... 45 Table 15: ANOVA table for different length of participation groups on user of the environment orientation variable .......................... 44 Table 12: Sample variance post hoc composite analysis career orientation ......................................................................................................................... college................................................................................................................. 46 Table 18: Independent t-test results for personal orientation................................ 41 Table 8: Sample variance post hoc composite analysis career orientation ........................................ 42 Table 11: ANOVA table for different age groups on career orientation variable ...... 42 Table 10: Sample variance post hoc composite analysis and organization orientation ................................05 .................................................................... 46 Table 19: Mean values by gender ............................................ 45 Table 14: Sample variance post hoc composite analysis of social orientation ... 38 Table 5: Results from SPSS calculations of 8 Canadian motivation orientations and demographic variables sig< 0........................................ gender in Taiwan ....List of Tables Table 1: Independent and interdependent cultural traits ……………………………………….....27 Table 2: Rank order of global orientation...... 46 Table 16: Sample variance post hoc composite analysis user of the environment orientation...................................... combined and per country ................................... 40 Table 7: ANOVA table for different age groups on learning and understanding orientation variable .........................................

............ response categorization by orientation ............................. 50 Table 24: Country orientation compared gender composition and education mean score ............................................. 56 Table 26: Open-ended question two........ response categorization by orientation . 57 Table 27: Open-ended question three.........Table 22: Definition and measurement of variables ..... 58 II ............ 51 Table 25: Open-ended question one............. response categorization by orientation ........ 48 Table 23: Global mean orientation values for Canadian gender comparison .............................................................

5 Figure 3: The motivation process………………………………………………………..… 52 Figure 6: Environment concern orientation by education in Taiwan scatter plot diagram….…….…52 III .List of Figures Figure 1: Social capital benefits……………………………………………………………….………… 20 Figure 5: Environment concern orientation by education in Canada scatter plot diagram….....……… 6 Figure 4: Australia research symposium presentation slide…………………………..….… 3 Figure 2: Research process utilized in project………………………………………….

sustainability will soon require expensive remediation techniques therefore looking out for future generations as stewards for our environment requires proactive effort. This study is unique in the comparing of cultures for environmental volunteer motivations. however in Taiwan. one of learning and understanding. IV . Finally. there were six demographic questions used as the independent variable to more closely asses the differences between county populations. demonstrates shared reasons as well as important differences in the reasons people participate. An online questionnaire using a likert scale measuring the statement “I volunteer because…” quantitatively compares countries using single factor ANOVA and independent t-tests as well as subgroup ranking. Ending the survey was five open ended questions which when categorized into the eight different subscales confirmed the findings from the statistical analysis. By comparing these motivations between Taiwan and Canada. Methodology includes a comprehensive literature review to understand the complex nature of environment. and their motivations before combining them into a cross culture comparison. By participating in an environmental organization an individual can act towards an environmental concern that they find meaningful and important. Significant differences between countries were found in post-hoc analysis for the personal subgroup. understanding why people are involved and motivated to participate is essential to encouraging this movement. in addition age varied significantly within the career subgroup. (a country lacking in environmental volunteer motivational research) demonstrates a new priority for volunteering.Abstract Environmental problems are becoming systemic. environmental issues are very important to solve from grassroots participation. Because of the nature of the problem. Results discovered reconfirmed environmental concern being a priority. Discussion with local active volunteers and managers of different environmental organizations from Taiwan is essential to understanding the results of this study. volunteers.

”等類似的問題,並使用李克特量尺來表示動機的強度。問卷調查數據分別以單一 參數變異數分析、t-test,以及各類型動機的強度排序來加以解讀。問卷最後並提供開放 性問題,以輔佐驗證問卷調查的結果。 數據分析結果如預期,以不分國家的志工整體而言,”環境關切”為志工參與環境保 護之最主要動機。然而分國別的數據分析結果卻顯示,台灣群組以環境問題及環保知識的” 瞭解與學習”為最主要的參與動機。研究結果也發現,人口統計因子對於志工參與動機有 不同程度的影響,其中年齡因子對於”職場發展”這個參與動機的影響具有統計之顯著性。 本研究結果可以做為志工招募以及志工團體管理之參考。志工團體加強環境保護知 識的教導與學習,不但可以提高參與動機,同時也可以縮短志工之間環保認知的差異,以 凝聚團體共識,提高持續參與之動機。 V . 摘 要 環境問題近年來已成為世界各國所共同關注的議題,環境問題的解決,除了需要公 部門的政策與管理之外,也需要社會大眾的參與。因此,環保志工在環境問題的解決具有 關鍵性的影響,而對於志工參與環境保護動機的瞭解,則有助於志工招募,以及既有志工 的持續參與。本研究透過文獻回顧、問卷調查、專家諮詢,以及針對志工團體負責人的深 度訪談等方法,探討台灣與加拿大志工參與環境保護動機的差異,以瞭解文化因素在志工 參與動機上影響的顯著性。問卷調查使用網際網路進行,內容包含”我參與環保志工因 為…….Results from this study can encourage youth to become active volunteers. teaching and sharing specific knowledge during the volunteer process might well assist in personal differences being less prominent and more cohesive.

Chapter 1: Introduction 1. While others like restoration activities and recycling programs may take years to see tangible results but can create a sense of helplessness. career & business. traditional choices. Volunteers have a grassroots connection for creating meaningful and lasting change that empowers communities and brings important participation to tasks that are essential to environmental protection and conservation. personal efficacy. provide a model for analysis 1 . environmental concern. active volunteers. For example. became inspired by the concepts learned in a textbook or had a sense of ownership based on their immediate surroundings. often unseen results and therefore counter-intuitive acts of philanthropy? Over the years many may have dealt with first-hand accounts of environmental destruction. environmental utilization. motivations to participate. and organization. value orientation. People who are active as volunteers deserve to be understood and have their motivations clearly expressed. 1.2 Background to study Defining terms surrounding the topics of the environment. but there are also standard. and the eight chosen orientations used to define them. social participation. These different ways to participate in the environment are always growing in variety.1 Preface Why are there so many people worldwide who participate in Environmental volunteering and consider themselves stewards of the environment? What really drives people to continue when work produces such non-immediate. learning and understanding. beach-cleanups can be quick and educational in terms of what trash is coming from and provide satisfaction in seeing change. The environmental movement is clearly in need of caring individuals who are well represented and understood this study will assist their actions and develop their meaningful intentions for participation.

however our position as a part of the solution is only becoming more convoluted. age. remediation and conservation. By learning how active members express their knowledge and frustrations towards environmental protection. as well as number of interests within participation. In studying why people participate in ENGOs (Environmental Non Government Organization) we can open doors for the reasons missing for those not participating. environmental job or not. and additional knowledge will [help to] assist managers in their understanding. 2007). 2007). recruitment and retention of individuals and groups who volunteers for their organizations" (Bruyere & Rappe. Basically. and this continuing study is important to learning how motivations grow and change. We need more understanding "so that [we] might build and organize [more] programs around those same motivations and expectations"(Bruyere & Rappe. In Al Gore‟s opinion the vast amount of stewards needed to make an impact in solving the climate crisis. differences found between cultures can be adapted to the multi-cultural makeup of most organizations and create forecasting trends for changing demographics environments and environmental issues. 1. gender. we can compare the differences and acknowledge the capability it holds to get others to voice their concerns and speak louder than ever.using demographics comparing by county. Volunteering Canada describes 2 . 2007). education.3 Statement of Problem Environmental issues are growing exponentially along with people‟s understanding. 1. Effectively. because of the great benefits and spin-offs. is similar to a battle “because up to now there is no precedent for the mobilization required and the closest example has been when nations mobilize for war” (Walsh. with their actions. volunteering “is currently an area insufficiently studied. length of participation.4 Purpose of Study Volunteer satisfaction creates long term reliable human capital that can mutually coexist with the organization to create positive change.

We associate giving. however it is not just a one sided affair. helping and assisting with volunteering. is a benefit that is continuous and expansive. they are demonstrating responsibility for the world we live in and believe our personal actions can make a difference. Figure 1: Social capital benefits Volunteering is a vital part of social capital as it opens doors for people suffering from inclusion.volunteering which adds value to not-for-profit organisations. By understanding why people are participating in environmental volunteer activity can help to enable more public participation. by doing one’s part. There is a cost and a benefit to participation and those who invest more are generally considered to be more of a volunteer (Handy. it strengthens and it‟s worth billions to the community. 3 . Broadly speaking those with any type of volunteering experience would agree the return of time and effort ten-fold. volunteers take on a big task. movements and groups that want to act independently from government or other sources of funding must rely on volunteers. By partnering with ecological principles to assist the environment. 2000). creates opportunities for the disenfranchised and gives back to those in need. it builds community by delivering a service free of charge which has enormous spin off effects. donating.

volunteering is an essential element of all societies"2. Canada affirmed and supported the Universal Declaration on Volunteering adopted by I. altruistic and unselfish ideals.iave. It is established idea that when people are aware of the consequences often they will act on this knowledge. 1. It is a process and also a series of influential factors that may positively and negatively affect the experience of volunteering.A.E (The International Association for Volunteer Effort) which states "volunteering is a fundamental building block of civil society. unwilling. Volunteering because of its unforced nature is demanding of willing participants who have positive values. remains a cyclical building block for community. it alters their behavior to become more responsible on a daily level. the idea that one good deed deserves another. this will assist in creating a clear and unbiased voice for volunteer‟s motivations.5 Research Objective The hypothesis remains there will be differences between the Canadian and Taiwanese environmental volunteers because people are motivated for different reasons. With this result clearer incentives can be discovered for volunteer organizations to advertise and encourage the unknowing. furthermore people able to educate consumers about responsible choices and lifestyles options. Through comparison of an extremely dense and education-rich country with a sparsely populated 2 The International Association for Volunteer Effort accessed 2009 <www.V. It brings to life the noblest aspirations of humankind . By passing it on. marginalized parts of society to become empowered to participate. therefore education formal and informal can break the systemic waste cycle of modern living (Nolan. opportunity.org> 4 .the pursuit of peace.Taiwan in 2001 promulgated the Volunteer Service Act while in 2002. safety and justice for all people…. freedom. 2010). We need stewards of the natural world in every community as much as we need public participation and citizens to challenge irresponsible and non-sustainable behavior by industry from the bottom up.at the dawn of the new millennium.

Comments surrounding people‟s reasons in helping the environment are grouped and themed to develop Maslow‟s (Durbin. understanding of the similarities and differences to how Canadians and Taiwanese utilize this time is what can and will affect greater and meaningful avenues for participation. 2004) model of motivation.6 Significance of the Study Volunteering is increasing due to many factors in the last decade. so “as both the need for and the frequency of volunteering for natural resources agencies increase so does the need for managers to effectively manage and 5 . Figure 2: Research process utilized in project 1. in the information age there is no better way to learn than through hands-on experience. our hobbies and pastimes have been exponentially increasing.naturally resource-rich country. “until the 1970s there was no concept of the nonprofit. later and earlier environmental histories it can be argued that the volunteer movement rose simultaneously with environmental concern (an established public priority in Canada). but when did this citizen shift take place? Can it coexist with such as pollute -first clean up later mentality that exists with capitalism? Really. There is a rising dependence on volunteers for natural resource areas where limited budgets are being strained with increased use and anthropogenic pollution. 2003) and research surrounding this „Independent Sector‟ forming as an organization in 1980. Since the invention of leisure time and unemployment. which states the simple concept of basic necessities being met. voluntary or third sector” (Hodgkinson & Painter.

half of national populations already participate in some „form‟ of volunteering. can be purposeful and change-orientated. who capable of achieving great things. this altruism connects people. By realizing needs and wants from participant‟s perspectives. 2007). like social activism. Motivation for service providing managerial perspective is essential.4 Organized groups bring together like-minded people. Citizens are offsetting the project budgets by giving volunteering labor. Volunteering. this searching behavior is more understood which is essential for the multitude of ENGOs running today. well understood assists in the creation of fulfillment.retain their volunteers and understand why people donate their time” (Bruyere & Rappe. Figure 3: The motivation process 6 . and can be directed at influencing agendasetting. By comparing demographically. it is the responsibility of the present generation to create a more sustainable tomorrow. bridges gaps of the information age and really does what caring and neighborly people have always done. this drive towards action. a significant and unique feature in this study for ENGOs. policy-making. with similar values. decision-making and representation.

then increasing [environmental awareness] is an output that the volunteer values” (Handy. „many critiques have mentioned that the Western conception of nonprofit differs from the eastern conception‟. 1982) states that volunteering is the giving of time and talents to deliver service and perform with no direct financial compensation expected. 2000) and each organization really is a variation of this public benefit which is concerned with an issue. some would call this globalization. values. but „social services in an era of privatization by governments‟ along with and corporations deteriorating local communities fabric have created a strong need for NGO development and social activism in all forms (Hodgkinson & Painter. only a few pertinent papers have been published to date. 2003).B White wrote “I arise every morning torn between the desire to improve the world and the desire to enjoy it. Much of the literature found is dominated by Western-thought. mainly due to tax laws and political freedoms which developed later on. economic structures and wealth distribution. unpaid. Yet. to donating and caring. People participate in volunteer work in the face of substantial obstacles. involves interactions with strangers and needs to be sought after. with a religious undertone of tithing (biblical act) where ten percent of your salary is philanthropically donated. Furthermore volunteer motivation has been extensively researched however from such a unique perspective of the environmental volunteer.Chapter 2: Literature Review E. therefore must include some very compelling psychological reasons for engagement‟ (Clary. But what constitutes a volunteer activity? If the individual volunteers in an “activity that increases [environmental awareness] in the community. the institutional divisions of labor. 2006). volunteering The President‟s Task Force on Private Sector Initiatives (UNDP.1 Volunteer. The meaning of volunteer in English stems well past the idea of free willed giving.it is „effortful. while the Red-Cross and UNDP have both argued that legal and political factors influence volunteering along with socio-cultural characteristics. time consuming. beliefs. traditions and other norms. 7 . 2. 1996). This makes the day hard to plan” (Kennedy.

the higher the public perceived valuation of the volunteer” (Handy. It is an extension of being a good neighbor. It is offering time. 2000). energy and skills of one's own free will. without remuneration but their acts will benefit others” (Handy. instead. Handy assumes that „most volunteers are not purely altruistic. private benefits like. enjoyment and meeting new people. self-gratification and confidence in doing something right. they wish to enhance public affairs to improve social welfare for the ancillary services. Attending the International Association for Volunteer Effort Conference. labour. availability of rewards (remuneration). formal organization. a presenter suggested that volunteering started in as the Industrial Revolution. 2009). They don‟t need remuneration. to the more psychological ones of pride and ownership. limited leisure time has concluded that “informal and episodic volunteering is [more] prevalent in developing countries where socio-economic conditions consume time otherwise available for formal volunteering” (CSGVP. experience. physical. technical [ability] and time [commitment]. A volunteer is an act which is „free willing. It is this point which enables motivational research to look beyond the actual benefits in terms of fun. and acknowledge the fact that they benefit from the volunteer experience (or else they would soon quit). and there are four key dimensions: free will. 2000). not on personal obligations or liability and sincerely contribute to society by knowledge. “People are free will[ed]. 8 . Whomever “accrues more net costs is more of „a volunteer‟ so the higher the net cost … the higher the individual‟s perceived contribution. social interaction and leisure activity.There is a long history of non-formal „real community‟ organizations but due to chronic unpaid overtime in Taiwan. a sense of satisfaction from working to support ones cause.” Volunteering is the most fundamental act of citizenship and philanthropy in our society. Handy (2003) discusses the range of benefits that a volunteer can choose from. social status and opportunities (reputation) improvement of earning capabilities. The profit hypothesis from the serious leisure perspective asks why people continue to pursue something when the costs to the individual seem to outweigh the benefits. and proximity to the beneficiaries. Skills gained such as team-work and practical real-life knowledge and experience provide lasting benefit to the volunteer. and consequently. and a good feeling about oneself (warm glow).

Schwartz‟s (1977) norm-activation theory.2 Altruism and Caring „Where we find organizations and communities that have active volunteering. as people become involved in the improvement of their surroundings and choose to help others. essentially the author states those who feel the most responsible are the ones that do something about it.volunteer. that is. While Weigel 4 Volunteer Canada. one‟s own well-being). volunteers decrease suffering and disparity.5 Dunn (1995). suggested that volunteering is attitude for social responsibility of action. self-esteem and change their lives. other humans‟ well-being. the individual values (nature. By caring and contributing to change. an important antecedent to pro-environmental behavior is the activation of a personal moral norm. This activation takes place when the individual perceives environmental conditions that threaten something. 2. Meaningful action as the message speaks louder than words. 2010).ca/en/volunteerism Accessed.com> Accessed. enhance their own. we also find healthy organizations and communities‟ (Rentsch: <volunteeringaustralia. in return. This ecological rationality really brings home the ideas of volunteering. 1992). which originally was an explanation of altruistic behavior but has been extended to pro-environmental behavior states.transforming a collection of houses into a community. 9 . 2009). that by establishing norms and principles about collective action and individually aiding in this societal effort we are able to make a difference and however small it is meaningful. People work to improve the lives of their neighbors and. while they gain skills. The process of volunteering is very dynamic and peoples motivations for action and participation are always changing are volunteers holding “previously held values… or socialized by the volunteer experience? The answer is likely to be complex” (Sundeen. 2008. the individual is aware of environmental problems (Nordlund. www.

Motivations are psychologically developed through relating to and seeing their position in their world around them (Taipei interview). and by example. they by helping to end thoughtless or deliberate waste and destruction” Kofi Annan. describes that women haven‟t had careers in the historical sense and have more free time as a result. Realistically. additionally women are socialized to be nurturing and caring individuals which are keys components in volunteering. The antithesis of being motivated is remaining static. and family obligations. being too busy to seek it out and having little influence to encourage us. Will environmental volunteers have a greater behavioral change necessary to make a contribution in a real issue for keys to successful participation? Typically it has been understood that at least in an historical sense well-to do (or well-educated) women are the ones who volunteer. our human nature blames access to the issue.(1978) thinks the ecological crisis is a crisis of maladaptive behavior which is the long run is incompatible. and claiming being conditioned to accept „the situation‟ as inevitable. Inglehart (1995) argues that a post-materialism shift is in order. Motivation arises from unsatisfied needs closely associated with action but they can trigger behavior or energize a person to perform un-habitual 10 . something everyone is not always socialized to feel comfortable in. Motivation refers to the psychological processes that direct.. Continually.3 Motivation "Every individual has an obligation and an interest in changing outlooks. Grant (2003) describes motivation as a foundational topic in psychology and organizational studies because it develops the reasons that drive actions and the understanding of motivation is central to explaining both individual and organizational behavior. 1999). a basic prerequisite to motivation is basic needs being satisfied. respectively may have socio-economic implications and volunteering is effortful and unpaid. motivation to volunteer involves outgoing personality characteristics for interaction with strangers (Clary et al. energize and sustain action. health problems. 2. on an everyday level we do voluntary and positive things that indirectly or directly help something. Latta (2001). transportation. through education. its social normative citizenry. Patterns of consumption and waste behavior create a wide range of conservation and pollution issues.

such as social interactions become more important for continued participation [while] altruism has shown to be an important motivation initially for volunteering” (Ryan. “people‟s motivations for performing actions are as diverse. Schwartz (1998) explains. 2001). 11 . Ryan (2008).actions to get satisfaction (Volunteering Australia.identity in a depersonalized society. complex and sustained as volunteerism and are very likely to be multifaceted (Clary & Snyder. and seniors with indirect contributions to natural resource management and the environment as well. but that is dependent upon the perspective to which one subscribes”. not because I have to‟ and with this their involvement becomes that much more meaningful. people engage in volunteering to satisfy important personal and social. Clary has through an extensive review of motivation in many fields such as health care. this might be why religious volunteering is so successful because likeminded people already are grouped and established with shared values. Organizations have similar motives already. motivations being fulfilled predicts commitment to volunteering according to the same study. By not being paid the participant says through their action „I am doing this because I want to. Motivational psychology works with basic needs being met before self. Clary & Synder (1999) produced and refined the Volunteer Functions Inventory (VFI). helping others). the more committed they will be to committing their time and continuing their work”. and psychological needs and goals. 2007). basically those “who considered a function to be important [are] those who perceived that they had received great benefits related to that function” along with this vital detail. 2008). Edmond (2004) quotes “the more people believe in the purpose of an organization. with an opportunity for self. Indeed. demonstrates that “self-interested motivations. students. personality.actualization. therefore different individuals have unique and different motivations. “because of the very nature of volunteering (self-determined behavior) the assumption is that the motives for such would be fairly obvious (ex. The motivational function has underlying attitudes and beliefs to how people perceive their progress and success in volunteering. It can also stem from doing what‟s expected of them when thinking about civic or familial identity. Motivations are developed in the volunteer process.

hand-on experience and sharing. Understanding and Learning means to gain new skills. (See Appendix. giving back. it might be useful for cross culture comparison. and competing commitments. there benefits participants derive from this type volunteering is also limited. factors were narrowed down to eight composite subgroups. Career development in making contacts and gain professional experience and networking. using characteristics from previous. Religion/ government are for personal or spiritual beliefs pertaining to legislation and lifestyle affiliation. personal motivation. 2. lifestyle changes.4. for the benefit of community and one‟s neighborhood. the user of the environment.1 VME (Volunteer Motivational Effort) IndexThe major motivations for environmental volunteers are defined by Esmond (2001): Concern for the Environment demands a future outlook.4 Development of factor sub-groups From an extensive literature review. social networks. Social Interaction from a shared interest.4. request. perspective. Self. Values are concerns. Recognition is public appreciation and community respect.2. compassion and innate appreciation for the way things are done. including efficacy. one can participate as a group member.enhancement/ Protective /Personal growth/ Esteem feelings of guilt are lessened with involvement. and a pro-environmental attitude. The elements of religion and government –although through expert review were stated as non-environmental volunteer motivations. Clary (1999) differed with 12 . Community Awareness Reciprocity where one leads by example. with shared values. Martinez & McMullin (2004) discussed the history of VMI using six concepts. for further adaptations of the Index) 2.2 VMI History VMI (the Volunteer Motivational Index) research is limited in an outdoor setting.

1995)” (Latta. in their study which was closely modeled for this project. Clary et al. were 25 themes that were created from open-ended questions. Issues that are important to the participant give them a chance to reflect and commit by returning to a student-like position. While from a management perspective this done successfully will most likely encourage repeat behavior.5 Volunteer motivations The present study consists of volunteer motivational index questions combined with past studies findings and their developments. 1983. Latta (2001) describes that the theory of Volunteer Motivation states that self- interestedness is their primary reason for volunteering and that they remain mostly unaware of the broader social ramifications of their actions. “越教越樂" (survey respondent. social.5. Volunteers motivations are dynamic and interconnected and “volunteers may be more willing to extend a volunteer commitment if the experience is satisfying and fulfilling and a satisfied volunteer is more committed to the volunteer experience. service learning and citizenship education is vital to the community at large because “the ability to use and develop new skills [provides] an opportunity to increase 13 . 1984. 2008).esteem and values.1 Learning and understanding (or 知識與學習) "The pre-condition for any meaningful participation should be to allow those who are affected to have access to the information" (Ma Jun. while most recently Bruyere & Rappe. 2009). „Getting outside‟ as a new theme “provide an opportunity to simply be in nature. Omoto & Synder. while Ryan (2001) developed learning and helping and project organization. 1998. (Wilson. Frances. (2007) developed „user of the environment‟ and „getting outside‟ as two important factors or concepts particular to the environmental volunteer. Factors that became categorical subgroups for the final survey are described in detail in terms of literature relevance: 2. 2. away from the home or workplace and in a setting with open spaces and natural sounds‟…keeping projects relevant to their recreational needs. 2001). and career.

1994). Volunteer activities differ in the learning opportunities they provide. 2007). to show participants what is really happening from a technical point of view. thereby satisfying an intellectual curiosity about the world in general and the social world in particular an expression and practice and learning of skills or knowledge” (Bruyere & Rappe. 1 Canadian National Research Council: <www. concern as a function of daily life is becoming a reality and environmental literacy is only expanding. from all previous studies it was to be the number one concern because participants want to express their concern and do so through volunteering.knowledge of the world and practice skills that might otherwise go unpracticed…a chance for self-development. By initiating participation. 2009 14 . Fundamentally. one must have empathy in order to initiate action in the environmental sector because “pro-environmental behavior and therefore environmental intention is positively associated with biospheric values” (Schultz.nrc-cnrc. 1999). Schwartz (1998) shows that from a volunteer perspective concern is an internalized moral norm.5.gc. and how we can help and results that happen. Environmental concern is growing in popularity through mainstream media campaigns and a world transitioning into green economy. learning a variety of life” (Clary. This category captures the idea that people volunteer because they have certain interest in bringing greater awareness to the field of environmental protection and grassroots action.”1 It is important and also expected of environmental volunteers.2 Environmental Concern (環境關懷) “More than ever before. the volunteer has an opportunity to learn more about how the environment works with practical real-life experiences. 2. Therefore this subgroup category involves simple values and norms surrounding the welfare of the natural world which remains a precondition for becoming an environmental steward. grounded in values that are concerned with the welfare of others. Canadians are concerned about the environment. parallels can be drawn of its requirement relative to nature‟s degradation.ca> Accessed. volunteer work may provide new insights into the people they have contact with. this really should encourage environmental managers to demonstrate understanding. “understanding is a knowledge function.

Value is defined by Schultz (1998) as “a belief pertaining to desirable end states or modes of conduct that transcends specific situations. Many people pride themselves on being able to put 15 . 2006). Campbell & Christie (2003).2.5. The use of the environment from an anthropocentric point of view is that nature is there to serve man‟s purposes. people in Australia have been experiencing “drought for many years and are [now] all aware of the necessity to consider alternatives” (Randle. 2. which might enrich their future recreational experience.” Values are meaningful. guides selection or evaluation of behavior. By enhancing the activities they already enjoy doing they are mutually reinforcing leisure activities and the natural world. and is ordered by importance relative to other values to form a system of value priorities.3 Utilization of the Environment (環境利用) “In every walk with nature one receives far more than he seeks” (John Muir). 2000). because of its innate moral quality. Use of Environment stems essentially from NIMBY (not in my backyard) where participants are able to improve an area that they use or enjoy. A theme throughout past literature reviews showed a strong emphasis on people‟s desire for a „chance to be outdoors‟ for many people this might mean “volunteers are more interested in being active participants than reflective observers” (Grese et al.5. in some way we can use these species to feel attached a sense of purpose and place and for tourism volunteers and to have a nice holiday at the same time. which can help promote the cause as well as how people use the environment. the kinds of action you don‟t need to question as right or wrong. describe our connection to a flagship species with a expression of humans‟ role as stewards of nature. people or events.4 Values (價值觀) “It is horrifying that we have to fight our own government to save the environment” (Ansell Adams). Mainstream issues have made more people aware of intense extreme events and climate change issues. yet this subgroups main point is both using and protecting for the purpose of retaining some quality and preserving it for future use.

and issues. Career motivated participants are there to explore and experience new things as a function related to their career and personal future business contacts. In North America we are encourage to develop our portfolio or resume 16 . and how are they connected. achievement and self-direction may be universal. This outlook is basically individually driven where the seeking and motivation to volunteer is to create. situations. 2009). while (Huang & Yore. utilitarian.5 Career and business (事業) “Most environmental organizations are overworked and underfunded. (2003) ensure that values are relatively stable (biospheric values included) because values transcend objects. From Campbell (2006) and Christie (2003) who describe seven value categories such as naturalistic/ outdoor. values are more abstract yet more durable than attitudes and behaviors. Clary (1999) thinks compassion or concern for others is what separates the volunteer from the nonvolunteer. moral or existence. Furthermore.their values into actions and with this gain self-worth and feel better about themselves. 2. Being associated with something that is philanthropic and charity based is a positive element in any business relationship. aesthetic. humanitarian values contribute to society. develop and establish connections for work related topics. the kinds of values possessed and expressed for nature and wildlife concern are much more diverse. which are the objects of „specialized attachment‟ and humanistic values. cultural/ symbolic and historical which include the way that wildlife may reflect personal or group identity. scientific. concern. therefore people have strong affection for individual species because of their anthropogenic or historical significance. If I can assist in the continual development of the environmental sector with my time and skills than I will” (Open ended statement. willingness to act. shows volunteer values involve all concerns and encompasses a great range of value choices. the functional model conceives of such behavior as serving a value which is an expressive function for the individual. Association with strangers is a good way to be introduced to new areas and opportunities for potential career development and many volunteers initial motivation may simply be as a form of investment in their career portfolio. However. they describe when volunteer activity is based on altruistic concerns for others in need. Although fundamental human values such as security. ecological.5. whereas attitudes are subject to these factors. Latta (2001).

2. 17 . and do something positive and worthwhile with your own friends and family. it is commonly understood that experience counts. while there is individual choice and self-perception. To know that your time is valuable and used wisely assures confidence in the organization. 2. and social motives which help predict satisfaction with service.5. social expectations.5. maintaining an image for a volunteer group is vital for public perception and reputable service towards to the environment. These factors being acknowledged may create long term volunteers because volunteering is a socially enforced and group activity.with volunteer activities. Organization identification is an important facet to an environmental volunteer due to the project-like basis for most environmental work.7 Organization -identification (組織) “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful committed citizens can change the world. Clary (1999) thinks by reestablishing camaraderie and creating a fun and positive atmosphere can create social rewards. but also to be well-organized gives opportunity to build on other areas of the volunteer experience. it's the only thing that ever has” (Margaret Mead). and without experience you cannot really get experience. Being in a well-managed group lead by a competent well-communicated team leader can make or break participant‟s experience. Participation is an opportunity to meet others who share similar ideas and values. so volunteer is the link to a good first job opportunity stating you have personal initiative and a willingness to try new things.6 Social Participation (社交參與) Doing work that has meaning with friends enables you to gain respect and prevent inclusion from those minorities that may be socially isolated. While Schultz (1998) develops there are contextual and individual variables in the process of socialization within a volunteer agency. This is an interesting motive because a well known organization is also one that is well funded and has successful history of results in the community. which and avoids social disproval. indeed.

Citizen awareness is based on education. Defining the difference between the environmental volunteer and the non-environmental volunteer can demonstrate those who actively participate in the environmental movement hold certain core values and experiences. Enhancement and reflection.5. it remains important because each individual has their own „personal‟ ideas for volunteering as well as a unique dynamic process as a part of their participation. and the 18 . and religion and government were also factors from previous volunteer motivational studies which retained some meaning for this study. Also from a personal perspective is these unique characteristics can vary cross-culturally. and when I hear the coyote wailing to the yellow dawn. where nature may heal and give strength to body and soul” (John Muir). An environmentalist can be someone that knowledgeable about world affairs as well as environmental issues and acts to support „green‟ behaviors. This view was particularly strong in developing nations. 2001). the phenomena of outdoors participation requires fewer roadblocks. I seek relief in the trail. places to play in and pray in. behavioral changes have not.2. It is well established that public attention compared with actual behavior is skewed: „a number of studies showing that although environmental issues and environmental concern have hit the public agenda. to guilt alleviation etc. with fewer barriers for entry than ever before. from protection to esteem. This sub-group that is a combination of several different ideas and concepts from previous studies. my cares fall from me .8 Personal (個人因素) “Whenever the pressure of our complex city life thins my blood and numbs my brain.6 Participation in the Environment “Everybody needs beauty as well as bread. therefore addressing volunteering recruitment to those already concerned may contribute to greater motivational fulfillment.I am happy” (Hamlin Garland). or not to the same extent‟ (Castro. 2. There has been a close association between environmentalism and citizenship noted by Furman & Erdur (1999) in a worldwide survey where individual citizens and citizen groups were frequently seen as being primarily responsible for protecting the environment and being able to play an effective role in solving environmental problems. where work and school.

there is a value shift occurring in both China and Western countries. 19 . cleaning up. As a result. conserving energy. conserving water. they are actually deeply immersed in the dominant social paradigm that depicts growth as the higher value.commute between create disconnect. Although Canada has seen an increase in environmental awareness. Simply by giving lip service to environmental protection. and surveying. Schultz (1998) shows pro- environmental behaviors may be recycling. This could be a convergence point with respect to humans‟ relationship with nature. the majority population have been dedicated to growth and growth with no restraint. These pro-growth attitudes have obscured concerns with the minority holding environmental issues as priority. with the traditional Chinese worldview of a harmonious relationship between humans and nature decreasing since 1948 and especially since the 1980s (Huang & Yore. when a special effort is made to purchase products that are environmental friendly. Research from self-reported environmental behavior and concepts of citizenry bring light to the nonprofit sector with an Australian volunteer recruitment advertisement where “Conservation Volunteers” welcomes people with a love of the outdoors and interest in the environment to take part as a Volunteer. 2003). Schultz (1994) shows the negative relationship between authoritarianism and environmental concern should decline and reverse over the years as the new environmental paradigm gains acceptance. Conventionality suggests that one tries to follow traditional practices and hold traditional attitudes therefore retaining some heritage and sense of identity. the traditional human-nature relationship in China has diminished. using public transport. whereas environmental volunteering can be monitoring. interpretation. where natural laws and limits to growth will force this attitude as quality of life to diminish and people return to valuing quality instead of quantity. throughout much of the history of the USA. with this in mind. training.

Pride in your 20 .materialist values in the later part of the century and in recent decades (Gelissen. it is with these historical attributes that a concern is born. and arise only after individuals have met their more basic materialist needs for food. the emergence of environmental concern in the past thirty years is due to a shift from materialist values which were widespread in the early part of the century.Figure 4: Australia research symposium presentation slide Inglehart (1990) developed a theoretical model to explain people‟s environmental attitudes. liberty. This development of pro-environmental behavior also stems from lessons by a mentor and can grow by witnessing habitat alternation which can lead to meaningful experiences. and safety. literature reviews have all shown that enjoyment of nature and positive hands-on experience. shelter. Environmental attitudes remain a basis for volunteer motivational behavior. much like Maslow‟s model of motivation. toward post. 2007). and environmental protection. which are generally captured under the heading of post-materialist values. Further. lead to personalization of the environment. This model holds that concern for quality-of-life issues such as free speech.

protecting basic needs while finding a sense of place within the natural world. but from concern for the greater good and are generally „just trying to do what needs to get done‟. found that television was the most important source of environmental education for Taiwanese and Canadian students in grade 5. Many people participate in the environment not out of a sense for themselves. People as a species are genetically predisposed to being surrounded by the natural world hence existing without it has cause for drastic. the lack of outdoors experience from too much TV and computer time might be a key lesson not being taught. form reasons for participation. by adopting the institution‟s mission a strong sense of group dedication is comparable individualistic sense of pride and selfless concern that is associated with environmental participation as a whole. people are gregarious and work well with others given the right opportunity (Taipei Interview). nonhuman organisms. Some people might have a passion for a specific cause and not actually see that their role in it makes a difference. Huang & Yore (2003). Cultures have historically encoded relationships among individuals and society. Speculatively. universal. or biological characteristics. and the environment and requires that fundamental relationships with the rhythms of life not to be dismantled.community as well as positive association with recreational areas. and being taught to be a part of the natural world can go a long way to participating in environmental protection on a daily level from eco-therapy to eco-education. By further developing and extending your own self of self. long-term physiological consequences. it is this identification to cultural and natural elements that create a sense of ownership over time. 21 . learning to identify with what makes you really happy. The New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) is a kind of old-school new-school worldview because the NEP when adopted encourages real participation within nature. TV is an interesting source of information for today‟s culture that can influence perceptions and conceptions about the environment. one can continue to be challenged and become more involved. Elementary education of nature appreciation and fundamental ecology remain important areas for validating and understanding ones place within the modern world as well Stern (1993) shows through a value analysis of pro-environment behavior it can be argued on a broad scale that concern for others or with the biosphere may well derive from cultural and social-structural factors rather than any innate.

value-laden factor. is one of. It does not only serve us. 2008) are vital and are considered part environmental concern. which stems from aesthetic restoration and personal empowerment. remains outdoor volunteer‟s basic motivation‟. what we are doing to it is wrong. enabling sustaining orientation further initiative. identifying with and participating together with those who also feel water protection is essential to human survival. As a third generation of „polluters‟ are being raised the question posed to all environmental participants. can we understand the problems future generations will face and place preventative measures in the way of further degradation? Pollution in Taiwan is on a much 22 . „This positive perception is the psychological benefit‟ of having the opportunity to do something good for the environment. the earth does matter and in the name of all things good. 2002). 2007) or a sense local pride (B. This fundamental concern is based on tangible results. So from this humanistic perspective.F. personally witnessing habitat loss and through inspiration with mentors and becoming a part of the natural environment all encourage volunteer participation. However the anthropocentric worldview isn‟t opposed biocentrism because value as we know it. all real belief comes from being human. it is not alive to meet our ends. Understanding the normative values of the environmentalist is important. part „user‟ in the present study‟s sub grouping. Through the direct loss of pristine environment (a hands-on feeling) the biocentric individual is somebody who sees nature with pristine worth. because „while it is generally acknowledged that volunteers are extremely heterogeneous certain key factors hold environmentalists together‟ (Brussell & Forbes. Schwartz (1999) talks about positive outdoors experiences.S.. we are human and therefore we see everything as „people‟ first. all leading to one‟s sense of effectiveness. a future to the ecological and biological world as first and foremost in the face of our changing world. furthers the idea that people volunteer because they want to do something that embraces the natural world which gives them so much. and it is by no means limitless in our present generations view point.Randle (2006) discovered significant attitudinal and behavioral differences are identified with environmental volunteers compared to non-environmental volunteers speaking more for the idea that values and knowledge factors are important in determining those that volunteer environmentally. Bruyere & Rappe (2007) describe „being out in nature. a sense of loss. Findings of „strong regional attachment‟ (Bruyere & Rappe. what we can value is to be human in the natural world.A.

climate change.7 Cultural comparison “One touch of nature makes the whole world kin” (William Shakespeare). Taiwan has the fourth highest per capita greenhouse gas emissions after Canada.denser level and with a greater immediacy due to heavy levels of ground level air. In Mandarin to be a volunteer (meaning[ful] 義務 + work 工) has the seriousness of paid work but in the same manner a level of enthusiasm and interest of an otherwise hobby activity due to the personal freedom attached. Taiwan makes claim for being the number one sorter of recycling (TV news network sourced). Our current economic and ecological crises have encouraged higher forms of education and training to compete in a much tougher workforce. However pollution in Canada is not so dramatic. as does the operational definition differing with translation which is not detectable with a reliability analysis. says Professor Kao Cheng-Yan (Green Party Taiwan) while explaining about the Taiwan government‟s continuing failure to take meaningful action on climate change at the Global Greens conference in Taipei. Voluntary involvement with communities fits a society which attaches high importance to notions of individual accomplishment (Day. These two issues are the roots of the present and serious environmental pandemic. but solving these complex issues depends on an important factor of dissemination of knowledge for each unique case. There is meaning attached to the construct of volunteers which differs across cultures. the entire ecosystems interconnectedness. 2. and gain knowledge and skills that can achieve higher standards and become better able to work towards transitioning into a greener economy. High-consuming and producing societies with astronomical costs of clean-up due to large industry leave the citizens without an actual cause. 2005). 2010. The Taiwan EPA was founded in 1987 with Environmental Impact Assessments law enacted in 23 . Environmental issues are never simple to explain. A history of environmental participation is vital to understanding the situation. Over-consumption problems exist in Canada while overpopulation issues are prevalent in Taiwan. desertification. Environmental altruism is occurring worldwide. However. and soil pollution. renewable energy. water. Schultz (1998) reminds us that “there is a growing realization around the world that humans are harming the natural environment”. Australia and the USA.

Tu-Wen Ling of TEAN (Taiwan Environmental Action Network) thinks. because of the lack of regulation and search for short term profits (<www. Networks are invariably light on structure and heavy on the principle of equal access. which allows any member of the net to draw on the resources of the whole (Harper‟s Magazine. she states. Taiwan‟s emissions rates have increased 4x the world‟s average (Her. public-interest activities and people-based groups were able to be transformed into advocacy-type ones and become more network oriented. and lacked opportunities for social self-actualization” (Terao. this idea remains at the heart of environmental issues (through employment). Historically NGOs are active during certain phases of a society‟s developmental process. 2008) from rapid industrialization and the „slash and burn‟ capitalism that has eroded much of the quality of life on the island‟s environment. and occasional publication. 2002). 2002). one can experience life‟s meanings and rewards. telephone. 2002). Intellectuals. “In Taiwan there was a strong latent demand for social services…but [they] emerged around the time of democratization. a social organization based on the Civil Organization Law. environmental conservation. They define non-geographic communities of interest that are maintained informally. attitude. anti-nuclear and women‟s movement. letter. 1974). Networks exist among people who share an idea. From the lifting of Martial Law to the founding of the Environmental Protection Union in 1987.iepanet. experience. the newly risen professionals welcomed the political freedom and became important driving forces for urban advocacy-type social movements. including consumer.1994. or hope. with time throughout the 1980s for public interest in environmental issues to eventually become the nation's number one concern whereas only beginning in the late 1980s were independent „social movements‟ and interest groups and organizations developed and represented the greater populous in Taiwan (Terao. but there are also high expectations that they will play the role of leading agents of „civil society‟ (Terao.org>). problem. 24 . this can be compared with Canada‟s EIAs that were formally enacted in 1973. mostly by word of mouth. without action there is no hope. involvement. Before democratization [in the late 1980s] NGOs were unable to form as organizations to assert their interests. Timely planning and regulation are sacrificed for accelerated economic development.

education for community development. Nature is supposed to serve humans in an historical context. a mastery over nature as a dominant philosophy. and actually does regarding ecology and pollution‟. In a cross-culture study Huang & Yore (2003) describe Chinese-Canadians being more supportive of social-altruistic values than are Anglo-Canadians. that „ we must know what a population knows. feels. Value orientation might be more helpful in understanding environmental concern than socio-demographic variables. well connected managers). rooted in Judeo-Christian thought. Huang & Yore.1990s. limits to growth and anti-anthropocentrism were significantly different. They have similar population levels. different populations with specific social practices and cultural traits are likely to hold different values on and attitudes towards nature or the environment. there were four New Environmental Paradigm subscales.com/watch?v=UBG-V1P9KVg&feature=related> Accessed. Western culture on the other hand can be classified with a history of anthropocentric worldviews. and Buddhism. Chinese culture can be amounted from a long tradition of eco-centric or biospheric worldviews harmony with nature which influenced by Taoism. 2008. their concept of education is creating a 'learning society' with an 'empowerment right'. However the groups are not significantly different in biospheric values. organized and led by citizens (yet entirely formed by only a few. Confucianism. where humans are above nature and is termed the dominant social paradigm (DSP) which justifies human dominion over nature. thinks. while ecocrisis and balance-of-nature were not. (2003) quote.000 members growing exponentially with 210. modernization and nationalism 5 TAIWAN OUTLOOK Community University in Taiwan_3: <http://www. This is a good model to encourage participation in the community throughout one's life. self-improvement.youtube. with independence and maximum economic growth as priorities. These two case study nations actually have a lot in common regardless of their historical differences. 25 . Jenkins (2002) describes an Eastern perspective in that all nature works by itself…and downplays the importance of invasive human intervention. and the sheer joy of learning. Therefore cross-cultural comparison of environmental attitudes is of particular importance.Taiwan's first community college ( 社 區 大 學 ) was in 1998 with 3.000 members in 2008. 5 Ru (2009) details the significant rise in the number of ENGOs in China since the mid.

In modern times where travel and lifestyle choices are very accessible.htm> Accessed. we need only to confront another one. 2003). while although Taiwan has mainland.ca/legislature/legc/statutes/volnteer. a high degree of globalization and appreciation of privileges that come from postmaterialism. multiculturalism and pluralism are different. feels and actually does…but specific social practices and cultural traits hold different values.gov. However. „one in six Canadians is an immigrant so to realize the impact of our own culture. 2010.equivalencies. little is known about the relationship between culture and environmental attitudes (Huang & Yore. only I spell it Nature. 26 . a renowned architect of the 1900s who loved both Eastern and Western cultures said I believe in God. Taiwan‟s ability to carve a rich traditional and cultural heritage with practices that are kept alive in everyday temple celebrations. Traditional values (practices) behaviors and attitudes effect what the population thinks. Both examples have positive attributes. Value orientations may be more helpful in understanding environmental concern. the majority of its population has a broad stroke of similarity and a rich-diversity and cultural melting is presently lacking in the broad sense.ns. Lunar Calendars and Taiwanese language while Canada maintains its pluralist values. As a result. Frank Lloyd Wright. aboriginal and Dutch heritage. 6 Volunteer Services Act: < http://www. abundant natural richness and vibrant arts and culture. We often view these social expectations or norms. Canada has a rich tradition of immigration and ethnic and cultural diversity. In this global village. as a negative force that imprisons people in a blind effort to perpetuate tradition‟6.

average donations to environmental organizations decreased by 18%. It supports that personally achieving something for yourself or the groups end and achievements and rewards are given to an individual or for the entire result.personal achievements and fulfillment. my rights and liberties Conformity Interdependent Social. defined by connections with others We.Table 1: Independent and interdependent cultural traits Independent Personal. balances of Independence and Interdependencies are what makes this Global Village. 34% reported increased knowledge about specific subjects like health. but in 2007 just under half of Canadians volunteered their time. Environment as a category of the volunteering sector was defined by CSGVP as 27 . energy and skills. 3% of those volunteers were for environmental work. women‟s or political issues.group goals and solidarity. criminal justice. our social responsibilities and relationships Egotism Identity is What matters Disapproves of Illustrate motto Cultures that support "to thine own self be true" "no one is an island" Collectivistic Asian and developing world Individualistic Western (Somech. The Canadian Survey of Giving. or the environment. as well following the rules is also an attribute. In Canada between 2004-2007. Volunteering and Participating (CSGVP) provides a portrait of activities that are integral to the Canadian social fabric. defined by individual traits and goals Me. With charities and non-profit organizations in 2007. The participation rate was selfreported at 20% for environmental protection activities. Being proud is not always a bad thing. 2000) The Collectivistic and Individualistic model in Table 1 is quite a common method for cross cultural analysis when dealing with the East and West.

The largest environmental protection groups consist of a Buddhist foundation is Tzu-Chi (慈濟). The largest area of involvement was Qing Nian Fu Dao Hui (青 輔會 Youth Assistance) and the total number of service hours was 9.asp> Accessed 2009 Dalton.thecoast. 28 . wages or salary for the services or assistance within the meaning of this Act.ca/halifax/religious-wars/Content?oid=1084413> Accessed 2010 9 Volunteer Service Act of Nova Scotia. and animal protection.npotech.ca/legislature/legc/statutes/volnteer. pollution control and prevention. former President of IAVE Taiwan says that Taiwan is a model country for volunteer work.230. volunteers continue to maintain the cornerstone of social security.ns. and the work of NGOs and NPOs today. Canada <http://www. to the overseas volunteers of the International Cooperation and Development Fund. of those 58. second largest is the Society of Wilderness (荒野保護協會). environmental education and health.776 were environmental volunteers. In this Act. who renders services or assistance.tw/e1-4.022.8 Chen. Two subgroups are included: environment and animal protection.org. <www. (96 年推動志願服務業務成果統計 表) of the total number (496.7 „Some Buddhist Thais recently ordained trees to protect them. ecological awareness activities and classroom activities for training and learning. All of these organizations are located in major towns and cities and provide numerous services like disaster preparedness. the third is the Community Universities (社 區大學). not in receipt of fees. Anne Marie.645 were men while 90.9 7 8 Welcome message <http://iave.134 were women. "volunteer" means any individual. Dr. From a Ministry of the Interior (MOI) report of environment volunteers in Taiwan in 2007. Taiwanese volunteers have been contributing around the world. They believe that the potential for enlightenment exists in all creatures not just humans‟.htm> Accessed 2008. From the earliest agricultural team in the Head Start Program. These are all the fruitful results of Taiwanese democratic development.276).gov. 128. and social values that we hold close to heart. as it became the first country in Asia and the second in the world to enact the Volunteer Service Act (志願服務法) in 2001 to better integrate volunteers at all levels of society and make the best use of available resources.including organizations promoting and providing services in environmental conservation.

and cross-cultural studies of environmental behaviors (Huang & Yore. Most of the important methodology has been from Clary (1999) physiological motivations to volunteer.. 2003). Interesting questions involving environmental concern. However.. The research question is complex. 2007). Hypotheses are based on literature reviewing and interviewing for qualitative analysis of active participants in environmental volunteering in Taiwan. See Appendix for interview summaries. and career differences help to explain the nature of volunteering today. The interviews developed relationships with ENGO managers and participants which led to questionnaire participants. helps the participant understand that they are acting as a result of this idea.. environmental volunteering is relatively new area of study while cross culture environmental volunteer motivations is a completely new area of research so previous methods of analysis remain with independent countries. Using an established orientation model. but priorities surrounding cross culture motivations and similarities and differences will help asses this topic. phone calls and personal visits were a general tactic for testing themes and concepts of volunteering motivations. cross-cultural. and helps connect the physiological. 29 . this was further developed with environmental studies later (Bruyere & Rappe. finishing the statement: I volunteer because. 3. Bridging the gaps in research in this area as well as language barriers attached to any crosscountry study proved challenging.1 Questionnaire survey The survey has been based on previous studies of a similar nature. Informal discussions were the majority of pre-testing research. demographic variables are measured and quantitative analyzed. education. emails. and volunteer fields of study.2 Interviewing One on one discussion is a very important part of the development of researchable ideas.Chapter 3: Methodology The study of volunteer motivation is well established sector of research. 3. environmental.

Mandarin language (Taiwanese) volunteers had an 80% „return rate‟ where of the 60 who started the survey a total of 48 completed it. education (high school. age. college. local river protection groups.3. There are six factors based on Bruyere & Rappe‟s (2007) study of 'Identifying the Motivations of Environmental Volunteers‟ which was used because of the functional approach methodology and because it focused on outdoor volunteering. (See Appendix for Survey questions evolution and examples of results. This annual event is held internationally in September and provided an event that 30 . Tests included one-way and two-way ANOVA to compare demographic questions as all respondents were required to answer questions about the extent of their volunteer activity (length of participation). and advanced degree). Firstly. the difficulties faced were usually organizational based such as clear coding and building databases of answers. 2007) on seven of the eight orientations (sub-groups) being used so pre-test factor analysis were not conducted.) The survey was then taken by Clean Up the World (originating in Australia in early 2000) participants. and beach cleaners. English language (Canadian) volunteers had a 71 % „return rate‟ where of the 55 who started the survey a total of 39 completed it. As well during pretesting it was established that it would be difficult to conduct formalized testing in-person therefore electronic surveying was established. The final questionnaire included more than one.hundred participants. the survey was administered with classmates. Pretesting was done to really understand the process of surveying and formal questionnaires. and areas of interest.3 Analysis of Results Analysis of collected categorical survey data used appropriate statistical methods in SPSS and Excel to test the results of the final version of the questionnaire. however the survey went through rigorous pretesting and numerous trial surveys.4 Pretest Factor analysis was previously conducted during other studies on Environmental Volunteer Motivations (Bruyere & Rappe. 3. The questionnaire was further modified based on interviews with local volunteers and expert reviewing. while independent T-tests were used to compare countries across global sub-groups score as well as gender. The survey was then modified to include some questions such as value based questions such as religion and government for cross culture comparison.

this was not considered as a suggestion.1 我可 以透過參與志工活動來觀察與了解大自然 2. Reviewer 5 suggested changing the wording that was used as 2. scale. The purpose of review was to establish a survey in Mandarin which had not been done before and to help with the translatable ideas and concepts. Homemakers Union(主婦聯盟). Taiwan Environmental Protection Union Tainan City Chapter(台灣環境保護聯盟台南市分會).could be compared directly cross culture. Evolution of survey went from 6 to 10 to 8 factors and 16-40-32-39 statements respectively. this after numerous attempts for feedback from cold emailing with no response. 3. It was distributed to hundreds of participants in Halifax. however as a cross cultural study. Interesting suggestions were made for groups that should be contacted for volunteer participants such as the Society of Wilderness Protection Association ( 荒 野 保 護 協 會 ). associating environmental protection with religion is not appropriate.5 Expert review Expert review consisted of a list of environmental professionals (See appendix) from contacts of the author‟s advisor. Using a five-point scale (1= strongly agree to 5= strongly disagree). Canada and Chi-Gu Taiwan. Essential comments were received concerning survey format. however because there is a long history of eco-tourism and flagship species protecting the area that is their greater habitat. Wild Bird Society of Tainan City (台南市野鳥學會). (where the author has familiar concepts of) as a quick five minute questionnaire. understanding of the cultural and therefore religious motivations become very pertinent.1 I can observe and understand nature through volunteer work. Reviewer 2 said that 宗教性仰與環保結合不宜. Reviewer 2 said that 休閒 活動似乎較不適宜 as a leisure activity is not suitable to category however as a statement not a category this was useful from a serious leisure angle. Three different reviewers asked for changes of 經常旅行非環保 because travel is not often and environmental act. Twenty-five self-addressed stamped envelopes were sent to well-established environmental professionals. each participant rated each item. the return rate was substantial. which made the statement much clearer and readable. sentence structure and word order. 31 .

which led to using survey-monkey. Those who left their contact email did so for incentive to win an audio-book and receive results from this survey. SOW (Society of Wilderness). Facebook groups and Twitter (online networking interface) profiles were also used. Groups were recruited based on assess to events or email lists. NSEN (Nova Scotia Environmental Network) and the „Sustainable Maritimes‟ email list-serve (online news feed interface). 3. TEIN (Taiwan Environmental Information Network).3..6 Survey administration Initially.) this is included in the test to characterize the number of different areas that volunteers are involved or interested in. Work in Taiwan with BSFA (Black Face Spoonbill (conservation) Association). RCEN (Canadian Environmental Network) ACAP (Atlantic Costal Action Program). an online tool that provided excellent market research software. the web survey as an electronic questionnaire was built by hand and proved difficult to edit and modify. managers would send out the advertisement of the survey to their volunteers. The sampling strategy of the web based survey was advertising the web-link to the survey with a brief explanation of the paperless project. remediation. There are eight independent categorical subgroups or factors that are compared cross-culturally after being 32 . if they answered 'never' then they were deleted from the database. The quality of the sample was assured due to questions of how long the participants have been volunteers. dual-language and comments boxes to give and receive feedback. education.. when discussing mean scores a lower mean score represents higher agreeability as strongly agree represents 1 and strongly disagree represents 5. The sampling method employed for this study was a non-random deliberate convenience sampling. which upon building a trust-base. Online searches of active environmental organizations were conducted and some led to fruitful relationships.7 Coding In the current and final draft of the survey coding consists of 38 closed statements with ranges from 1-5 on a Likert scale. In Canada the EAC (Ecology Action center) Planet Friendly. Five questions surrounding demographics as well as one descriptive statistic explaining the multiple areas of environmental participation (conservation. and Clean up the Coast have been useful. The website containing the survey consisted of two sections.

P= Personal. Education. There are 5 open-ended questions following the survey. Job: 2 variables (environmental sector profession. 1 to 2 years. or not). L= Learning and Understanding. and finally Length of Participation: 8 variables (-1year. S= Social Participation. C= Career.6069.tested independently using independent t-testing and one-way ANOVA using SPSS. U= Utilization of the Environment. 20-29. 5 to 10 years. advanced degree). Demographics variables begin with Gender: 2 variables (Male and Female). Protection. Awareness.70+).40-49. forever). Everyday Living). undergraduate degree. Age: 7 variables (. Interests: 6 variable (Interpretation. 2 to 5 years. 10+. which when analyzed are placed into the same 8 subgroups for themes.50-59. V= Values. Education: 3 variables (high school.20. O= Organization of the volunteer group. Conservation. 33 . Of the 8 categories E= Environmental Concern.30-39.

age. we present the results of the qualitative study. Martinez (2000). hypothesis testing will be described using part one and two‟s results. Part one will rank and order the categorical factors. Interestingly. the level of analysis will consist of individual country calculation with a post-test comparison of the results. while Taiwanese were for the majority higher (more agreeable) than Canadians. This chapter presents the findings of our investigation of the differences between Canadian and Taiwanese motivations in our sample of active environmental volunteers. In the second section. we should also recognize that these data can provide at least partial answers to important questions about the motivational processes involved in volunteerism.Chapter 4: Results Due to the uniqueness of this study. and characteristics so there is some bias. and discuss the differences and similarities between the groups. because in reality Canada and Taiwan are culturally very different. With these cautions in mind. results make it possible to compare two entirely different countries for reasons why they might be the same.1 Quantitative analysis Quantitative analysis has three parts which analyze the final questionnaire. Therefore there is not adequate room for a direct comparison of the performance of the dependent variable. comparing within Taiwanese and Canadian groups separately and discuss the differences between the groups. (see appendix). states. Part three will discuss the formulated hypothesis and each H-test validity result. Due to the mindset of respondents. there are no previous studies of which to compare results to. social status. and employment were not predictors of volunteer involvement. Part two will use one way ANOVA to check if the demographic factors have significant differences within Taiwanese and Canadian groups separately. 34 . when studying the Sierra Club discovered that only environmental concern was a factor for motivation to volunteer and found that personal values. gender. 4. is where the respondents are reporting on their own activities. In the first section. The nature of the data as Clary (1999) explains. Canadian scores were lower than Taiwanese for only seven statements. we present the descriptive statistics. It is divided into two sections.

4. make it impossible to analyze the two groups with analysis of variance.12 2.83 1.74 2.97 6 5 4 8 7 2. combined and per country Likert Global Subgroup category Learning & Understanding Environmental Concern Environment Utilization Organization Identification Social Participation Values and Belief Personal & Individual Career and Business 4 5 6 7 8 2. Table 2: Rank order of global orientation.3 3.36 2.74 1.9 2.73 2.93 rank 2 1 3 Canada Mean Value 1.75 1.68 1.07 2.1 Ranked survey items The most important motivation to volunteer as well as significant differences between Taiwan and Canada volunteer groups in terms of demographic variables is analyzed independently percountry because a general trend difference of Taiwan answers being lower overall.33 2.74 2.06 rank 1 2 5 Taiwan Mean Value 1.1.21 35 .59 1.33 2.73 rank 1 2 3 mean Value 1. therefore each country data set will be individually calculated and then compared cross-culture using the mean value for each orientation.86 4 3 6 7 8 1.35 2.15 2.21 2.

in all western literature environmental concern is the single most important factor. college.70% Advanced degree 22 40.56% University 29 53.In Taiwan environmental concern is no longer the priority. advanced degree participants on country orientation Education Taiwan N=54 High School 3 5. 3&4.97. 4. 5&6 and 7&8 respectively.17% 36 .15 for personal orientation.42% 29 60.2 Education comparison Table 3: Demographic composition of high school. The last orientation is a below neutral at 3. with environmental concern topping the list.3 mean score. as with global rank.83 while career orientation is the last ranked with a near neutral mean score of 2. In Canada the results were consistent with previous literature.74% Canada N=48 5 10. Here learning and understanding is a theme for Taiwan participant results. When combined. ranking demonstrates a strong connection as two orientations have little variation in ranking orders. values and beliefs are an interesting median point at a 2.4% 11 29.1. for example ranks 1 & 2 are reversed for each county. the individual country does not move more than in reverse order with its contrasting country. Organization is in the middle of the priorities with a mean value of 1.

Canada‟s range of interests of environmental subjects were substantial.6. with the majority of volunteers having a university level education at close to fifty-four percent.Taiwanese volunteers are composed of nearly six percent of high-school students. When comparing Taiwan and Canada composition. Canadians from this sample are composed of eleven percent high-school students and sixty percent of university level graduates. this shows that Canadians are more general in their area of environmental interests and less specific about what topic or issue it motivating them. as well there were slightly more graduates of university in Canada however there were more graduates of advanced degrees in Taiwan. 2003). 37 . "But education can also increase the chance of volunteering by heightening people‟s awareness of community problems. Taiwan participants are focused on single areas of environmental issues or concern. for the greater part most participants chose a main area of interest. while close to thirty percent of these volunteers had advanced level post-graduate degrees.1. education may help raise people's awareness to social issues and predispose them to volunteer. there were double the amount of high school student educated people in Canada.3 Number of interests From a descriptive analysis of multiple areas of interest. Education is one of the many factors influencing volunteerism. 4. but for almost half of the participants included two or more areas of interest with 25% choosing four or more issues. while those with advanced level post-graduate degrees had nearly forty percent. placing some weight on the two areas of interest. and creating a sense of civic responsibility" (Latta. however the mean value was 1. Over 64% of volunteers are interested in a single specific subject or area of interest.

6 1 2-3 4+ ̅ Canada (N=47) Taiwan demonstrated quite specific knowledge of environmental problems and issues in the open. 38 .Table 4: describing the number of different subjects of interest selected for environmental volunteering participation # of interests Taiwan (N=53) 34 64% 20 43% 15 28% 15 32% 4 7% 12 25.5 2.4 1.ended statements. in comparison the majority of participants only a single area of interest for motivation to participate as an environmental volunteer.

enviro.18 . ization Environ.13 .82 .009 .038 .4.06 .35 . Learning Social User of OrganValues Personal Career .509 .3 .036 .44 39 .002 .07 .78 .8 .009 .680 .51 .354 .82 .013 .0024 .86 .2 Statistically significant data presentation Table 5: Results from SPSS calculations of 8 Canadian motivation orientations and demographic variables sig< 0.35 .636 .535 .012 .504 .445 . partic.70 .9 concern & under.97 .412 .016 .85 .04 .46 .67 .043 .898 .85 .29 .2 .37 .044 .38 .55 .189 .87 .93 .5 T-test Education # of interests Length of Gender Work-area Canada .004 .98 .268 .05 Canada Canada Participation Canada Country Age Canada .407 .310 .

64 .334 Taiwan Length . ization Environ.44 40 .66 Age Taiwan Taiwan .92 .389 .97 .91 .897 .116 .028 .88 .94 # of interests .63 Work-area test .97 .141 .04 .73 .99 .965 .041 .05 .73 .14 .45 .27 .120 .88 .117 .51 .284 .10 .984 .5 .18 .66 .129 Taiwan Gender Taiwan .61 .Table 6: Results from SPSS calculations of 8 Taiwanese motivation orientations and demographic variables sig< 0.36 Education Taiwan .328 .46 .265 . enviro.25 .84 .89 .576 .38 .061 .3 . partic. Learning Social User of OrganValues Personal Career .73 .9 Country T- concern & under.35 .47 .526 .96 .61 .86 .

The following variables and orientations will be discussed based on their significant from results highlighted in Table 5 and 6 from right to left. 3. the overall test of ANOVA analysis indicated that four age groups differ significantly on the learning and understanding orientation. 5.Gender based on personal orientation in Taiwan.46 26 (47%) 2. 2.37 Within 52. Gender variable based global orientation in Canada.Cross culture based on personal orientation in Taiwan and Canada.46 50 1.79 6 (11%) 3.022) more agreeable with a mean score of 2.Different age groups on career orientation in Taiwan. Table 7: ANOVA table for different age group‟s learning and understanding orientation variable Source SS df 4 MS F Between 10. 8.1 Career orientation by age in Taiwan (p=0. 1.Different lengths of participation based on social orientation in Canada. 4.6 2.2.057) In terms of different age groups. 7.29 0 0 0 41 .Different lengths of participation based on organization orientation in Canada 6.Different age groups based on organization orientation in Canada 4.05 Table 8: Sample variance post hoc composite analysis career orientation Age range 60 + -18 20-30 30-40 50-60 N=37 ̅ 0 17 (31%) 2.29.Different age groups on career orientation in Canada. The post hoc analysis indicated age group 30-40 is (p=0.59 2.79 compared to age group 50-60 with a mean of 3.

with those between ages 50-60 on organization orientations. the overall test of ANOVA analysis indicated that five age groups differed significantly on the organization orientation. 42 . with those under 20 and over 60 not being represented.2. yet LSD significance (sig.2 Organization orientation by age in Taiwan (p=0.628 27.008).25 8 20-30 30-40 50-60 18 1.74.057).05) significance was for age 50-60 and 60+ (sig=0.Interestingly the sample of Taiwanese volunteers consisted of a small range.889 .74 36 The post hoc analysis indicated age 60+ is (p=0.043) high with a mean score of 2.05) was for age range 20-30 and 60+ (sig.19 8 6 1. <0.632 44 Table 10: Sample variance post hoc composite analysis and organization orientation Age range N ̅ % -18 4 2. while those who are part of a different generation perhaps vary significantly with their attachment to career oriented volunteering. In terms of different age groups. The ages of 20-30 varied significantly with those from 50-60 (p=0. <0. 0.024) Table 9: ANOVA table for different age groups on organization orientation variable Source Between Within SS 9.043).815 2. 4. The younger sampled volunteers are more interested in career orientated motivations. Tukey‟s HSD (sig.073 df 5 MS F 1.93 36 4 2.54 12 60+ 18 2.

while the age group 60+ average length of participation is 5-10 years. possibly with little experience or affiliation with an organization. This analysis can demonstrate that while searching a wellorganized group. 43 . the age groups 20-30 and 60+ composed most of the population of this group and younger age participants felt stronger about career orientation while the aged population was significantly neutral.The organization orientation was less associated to with increasing age. Those in the 20-30 age group average length of participation was 1-2 years. this orientation is a significantly important motivation for them to volunteer.

6.01 44 1. the overall test of ANOVA analysis indicated that four age groups differ significantly on the career orientation.3 Career orientation by age in Canada In terms of different age groups.2.501 51. It can be appreciated due to the changing job markets that people want to get ahead in their career.16 Table 12: Sample variance post hoc composite analysis career orientation Age range N=50 ̅ -18 20-30 30-40 50-60 60+ 4 (8%) 18 (36%) 4(8%) 6(12%0 18(36%) 2. from 20-30 and 50-60 do however consider this an important motivation. Table 11: ANOVA table for different age groups on career orientation variable Source SS df 5 MS F Between 26.2. Canadians over the age of 60 did not consider career an important motivation to volunteer. Also. preparing for retirement. with those between ages 5 on career orientation.02 2. those in younger age groups. or finding their career.02.81 1.010) high with a mean score of 1. the post hoc analysis indicated age group 4 is (p=0. The post hoc analysis indicated age group 2 is (p=0.5 4.009) high with a mean score of 2.25 2. The post hoc analysis indicated a significant 44 .21 4. the overall test of ANOVA analysis indicated that groups differ significantly on the social orientation.09 Within 5. with those between ages 5 on career orientation.4 Social orientation by length of participation in Canada In terms of different length groupings. this orientation is essential to promote to younger and middle aged volunteers.66 3.4.

48 42 . while those who volunteer „forever‟ have a mean score of 2.309 16.002) with mean score of 1. 45 . while the „forever‟ group has weak affiliation with social participation.7 With the two largest represented groups. 4. the 2-4 year age group has strong affiliation with social orientation motivations.42 on user of the environment orientation.7.16 1.86 2.86 and those who are lifelong volunteers who had a mean score of 2. the overall test of ANOVA analysis indicated that length of participation groups differ significantly on the user orientation.79 df 6 MS 1.5 User orientation by length of participation in Canada In terms of different age groups.89.5%) 10(20. Table 13: ANOVA table for different length groupings on social orientation variable Source Between Within SS 7.35 2.4 -1 year 2-4 5-10 10+ forever 5(10%) 13(26.392 Table 14: Sample variance post hoc composite analysis of social orientation Age range 1x 2x/ year N=47 ̅ 2 (5%) 2. This significance can be associated with social networks and „new things‟ being established in prior participation.2.32 2.4%) 4(8%) 13(26.5%) 2.3 F 3. The post hoc analysis LSD indicated group 2-4 years is (p= 0.difference between 2-4 years of participation (p=0. and those with lifelong participation are motivated for other reasons.41) high with a mean score of 1.

299 .42 Those who participate for longer.988 42 Table 16: Sample variance post hoc composite analysis user of the environment orientation age range 1x 2x/ year N=47 ̅ 2 (4%) 2.041) In terms of different gender groups.25 2.392 -1.87 1.31 Equal variances 4. There is a potential that those who have volunteered for long enough have met their user of the environment motivation and long-term 4.5%) 1. (2-tailed) 0.053 0.007 df 6 MS F 1.6 Personal orientation by gender in Taiwan (p=0.22 46 .404 16.977 Not assumed -2. gender in Taiwan Source F t df 53 50. Table 19: Independent t-test results for personal orientation.89 2.75 -1 year 2-4 5-10 10+ forever 5(10%) 13(26%) 10(20%) 4(8%) 13(26.335 3. the overall test of independent T-test analysis indicated that gender varied significantly on personal orientation for Taiwanese participants (p=0.041).Table 15: ANOVA table for different length of participation groups on user of the environment orientation variable Source Between Within SS 8.28 2. have significantly less affiliation with user orientation than those who have volunteered for less than four years.2.6 Sig.

1 In Taiwan.05.378 -3.2.041) between the females (60%) and males (40%).26 and Canada ̅ 2. ambition and personal history and leisure may show further differences.25 while males chose personal motivation as more important with a mean value of 2. Taiwan and Canadian significance is similar with females remaining more neutral and males answering generally more agreeable across the board.25 Male 22 (40%) 2. ideas of guilt. Independent T-tests prove that differences exist in personal orientation.579 80. Based on the means Taiwan ̅ 2.96 we can say there is significantly different across cultures.04) By identifying individually with personal differences is the crux of the issue. (2-tailed) .411 47 .656 Not assumed -3. Table 21: Cross culture independent t-test results for personal orientation Source F t df 103 Sig. the other factors with global orientation were not p >0.Table 20: Mean values by gender Gender N=55 ̅ Female 33 (60%) 2. further analysis into the idea of a translation error. there are significant differences (p=0.001 Equal variances 7.1.000 . the mean value for Taiwanese females was 2.7 Personal orientation as meaningful comparison cross culture (p = . and. 4.

a series of questions concerning the main topic of cross-culture comparison will further deepen the analysis using descriptive statistics. Table 23: Definition and measurement of variables # I Variable Female Category Explanation Stereotypical volunteer women II Education Learning and social With more education.Table 22: Cross culture mean values Taiwan N ̅ 55 2.26 Canada 50 2. One-way ANOVA participants will have strongly affiliation with environmental concern IV Culture Career Career orientation will be Independent t-test 48 .96 4. One-way ANOVA and has Analysis general Nominal been comparison makeup participants will have strongly affiliation with learning and & understanding participation III Education Environmental concern With more social education.3 Hypothesis testing From literature reviewing.

49 . well-educated. middle-class.significantly cultures V Environmental concern different across High priority will be to this Ordering category unanimously subgroup categories of VI Culture Social participation Significant differences between Independent t-test culture VII Culture Organization No significant difference Independent t-test between culture VIII Culture Environmental utilization Discussion of similarities and Demographic differences. and a housewife. Therefore. In both countries. variable comparison and qualitative results IX Culture Government religion & Independent discussed items will be Mean comparison of individual statement 4.3. Female housewives in the past have composed the typical volunteer within volunteering are typical. throughout pre-testing.1 Females will represent majority of sample Typically the volunteer as a majority is female. This hypothesis was supported because the majority of participants from Taiwan in this survey were females. males were proportionally higher than females. volunteers are be analyzed further to discover their priorities for volunteering. most people in the survey should be females.

18 2.04 2.47 2. from an initial discovery in pre-testing that women did not make up the majority of the survey participants and interesting question was raised if highly educated women are greater than men of the same level? Interesting results show.68 Environmental concern Learning and understanding Value Social participation User of the environment Organization Career Personal Category (N=23) ̅ Men 1. women are generally less agreeable while males consider value orientation to be more agreeable (Males ̅ =1.Table 17: Global mean orientation values for Canadian gender comparison Women Category (N=23) ̅ Environmental concern Learning and understanding Social participation User of the environment Organization Value Career Personal 1.05) results for every analysis of orientation shows a polarity 50 . Gender discussion. <0.59 2. women were more in favor of user of the environment than males.69 1.25 2.35 1. Canada independent t-test shows significance for every category. the volunteer‟s education level is greater for males in Taiwan and Canada.05 2.84 3.47) this is interesting because otherwise the ranking of orientations remains the same. but significant (sig.32 2.82 and Women ̅ =2.26 2.82 2. while males scores were lower.59 1. however in every other orientation women were significantly higher scoring than males.11 2.26 As we can see in Table 17.

3 Environmental concern orientation will vary with education levels The hypothesis of educational attainment in comparison with relative levels of environmental concern.in the frame of mind when writing the questionnaire. 51 .6 2. Motivations for volunteer involvement require a selfactualized individual therefore education as per country demographic variables will be greater. due to this women are generally more neutral in their responses.27 2.36 for Taiwan.2 23 23 2. 4. Due to the selfactualization model those with security needs met (higher education) will pursue development needs like social participation.93) there was no significant results discovered.3. Concern for the environment is due to positive experience reinforcing pro-environmental behavior. sig. This hypothesis is further tested for associations using scatter plot diagrams. using one-way ANOVA demonstrates a rejection of the hypothesis (sig. Table 18: Country orientation compared gender composition and education mean score Women Education ̅ Men Education ̅ Taiwanese Canadian 33 23 2.=0.=0.055 for Canada). Canada p=. stating the majority of people participating in the environment will be well-educated.2 Actualization will encourage social participation orientation This hypothesis of social participation varying with education is rejected.5 4. When scores were compared using one way ANOVA (Taiwan p=.3.25.

52 .5 3 Figure 6: Environment concern orientation by education in Taiwan scatter plot diagram As the level of education increases for Taiwan participants their level of environmental concern orientation is decreasing (becoming less agreeable). As the level of education increases for Canadian participants the environmental concern orientation increases (becomes more agreeable).5 Levels of education Figure 5: Environment concern orientation by education in Canada scatter plot diagram As the level of education increased as does the priority to environmental concern.5 3 3.5 2 Education 2.5 2 2.Canadian Participants Environmental Concern Orientation 5 4 3 2 1 1 1. Taiwan Participants Environmental concern orientation 5 4 3 2 1 1 1.

4.97). This hypothesis was not validated as entire career subgroup. This is expected to be the same given recently proven results. Having a difference in ranking of two places shows that Taiwan believes social participation is a more important motivation than 53 . this hypothesis is verified in the study due to the high significance for career related personal factor. and tied for highest rank in Canada. In Taiwan social orientation was ranked third with a mean value of 1. This fact may lie in the more traditional transmission of environmental knowledge in Taiwan. 2007). 4.9.3. Career orientation in Taiwan is ranked last with a mean value of 2.33. The main purpose of his study was the question posed if there be cross culture differences and what is the number one motivation for environmental volunteers. 4.3. In Table 22 on p.3. while in Canada most of the general concern is from an educational setting. environmental concern is the top priority for the active Environmental Volunteer (Buyere & Rappe. This hypothesis is not validated as learning and understanding was ranked as the highest value in Taiwan.73.97. social participation orientation by county there were no significant findings (p=. 46 based on T-testing global mean score. Review of literature states.6 Social orientation will be significantly different cross-culture Using independent T-tests. while in Canada it was ranked fifth with a mean value of 2. and Canada is ranked next to last with a mean value of 2. Because career is not promoted with volunteering in Taiwan like it is in Canada there will be some difference. while Taiwan becomes less agreeing to environmental concern with increasing education.Although mean scores are not significant from each other within each international group.5 Environmental concern orientation will be a top priority Environmental concern will be ranked highest. a comparison of Taiwan and Canada demonstrates some general trend line where Canada becomes more agreeing to environmental concern with educational attainment.4 Career orientation will vary significantly across cultures Significant career differences cross culture.

36.3.93 and ranked third for Canada with a mean value of 2. “It is consistent with my religious beliefs.9 Discussion of Government and Religion Value orientation first and fourth statements were concerning government and religion.Canada.7 Organization orientation will be similar cross-culture Organization was not significant cross culture (p=. interpersonal relationship status Guan-Xi 關係 and saving face 面子 are two key elements that are not part of Canadian social life as deeply as they are in Taiwan. organization identification ranked fourth in Taiwan with a mean value of 1. to participants driving force for their continued participation can demonstrate cross culture uses of the environment as well as direct gain and sources for entertainment. 4. 我的宗教因素”.83 and sixth in Canada with a mean value of 2. but not significantly.38) therefore this hypothesis is valid. 54 . Interviewing and interacting with local volunteers and as a Canadian living in Taiwan for over five years. 4. However.3. And “I think the Government's work is inefficient in helping the areas that I assist through participation 我認為政府在這方面的工作效率不彰”. while in Canada this remains an important feature in ENGO participation. Taiwan and Canada were expected to not be very different in organizational motivation as ENGOs have relatively the same histories.21. Taiwanese perhaps have less of an ownership identity with the environment. resultantly similarities should exist cross culture. Environment utilization ranked fifth for Taiwan with a mean value of 1. social participation was discovered to be quite different from Canada‟s sense participation. it helps me put my principles into action. 4. Therefore this hypothesis is not validated. this however was not a significant difference.3.8 User orientation will have interesting cross culture comparison Open ended-statements from first-hand experience with severe pollution and environmental degradation.

96) while for government they consider this a relatively more important motivation to volunteer at ( ̅ =1. 付出與分享. Taiwan participants consider government a more important reason to volunteer while they consider religious reasons less important. beneficial to my life and others.89). 當地人有使命.56). 4. .1 Analysis of means for open ended statements The first question was vital. they remain neutral ( ̅ =2. 愛地 球ˋ愛我的家鄉. a sense of place. 4. and was not included purposefully in the study because it cannot be compared in Canada. in fact Taiwan religion value was the only strongly disagreed to statement in the entire survey. as a strong motivator ( ̅ =1. the strongly disagree ( ̅ =3. 家--只有一個不能被經濟利益奪 走~! .4.我不能沒有避風港. This may be due to the idea that Taiwan has a large religious organization that volunteers for the environment. 守護我的故鄉. 接近大自然,並關懷它!知之權力,與喚醒民眾對社區之關 懷. I enjoy the survey work that I do. Taiwan participants consider participating because of government inefficiencies.83) (see appendix). participants described their most important reason to volunteer.In Taiwan. participants do not consider religion a primary reason for volunteering. Canadians consider religion to be not important reason for volunteering. and my involvement increased from that time forward.認識自己的家鄉 . 55 . 為人群服務.4 Qualitative Results Examples of user orientation related open ended statements included.我的家. seeing the ever increasing environmental degradation and pollution locally first convinced me to become involved in land use planning many years ago. spending time outdoors with a purpose. 重申守護我的故鄉. It gets me out to enjoy the outdoors.

response categorization by orientation Ranked Orientation Environmental concern Canada Ranked N (%) 11 Orientation Taiwan N (%) Environmental 9 (20.45%) Learning and understanding (14.76%) Value 7(15.76%) Organization 2(4.45%) (26.4.88%) Career 4.09%) 1 (2.88%) Personal 4(9.63%) understanding 8(18.83%) concern User of the 8(19.76%) participation 4(9.91%) Organization Social 4(9. Canadians ranking environmental concern most strongly was expected.18%) User of the environment 4(9.09%) Personal Social participation Career 4(9. 56 . while Taiwanese ranking learning & understanding as well as environmental concern top priority was also consistent with findings from the formal survey.Table 24: Open-ended question one.2 Discussion of first question #1 For Canadians environmental concern and values were strongly expressed while for Taiwanese utilization of the environmental and learning and understanding were major themes for the most important reason to volunteer.55%) 2(4.51%) environment 6 Learning and Value 9(20.27%) 2(4.

50%) participation 6(16.00%) Personal Social 7(17.00%) 57 .41%) Career 2(5.51%) 7(18.Comparatively the least important subgroup was career for both countries. Table 25: Open-ended question two.00%) Environmental concern Learning and 7(18.50%) environment 2(5.92%) Organization 8(20.00%) Career 0(0. response categorization by orientation Category Canada N=43 Category Taiwan N=37 Environmental concern User of the 4(10.92%) Value Personal Learning and understanding 3(7.92%) environment 5(12.00%) Value 5(13.11%) User of the participation 3(7.22%) 8(20. however Canada equally felt social and career were the least important which was an interesting finding because social participation was not a low ranking subgroup within the formal survey.50%) understanding 7(18.50%) Social Organization 3(8.

38%) Organization Career 58 . For Canadians a major theme was solid organization and shared values and personal factors while for Taiwanese environmental concern.00%) Career 3(9.38%) 0(0. learning and understanding as well as social participation were strongly represented and kept them continually motivated.4.81%) Personal Social 2(5.22%) environment 4(12.81%) Value 4(12.00%) 3(9.03%) Environmental concern Organization 9(28.50%) Value Social participation User of the environment Personal 4(10.75%) User of the 6(16.13%) Learning and 7(18.50%) Environmental 4(10.3 Discussion of question two #2 The driving force for continued participation in environmental volunteer activities is a relatively evenly split question. response categorization by orientation Canada N=37 Taiwan N=32 Category Category Learning and understanding 10(27.92%) understanding 6(18.81%) concern 4(10.38%) 3(9. Table 26: Open-ended question three.41%) participation 0(0.4.

felt that learning and understanding was important with organization topping the interesting project motivation.4. 59 . While uniquely for Taiwanese. Canadians however.4 Discussion of question three For open ended question #3 “the most interesting environmental protection projects I have participated in are…because…” themes that keep participants involved are continual learning and understanding. For further details please see appendix 11. Neither country considered projects interesting because of career related interests.4. „good organization‟ ensures long lasting participation.

Chapter 5. Conclusion

“Volunteers seem lightly motivated by a desire to help the environment and to learn new things in the course of their volunteer activities … programs that pay attention to these considerations may fare better in attracting and retaining volunteers, issues that are critical to the long-term success of any ecological restoration effort” (Grese et al, 2000). From previous studies during the 1990‟s we learned that “volunteers have a strong desire to make direct, tangible, positive impacts on the environment. They also seem to value the social component of volunteering (being a part of a team, developing new friendships). Furthermore, volunteers value the opportunities to learn about the environment and explore career options” (Grese et al, 2000). Because learning and understanding was ranked the most important in both countries, it can be assessed that concern for the environment is already a well-established and meaningful part of our psyche, many people can be concerned about the environment and work on it as individuals or through lifestyle changes, it did however rank second to learning and understanding for Taiwanese, while it was tied for first place with Canadians. This growing need for practical knowledge and understanding can be a key point for advertising stewardship groups, the need for people to gain something, not only encourages them to „spread the word‟ but to understand their position in relation to the issue- from a literal interpretation of this sub-group. A top priority for Taiwanese was 我認為環境保護是我們這世代最重要的工 with a mean score of 1.25, while a #1 concern for Canadians I am obliged due to my friend and family's invitation with a mean score of 4.02. People are not obliged to be responsible, very few people are actually held accountable for their environmental motivations, feeling obliged has a guilty undertone and feeling guilty about the environment is neutral in Canadians minds (Taiwanese had a significantly different mean score of 2.5 for the alleviation of personal guilt). A world without volunteers would probably also be a world where people smile less, where local communities are falling apart and where everyone does things only for money. Despite being a huge social, economic and human phenomenon, volunteering is easily overseen by people and decision-makers2. “We must celebrate the distinctive contributions of diverse forms of
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participation, both through volunteering and social activism, and draw on these experiences to create stronger and more enabling environments for people‟s participation,” 2 because there is a growing “trend for people working more hours per week… causing a deliberate need for respite from the workplace” (Ryan, 1999). Taiwanese consciously „get out‟ and be in nature, away from home or the workplace in a setting with open spaces and natural sounds. Users may be more compelled to assist with maintenance of public lands they use‟ therefore a suggestion was made for recruitment of users as volunteers. This study sought to compare the motivations for environmental volunteers and to compare the results with previous work to determine if those motivations have changed. Overall motivations remain the same as they did five and ten years ago, with some possible and minor exceptions that people are now interested in learning, and understanding their place in the environmental movement mainly due to the idea that environmental concern is now a popular and wellestablished topic and there are many informal means for environmentalists of all shapes and sized to express themselves. A valid question is asking why some people do not volunteer while others do; furthermore, why do only a small part of those who do volunteer, do so for environmental organizations, considering the fact that it is the #1 concern for Canadians as a whole and second only to learning and understanding for Taiwanese within this study? The motivations that have been expressed in this study should be made public and well-known throughout the volunteering management sectors to motivate change and participation. There is a reciprocal relationship between the volunteer and the environment movement one would not exist without the help of the other, thousands of dedicated volunteers are concerned for the greater good and strive to remediate and protect our natural landscapes. Those who participate in organized groups are well educated, as Gandhi once said, education should produce not merely educated people but people who understand their social responsibilities as integral elements in the world in which they live” (Haigh, 2000).

1

Perold, Helene. <http://www.worldvolunteerweb.org/int-l-volunteer-day/ivd-2008-news/doc/publication-launchvolunteering-and.html> Accessed 2008.

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Lastly, environmental volunteering is essential for grassroots change, changes that are happening on a daily basis which are only becoming more serious and costly. Protection of your backyard requires identification of yourself as a participant in it, education to understand your place and with this the willingness to become a responsible member of your community will be a logical and leisurely step for many who have already satisfied their personal security needs - in terms of motivation. Limitations of the study include previous volunteering studies that have had several limitations, which consisted of a single survey from a small sample size. This study used multiple sites, and ranged from long-term volunteers to environmental enthusiasts in no specific project in two nations. Although this study utilized both on-site surveys and on line surveys that were advertised through mailing lists and environmental activities list-serves as well as Facebook (see appendix). Because the final survey was only done electronically, if a balance was to be kept for comparative purposes and to keep the context fair for older and newer generations, a paper survey should also have been used, as well as having an opportunity for onsite collection in Canada would have created a larger sample size. Pre-tests and person to person interviews were conducted with Clean up the World activities in 2008 as well as personal visits and presentations to various environmental associations representing ecology and conservation, however due to language barriers and personal time constraints and distance more in-depth interviewing might have been appropriate. The level of assessment in a complex study of this manner is endless, from the assessment that has taken place, a new and comprehensive understanding of environmental volunteer motivations has taken place and we can through continued studies of volunteering try to gauge the interesting multifaceted motives involved Another limitation of the study is that there was no experimental vs. controlled population. A Ttest was needed from a control mean group so that the statistics utilized were not only descriptive, and then could be inferred to greater population. It cannot be assumed that information from this study can be generalized for the non-volunteering population; their demographics and backgrounds are easily considerably different.
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For example. 2007). however only a hundred in total were collected from the final version. 30 items would require at least 150 cases (5*30). this study includes a number of limitations which affect the generalizing ability of its results to a broader population. twice the data is required. 200 surveys were filled out in the formal questionnaire. and conclusions drawn from the larger sample of past and future studies may through comparison have interesting future conclusions. a larger sample is desirable. Sample size (larger sample ensures a larger correlation) for minimal number of cases for reliable results is more than 100 observations and since some subjects may not answer every item. a sample of 200 subjects would allow for missing data. 63 . It is however somewhat of an international extension of previous studies (Bruyere & Rappe. Like Bruyere & Rappe (2007).Error evaluation is difficult in reality because with ANOVA T-test 200 surveys are needed for reliability. but with a comparative study. This was a multi-time survey but only the final survey data was only analyzed rigorously.

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Research Possibility. Reference to it has been made in some way. Ideas.1 Progress of survey statements and factor selection The present survey was developed from a number of Volunteer motivation questionnaires. Grassroots level others fundamentally. 74 Relaxing . enjoyment. Attitude. a ecocentric view in terms of people „in the environment‟ paradigm (Castro. A. preservation Possible Inference. 2001) Adopted behavior.Appendix A The following data are a reference for the work that has been done but not entirely discussed within the present paper. and a collection of the work to date is an important statement for the actual breath of this project. A. new environment respect and it is not getting it from present day society . cross cultural studies and environmental and outdoor tourism volunteer interviews. Questions. in .2 Survey History Factor. Scale Index Category Target. Meaning. The development took place over three years and included a number of revisions for translation purposes and defining important ideas that were unique to the present study. Expected Results environmental volunteer can effect -identity. Language . Conservation.I believe the environment has an ever increasing number of problems Concern for People Reactivitytradition (Re) Common -ensure future generations won‟t have the same problems My actions of being an Proactive behavior. Motivational dimension Concern for Environment Bigger picture -I think nature deserves the utmost NEP.

way of thinking Understanding And learning (Un)(Bradford) -I can learn more about the protection of natural resources Why are you interested in learning? Social Interaction (SI) (So) Collective identity I can make friends with likeminded people Participation in a group is a good way to achieve environmental goals -I have not made any friends -I look forward to the social events -Opportunities provided are important -Building one‟s social network -Way to make new friends Selfenhancement (SE) Personal growth Esteem choice -helps me deal with my own problems Past experiences have nothing to do with why I volunteer outdoor interaction High position. Keeps me busy -has little effect on my self esteem -better understanding about what life‟s about -I have not changed as a person Appreciate the differences in Continuing to understand Knowledgeable experienced benefit ‘helping a person makes both yourself and the other person feel good. academic contacts Argument for „meaning‟ Education history +/-New people and places are discovered -satisfaction with different faces/ places -openness to change -/ + Fulfilled in career. Feel useful. feel-good exp. -nature / outdoorsy related Makes me feel like a good person Feel important.‟ 75 . Or home life Searching for „self‟ I feel good about it.

I participate because protection of the environment is an important part of my community. annual Employee vs citizen with the environment then average -identity. perpetual. continual. newly developing careers learn more through training -skilled and capable Free time Ambition Work related Contractual. Important skills are learned No plans to find employment Important connections made Find out about opportunities Build my work skills -Being appreciated -Respected by staff and members isn‟t important -I don‟t need feedback on my work -Important to receive recognition A change of pace from „work‟ Religion/ government (policy) -This activity fits in with my religious beliefs -I do not believe the government is doing enough to help those I assist as a volunteer Community reciprocity I consider myself more concerned Strong roots in community Highly opinionated and motivated by other interests -/ + those who are college age. Recognition I can make contacts with those who might help my career. I believe living simply and 76 Environmentalist Citizen.people -more settled in myself after Career development. Public education Cultural natural Longer history passed down . awareness people -You receive what you put in -Goes around comes around.

2004) Conservation/ protection Preserve tradition Integrity. pristine nature Specific 77 .Values conserving resources is a great step from family in the right direction -Meeting a need -Part of my own value system -Role model for my children -Believe everyone should -Family has always been a part -identity -Strong argument proenvironment Protective? (Esmond.

I volunteer because: I think environmental 我認為環境保護 是我們這世代最 78 Canadian mean value Taiwan mean Value 1.3 Comparison of volunteer motivational indices Kellery (1986)7 value categories: Community reciprocity Campbell 2004 Esmond. awareness Environmentalist Citizen. country mean statement value and discussion – denotes less agreeable while + denotes more agreeable Environmental Concern 1.4 Verbatim. 2004) Conservation/ protection Preserve tradition Integrity.25+ .A.43- 1. I participate because protection of the environment is an important part of my community. 2004 VMI / VMO I consider myself more concerned with the environment then average people -You receive what you put in -Goes around comes around. I believe living simply and conserving Strong roots in community -identity. Public education Cultural natural Longer history passed down from family -identity -Strong argument proenvironment Values resources is a great step in the right direction -Meeting a need -Part of my own value system -Role model for my children -Believe everyone should -Family has always been a part Protective? (Esmond. pristine nature Specific A.

my leisure time actions will have a positive spin-off 5. I want to inspire others to become green movement volunteers 6. I want to share my 我希望透過實際 knowledge of 參與來學習更多 environmental 環保知識 protection and contribute to its development 3. I can get hands on experience observing and understanding nature 重要的工作 我覺得我可以對 環境保護有貢獻 1. I am happy to share my experience.29+ 1.98- 我希望激勵其他 人來加入環保志 工 我支持或反對某 特定的環保議題 2.protection is one of the first priorities of our generation 2.17- 1.66- 1. I can help contribute my part which helps to improve the environment significantly 3.4+ 我認為環境復育 沒有草根行動配 合無法實現 1. with indepth discussion and 我希望與別人分 享我的環保體驗 1.67+ 79 .02- 1. I support or am against.85- 1.49+ 我希望服務我的 社區 1. Legislation that promotes sustainability and environmental restoration won‟t be effective without a grassroots movement built from social action 4.36- 我可以透過參與 志工活動來觀察 與了解大自然 2.44+ 2.79- 1. I want to give back to my community.64- 1.79+ 2.66+ 1.85+ 1. specific environmental conditions Learning and Understanding 1.

69+ 我可以跟朋友一 起做有意義的事 情 我可以認識理念 相同的民眾 我希望獲得親友 或社會大眾的認 同與肯定 2. I am able to learn about and gain awareness of the operations of this group Social Participation 1.53+ 我認為環保志工 活動可以凝聚社 區共識 我希望擴展我的 社交圈 1.001. I can meet like-minded citizens.741.02+ 1.191.55+ 3. It enables me to protect areas of interest and beauty of a region that I'm concerned about 我可以參與我關 注之特定區域的 保育工作 1.26+ 80 .57- 2. I can do interesting. who share similar beliefs 3.98- 1. I want to extend my social circle.participation 4.36+ 2.47+ 我希望對於環保 議題有更寬廣的 視野 我可以瞭解環保 志工之團體的組 織與業務 2.06- 2. I think action builds consensus which are the roots of law and policy development 5.93- 1. I hope through actual participation to learn more environmental knowledge 5.26- 2. enhance my social life and reaffirm my identity as an environmentalist Utilization of the Environment 1. I hope I can be a recognized community member and get appreciation from my family 4. beneficial and meaningful things with friends 2.89+ 2.

2.5- 1.64+ 1. efficient and I can clearly see I am making a difference 3. I can often do different things and visit new places 2.84+ 參與這組織讓我 可以經常參訪新 地點或體驗新事 物 我參與的團體組 織健全、有效 率,我可以看到 工作成效 我對做為這組織 的成員感到榮耀 2. 這 也能立即地影響 我 我認為環境保育 有助於社區經濟 發展 2.81- 1.6+ . I highly agree with the aims of this organization and its‟ leadership framework 4.18- 2.06- 2+ 1.96- 1. Community economic development contributes to environmental protection Organization 1. I can use the activities as a source of entertainment and to improve my health 4. I would like to participate in the conservation of our valuable landscape 3.53- 1. The area that I'm working with gives me direct benefits from its improvement 5. I can help with pertinent issues and specific projects that could immediately affect me 我希望參與優美 以及有價值景觀 的保育工作 我將環保志工的 工作當成一種有 益健康的活動 我參與環境改造 的區域對我有特 殊價值,環境保 育讓我直接受益 我對於相關議題 和特定的計劃案 能提供幫助.02+ 3.85+ 2.67+ 2. My organization‟s mission is sound.76+ 2. I feel I am a recognized and honored member of 2.00- 1.67+ 我高度認同這個 組織的宗旨與目 81 2.68- 2.07+ 6.

as a moral paradigm it takes some precedence over other issues 4. I am obliged due to my friend and family's invitation 參與環境保育可 以減輕我對於人 類破壞環境的罪 惡感 3.78+ 82 .242. Helping the environment is cool and makes me feel good 3.this group 標或領導人的理 念可行動 Values 1.96+ 3.83- 可以保護地球讓 我的感覺很好 我認為我需要這 樣做,因為環境 保護是個道德典 範 我認為政府在這 方面的工作效率 不彰 2.91+ 4. I feel obligated.89- 1.78+ 1.42+ 2. I think the Government's work is inefficient in helping the areas that I assist through participation Personal 1. it helps me put my principles into action 2.41+ 我的宗教因素 2. Through my participation I can alleviate some guilt I feel from the degradation I personally feel responsible for 2.02- 1. My family has a legacy of public service 4.38+ 3.36- 1. It is consistent with my religious beliefs.56+ 我希望可以留給 我的後代一個好 的自然環境 參與環境保育是 我家庭的傳統 我的朋友邀我一 起參加 2.02- 2.38- 1.51- 2. My greatest ambition is to leave something for the next generation 3.

88 TV3 3.46 CE1 1.07 CE5 1.18 TS5 2.65+ 3.5 TP1 1.42 TL4 1.06 CO2 1.93 CC3 2.5.7+ 2. I can feel fulfilled by achieving a personal goal of mine by helping that which is disadvantaged 39 statements 2.12 TO2 2.18 CU2 1.87 TO1 2.46 TP2 2.89- Canada7+ Taiwan32+ A.73+ 3.85- 2.5 Likerton value ranked statement mean values by country and discussion *E=environmental concern 1= Q1 (within subgroup) Canada Taiwan 2.79 CL2 2.45 TE2 1.7 CE2 1. It can help to build my resume 我希望可以善用 我空閒的時間 2.11 CV3 1.34 TL2 1.44 TE6 2.7 CE4 1.75 CU1 1.83 TS4 2.17 CL1 1.00 CU3 2.30 TE1 1.77 TO3 2.77- 1.74+ 2.89+ 參與環保志工可 以讓我的履歷更 吸引人 我可學習到與我 目前工作相關的 技能 我可以結交環保 界朋友,發展相 關事業 2.80 CC1 2.19 CS1 1. I can learn current workrelated skills that may be helpful to my present career 2.04- 2.81 TC2 83 .91 CO1 2.67 CE3 1.89 CC4 2.95 CP5 2.74 TU3 2. It can help me make contacts in this area and help network a potential new opportunity 4.91- 我可以擴展社交 圈,希望對於目 前的事業有所助 益 2.42 TS1 1.75 TU1 2.44 TS3 1. I hope I can make better use of my spare time Career and Business 1.

04 TE4 2.077 TP3 2.55 TE3 1.32 CP1 3.93 TE5 2. The table clearly delineates the most important reason for participation as an environmental volunteer.69 TO4 2.75 CO4 2.06 TC4 2.92 TU4 3.09 TL5 2.30 CP4 3.98 CS2 1.00 TP5 3.94 TU6 3.53 CU6 2. Of the five most disagreed to statements personal was ranked as the bottom three.49 TL1 1.49 CV2 1.08 TC3 3. also placing second and third in the mean ranking table below.83 CE6 1.05 CC2 3. taken literally Taiwanese volunteers do not volunteer for personal reasons.68 CU5 2. Canadians agreeing more strongly could be the result of a longer establishment of a formally organized environmental movement and green generation that is the number one priority for all Canadians. Taiwan ranks value as a last 84 .85 CL3 1.5 TV2 2.04 CO3 1.94 TP4 3. It is known that education is emphasized in Taiwan culture.57 CS5 2.00 CL4 1. this from a survey writing perspective is a limitation.98 CV4 1.1. Looking at only the mean values Taiwanese agreed strongly (under two points) to more than half of the survey.52 CP2 1. E1 is the environmental concern statement: “I volunteer because: I think environmental protection is one of the first priorities of our generation/ 我參與環保志工之團體因為: 我認為環境保護是我們這世代最重要的工作”. This statement with its primary rank has the power to promote volunteers in the future and internationally. participants have a significant motivation to gain understanding of the natural world and gain firsthand experience.02 CV1 2.75 CP3 3.09 TU2 2.98 TV1 1.74 TL3 The mean values from the final data set were ranked by country variable to demonstrate the differences between independent statements.65 TV4 2. Canadians also felt most strongly about the environmental concern factor due to its placement in four out of six statements making it into the top five.49 TS2 1. Learning and understanding with open ended responses was categorized across every question (including pretests analysis) as the leading motivation for Taiwanese.15 TC1 4.25 CL5 1.06 CS3 3.83 CS4 1. reverse questions or more of a narrative built into the wording might have helped this quite agreeable nature that Taiwanese are famous for.

A theme in some of the open-ended responses was people were being pulled or forced along. active advertizing was not done. BFSA 台南縣黑面琵鷺保育學會). its mean value wasn‟t too far away from Canadians both surrounding neutral. to length of participation and disagreement to this statement showing that those who participate longer strongly do not feel obligated. Canadians strongly disagreed to personal factor four: I volunteer because my family has a legacy of public service. coming along for the ride and out of obligation is not usually habitual. Obligation and invitation are also quite contradictory and invitation could be rarely is a formal volunteer subject to repetitive and independent choice. Present career is key to this statement‟s neutrality because people with a career unless volunteering as a part of work. This disagreement may be potentially because of the relatively new concept of environmental 85 . I volunteer because I am obliged due to my friend and family's invitation which is not the way people in Canada really associate with motivation. There was a clear linear relationship however insignificant. the legacy idea stems from intergenerational transmission of volunteering as mobilization into volunteering. This was probably due to the wording of the question. but simply want to do it. Tzi-Chi (慈濟) is a religiously affiliated environmentalist organization. As well. mobilizing a lot of people in nationally to act responsibly towards the environment. but it obviously (due to responses) is not a quality most associate with their volunteer work. however because no such organization exists on this large scale in Canada. volunteers do not see a direct link between volunteering and building their career. 荒野保護協會 TEIA 台灣環境資訊協會. or very skill based. The reasoning of free will and choice is a kind of national pride and this author thinks that even if people were dragged along they would not talk about it. it is perhaps because of this anti-motivation that people become involved in the NGOs which were surveyed participants took part in (SOW.motivation previous wording of this statement is as follows: 環境保護與我宗教信仰的信念一 致. The last motivation for Canadians was in the value subgroup. unless its duty is for school credit or in lieu of jail time. Helping your present career was the second most disagreed to motivation for Taiwanese.

volunteering as a formal activity, and would have been better worded to include my parents taught me to appreciate the environment. Interestingly the fifth statement of environmental concern: I volunteer because I support or am against, specific environmental conditions was rated 13th by Canadians and 19th by Taiwanese , this is a sign that people are motivated not by an observation or alarm that one thing is wrong, but potentially that a number of issues combined to make them concerned. A noticeable point is that utilization of the environment first statement was: I volunteer because it enables me to protect areas of interest and beauty of a region that I'm concerned about, this was the same mean score for both Taiwanese and Canadians however it ranked a top fifth for Canadians and fifteenth for Taiwanese! Attachment to place is quite important in Canadian culture, the place you call home is usually associated with a wondrous natural beauty and spatially correct in terms of preservation and ecological interest, perhaps the size of Taiwan does not permit this kind of „ownership‟ over a site. For the first statement in organization, Taiwanese agreed while Canadians were neutral, I volunteer because: I can often do different things and visit new places. Travelling in Canada is generally far and quite expensive, while learning something new is a bonus it isn‟t a motivation for Canadian Volunteers. In Taiwan open-ended questions again learning and taking a trip were quite frequent, as well volunteer holidays, or the eco-tourism is gaining popularity it Taiwan while in Canada eco-holidays are usually to exotic locations and different from the surveyed typical volunteer.

A.6 Interview summaries Working for the EPA, one interviewee was posted to a teaching position and because of the skills and knowledge he learned from his work experience this led him to continue as a steward of the environment annually receiving nominal funding and having a priority to give students the opportunity for firsthand experience. He still finds joy in terms of the excitement of catching polluters and collecting meaningful data that has relevance in longitudinal studies.

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Addition discussions yielded experiences such as, field trips as a college student earning his cost of living, one veteran steward was inspired to continue trips surrounding and involving nature, so somewhat removed from the city is a conservation area as newly founded national park, offering retreat for people and wintering endangered birds. Motivated by his memories into the mountains as a student, this volunteer was able to commit his spare time. As a professional he became a leader for the association, putting in countless hours coordinating leisure-type volunteers and counting seasonal migrations of birds, the data and man-hours were not in vain, the first local government enacted* national park is now protecting the once industrial threatened marine wetland, this well protected species is now safe to relax as a snowbird in paradise. Useful questions that were asked included, did anybody introduce you to this type of volunteering? What do you think is the biggest reason you've continued your participation? Do you have any expectations or goals you wish to fulfill in your time with participation? I hope to learn more about the organization itself, could you tell me about its members? For example, how many people are active or at large with the organization, how do they become and stay involved, what kind of identity does the group have in the community, is there a lot of training that you go through? Is this only active seasonally because of the weather? What is your Desire to contribute the environment, belief, hope, learn, to protect, conserve? Describe yourself as „environmentally friendly or with an environmental lifestyle. Is a lot of your leisure time spent outdoors? Why? What makes you adopt, this behavior/ principles. What interested you in learning more? If you don‟t volunteer please comment of reasons why not? Why did you choose to be involved? What influenced you to take part? From an interview with a director in a river protection group in Tainan County, a model of how volunteers interact with the community was put forth as a study question. What has triggered environmental volunteers to make a move? What kind of social environment make our volunteers take action? How does the society benefit from the volunteer action?

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A.7 Expert review handout (中文) 教授 本人指導的碩士研究生 Kelly Schnare 正在進行她的論文研究,題目為「環保志工 之參與動機與跨文化比較」,研究將透過問卷調查,了解環保志工參與環境保護工作的主 要動機,並比較台灣與加拿大這兩個不同文化背景國家在這方面的差異。在問卷設計階段, 她希望透過專家學者、政府官員以及環保團體負責人的意見徵詢與修訂,來使問卷更加合 理化。素仰您在環境保護領域的卓越知識與經驗,希望您能對她的問卷初稿提出修訂意見。 謝謝您的協助! 黃家勤 國立台南大學 生態科技系 系主任 兼 環境生態研究所 生態旅遊研究所 所長 您好! 我的名字是施凱莉(Kelly Schnare),目前就讀於國立台南大學環境生態研究所。我 的論文主題是有關環保志工參予動機的研究,並將比較台灣與我的國家加拿大環保志工參 與動機的差異。根據文獻探討結果,我將志工參與動機分為以下七個向度: 環境關懷, 知識與學習 社交參與 環境利用 組織認同 價值觀

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價值觀 7.環境 利用 5.個人因素 每個向度有 4-5 個問題,整個問卷共 30 題。問卷設計是此項研究成功的關鍵,我 希望徵求您對於問卷目前設計的意見,並將參考您的意見來修訂目前版本。所附問卷每個 問題下方有「合適」,「不合適(刪除)」,以及「不合適(修改)」三個選項,請您勾選並 請填入必要的意見。 非常感謝你的關心與協助! 真誠的感謝 國立台南大學環境生態研究所研究生 Kelly Schnare 問卷 填寫說明: 環保志工參與環保團體以及志工活動的可能動機非常多,這裡我們希望透過問卷調查來瞭 解各種動機的強度。我們將可能的動機區分為 1.環境關懷 2.組織認同 6.社交參與 4.知識與學習 3.個人因素 等七個向度,每一向度包括 4 到 5 個題目。請您就 1 2 3 您個人的情況,對以下所列 30 個題目勾選個別動機的強度,分別為 □非常認同 □認同 □ 4 5 普通 □不認同 □非常不認同。 本問卷針對環保志工進行調查,此處所稱「環保志工」包括正式的環保團體成員,或經常 性參與環保志工活動的個人。若您不是此處所稱的環保義工,請勿填寫本問卷。 謝謝您 的協助! 環境關懷 我參與環保志工的原因之一是: 「我認為環境保護是社區非常重要的工作」 1 2 3 4 5 □非常認同 □認同 □普通 □不認同 □非常不認同 □ 問題合適 □ 問題不合適,必須刪除。 原因: 89 .

□ 問題不合適,建議做如下修改: 「我覺得我可以對環境保護有顯著的貢獻」 「我認為永續發展法令沒有草根行動配合無法實現」 「我希望回饋我的社區」 「我希望激勵其他人來加入環保志工」 知識與學習 我參與環保志工的原因之一是: 「我可以經常到野外,並觀察與了解大自然」 「我希望透過實際參與來學習更多環保知識」 「我希望分享我的環保知識」 「我希望對於環保議題有更寬廣的視野」 社交參與 我參與環保志工的原因之一是: 「我可以跟朋友一起做有意義的事情」 「我可以認識理念相同的民眾」 「我希望看到社區環境的改善」 「我認為環保志工活動可以凝聚社區共識」 「我希望擴展我的社交圈」 環境利用 我參與環保志工的原因之一是: 90 .

「我可以參與我經常造訪之自然區的保育工作」 「我希望參與優美與有價值景觀的保育工作」 「我將環保志工的工作當成一種休閒活動」 「這地區對我有特殊價值,環境保育讓我直接受益」 組織認同 我參與環保志工的原因之一是: 「參與這組織讓我可以經常旅行,體驗新事物」 「我參與的團體組織健全、有效率,我可以看到工作成效」 「我對做為這組織的成員感到驕傲」 「我高度認同這個組織的宗旨與目標」 價值觀 我參與環保志工的原因之一是: 「環境保護與我宗教信仰的信念一致」 「可以幫助別人與保護自然環境讓我感覺很好」 「我認為我需要這樣做,因為環境保護是個道德議題」 「我認為政府在這方面的工作效率不彰」 個人因素 我參與環保志工的原因之一是: 「參與環境保育可以減輕我對於人類破壞環境的罪惡感」 91 .

「我希望可以留給後代子孫一個好的自然環境」 「參與環境保育是我家庭的傳統」 「我認為環保工作聚沙成塔,我必須做我的部分」 事業發展 我參與環保志工的原因之一是: 「參與環保志工可以讓我的履歷更吸引人」 「我可學習到與我目前工作相關的技能」 「我可以結交環保界朋友,發展相關事業」 「我可以擴展社交圈,希望對於目前的事業有所助益」 開放性問題 我參與環保志工的最主要動機是: 我持續參與環保志工活動的最主要動力是: 我最有興趣參與的環境保護項目是: 問卷結束。 *給問卷審查專家與學者: 一、請提供您對本問卷的評論與建議: 二、請您推薦可以協助填寫問卷的環保團體: 團體名稱: 聯絡方式: 92 .

Kuo. Individual Scale Items: Miles.10 Factor Labels. 2001 93 . Sullivan.8 Reference Statistics Through writing process different authors subgroups and development of the VMI proved useful. Snyder. Stukas A. A.9 Volunteer Function Inventory: Clary.A.

4 熱愛大自然 E.認識自己的家鄉 E. those who volunteered longer might develop these concepts over time and experience. 3 保護大自然 E. 9.尊重萬物生命價值 b 地球只有一個為後代留塊靜土 E.貢獻所學 U.10 付出與分享 E. U. statement number and full statement are following: Q#1 L.U 5.11 Open ended questions from final survey The project‟s goal was to understand the greatest motivations and the differences between Canadians and Taiwanese environmental volunteers. 愛地球ˋ愛我的家鄉 V. the longer they participate the greater their desire for expressing their environmental concern.11 認識環境資源 94 . 1. 6 a. Committed volunteers have a greater understanding about where their actions fit.A. 7 愛護地球生態 O. Statements for Final Survey Open Ended questions: orientation code. Those who are committed to an environmental group have significant attitudes towards what problems exist and a perspective for where their actions fit. Some comments had very strong opinions. 8 對環境能夠盡一份心力 S. 2.To give and to protect environment shall be a kind of culture.

L17 認識環境. 18 培養興趣 V. 12 接近大自然,並關懷它! V. 21 愛護環境 V. 28 有健康的環境,萬物代代繁衍,人類才能生存 O. 27 我覺得環境保護是公民責任 P. 26 充實相關知能 V.P 24 希望由自己開始然後影響身邊的人,讓認識的人可以一起重視環保。 V. 愛護家園/地球 L. 14 環保是需要被宣導和教育的!! S. 22obligatiion and responsibility U. 13 環境保育是每一個人的責任。 L. 30 能夠保護環境,讓我們居住的環境更好 95 . O 23 知之權力,與喚醒民眾對社區之關懷 S. 29 實際的參與感. 20 想這樣做 V. 16 想要親身為環境做點什麼 E. 25 下意識就想拯救世界 L. L 15 以身作則,牽動週遭的朋友,響應環保 P.實際的付出 E. 19 地球只有一個 P.U.

V Ethical 5. 因為大自然自己會花上幾百萬年時間找回平衡. used and enjoyed on the Earth 2. V. E 35 希望台灣不被隔絕在外,能與全世界團結一致一同呼籲 350ppm(大氣中二氧化碳含 量的安全上限) 36. 以及創造一個 更加良好生活的環境給我們的後代! E. 31 因為我熱愛大自然 C. E Help clean up the earth 3. 家--只有一個不能被經濟利益奪走~! L. in the 96 . 為人類所作的破壞負責. C It is an area of interest for me. 實際上參與環保活動應當是為 了救我們自己. 6. E to improve the lives of wild species. 38 I‟d like to learn more about how to save energy. 我認為很多人想救地球這樣的觀念太英雄主義. 40 付出一個一直破壞地球環境的人一點的心力 Q#1 What‟s your most important reason for volunteering 1. V a sense of obligation in proportion to what I have been given. V It is the right thing to do 4. 39 地球其實不需要我們救. 32 關心保護環境是地球人應有的責任 33 相同理念 U 34 為人群服務 L. 也回饋給大自然還有地球上的生命. S 同道合的朋友 37 U 守護我的故鄉. locally or distantly.我不能沒有避風港.V. directly or indirectly. with or without us. I'm hoping that it's a possible career opportunity.我的家.

18. especially considering the strong anti-environmental actions of many of our leaders (political and business). 14. E. It gets me out to enjoy the outdoors 13. as because I am so 9. 17. 11. E Importance of protecting planet for future generations. 97 . VI feel compelled to: both as a responsibility a living creature on this planet. 10. 15. 16. P living purposefully 12. O drawn to the interesting and fun environment volunteer work I get involved with. U I enjoy the survey work that I do. L Most environmental organizations are overworked and underfunded. E I am concerned that future generations must have a chance to enjoy a healthy planet-that can only happen if we commit to leaving them that 19.U Seeing the ever increasing environmental degradation and pollution locally first convinced me to become involved in land use planning many years ago. E I believe in protecting our only environment.present or in the future. If I can assist in the continual development of the environmental sector with my time and skills than I will. E Sustainable environment 20. P Because I believe environmental protection & conservation is the most important issue there is and we are all obligated to do whatever we can to help. L U To do what I can to raise awareness and help preserve our precious Earth and our local environment. E Leave the planet better than I found it. 7. and my involvement increased from that time forward. E to help make the environment better! 8. V Justice 21.

S Doing thing that is useful to our society and spend free time. 36. much is expected" We are so blessed we should give back. In order for change to occur. L I learn this. 32. I should tell more other people as know how important it is. 36. more people need to be informed. Keep our earth sustain for our next generation. and creating new efficient. O Every action counts and matters 38. P The cause is important to me 24. U spending time outdoors with a purpose 39. eco friendly methods of creating electricity and the four R's. S supporting others who care about and want to act on environmental issues 98 . 33. C to earn student bursary money for university 37. To break the legs of Hyper Consumerism in the most non-violent way. E We have only one earth. L Educating today‟s youth. Frequency of each factor for first open ended question 23. P "To whom much is given. L I would like to raise awareness. O I like it 34. L To learn more 28. CHINESE? 29.22. 30. V It is my duty to help protect our beautiful planet 26. It's a chain reaction. V Is to help the world realize it needs change. E I want a strong movement 25. My ultimate reward would be my students entering the field of environmental engineering. V to be a part of the solution" and not just add to the problems 31. 35. O I think I can help.

6P The ongoing need for voluntary activities. apathy amongst the public and reduction in resources (volunteers and funds) all drive me to continue. 8O I see a void that only my particular environmental organization is filling.#1 Canada(40) Taiwan (41) Question 2 E 11 9 L 6 8 S 2 4 U 4 9 O 4 2 V 8 7 P 4 4 C 2 1 1V is there any other choice? 2P Good health 3L There is a need to set by example 4L Doing things differently 5U Beneficial to my life and others. Also. and the environment needs all the help it can get. The community has given better suggestions but they are not 99 . Official Plan approvals and changes. and the forced placement of a MSW incinerator within my community. I get great joy out of my environmental volunteerism. 7V people tend to take the environment for granted. and the knowledge that I can make a positive difference. Also. with faulty "studies" and political decisions trumping sound science and the will of the residents. and obligation 12U Presently. 9O Increased anti-environmental actions. 10S interesting people & experiencing 11O Persistence. I am convinced of the positive outcomes for the environment associated with the work I do.

31V Need 100 . 13P My kids 14V Love this planet and every creature on it. However. healthier. 22C Caring about the issue 23O make structural changes 24O I have something to contribute 25P Some obligation to continue what I have begun -. 16O Dedication to the goal (see #46)? 17E see above 18E Hel to create and maintain a sustainable environment 19U A sense of place 20L To create more awareness around sustainable measures for a better world 21V Up. 27This is the only thing I can do help the earth as my major is ecology CHINESE? 28E urgency of need to change to avert runaway global warming and catastrophic climate change 29U If we keep abusing our world. Not so with our elected politicians.bringing and faith. our quality of life will soon be destroyed 30P My morals. the community suggestions are safer.personal responsibility 26S Peoples who volunteer in our organization. and would move us toward a zero waste future. 15E As above.as potentially "lucrative" as the incinerator.

everything we buy is at the expense of someone in a developing nation.9.32V All the slaves around the world working to satisfy our taste for consumerism . 33V Volunteer for our environment is meaningful. S Friendship and personal goal.. 35O I like what I am doing and I like the office where I am working 36O Being part of a movement that can actually change things.and see them change 37P physical activity is healthy A. 34P..4 Frequency of each factor for second open ended question #2 C38 T38 E 4 7 L 3 7 S 3 U 5 O 8 3 V 7 5 P 8 7 c 2 0 Question Three 1S 看到一群熱心奉獻的人,有很多令人感動的故事 2U 當地人有使命感 3E 保護大自然 4O 我參加的環保志工團體有組織 有規劃 有遠景 動機單純 不受政治力影響 5S 有一群志同道合的夥伴 6V 今日鳥類-明日人類 7S 和一群人一起努力 8V 這是生活的一部分 101 .

We Love so We Share.9V We Love so We Care. 10P 自我成長 11S 有一群志同道合的人共同凝聚關心環境、生態保育的念力 12E 努力讓它更好 13P 認同理念,希望能盡自己的能力。 14P 自己的想法 15V 認識新的環境,拓展社交 16E 環境問題不是一天兩天可以解決的 17S 有共同目標與理想的朋友 18E 地球只有一個 19P 很有趣 20O 看到自己做的事有改變 21S support d from soci ty a d friends 22E 此生不做環保,來生已無地球可投胎 23L 自己與小孩對於我們所參與的環保活動感受到不一樣的收穫。 24V 看不下去又心太軟 25L 學習新事物 26L 我覺得我做的事很有意義 27E 不忍心看著環境越來越糟 102 .

28P 熱情,興趣 29E 能夠保護環境,讓我們居住的環境更好 30 同上 31L 瞭解環境愈多愈覺得該做的事還很多 32L 學習與奉獻機會 33L 學到東西 34P 既然起頭了,就要做到最好 35O 他們了解我在做什麼 36U 重申守護我的故鄉 37P 同上! 而且環保本來就是我們自古以來應當做的事情, 持續參加是因為真的再不保 持這樣的行動就了, 而且像環保這種良性的活動能在這變態的社會裡, 給予生命一個正 向, 有希望, 有意義, 有助於身心靈成長的一個機會和發展的空間, 對人文都是一大進展! 38L 想要讓更多人一起愛護地球

Question 4 Are you an environmental steward because you have had first-hand experience with severe pollution and environmental degradation? If so please explain: 你有沒有親身經歷處理環 境污染?請解釋

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“In fact, I had positive experiences in relatively pristine natural environments as a child (forests, parks), and believe that contributed to my desire to protect those areas.” “I love nature. Beauty inspires my action. Beautiful, pristine location and that motivates me to protect it.” “Standards are not strict enough for industrial polluters, and Environmental assessments are frequently full of errors and omissions. People no longer trust their governments to protect them, and with good reason. Cumulative impacts are rarely even considered.” My elementary school was located between two large industries, and I always wondered where all that smoke went.” I've seen urban sprawl destroy some environmentally sensitive areas. I live in a city that is well known for its pollution, and poor air quality. I watched the fishery collapse when I was a kid. just because I think it's important only seeing severe pollution and environmental degradation every day, deaths of friends, relatives from environmental toxins etc., but probably not more than most people air pollution Yes, I have organized people for water protection outside Canada. No - I grew up in a relatively benign / protected community that didn't pose many environmental challenges to my lifestyle, health or wellness. No I have not had first hand experience. But I am an environmental steward in hopes that I will not see severe pollution or degradation in my area. No. In fact, I had positive experiences in relatively pristine natural environments as a child (forests, parks), and believe that contributed to my desire to protect those areas. Only to some degree; those experiences lead me to work on those specific issues, but I don't have to be in the midst of degradation to combat it.

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No, I grew up in a beautiful, pristine location and that motivates me to protect it. Yes, I have seen the cancers and lung disease from air pollution as well as soil and water pollution. Our Ontario standards are not strict enough for industrial polluters, and Environmental assessments are frequently full of errors and omissions. People no longer trust their governments to protect them, and with good reason. Cumulative impacts are rarely even considered. In part. My elementary school was located between two large industries, and I always wondered where all that smoke went. I've seen urban sprawl destroy some environmentally sensitive areas. No, although I do see some negative impacts in our area. nothing severe, but certainly things that could become severe such as clear cutting and the abuse of our soils and seas I have worked within an Ecological City that became one because of ecological damage. It was not my initial reason for participating as a volunteer, but it has guided me to continue to be Only that I appreciate the natural world with which we have been blessed and can see how it is being degraded by our actions. No - because I love nature. Beauty inspires my action. no, just more general degradation I have seen the Alberta Oil sands and there must be more we can do to reduce its effect on our environment. I live in a city that is well known for it's pollution, and poor air quality. I lived in Newfoundland - born and raised. I watched the fishery collapse when I was a kid. No - just because I think it's important

105

但我沒有親身經歷處理環境污染的經驗.回報環保專線處理 有. 我能夠的是告訴或通知環保局 到海邊撿垃圾 廢水污染事件.因那不是我專長可以處理的.Question 5 你有沒有親身經歷處理環境污染?請解釋: 問題挺抽象 無法回答 檢舉 以前是環保局檢驗人員所以有參與過 還有淨灘 台灣的海灘漂流物很多 常常需要志 工處理 ex.廢棄污水和鉻米事件 what do you mean?? 因為工作關係,處理空汙問題。 參與墾丁淨灘活動(荒野保育協會) 無深刻印象 沒有.透過環境教育及舉辦活動來影響居民關心和參與 106 .沒有機會 protester. but not get rid of it 社區將蓋變電所,無人知此事件,居於人民有知之權力故發起自救會,因已抗爭成 功,故將經驗分享,並參與他會 淨灘及河川巡守檢測採樣時處理棄置的鴨屍 沒有!我參與環盟.

so I went from volunteering to getting paid for it and still use a lot of my own time when compelled. School but soon I am starting to volunteer again with Environment Hamilton Too busy with professional and other personal commitments. I intend to resume active volunteerism as soon as I get through this busy period. I work in this area now. Currently active. I do not have a lot of spare time anymore to volunteer. I just started my volunteer last year. poor time management and low self-esteem and personal selfishness I am busy canvassing . moved to a new city to continue my education 107 .目前只跟相關 NGO 組織. 但希望 有這機會! 沒有 只有參與一些現場的環評座談會 一些遊行及座談會 I'm still volunteering I was busy in completing Masters degree and have limited contacts with environmental organizations.所以目前還沒有..有網路慕後合作 去海灘撿垃圾. 還有觀摩綠建築處理廢水廢料.有,資源回收 有~朋友家的垃圾幫忙做資源分類 沒有. I was not volunteer in the past.. I continue to participate Not applicable.but I am signing up at work today to do the action training and participate in action programs with the campaigners. 應該不太算吧. later in 2010. No.

work obligations 與自己理念無法兼顧 無法回答 政治力干擾 1.組織核心理念和價值己變 2.時間忙碌 看不懂題目 要用頭腦的計畫 what do you mean?? 那個團體的人讓我感覺不舒服 有在上課時間內 時間不足。 工作太忙 工作上的安排 平常工作太累 正職工作無法喘息 時間不夠,興趣不高。 工作太忙 沒時間 time and ordinary work 108 .

有其它的要忙 工作之餘都參加了....Health. and Economy 會影響家庭生活 健康因素 時間不足 家庭因素 還在為五斗米折腰 工作關係..被一些沒太大意義的工作和人事物搞得身心靈疲憊.. Family.但為了生活又不得不 做.=_= 109 .. 可能因家庭工作因素吧! 時間無法配合. 時間不夠用 常常沒時間.

because I‟m not happy with what the government is doing.A. I'm influenced and encouraged by the growing awareness in the public towards these concerns. This rock is not as big as we think so keep it clean for everyone to enjoy. it is very meaningful to me. and the sense of responsibility to be a good steward of the environment I am a volunteer. water and food. I must travel far to participate so it's not often All volunteers are equal. so those of us who do must maintain motivation because we have reached a global environmental crisis. air. I want to participate with my brothers. Doing this beach cleanup is basically this is the least I could do. action is the most important thing I just want to do something for the environment. Because of my love of nature. I care about the planet. and I want to make a difference for our children‟s future. and by examining my own lifestyle…I volunteer to show my children that one person can make a difference. and let our children have a good view. with no difference in power. I want to make environment to become better. I volunteer with the community university. 110 . So many people don‟t care.12 Further comments There's no activity in my community.

13 Preliminary handheld survey brochure 111 .A.

14 Website blog. downloadable PDF of survey.18 Expert review participants Chinese language majority) 學者 (scholars) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 教授 台灣大學生物環境系統工程系 教授 國立成功大學環境工程學系 教授 義守大學土木與生態工程學系 教授 臺南大學生態科學與技術學系 教授 臺南大學生態科學與技術學系 教授臺南大學生態科學與技術學系 教授 高雄大學土木與環境工程學系 112 . A. contact card etc.A. online survey.

com. 局長. 教授 清華大學通識教育中心 3.8 教授 中山大學海洋環境及工程學系 環保團體負責人 (volunteer organization executives) 1. 南市環保局 A. 副所長. 113 . 教授 中華醫事科技大學護理系 5.au> 政府機關首長 (government officials) 1. 處長 . 執行長 地球公民協會 4. CEO People First -Total Solutions <www. from the countless hours spent editing and translating this work. 局長. it was a great shared journey and an extremely rewarding first-class educational experience. 教授 崑山科技大學 環境工程系 7. 教授 嘉南藥理科技大學食品科技系 2.pfts. 副處長. 台南縣環保局 5. 環保署水保處 3. Jason Hwang (黃家勤 ) from National Tainan University for his constant support and unwaivering belief in the academic potential of this topic and his student.環保署水保處 4. 教授 長榮大學職業安全與衛生系 6.環保署環境檢驗所 2.19 Dedications The author would like to sincerely thank and dedicate this book to her advisor Dr.