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i.

GENDER OF TEACHERS
AND
TEACHING PRACTICES IN PAKISTANI SCHOOLS
BY
HAROONA JATOI
ACADEMY OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
ISLAMABAD
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INTRODUCTION
Education for all is the aim of almost all countries of the
world, but a number of countries cannot yet provide education
partly because they do not have enough educated persons eligible to
become teachers. At the same time many of these countries have
preferred to recruit men as primary school teachers. This
preference does not seem justifiable from the point of view of
educational efJEiciency. The positive impact of the employment of
women as teachers on the social status of women, and on the
educational aspirations of girls, is taken as demonstrated. But
are female teacmers as good as or better than male teachers? There
is little or no research on this question from developing
countries.
BACKGROUND
The impor1:ance of education for women is accepted world wide
because it improves their earning ability (Psacharopoulos, 1985);
influences the number of children they have (Cochrane; 1979); and
contributes to their better health and well-being (UNICEF, 1980).
In 1984 the United Nations proclaimed the right of "everyone" to
education.
But in reality the provision of equal rights for women has
remained an unfulfilled promise (UNESCO, 1987). Almost everywhere
women have a hi.gher illiteracy rate than men (UNESCO, 1987; World
Bank, 1987). \iforld-wide data reveal that in 1980, 33.9 percent of
women were illiterate, as compared to 23.3 percent of men. This
gap is even wider in the developing countries, where 48.5 percent
of the women are illiterate as compared to 32.3 percent of the men
(UNESCO, 1987). If one considers primary school age to be from 6 to
11 years, UNESCO gives participation rates as 69 percent for males
and 56.5 percent for females in Africa; 77.4 percent for males and
59.3 percent felr females in Asia; and about the same for males as
for females in Latin America. The percentage of girls admitted
into school ccmtinues to be lower than that of boys in many
developing countries, and the "higher the grade the lower the
enrollment of ~ J i r l s " (Anderson, 1988).
Several factors explain why girls are less likely to be
educated than boys. Girls are less likely to attend school if the
school building is remote from their home. Poor families are less
likely to educate girls than boys. Both of these factors have
more impact in .=ountries with cultural or religious traditions that
discourage the education of girls. Education of boys is preferred
in many cases because the structure of the economy provides
employment for educated men but not for educated women (Anderson,
1988; Hasan, 1980; Shah, 1986).
Bellew pre:sents findings of her study in developing countries
to show that "traditional, parental and social patterns and
discrimination against females, as the most important reasons for
disparity." She explains:
There were, however differences across the regions. For
example, religious traditions were noted as quite important in
Africa and Asia and family factors predominated in Latin
America. School-related factors emerged as important in all
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regions (Bellew, 1989, p.5).
Girls tend to receive less schooling than boys. The schooling
gap tends to be greater in rural areas and in countries in which
Islam is predominant (Alderman, 1991, p.2).
Girls are less likely to enroll in school and in many
countries may drop out sooner. Women are often trained in different
institutions than men and may have a different curriculum. The
consequence is that the average level of education among women is
less than that of men, and therefore, there are fewer women who
meet the educational qualifications to become teachers. As a
result, there are fewer women teachers to teach the girls who
ultimately want to enroll in schools (UNESCO, 1987). The vicious
circle continues.
PAKISTAN AND WOMEN'S EDUCATION
The World Bank sums up education in Pakistan as:
Literacy rates one of the lowest in the world, declining
participation rates, very low system efficiency and a lack of
educational opportunities for many, particularly for girls in
the rural areas •••• perhaps the most critical problem impeding
expansion of education is the unavailability of female
teachers (The World Bank, 1988, p.6).
As in many other developing countries, the quality of primary
education in Pakistan is not high. In addition, there is a
shortage of opportunities for schooling, particularly for girls.
The supply of teachers is constrained in part by the shortage of
women candidates, and in part by the practice of preferring men
teachers for male students and women teachers for females. In
addition to this there are more "male" then "female" primary
schools to hire teachers in Pakistan. There is, however, no firm
evidence that the gender of men teachers makes them more
effective than women teachers, with either boy or girl students.
In Pakistan, according to the latest estimates, the population'
is about 113 million. Women make up almost half the population
(there are 1000 women per 1100 men, according to Government of
Pakistan, 1980). The country has about 70 percent of the total
population of age group 10 years and above categorized as
illiterates and the gross participation rate at the primary level
is about 60 percent, 65 percent for males and 55 percent for
females (Government of Pakistan, 1984). Half of the female
population is of school-going age (Government of Pakistan, 1979).
Yet only 55 percent of those girls are actually enrolled in
schools. Within the male population, 65 percent of all school age
boys are enrolled (Government of Pakistan, 1984).
In addition to this, dropout rates remain persistently high,
especially for rural children and females. I The literacy rate in
Pakistan is 30 percent (men 35% and women 16%), and there is wide
disparity between the urban and rural pOpulations. To be more
specific, the literacy rate for both sexes in urban areas is 47
percent as compared to 17 percent in rural areas.
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Even within
each setting, the male/female disparities are pronounced. For
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example, 55 percent of urban males as compared to 36 percent of
females are li1:erate. In rural areas, where the overall literacy
rate is 17 p e l ~ c e n t , only 7 percent of females are literate in
comparison with 26 percent of males. There are fewer schools for
females in pakistan, both in rural and urban areas. There are also
fewer teacher-training institutions available for women (Government
of Pakistan, 1984),3 leading to fewer trained teachers. And, there
are very few cipportunities available for in-service training in
teaching (Bhat1:i, 1986).4
. In Pakistan education is usually segregated at all levels,
except at universities. Most girls and boys attend separate
schools and colleges. Even the teacher training institutions are
separate for male and female participants. They generally teach in
separate schools.
CONCEPTUAL FRPJoIEWORK
DifferenCElS in educational opportunities are the result of
cultural, reli.gious and social circumstances. Differences in
opportunities for education and the content of schooling and
training are likely to result in marked differences in the
attitudes and abilities of women as compared to men teachers. This
paper investiga.tes the differences between the classroom practices
of men and women teachers in primary schools in Pakistan. The
research was designed to identify variables that predict those
differences, in order to formulate recommendations for policies
designed to improve teaching and learning practices.
It is likely that men and women teachers in Pakistan differ in
terms of academic qualification, professional training and in-
service training. All of these may playa role in the quality of
teaching they can provide. The different backgrounds and different
life experienc1es of men and women are likely to affect their
performance as teachers in the classroom.
RESEARCH ON TE1\,CHERS AND TEACHING PRACTICES
In this se<ction I will first review research studies about the
factors related to the background of the teachers: academic
qualifications, pre-service training and in-service training. I
will then discuss research on classroom practices. I will present
examples from research in developed countries, less developed
countries and related research studies in Pakistan.
RESEARCH ON TEA.CHER BACKGROUNDS
It usually has been assumed that the academic qualifications
and professiona.l training of teachers have a direct and positive
bearing on the quality of teaching performance. Effective teaching
is determined by both sUbject-matter knowledge and pedagogical
skills (Husen, 1978; Avalos & Haddad 1981). Doyle (1990) argues
that "conception of teaching as a curriculum process is offered as
a framework for inquiry into the experienced curriculum in
classrooms" and, thus, "as an approach to understanding the nature
and acquisition of teachers' curriculum knowledge". He calls for:
•••• study of teaching content as distipline to curriculum as
classroom event, because herein lies the knowledge teachers
must have of the content if it is to become pedagogical
substance in the lives of students
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(Doyle, 1990, p.28).
Evidence from developed countries shows a strong positive
effect of teacher sUbject matter knowledge on student achievement.
But only a few studies from developing countries have studied this
question (Fuller, 1987).
Although it is believed that the ability of teachers improves
in a linear fashion with their level of general education, in
countries with high rates of population growth the rapid expansion
of the primary education system has necessitated reducing the
length of general education attained prior to entry into teacher
training (UNESCO, 1988 quoted in Lockheed and verspoor, 1989,
p. 74) • In Nigeria only five years of primary education were
required for entry to teacher education in 1981; this was the
lowest minimum teacher's education requirement for all the African
countries at the time (Zymelman &Destefano 1989 quoted in Lockheed
and Verspoor, 1989, p.74). In Pakistan, even in 1990 there are
teachers with less than 8 years of schooling; in some of the less
developed areas teachers' schooling is five years only.
But the basic assumption still remains that the more teachers
are academically as well as professionally prepared the more
likely they are to do a better job. The evidence to support this
notion comes from developed countries (Saha, 1983) as well as from
developing countries (Lockheed, 1989). Research on the
importance of teacher training provides mixed results. Husen,
saha, & Noonan (1978) have reviewed major research findings
pertaining to the relationship of teacher characteristics,
including the level of educational attainment and pedagogical
training as it relates to student performance, in developing
countries. The authors reported that they found this relationship
to be complex and mixed. Some of the variables showed positive
relationships, while others showed negative or no association to
student learning. They concluded that the more carefully designed
and executed studies revealed a positive relationship between
teacher training and student achievement. They did not consider
the impact of training separately for female and male teachers.
In the same study, Husen et al. conclude about the general
assessment of the 32 studies within the context of 16 teacher
variables:
Trained teachers do make a difference in student achievement
in LDCs. In particular it seems clear that teacher
qualifications, experience, amount of education, and knowledge
are positively related to student achievement •..• Finally,
demographic and social variables such as sex, age, and
socioeconomic.status, appear to have mixed effects ..•• There
is only slight support for the notion that teachers from
higher status backgrounds are more successful than those from
lower status origins (Husen et al., 1978, p.37).
But there are differences of opinion about teacher training, as in
some countries the training received is mediated by other factors
and does not contribute to teaching effectiveness. There is some
evidence of the limited effectiveness of pre-service teacher
training (Avalos and Beatrice, 1985).
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Warwick, Nauman., and Reimers, in the study of teacher training in
Pakistan presen.t a similar finding:
The present system of training primary schools teachers in
Pakistan makes a small difference for how teachers teach and
how their students learn (Warwick et al., 1991, p.2).
Research on Teaching Practices
Research in the United states and developing countries
over the last two decades has shown the importance of specific
teaching practi.ces for student learning. Fuller (1985) analyzes
school factors which boost achievement, comparing the results of 72
empirical studies done in developing countries. He concludes that
overall expendi.ture, material inputs, teacher quality, teaching
practices, classroom organization, school management and structure
are deciding factors contributing to students' achievement. He
considers teach,ars' contribution towards the students' learning but
does not document different teaching styles by men and women
teachers. He concludes that:
Most importantly, we are largely ignorant of how teachers
manage mat:erial inputs. Differing forms of management and
variation in classroom organization are apparent to most
observers of Third World schools. But little empirical
research has tried to relate these differing ways of
organizing material inputs with levels of student achievement
(Fuller, 1985, p.32).
Lockheed and Verspoor (1989) took into account the
effectiveness o:f schools, improvement of the curriculum, provision
of learning materials, time for learning, effective teaching, and
teachability. About classroom teaching practices in developing
countries they say:
Little research on classroom teaching practices has been
conducted cross-nationally, but the results are consistent
with thOSE! from developed countries. In general, teaching
practices found to enhance student learning are those that (a)
offer instruction that requires active student participation,
(b) provide student opportunities to practice what is being
taught, (e) evaluate student performance, and (d) accord
appropriately paced feedback on student performance (Lockheed
& Verspoor, 1989, p.70).
Montero-sieburth (1989) reviews the relevance of
classroom management to developing countries by emphasizing
teaching in relation to management, and the use of instructional
materials and time. Her review highlights the importance for
learning outcomes of: teacher and student attendance; incentives
for the teachers; efficient use of existing resources (which she
identifies as t:ime spent on academic tasks leading to learning
outcomes) and instructional materials. Montero-Sieburth also deals
with the conceptions of classroom management, factors that limit
the amount of time available, and most importantly how the time in
the classroom ill utilized by the teacher. Her review does not deal
with the gender of the teacher and its impact on classroom
practices.
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Schiefelbein and Simmons (1981) reviewed results of
twenty-six studies on the determinants of student cognitive
achievement in developing countries. They reviewed the results for
each of the major determinants of cognitive student achievement,
schooling characteristics, teachers' attributes, and student
traits. One of their findings about the student's characteristics
was:
Students who have schoolwork to be done outside the school,
i.e. 'homework' tend to do better on achievement. None of the
other school determinants of achievement have as high a
proportion of significant findings (Schiefelbein and Simmons,
1981, p.10).
Davis and Thomas (1989) reviewed the research on effective
schools and effective teachers in developed countries. They
concluded:
Academic engagement is the most important factor contributing
to student achievement. Academic learning time is time
engaged in activities related to the outcome
measure •••Allocated time, opportunity to learn, and amount of
content covered are related to each other, to academic
engagement, and to higher achievement ••• The amount of content
covered was the strongest correlate of achievement (Davis and
Thomas, 1989, p.149).
Gender of the teachers has not been studied much relating to
school effectiveness. Kelly points this out as following:
Women's education as a research concern is relatively new to
the academic scholarship as well as to policy makers and
planners. Before the rebirth of the women's movement in the
late 1960s, academic research and policy studies focusing on
women were virtually non-existent ••• Studies on education and
its outcomes were, when all said and done, studies of males.
Gender was rarely acknowledged, even as a background variable
(Kelly, 1989, p.15).
There are several studies in the united States and other
developed countries which have observed the impact of background
characteristics on classroom practices linking those to the
achievement of students, but most of those studies do not take the
gender of the teacher into account. For example:
Rosenshine examined 51 studies from united states, Britain,
and Australia in 1971 and concluded that some teacher
variables, particularly relating to classroom interaction,
were directly related to student performance (Cited in FUller,
1987, p.37).
There are, however, some studies both in developed and less
developed countries which deal with the gender of the teachers:
As pointed out by Getzel and Jackson (1963), some personal-
social characteristics were different for men and women
teachers, with men generally being more business-like, less
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friendly and responsible (Cited in Husen, Saha, &Noonan 1978,
p.22).
Mwamwenda et al. (1989) studied Teachers' Characteristics and
Pupils's AchiE!vement in Botswana Primary schools.
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They showed
a relationship lbetween teacher characteristics and pupils' academic
achievement. The study concluded that pupils taught by female and
long experienced teachers performed significantly better than
pupils taught k ~ males and those with short teaching experiences.
Avalos and Haddad (1985) reviewed studies on teacher
effectiveness in Africa, India, Latin America, Middle East,
Philippines and Thailand. They summarized the results about
differences in women and men teachers as follows:
A number elf studies comparing male and female teachers found
that female teachers were more satisfied with their careers,
possessed a better attitude towards their prOfession,
students, and school work, exhibited better mental health and
suffered less from problems related to their teaching
activities: •••• there was some indication that female teachers
use more "modern" teaching approaches such as participation
and problem solving methods (Avalos and Haddad, 1985, pp.14-
15) •
Hussain examined the difference between the academic
achievement of students taught by the female and male teachers in
Primary schools of Pakistan. 6 One of the findings is that
"students of male teachers achieve better results in mathematics in
grade 4 and 5 1:han students taught by female teachers" (Hussain,
1990, p.20).
Summary
To summarize, there is a vast quantity of research on
classroom practices related to student achievement. But very
little,· however, has examined the impact of gender of the teachers
mediated by ot.her factors, relating to classroom practices as
outcome.
"Most of the studies agree that the effectiveness of
pedagogical style varies widely from place to place and no single
pedagogy can b,a taken as a definitive model for policy" (Rugh,
1989). Brophy (1982) concluded his work on "classroom
organization" as following:
No single approach is SUfficient, but a comprehensive and
increasingly empirically supported eclectic approach to
classroom management can be developed by combining different
but compat:ible elements into an integrated system (Brophy,
1982, p.51).
As there is no single pedagogy available, I offer the
following list 'Jf teaching practices as part of a longer list which
have been identified by other researchers, especially by Lockheed
and Verspoor (1989). I group these irlto two categories: a)
background characteristics of teachers; b) classroom practices.
The following list of assumptions about teaChing practices and
background characteristics related to them is presented as part of
--- ~ - ~ - - - -
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a longer list which have been identified by other researchers as
"effective teaching".
ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT EFFECTIVE TEACHING PRACTICES
Background Characteristics.
1) Teachers with a higher level of schooling are better
equipped to teach.
2) Teachers who have professional training in teaching (both
pre-service and in-service) are more likely to use
instructional material, and make more use of instructional
material. This is because during the training they are taught
to use the instructional material like teaching kits, models
and charts.
3) Teachers who come from higher social class are better
teachers than those who come from comparatively lower social
class.
Classroom Practices.
1) Teachers who assign fewer tasks to the students in the
classroom and spend more time teaching provide a better
learning environment for the students.
2) Teachers who use instructional material (teaching kit,
blackboards) more often contribute more to the students'
knowledge.
3) Teachers who assign homework on a regular basis, check it
themselves, give feedback to the students help the students to
learn more.
4) Teachers who use less physical punishment are better
teachers than those who use physical punishment, more often
and more severely.
5) Teachers who systematically cover the textbooks and cover
more chapters are better than teachers who don't teach the
books in sequence and cover fewer of chapters.
6) Teachers who give regular tests and discuss these with the
students, are better teachers than those ones who give fewer
tests.
7) Teachers who use monitors
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less often, spend more time
with their students. This applies to mUlti-grade teaching,
which is common in Pakistan.
8) Teachers who use translators teach their subject matter in
a better way. Students in Pakistan come from different ethnic
backgrounds and speak different languages. So it is important
that teachers explain the sUbject matter in more than one
language. They can do this with the help of student
translators.
9) Teachers who plan their lessons teach in more effective
1 It is common in Pakistani classrooms that teachers have to
teach more than on class at the same time. If this is the case,
teachers take help from student monitors to review the .lesson or
maintain discipline within the group not being taught by the
teacher at that time.
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way than teachers who don't plan the lessons.
HYPOTHESES
I expect that women teachers in Pakistan will more frequently
than men teachers engage in the positive teaching practices listed
above. These hypotheses are based on the following assumptions:
a. women teachers come from better educated families than men
teachers, and <Ire therefore more likely to possess the "cultural
capital" required by the school. This hypothesis is tested in the
study.
b. the subordination of women in Pakistani society increases
for them the ilnportance of positive interpersonal relationships.
This translates into greater understanding of young children. This
hypothesis is not tested in the study.
c. the subordination of women requires them to strive harder
than men to achieve the same social status. That is, women
teachers are more oriented toward a high level of performance than
are men teachers. This hypothesis is also not tested in the study.
Background Characteristics and Teaching Practices
Considering the related research and my hypotheses, I expected
that teachers from high social class, with more education, more
training are more likely to use more effective teaching practices.
Gender and Teaching Practices
I expected that the research would show differences between
male and femall!! teachers. My expectation also was that female
teachers will more often carry out effective teaching practices.
Research Ouestions
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This paper asks: Do these differences in background (family
background, academic education, training) of men and women in
Pakistan lead to different behavior among male and female teachers
in the classrooms? This can be translated into the following
questions:
1. Do men and women teachers in primary schools of Pakistan
come from different backgrounds, in terms of socio-economic
status, fClrmal education, pre-service training, in-service
training and living conditions?
2 The data for this study come from research carried in a
national sample survey of government primary schools in Pakistan.
Data collection was a joint project of Project BRIDGES and the
Academy of Educ<ltional Planning and Management (AEPAM), Ministry of
Education, Pakistan. The purpose of the survey was to identify
factors that c:ontribute to the achievement and promotion of
students in primary schools. 'The survey was carried out in
December 1988 and January 1989 in Pakistan's four provinces and the
federal district.
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2. How are women teachers different from men teachers
regarding classroom practices that other researchers have
found to be associated with good teaching?
3. Are differences in classroom practices between men and
women related to differences in their backgrounds?3
ANALYSIS
For the purposes of the analysis, I treated gender of the
teachers as an independent (influencing) factor. Control variables
were factors that differentiate women and men teachers, such as
academic level, professional training and socio-economic status.
Rural/urban location of the school was used as a control variable
mediating the relationship.
The purpose of controlling for rural/urban was to see whether
the different conditions in the rural/urban schools are
contributing to the differences in teaching practices or if these
are attributable to other factors such as gender. Experience in
teaching and mUltigrade teaching was also used as controls. The
teaching practices were the outcome variables. 4
3 SPECIFIC OUESTIONS to be answered with the data included:
1. How do teachers assign tasks to the different groups if they
have to teach more than one class at the same time?
2. Do they use student monitors while teaching more than one class
and more than one sUbject? If they do, how often?
3. How do they use instructional material provided by the
Government (including the teaching kit, modules and blackboards)?
4. What is their policy regarding home work? If they assign it,
do they check it themselves, give feedback, discuss it with
students and how long do the discussions last?
5. How do they handle problems related to students? Do they use
physical punishment?
6. How many lessons had they taught in Mathematics and Science at
the time of the survey? Do they teach the books in sequence?
7. How often do they use student translators in the classrooms?
8. How many tests do they assign to their stUdents? Do they grade
the tests, return these to the students and discuss the tests?
9. How much time do they spend for instruction of math and science
in an average week?
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STRATEGY FOR ANALYSIS
1. Question 1. Do men and women teachers come from different
backgrounds, in terms of socio-economic status, formal education,
pre-service training, in-service training and living conditions?
Analysis: To analyze the differences in ~ e a c h e r s ' backgrounds, I
used t-test statistics and chi-square statistics for continuous and
categorical variables respectively.
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RESULTS
summary of Background Characteristics
Female tE!achers had less academic qualification, less
professional training and fewer in-service teacher's training
courses. The female teachers are comparatively younger than male
teachers and slightly less experienced as teachers. The proportion
of female teachers in urban schools is higher than the proportion
of male teachers in urban schools. More male teachers than female
teach more than one class. Female teachers' parents were
comparatively lDore educated than the parents of male teachers.
Female teachers; had more possessions at home than male teachers.
Female teachers belonged to a comparatively higher SES level
compared to th.eir male colleagues. There were no significant
differences between male and female teachers by years of experience
or whether ... teach in a single or mUltigrade situation.
SUMMARY OF CIJ\,SSROOM PRACTICES BY GENDER OF THE TEACHERS
The resu!t:s are summarized in annex 1, Male teachers give
more homework to their students in math and science. Female
teachers give tests in math and science. More male teachers
use the teaching kit if available. Male teachers had covered more
of curriculum in math and science than female teachers. Male
teachers spend more time on instruction on math and science.
Female teachers use less physical punishment. More female teachers
use the blackboards. More male teachers use the students help for
translations from one language to another. More male teachers than
female plan the lesson before they teach. There are no differences
in the followin.g teaching practices for the two groups: follow up
of the homework; frequency of the kit use; number of hours student
monitors used for; tough physical punishment; and assigning the
tasks.
In summary, it can be said that men and women teachers do
differ in their teaching practices. There are significant
2. Ouestion 2. How are women teachers different from men teachers
regarding classroom practices that other researchers have found to
be associated with good teaching?
Analysis: Information on classroom practices contains both
categorical and continuous dependent variables. T-test statistics
and chi-square statistics were used for analysis.
3. Ouestion 3. Are different classroom practices related to the
different backgrounds of teachers?
Analysis: specific analyses was: The individual teaching
practices will be seen controlling for background characteristics;
for gender of the teacher; for background practices and gender of
the teachers. Anova and Chi-Square anctlysis will be used for
continuous and categorical dependent variables.
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diffeences between the two groups for 9 out of 15 teaching
practices. Of these 9 significant differences, male teachers more
frequently than females report using the effective practices in 6
comparisons.
As seen in annex 2, out of 9 statistically significant practices,
female teachers used 6 teaching practices which were contrary to my
initial expectation.
SUMMARy OF TEACHING PRACTICES BY ACADEMIC OUALIFICATIONS AND GENDER
OF THE TEACHERS (see annex 3)
Both male and female teachers, with matric level of education
give more homework compared with teachers with any other level of
education. Male and female teachers who have matric level of
education alos use the teaching kit more than teachers with other
qualifications. Within this group more male than female teachers
use the kit. Highly qualified teachers use the student monitors'
help for the maximum number of hours. Teachers with matric and
FA/FSc qualification use translators more than others. In each
group more male than female teachers use translators. Furhter,
more male teachers than females who have matric level of education
plan lessons.
SUMMARY OF TEACHING PRACTICES BY PROFESSIONAL TRAINING AND GENDER
OF THE TEACHERS (see annex 4)
Male and female teachers with JV level of training give the
most homework compared to those with other levels of training. Male
teachers in this category give more homework than female teachers.
In the category of teachers who have SV-PTC as professional
training more male than female teachers use the teaching kit.
Teachers with JV level of training use the teaching kit for more
lessons than teachers with any other level of training. Female
teachers use the kit for many more lessons than male teachers do.
Teachers with CT and higher levels of qualifications use the
student monitors for the maximum number of hours. Male teachers· in
this group use the monitors' help more than female teachers do.
More male than female teachers with JV and SV-PTC training use
physical punishment. More female teachers than male teachers with
SV-PTC level of training use the blackboard for teaching. The use
of translators by JV and SV-PTC teachers is significant. In these
groups male teachers use more translators than female teachers.
There are two levels of professional training where the
distribution of lesson plans is significant, i.e., No- training and
SV-PTC. In both of these categories more males than females plan
lessons.
There were no significant differences with controls by gender
and professional training for the following teaching practices:
follow up of the homework, tests in math and science, curriculum
coverage, instructional time for teaching math and science, use of
tough physical punishment, teaching of integrated curriculum, and
assigning the tasks to the students.
As shown in the above discussion, professional training of the
teachers does not contribute towards positive practices. It was
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assumed that p:r:ofessionally trained teachers are more likely to
engage in teaching practices which are identified as positively
realted to student achievement. This is not true in this research.
professional training of the teachers is not realted to good
practices irrespective of the gender of the teachers. The content
of the professional training in Pakistan needs change to make it
more effective.
summary of Teaching Practices In Service Training and Gender of
the Teachers (see annex S)
Teachers who had in-service training give more homework than
teachers who d.id not have the training, irrespective of gender.
The differences: for the use of the teaching kit were significant
for the who did not have in-service training, in which
case more male teachers used the teaching kit. More teachers who
had training ha:d used the kit for more lessons than the teachers
who did not have training. Within the trained teachers' category
male teachers had used the kit for slightly more lessons than
female teachers;. More teachers who are not trained use physical
punishment and within this group more males than females use
punishment in each category. For the use of blackboards, the only
significant difference was for trained, in which case more females
than males used the blackboard. More male teachers, both trained
and not trained, used the student translators. More untrained male
teachers plan their lessons than female untrained teachers.
As stated earlier, the expectation from the teachers who had
professional tri!ining in teaching (both pre-service and in-service)
were more likely to engage in effective teaching practices. But
this analysis s,hows not much difference between the teachers who
had training or those who did not have training. This might be
because of the content and quality of in-service teacher training
they receive. The teacher training contributes a little towards
the effective teaching practices. This can be a substantive area
of improvement where government can introduce changes.
SUMMARY OF TEACHING PRACTICES BY URBAN RURAL LOCATION OF THE
SCHOOLS AND GENDER OF THE TEACHERS (see abnnex 6)
Teachers i.n rural schools give more homework in math and
science. Within rural schools more male than female teachers give
homework to students. Female teachers in urban schools
follow up on the homework more than males in urban schools. More
female teachers in urban schools use the teaching kit than female
teachers in rurcll schools. More male teachers in urban schools use
the kit than males in rural schools. More male teachers both in
urban and rura, I schools use physical punishment than female
teachers in the, same areas. More male than female teachers in
rural and urban areas also are more likely to use help from student
monitors. "
The significant difference for lesson planning was for rural
schools in which more female teachers than male teachers plan their
lessons for teaching.
15
SUMMARY OF TEACHING PRACTICES BY TEACHERS' PARENTS EDUCATION AND
GENDER OF THE TEACHERS (see annex 7)
Teachers whose parents were less educated followed up on
homework more than teachers whose parents were more educated. More
teachers with less educated parents also used the teaching kit and
also used it more frequently or for more lessons. Teachers who
came comparatively more educated families used less physical
punishment. More female teachers from educated families used
blackboards than male teachers from more educated families. Both
male and female teachers from less educated families used help
from students for translations. Comparatively more female teachers
than males from more educated families assigned tasks to the
students. More teachers from comparatively more educated families
planned their lessons than the teachers from less educated
families.
SUMMARY OF TEACHING PRACTICES BY TEACHERS' POSSESSIONS AND GENDER
OF THE TEACHERS (see annex 8)
Teachers both male and female with more possessions use
monitors' help more, than do teachers with fewer possessions. More
male teachers than female with less possessions, use translators'
help. Both male and female teachers with fewer possessions assign
more tasks.
SUMMARY OF TEACHING PRACTICES BY TEACHING EXPERIENCE AND GENDER OF
THE TEACHERS (see annex 9)
Within the group of less experienced teachers more
male teachers than females used the teaching kit. Teachers both
male and female with more experience used the kit for more number
of lessons compared to the teachers with less experience. More
experienced male teachers used more help from monitors than more
experienced female teachers. More male teachers both with more and
less experience used physical punishment than female teachers in
each category. More experienced female teachers used blackboards
than males in this group. Male teachers used more student
translators irrespective of their experience. More male teachers
than females planned the lessons, whether more or less experienced.
SUMMARY OF TEACHING PRACTICES BY SINGLEt MULTIGRADE
TEACHING AND GENDER OF THE TEACHERS See annex 10)
Teachers both male and female, who have to teach mUltigrade
give more homework than the teachers who teach single grade. More
male teachers than females use the teaching kit in single grade
teaching. More male teachers in both single and multigrade teaching
use physical punishment. More female teachers use blackboards in
both single and mUltigrade teaching. More male teachers both in
single and mUltigrade teaching use student translators and plan
their lessons. '
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
This stUdy was designed to compare and contrast the teaching
16
practices of m,!le and female teachers in the primary schools of
Pakistan. The expectation was that the data from the study would
show sharp differences between the practices of male and female
teachers. MalEl and female teachers were compared on their self-
reports on 15 practices. There were significant differences
between the twe. groups for 9 out of 15 comparisons.
The expect:ation further was that female teachers would more
often carry out those practices that in previous studies have been
associated with higher levels of student learning. For convenience,
these were referred to as effective practices. Of the 9
statistically significant differences, male teachers more
frequently than females 1:"eported using the effective practices in
6 comparisons (.'ee /tr..,. "-e.,<: I). Hence the general hypothesis that
female teachers. would more frequently report using more effective
teaching practices is disconfirmed.
Female teachers were expected, more frequently than males, to
engage in effective teaching practices because of the ways men and
women are treated in Pakistani society. Even when female teachers
receive the SClme amount of training as male teachers, their
behavior could be different, because women bring to the teaching
profession a conception of themselves and their role that differs
from that of This conception is developed in a society in
which women accorded an inferior position, denied access to
certain kinds of experiences and positions, and nurtured, educated
and trained to be subordinate to men.
It was that this set of experiences would dispose women
to be much more highly committed than men to the task of education
of young children. Female teachers would be more concerned with
preparing lessons, getting children to do their work, and
supervising their homework. Female teachers would be less likely
than men to use harsh punishment, or to use student monitors as a
way to escape responsibility.
The specific hypotheses are re-stated in summary form in Table
1.
Interpretation of Findings
An attempt: was made to determine whether the differences
between male a,nd female teachers could be attributed to their
characteristics. I examined the relationships between, parents'
education and teachers' possessions (social class), teachers'
formal education, level of training, experience in teaching, urban
rural location, single or mUltigrade teaching with each of the
teaching practice variables, holding gender of the teachers
constant. The results are as follows.
, "
Table 1
CLASSROOM PRACTICES BY GENDER OF THE TEACHERS
(As Expected)
Homework in math
and science
Follow up of the
Homework
Tests in math and
science
Use of Teaching Kit
(% Yes)
# of lessons kit
used for
Curriculum Coverage
(math and science)
Instructional Time
in Minutes
(math & science)
Use of Student Monitors
(# of hours)
Use of Physical
punishment (% Yes)
Tough Physical
Punishment
Integrated Curriculum
Use of Blackboards
(% Yes)
Use of Student
Translators
Assigning Tasks
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
High
High
High
Low
Low
Low
Low
Female
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
Low
Low
Low
High
High
High
High
Lesson Plans
(% Yes)
Low High
18
1. Instructional Time
Instructicmal time is a good predictor of student
achievement, clccording to the research literature and other
analyses of a random sample survey of primary schools in Pakistan.
In this study, male teachers spent more time on instruction of math
and science theln did female teachers.
None of t;he control variables account for the differences
between male ,and female teachers. That is, the differences
associated wit:h gender cannot be explained by reference
education of the parents of the teacher (social class, see )Inn"'''
7 ), the teacher's own level of academic education (see
'), the te;!cher's own professional training or teaching
experience (seEI A7\'I\e." It ), whether the teachers face a single or
multigrade cla.ss (see A'1"'4X 1'0 ;), or whether the school is
designated as urban or rural. (see '" )
What other factors could account for the differences between
male and femalE! teachers, in terms of time on math and science?
In the Pakistani school system female teachers spend as much time
in school during the week as the male teachers. Specifically, they
reported essentially the same length of school day during the
survey. This llleans that if male teachers spend more time on math
and science theln females, then females must spend more time than
males on other SUbjects. The study focused only on math and
science becausEI of the existence of an achievement test only for
those SUbjects. The other official subjects in Pakistani schools
are urdu, Social Studies and Islamic Studies. If we know which of
these SUbjects was favored by female teachers, we might have a
better understanding of the math-science difference.
2. curriculum Coverage
Given that, male teachers spend more time on math and science
than do female teachers, it is not surprising that male teachers
also cover mOrE! of the curriculum for these two subjects. Once
again the con't:rol variables were introduced to see if they
accounted for the gender differences. only the level of teachers'
academic educat:ion had a significant relationship to curriculum
coverage. Male teachers covered more of the curriculum than
females, except for those teachers with 8 years or less of
schooling. Here female teachers covered more of the curriculum.
There is a general conviction that better educated teachers do
better in teaching than do those with less education. If coverage
of the curriculum is a measure of doing well in teaching (and other
research shows that it is related to student achievement scores)
then we should laxpect a steady increase in coverage with increases
in levels of academic education.
7
But this is not the case. Those
teachers with the highest levels of academic education are not
those who most I::::over the curriculum. We saw in chapter 3 that the
greatest coverclge by male teachers was for the matric diploma
holders, whereas for female teachers it was the FA/FSc holders.
This diff,arence in the impact of I academic education on
coverage of math and science might be a reflection of the different
quality of educ=ation male and female teachers have received, a
question we cannot answer with this data. Reimers and Warwick in
------------------
19
their report "Influences on Academic Achievement in Pakistan:
students, Teachers, and Classrooms" comment on the quality of
education teachers have received when they were students. They
conclude:
Variables, such as rural and urban location, formal education,
multigrade teaching, those conditions are not plausible
explanations for the lower achievement performance in
mathematics. The most likely reason is that in their own
schooling female teachers received less or lower-quality
instruction in mathematics than their male counterparts. As
a result, when the time came to transmit their knowledge of
the field to their students, they were ill-prepared to do so
(Reimers and Warwick, 1991, p.3).
But it is also possible that the impact of formal education on
teaching practices, independent of its quality, differs for men and
women.
Earlier we noted that female teachers on average come from
better educated families than do male teachers. (see table ***) A
matric education for a female teacher could be said to be less of
an advancement over that of her family, than a matric education for
a male teacher. Or in other words, in general male teachers have
shown more social mobility in comparison with their parents than
have female teachers in comparison with their parents. For many
men, teaching is a way YR from the low status of their parents.
For many women in this study, however, teaching may be the only job
a women from an educated family can get. If social mobility is a
reflection of personal motivation, then it is possible that women
from highly educated families who become teachers are less
motivated to do well than are men who come from less well educated
families.
To check this we can compare coverage of the curriculum by
male and female teachers, controlling on both the education of
their parents, and on their own education.' First I divided both
parents' education and teacher education at the median, into Low
and High. When parent education is low and teacher education is
high, the teacher is classified as Upwardly mobile. The hypothesis
is that Downward Mobility teachers are less motivated than Upward
Mobility teachers, and therefore less likely to engage in correct
practices. This hypothesis was true in this case. Downward
mobility teachers covered less of the curriculum than did upward
mobility teachers.
3 Homework
Homework is considered a way of increasing the time students
spend working on the lessons, and therefore is positively related
to students' aChievement. In this study, male teachers give more
homework than female teachers. How can this be explained?
Both male and female teachers with a matric level of education
give the most homework; teachers with the most education give the
least homework. This is contrary to the argument that formal
schooling has a linear relationship with the good teaching
practices. As with respect to coverage of the curriculum, male
teachers with a matric level of education give the most homework,
20
and female teachers with FA/Fsc level give the most for their
gender.
The same pattern holds for the relationship between level of
professional training and the amount of homework assigned. Both
for male and female teachers the highest level of training is
associated with the lowest amount of homework assigned.
The finding that teachers, both male and female, in rural
schools give me.re homework than do teachers in urban schools, was
contrary to e)(:pectations. One assumption was that in general
quality of education is higher in urban schools than in rural
schools: urban :schools are better equipped, have better facilities,
and have teachers and administrators with higher levels of
training. This assumption is correct--urban schools are better off
than rural schools on these dimensions. Warwick and Reimers (1991)
applied the term "good schools" to schools that scored in the top
third of a pooled index of student achievement in mathematics and
science and "pc)or schools" to those in the bottom third. Their
findings include:
Good schools were more likely to be in cities or towns than in
rural arei!S and to be male or coeducational rather than
female. ~ ~ h e urban rural difference arises in part from the
strong pre'ference of teachers to settle in urban locations.
Given tha1: preference and government allowances that make
urban residence financially more attractive, urban schools
have a larger pool of candidates for teaching positions. out
of this pool district officials can choose those with better
levels of qeneral education, a condition positively related to
achievement (Warwick and Reimers, 1991,p.4).
Reimers and Warwick in their report "Influences on Academic
Achievement in Pakistan: Students, teachers, and Classrooms" show
the positive impact of urban schools on student achievement:
The result.s showed that the best predictors on all the four
predictors on all four tests are, in order, whether the school
is urban or rural •••• Achievement was higher when: the school
is located in urban area (Reimers and Warwick, 1991, p.2).
A second assumption was that better schools give more homework.
This may not be correct. It may be that in Pakistani schools
homework is considered a substitute for work in the class. When the
teacher is able to complete planned work during the class hours,
then homework is not as necessary. perhaps teachers give more
homework in rural schools because they cannot complete lessons
during the regular class period. To test this, I looked at the
relationship between time spent on math and science, and amount of
homework assigned, and found that there is a significant negative
relationship. This suggests that teachers do use homework as a
sUbstitute for not covering the lessons in class.
4. Regular Use of Tests I
I assumed that teachers can increase the time students spend
on learning the curriculum by assigning tests which focus students'
attention. I expected that female teachers would give more tests
_._._--_._-----------_.
21
than do male teachers. This expectation was upheld: at each level
of education female teachers give more tests than male teachers.
Once again, the difference associated with the gender cannot be
explained by reference to any of the controls.
5. Use of the Teaching Kit
There clearly are differences between male and female teachers
in the access to and training in the use of teaching kits. Female
teachers less frequently were in schools with kits, and had less
opportunities for training. The relationship of gender to the use
of the kit is therefore conditioned by other variables not taken
into account in the study.
Once again, there is not a linear relationship between level
of education and professional training and use of the kit. Kits
are used more frequently by male teachers with matric diplomas,
least by those with BAs. Female teachers with no professional
training are those who most use the kit. Kits are more likely to
be used by male and female teachers whose parents had little or no
education.
5. Use of physical punishment
Female teachers, by virtue of their own experience of
subordination in society, are expected to be more kind to students
and more understanding, and therefore less inclined to use physical
punishment when exerting discipline in the class.
As expected, a higher proportion of male teachers compared to
female teachers use physical punishment. This difference is not
related to the levels of academic education or professional
training. Use of physical punishment is more common in rural
schools than in urban schools. Teachers whose parents are less
educated, and teachers with fewer years of teaching also use
punishment more frequently. On this variable, at least, the
original hypothesis is confirmed.
I had originally assumed that the various types of practices
are all a reflection of a single dimension---teacher commitment,
which is higher for females. But it is possible that practices
might reflect several dimensions, e.g., one reflecting kindness
(women higher), another reflecting subject knowledge and interest
(men higher on math and science). I thought good teaching is all
one thing, but it might be made up of several dimensions. On some
women may excel, on others men.
6. Use of Student Monitors
The assumption made was that teachers use monitors to reduce
the time they themselves have to spend teaching, and therefore that
use of monitors is a negative teaching practice. I reasoned that
female teachers would be more committed to teaching, and would make
less use of monitors. This expectation was also upheld, and it also
confirms the notion that teaching practices are multi-dimensional.
Male teachers were shown to use monitors more than female
teachers. This is true for each level of academic education and
professional training. It is important to" notice that highest use
of monitors was made by the teachers with highest levels of
academic educational and professional training. It will be
recalled that these teachers were often on the low side of
22
completion of curriculum, amount of instruction time, assignment of
homework , and other practices considered positive.
8. Lesson Plans
To avoid asking a question that might put teachers on the
spot, they we,re asked "Do you have time for lesson plans?"
Proportionally more male teachers than female teachers say they
have time to plan their lessons. Female teachers in rural schools
more frequentllr say they plan their lessons than do female teachers
in urban schools. The reverse is true of male teachers. Other
controls do no,t explain the differences between male and female
teachers about the available time to prepare lessons. Another
explanation might be that the question itself was taken in its
literal sense. It might be true that more time is available to male
teachers to pre,pare the lesson plans as against female teachers who
have total responsibility of child rearing and household affairs.
Conclusions
Male and :Eemale teachers differ in their teaching practices.
Male teachers spend more time than females teaching math and
science and cover more of the curriculum in these subjects. Male
teachers give more homework, use the teaching kit more, more
frequently use students as translators and more often say they plan
their lessons. Female teachers less frequently use physical
punishment and students as monitors, give more tests, and more
frequently use blackboards.
The findings do not support my hypothesis that female teachers
are more likely than male teachers to use what I defined as good
teaching practices. To support my hypothesis with these data, it
would be neces,;;ary to state that in Pakistani schools the better
teaching practice is to:
a. spend less time on instruction in math and science
b. cover less of the curriculum in math and science
c. give little or no homework
d. not use the teaching kit when available
e. not use students as translators
f. not say that there is time to plan lessons.
But there is no argument to support these statements. In fact,
most are contrcldicted by other findings that show these practices
to be positively correlated with student aChievement. WltwiIX
and Reimers report on teaching practices in good and poor schools
in Pakistan.
Several teaching practices distinguish good from poor schools.
Above all, good schools have less multigrade teaching. And,
when their teachers are responsible for several grades, they
are less likely than those in poor schools to use student
monitors t:o lead recitation or supervise the class they are
not teaching at that time. These findings support the view
that studEmt achievement will rise when teachers spend more
time in class with their students. In addition, teachers in
good schoo,ls more often use student t!ranslators to make their
presentations understood by pupils speaking other
languages. 8 •••••
Compared t:o teachers in poor schools, those in good schools
23
show better coverage of the curriculum, more homework, assign
more exercises in math and science, ••• give more tests (Warwick
and Reimers, 1991, p.14).
Warwick, Reimers and McGinn in their report on "Teacher
Characteristics and Student Achievement in Math and Science in
primary Schools of Pakistan" used the following predictors: sex of
the teacher; the teacher's formal education; whether the teachers
taught more than one class; the number of the exercises assigned in
Mathematics; whether the teachers used translators in the class;
and whether the teacher had the teaching kit. They concluded:
Results also show that three characteristics of teachers are
significant predictors of achievement on all 4 tests. These
are the teacher's formal education, whether the teacher
teaches more than one class, and the number of exercises
assigned in mathematics. The sex of the teacher is a
relatively strong predictor of student achievement in math but
not in science. Students of female teachers have lower scores
than those of male teachers ••• Asking students to translate
for others is significantly related to achievement just in
math 59 (Warwick, Reimers and McGinn, 1989, p.23).
It appears that, by my definitions, female teachers currently
in service are less likely than male teachers to engage in good
teaching practices. Why should this be so? It is worth reminding
our selves that women teachers are product of an inferior system.
Women teachers were for the most part educated in girls' schools by
female teachers. Warwick and Reimers comment:
Of the total sample of female teachers, 42 percent are in good
schools and 58 percent in poor schools. These figures are
consistent with other findings showing a major gender gap in
achievement, particularly in rural schools ••• classroom
practices of teachers, including mUltigrade teaching carry
much more weight for achievement than the quality and
equipment in school buildings (Warwick and Reimers, 1991,
p.14).
I argued earlier that females are treated as
subordinates in Pakistani society, and therefore that they enter
teaching with a stronger commitment than men to carrying out the
responsibilities of teaching. If they were less familiar than men
with those responsibilities, then the negative findings I have
shown would make sense. But the evidence is that even with the
same training, female teachers less frequently used effective
practices.
In several cases, as I have shown above, it was teachers with
higher levels of academic education or training who were less
likely to use the effective practices. Access to schooling is to
some degree a reflection of the social class of the teacher. The
results suggest that persons from the higher social class do less
well as teachers. This might occur if teaching was seen as an
inferior occupation, something that persons had to do when nothing
24
else was available. Persons with this perspective would be less
motivated to carry out the responsibilities of their positions.
We can als,o estimate the social class of teachers by reference
to the education level of their parents. Earlier I showed that
teachers with d.ownward mobility, that is, who had parents with high
education but themselves had low education, were less likely to
carry out effective teaching practices: assigning the homework and
its follow up; use of teaching kits; coverage of curriculum in math
and Science; instructional time for Math and Science; and lesson
plans. Downward mobility, it was suggested, would lead to lower
levels of motivation and therefore less use of effective practices.
Female te.achers are more likely than male teachers to come
from higher soc:ial class backgrounds, and therefore more often are
classified as Downwardly mobile. If the argument is correct that
downward mobility leads to low motivation and not carrying out
effective pract;ices, then we should expect that female teachers, as
a group, would use those practices less than male teachers.
It bears repeating, of course, that all this is conjecture at
this point.
POLICY
Traditioncll governments like Pakistan realize that women
teachers are ne!eded if female children are to be educated. Women
teachers are a necessity even if there is no evidence that they are
effective teachers. The awareness is sharply rising that in some
countries unive:rsalization of primary education cannot be achieved
if women teachelrs are not available.
As pointed out earlier evidence is needed on the effectiveness
of teachers ill relation to their gender and other mediating
factors. Thi.s paper was designed to answer some of the
questions.
Why were the results of this research not as expected? There
might be several reasons. There is a genuine possibility that
other interact in real life situations not included in
this study. For example, certain social aspects like women's role
in child rearing and the responsibilities in the joint family
system could a:Efect teacher performance. Women's absences from
school during the academic year might have been a good indicator to
explain some of this and might have provided some explanation.
It may also be possible that women teachers are not
particularly good at teaching math and science. They might perform
differently when it comes to teaching other sUbjects, like social
studies, languages, home economics, and arts. This issue was
beyond the scope of this paper and might be a good question for
further researc:h. If evidence to this account does show that
women's performance is better for other sUbjects, then changes in
curriculum development particularly for girls' schools and also
teacher training institutions with reference to teaching math and
science may be a practical option.
There is a,Iso the possibility that quality of education
which women te,achers had received when they were students in
primary schools, particularly at rural schools, was not good. So
when they became teachers they were not ready to do a good job.
25
(As noted earlier, a similar conclusion has been presented by other
researchers from project BRIDGES based on the same data set which
has been used for this study). Poor quality of instruction yields
ineffective teachers and the process continues.
The Government of Pakistan has to break this circle at some
point, for otherwise girls' education will continue to suffer. An
effective way of teaching mathematics particularly for female
children, has to be a priority. This could be done through changes
in the curriculum at the primary level, and through changes in the
teacher training courses. Both of these would need further
research to determine exactly what factors lead to the low
performance of girl students in mathematics. A part of it has been
explained by this dissertation and other research by Project
BRIDGES that female teachers contribute to this low achievement but
the differences of quality of instruction received by females have
not been researched and seem a promising area.
Women teachers are less likely to use physical punishment.
Even if physical punishment is not related to student achievement
it might have a big negative relationship with the retention of the
students in the schools. In countries like Pakistan, where
dropouts are a major problem, the impact of physical punishment
might be an important factor.
This question has been not studied in relation of the student
dropout from the elementary levels and might be a good question for
further research.
Teacher training is another area which may need much
improvement. Teacher training can be improved both at the pre-
service and in-service level. The present system of training
particularly, in-service training does not contribute much to the
present system of primary education. A significant contribution
has been made by Project BRIDGES to study this particular issue.
Training of the teachers can be organized keeping in view the
recommendation of the research by BRIDGES. If reorganized, teacher
training can be a substitute for a high level of education for the
teachers, particularly women teachers who did not have as good an
education as men when they themselves were students.
The recruitment policies of the government of Pakistan are an
area which can be modified. Teachers can be hired withmatric and
FA/Fsc level and through teacher training their expertise can be
developed. This would be a practical solution for the recruitment
of women teachers particularly in rural areas where they are needed
the most. Women teachers who are not very highly educated to start
with, are not very willing or cannot move away from the families
and are not expensive to be hired.
change of the social status of teachers is another area which
might need long term planning. This might be the most complicated,
difficult, and hard to implement. The low performance in the
classrooms by highly qualified teachers (irrespective of their
gender) is a strong argument for the" fact that teaching is
considered a not very prestigious profession. This perception has
to be changed. This could be done through several changes in the
system. Teachers have to be better paid, and they have to be
26
treated better, to recruit them into the service and to retain
them. The low status of teachers is a very common argument for why
teachers have negative attitudes towards their profession. The
pakistani educiation system is still based on the traditions of
British colonic:l rule, where social status was attached to being a
civil servant cmd not to being a teacher. U r ban / r u r a I
disparities have to be eliminated and this can go with the
recruitment policies. The government has to pay equal allowances,
so that being posted in the rural area does not mean getting paid
less. Rural female schools need women teachers the most. On the
basis of the findings of this research, as argued earlier,
effective teaching does not need highly qualified teachers at
primary level. This could lead to a pOlicy option which can be
less expensive deal for developing countries like Pakistan. More
qualified teachers are harder to find, have to be paid more. They
are also reluc:tant to join teaching which is not one of the
prestigious professions. Hiring comparatively less qualified
teachers may solve a practical problem especially in case of women
teachers. WheTI women teachers are more qualified, they represent
a higher social class and probably comparatively more educated
families and usually have an urban base. In that case they like to
be posted in urban areas only. This poses a problem for
recruitment for rural schools which are in desperate need of women
teachers. As mentioned earlier, there are monetary incentives
which make urbcm posting more attractive. This is a financially
difficult decis:ion for the government to implement, but still is
the most desired and consistently recommended by researchers from
within the country and in countries with similar circumstances.
Research c,n the education system in Pakistan is a relatively
new phenomenon. The country has so many other pressing needs that
this particular aspect gets neglected. It is the last priority even
within the education system. The BRIDGES project has filled a gap
in this particular field but the need is so elaborate, that it
needs extension for a reasonable amount of time. The BRIDGES
project has not only conducted the research on important aspects of
primary educati,on but has also trained the educational planners and
administrators 'to do research on problems of concern. Those master
trainers are not yet enough to take the responsibility. Research
in education has to be a priority within the education system.
Research institutes can be established at the national and
provincial level.
,.
_.__.._----------------
27
REFERENCES
1. In 1983-84, dropout rates for primary school children ranged
from a low of 18% in Punjab for males in urban area, to a high
of 93% for females in Baluchistan. In 1985 only a third of
five year old girls (940,000) were in school, and only half of
those who entered school were expected to finish the fifth
grade. By the age 12, only about 4% of the rural girls are
still in schools. (p.4)
The World Bank figures are quoted from "Effective Classroom
Practices in Primary schools of Pakistan" by Andrea B. Rugh,
Harvard University, project BRIDGES (1989)
2. We mark the borders of the bottom category of countries like
Bhutan, Nepal, Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Sudan, Chad, Mali and
Zaire.
In 1951 the literacy rate was estimated at 16.4% of the total
population (all age groups) in spite of a liberal definition
of literacy 'ability to read any printed language'
Comprehension was not a condition. In 1961, this parameter was
added, and the ratio came down to 13.6% (of the total
population). The definition was 'ability to read with
understanding in any language'-writing ability was not
included. In 1972 the definition was 'the ability to read and
write with understanding in any language'. The literacy rate
was estimated at 21. 7%. In 1981 the criterion became more
precise 'the ability to read a newspaper and write a simple
letter in any language'. The changing criteria detract from
the comparability of the time series. At any rate, literacy
was estimated at 26.2% in 1981. Behind this unflattering
figure, there are large disparities- in terms of rural/urban,
(17.3% against 47.1%) and male/female (35.1% against 16.0%)
Rural female literacy is only 7.3%, the worst case being
literacy in Baluchistan, only 1.8%"
Quoted from Action Plan for Educational Development (1983-'88),
Ministry of Education; Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, 1984.
(p.ll)
3. There are 56394 female teachers versus 176721 total.
Differences in proportions of male ~ n d female teachers are
even more marked when further break-down of provinces and
urban/rural areas is considered.
28
Source: Central Bureau of Education, Islamabad (June 1983 cited in
Action Plan of Educational Development: 1983-88).
4. In-service! facilities are not enough as according to the needs
of the tea.chers. So the teachers end up staying with the same
qualificat:ions with which they entered the system. It is
particularly hard for the women who work in the rural schools
and training courses are usually held in the urban areas,
making it harder for the women to attend.
Quoted from "Primary Education Improvements: Desired Measures"
National Educat:ion council, (1986) Islamabad, Pakistan.
5. The researchers randomly selected 51 primary schools in
Botswana and from those schools 2,559 students selected (basis
-final exam) sample was 1517 girls and 1042 boys). Furthermore
52 women teachers and 35 men teachers were selected for the
study (thedr teaching experience ranged from 2 to 34 years
with a m,aan of 11 years) Teachers were administered a
questionna.ire stating their sexes and years of experience. On
the basis of grand mean pupils were divided into two groups
based on less or more teaching experience. The performance of
the teache'rs were evaluated on the basis of the group they
belonged.
6. He used the same data set as of this study, but he dealt with
a number of 500 teachers because he linked it to the achievement of
the students, a.nd information was available for 500 teachers who
taught math and science to grade 4 and 5. I dealt with 1000
teachers and not linking it to the achievement of the students. I
studied' the different practices by the male and female teachers as
mediated by the different background factors.
7. In Pakistan, "students of teachers with secondary education
outperformed students of teachers with only primary education on
tests of mathematics and science" (Warwick et al. 1989).
8. Pakistan and schools are faced with a considerable problem in
that the pe,ople speak many languages .... The problem of perhaps
90% of the students beginning school with a different language
greatly complicates the instruction. (p.37)
Quoted from Primary Education in Pakistan: Part III Case Studies of
Schools in Pakistan (1986) by Development Associates, INC.
9. The writers of this report used the same data set as I did with
the only diffet'ence that they linked to the achievement of the
students of claslses 4 & 5. The data was available where they could
link the performance of the teachers to the students achievement
29
only consisted of about 500 teachers, while the data, I used for
the study consisted on a sample of 1000 teachers from which 60%
were male.

Annex 1
summary of Teaching Practices
By Gender of the Teachers
Male Female Total N. p <
Homework :in math
and s c i e n c ~ e 8.39 7.51 8.04 825 .002
Follow up of the
Homework 4.11 4.04 4.08 775 N.S.
Tests in lnath and
science 3.35 4.24 3.79 853 .048
Use of Teaching Kit
(% Yes) 30.9 22.0 27.4 936 .011
# of lesscms kit
used for 3.10 2.38 2.84 746 N.S.
Curriculum Coverage
(math and science) 80.44 64.87 72.65 789 .000
Instructional Time
in Minuteel
(math & sc:ience) 533'.64 456.57 495.10 765 .000
Use of Student Monitors
(# of hours) 10.28 9.17 9.72 934 N.S.
Use of Physical
punishment: (% Yes) 59.5 40.7 52.0 876 .000
Tough Phys:ical
Punishment: 1.96 1.92 1.92 358 N.S.
Integrated Curriculum 3.5 3.0 3.3 877 N.S.
Use of Blackboards
(% Yes) 90.9 96.1 93.5 879 .003
Use of student
Translators 66.2 46.5 56.3 853 .000
Assigning Tasks 44.1 44.7 44.4 815 N.S.
Lesson Plans
(% Yes) 90.3 82.3 86.3 911 .000
~
Annex 2
summary of
Teaching Practices
(expected versus actual)
By Gender of the
Teachers
Expected Actual
Female Female
~
Homework in math
and science
Hi Lo
.002
Follow up of the
Homework
Hi Lo
N.S.
Tests in math and
science
Hi Hi
.048
Use of Teaching Kit
(% Yes)
Hi Lo
.011
# of lessons kit
used for
Hi Lo N.S.
curriculum coverage
(math and science) Hi Lo .000
Instructional Time
in Minutes
(math & science) Hi Lo .000
Use of Student Monitors
(# of hours) Lo Lo N.S.
Use of Physical
punishment (% Yes) Lo Lo .000
Tough Physical
Punishment Lo Lo N.S.
Integrated Curriculum Hi Lo N.S.
Use of Blackboards
(% Yes) Hi Hi .003
Use of Student
Translators Hi Lo .000
Assigning Tasks Lo Hi N.S •
Lesson Plans
.'
(% Yes), Hi Lo .000
3(
Actual
Less
Educated
(Female)
Annex 3
summary of Teaching Practices
By Academic Qualifications
Expected
Less More
Educated Educated
(Female) (Female)
More
Educated
(Female)
Homework in math
and science Lo Hi Lo Hi
Follow up of the
Homework Lo Hi Not Significant
Tests in math and
science
Use of Tea.ching Kit
(% Yes)
# of lesse,ns kit
used for
Curriculum Coverage
(math and science)
Lo
Lo
Lo
Lo
Hi
Hi
Hi
Hi
Hi
Hi
Hi
Lo
Lo
Lo
Lo
Hi
Instructie,nal Time
in Minutes
(math & science) Lo Hi Not significant
Use of Student Monitors
(# of hours) Hi Lo Lo Hi
Use of Physical
punishment (% Yes) Hi
Tough physical
Punishment Hi
Integrated Curriculum Lo
Lo
Lo
Hi
Not Significant
Not significant
Not significant
Not significant
Use of Blackboards
(% Yes)
Use of Student
Translators
Assigning Tasks
Lesson Plans (% Yes)
Lo
Lo
Hi
Lo
Hi
Hi
Lo .'
Hi
Hi
Lo
Lo
Lo
Hi
Hi
_...._-----------------.".--
Annex 4
summary of Teaching Practices
By Professional Training
Curriculum Coverage
(math and science)
Use of Teaching Kit
(% Yes)
Lo Hi Hi Lo
Lo Hi Not Significant
Lo Hi Not Significant
Lo Hi Hi Lo
Lo Hi Hi Lo
Lo Hi Not Significant
More
Qualified
(Female)
More
Qualified
(Female)
Actual
Less
Qualified
(Female)
Expected
Less
QualifIed
(Female)
Homework in math
and science
Follow up of the
Homework
Tests in math and
science
# of lessons kit
used for
Instructional Time
in Minutes
(math & science) Lo
Use of Student Monitors
(# of hours) Hi
Use of Physical
punishment (% Yes) Hi
Tough Physical
Punishment Hi
Integrated Curriculum Lo
Use of Blackboards
(% Yes) Lo
Use of Student
Translators Lo
Assigning Tasks Hi
Lesson Plans (% Yes) Lo
Hi Not Significant
Lo Lo Hi
Lo Lo Hi
Lo Not Significant
Hi Not Significant
Hi Mixed
Hi Mixed
Lo Not Significant
,.
Hi Hi Lo
Annex 5
Summary of Teaching Practices
By In-Service Training
Expected
Not Trained Trained
(Female) (Female)
Trained
(Female)
Homework in math
and science Lo Hi
Actual
Not Trained
(Female)
Not Significant
Follow up of the
Homework Lo Hi Lo Hi
Tests in math and
science Lo Hi Not Significant
Use of Teaching Kit
(% Yes)
# of lesso:ns kit
used for
Lo
Lo
Hi
Hi
Lo
Lo
Hi
Hi
Curriculum Coverage
(math and science)
Instructio:nal Time
in Minutes
(math & science)
Lo
Lo
Hi
Hi
Not Significant
Not Significant
Use of Student Monitors
(# of hour:::) Hi Lo Lo Hi
Use of PhYI::ical
punishment (% Yes) Hi
Tough physical
Punishment Hi
Integrated Curriculum Lo
Lo
Lo
Hi
Not Significant
Not Significant
Not Significant
Use of Blackboards
(% Yes)
Use of Student
Translatorl;
Lo
Lo
Hi
Hi
Lo
Hi
Hi
Lo
Assigning ~ r a s k s Hi Lo
,"
Not Significant
Lesson Plal1s (% Yes) Lo Hi La Hi
----------------
Annex 6
summary of Teaching Practices
By Urban Rural Location of the Schools
Urban
(Female)
Expected
Rural Urban
(Female) (Female)
Actual
Rural
(Female)
Homework in math
and science Lo Hi Hi Lo
Follow up of the
Homework
Tests in math and
science
Lo
Lo
Hi
Hi
Not Significant
Not Significant
Use of Teaching Kit
(% Yes) Lo Hi Lo Hi
# of lessons kit
used for
curriculum Coverage
(math and science)
Instructional Time
in Minutes
(math & science)
Lo
Lo
Lo
Hi
Hi
Hi
Not Significant
Not Significant
Not Significant
Use of Student Monitors
(# of hours) Hi Lo Not Significant
Use of Physical
punishment (% Yes)
Tough Physical
Punishment
Hi
Hi
Lo
Lo
Hi
Hi
Lo
Lo
Integrated Curriculum Lo
Use of Blackboards
(% Yes) Lo
Hi
Hi
Not Significant
Not Significant
Not Significant
Use of Student
Translators
Assigning Tasks
Lesson Plans (% Yes)
Lo
Hi
Lo
Hi
Lo
Hi
,.
Hi
Hi
Lo
Lo
Annex 7
summary of Teaching Practices
By Teachers' Parents Education
Expected Actual
Less More Less
Educated Educated Educated
Parents Parents Parents
(Female) (Female) (Female)
More
Educated
Parents
(Female)
Homework in math
and science Lo Hi Not Significant
Follow up of the
Homework Lo Hi Hi Lo
Tests in Illath and
science Lo Hi Not Significant
Use of Tea,ching Kit
(% Yes)
# of lessclns kit
used for
Lo
Lo
Hi
Hi
Hi
Hi
Lo
Lo
curriculum Coverage
(math and science)
Instructional Time
in Minutes
(math & science)
Lo
Lo
Hi
Hi
Not Significant
Not Significant
Use of Student Monitors
(# of hours) Hi Lo Not Significant
Use of physical
punishment (% Yes) Hi Lo Hi Lo
Tough Physical
Punishment Hi Lo Not Significant
Integrated Curriculum Lo
Use of Blackboards
(% Yes) Lo
Use of Student
Translators Lo
Hi
Hi
Hi
Lo
Hi
Hi
Hi
Lo
Lo
Assigning Tasks
Lesson Plans (% Yes)
Hi
Lo
Lo
Hi
I Lo
Lo
Hi
Hi
Actual
More
Possessions
(Female)
Not Significant
Less
Possessions
(Female)
Hi Lo
Annex 8
summary of Teaching Practices
By Teachers' Possessions
Expected
Less More
Possessions Possessions
(Female) (Female)
math Homework in
and science
Follow up of the
Homework Lo Hi Not Significant
Tests in math and
science Lo Hi Not Significant
Use of Teaching Kit
(% Yes) Lo Hi Not Significant
# of lessons kit
used for Lo Hi Not Significant
Curriculum Coverage
(math and science)
Instructional Time
in Minutes
(math & science)
Lo
Lo
Hi
Hi
Not Significant
Not Significant
Use of Student Monitors
(# of hours) Hi Lo Lo Hi
Use of Physical
punishment (% Yes) .Hi Lo Not Significant
Tough Physical
Punishment Hi
Integrated Curriculum Lo
Lo
Hi
Not Significant
Not Significant
Use of Blackboards
(% Yes) Lo
Hi Not Significant
Use of Student
Translators Lo Hi Hi La
Not significant
Assigning Tasks
Lesson Plans (% Yes)
Hi
Lo
Lo
Hi
..
Hi Lo
Actual
Less Exp. More Exp.
(Female) (Female)
Annex 9
Summary of Teaching Practices
By Teaching Experience
Expected
Less Exp. 4 More Exp.
(Female) (Female)
Homework in math
and science
Follow up of the
Homework
Tests in math and
science
Lo
Lo
Lo
Hi
Hi
Hi
Not Significant
Not Significant
Not Significant
Use of Teaching Kit
(% Yes)
# of lessons kit
used for
Lo
Lo
Hi
Hi
Lo
Lo
Hi
Hi
curriculum Coverage
(math and science)
Instructional Time
in Minutes
(math & science)
Lo
Lo
Hi
Hi
Not Significant
Not significant
Use of Student Monitors
(# of hours) Hi Lo Lo Hi
Use of Physical
punishment (% Yes) Hi Lo Hi Lo
Tough Physical
Punishment Hi
Integrated Curriculum Lo
Lo
Hi
Not Significant
Not Significant
Not Significant
Use of Blackboards
(% Yes)
Use of Student
Translators
Assigning 'rasks
Lesson Plans (% Yes)
Lo
Lo
Hi
Lo
Hi
Hi
Lo
Hi
"
Lo
Hi
Hi
Hi
Lo
Lo
4
Experienced
----- - --- ------
Annex 10
Summary of Teaching Practices
By Single/Multigrade Teaching
Expected Actual
Multigrade Singlegrade MUltigrade Singlegrade
(Female) (Female) (Female) (Female)
Homework in math
and science Lo Hi Hi Lo
Follow up of the
Homework Lo Hi Hi Lo
Tests in math and
science Lo Hi Not Significant
Use of Teaching Kit
(% Yes) Lo Hi Hi Lo
# of lessons kit
used for
Lo Hi Not Significant
curriculum Coverage
(math and science) Lo Hi Not Significant
Instructional Time
in Minutes
(math & science) Lo Hi Not Significant
Use of Student Monitors
(# of-hours)
Hi Lo Not Significant
Use of Physical
punishment (% Yes) Hi Lo Hi Lo
Tough Physical
Punishment
Hi Lo Not Significant
Integrated Curriculum
Lo Hi Not Significant
Use of Blackboards
(% Yes)
Lo Hi Lo
Hi
Use of Student
Translators
Lo Hi
Hi Lo
Assigning Tasks
Hi La ." Not Significant
Lesson Plans (% Yes) La Hi Hi Lo
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2

INTRODUCTION Education for all is the aim of almost all countries of the world, but a number of countries cannot yet provide education partly because they do not have enough educated persons eligible to become teachers. At the same time many of these countries have preferred to recruit men as primary school teachers. This preference does not seem justifiable from the point of view of educational efJEiciency. The positive impact of the employment of women as teachers on the social status of women, and on the educational aspirations of girls, is taken as demonstrated. But are female teacmers as good as or better than male teachers? There is little or no research on this question from developing countries. BACKGROUND The impor1:ance of education for women is accepted world wide because it improves their earning ability (Psacharopoulos, 1985); influences the number of children they have (Cochrane; 1979); and contributes to their better health and well-being (UNICEF, 1980). In 1984 the United Nations proclaimed the right of "everyone" to education. But in reality the provision of equal rights for women has remained an unfulfilled promise (UNESCO, 1987). Almost everywhere women have a hi.gher illiteracy rate than men (UNESCO, 1987; World Bank, 1987). \iforld-wide data reveal that in 1980, 33.9 percent of women were illiterate, as compared to 23.3 percent of men. This gap is even wider in the developing countries, where 48.5 percent of the women are illiterate as compared to 32.3 percent of the men (UNESCO, 1987). If one considers primary school age to be from 6 to 11 years, UNESCO gives participation rates as 69 percent for males and 56.5 percent for females in Africa; 77.4 percent for males and 59.3 percent felr females in Asia; and about the same for males as for females in Latin America. The percentage of girls admitted into school ccmtinues to be lower than that of boys in many developing countries, and the "higher the grade the lower the enrollment of ~Jirls" (Anderson, 1988). Several factors explain why girls are less likely to be educated than boys. Girls are less likely to attend school if the school building is remote from their home. Poor families are less likely to educate girls than boys. Both of these factors have more impact in .=ountries with cultural or religious traditions that discourage the education of girls. Education of boys is preferred in many cases because the structure of the economy provides employment for educated men but not for educated women (Anderson, 1988; Hasan, 1980; Shah, 1986). Bellew pre:sents findings of her study in developing countries to show that "traditional, parental and social patterns and discrimination against females, as the most important reasons for disparity." She explains: There were, however differences across the regions. For example, religious traditions were noted as quite important in Africa and Asia and family factors predominated in Latin America. School-related factors emerged as important in all

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regions (Bellew, 1989, p.5). Girls tend to receive less schooling than boys. The schooling gap tends to be greater in rural areas and in countries in which Islam is predominant (Alderman, 1991, p.2). Girls are less likely to enroll in school and in many countries may drop out sooner. Women are often trained in different institutions than men and may have a different curriculum. The consequence is that the average level of education among women is less than that of men, and therefore, there are fewer women who meet the educational qualifications to become teachers. As a result, there are fewer women teachers to teach the girls who ultimately want to enroll in schools (UNESCO, 1987). The vicious circle continues. PAKISTAN AND WOMEN'S EDUCATION The World Bank sums up education in Pakistan as: Literacy rates one of the lowest in the world, declining participation rates, very low system efficiency and a lack of educational opportunities for many, particularly for girls in the rural areas •••• perhaps the most critical problem impeding expansion of education is the unavailability of female teachers (The World Bank, 1988, p.6). As in many other developing countries, the quality of primary education in Pakistan is not high. In addition, there is a shortage of opportunities for schooling, particularly for girls. The supply of teachers is constrained in part by the shortage of women candidates, and in part by the practice of preferring men teachers for male students and women teachers for females. In addition to this there are more "male" then "female" primary schools to hire teachers in Pakistan. There is, however, no firm evidence that the gender of men teachers makes them more effective than women teachers, with either boy or girl students. In Pakistan, according to the latest estimates, the population' is about 113 million. Women make up almost half the population (there are 1000 women per 1100 men, according to Government of Pakistan, 1980). The country has about 70 percent of the total population of age group 10 years and above categorized as illiterates and the gross participation rate at the primary level is about 60 percent, 65 percent for males and 55 percent for females (Government of Pakistan, 1984). Half of the female population is of school-going age (Government of Pakistan, 1979). Yet only 55 percent of those girls are actually enrolled in schools. Within the male population, 65 percent of all school age boys are enrolled (Government of Pakistan, 1984). In addition to this, dropout rates remain persistently high, especially for rural children and females. I The literacy rate in Pakistan is 30 percent (men 35% and women 16%), and there is wide disparity between the urban and rural pOpulations. To be more specific, the literacy rate for both sexes in urban areas is 47 percent as compared to 17 percent in rural areas. 2 Even within each setting, the male/female disparities are pronounced. For

4

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example, 55 percent of urban males as compared to 36 percent of females are li1:erate. In rural areas, where the overall literacy rate is 17 pel~cent, only 7 percent of females are literate in comparison with 26 percent of males. There are fewer schools for females in pakistan, both in rural and urban areas. There are also fewer teacher-training institutions available for women (Government of Pakistan, 1984),3 leading to fewer trained teachers. And, there are very few cipportunities available for in-service training in teaching (Bhat1:i, 1986).4 . In Pakistan education is usually segregated at all levels, except at universities. Most girls and boys attend separate schools and colleges. Even the teacher training institutions are separate for male and female participants. They generally teach in separate schools. CONCEPTUAL FRPJoIEWORK DifferenCElS in educational opportunities are the result of cultural, reli.gious and social circumstances. Differences in opportunities for education and the content of schooling and training are likely to result in marked differences in the attitudes and abilities of women as compared to men teachers. This paper investiga.tes the differences between the classroom practices of men and women teachers in primary schools in Pakistan. The research was designed to identify variables that predict those differences, in order to formulate recommendations for policies designed to improve teaching and learning practices. It is likely that men and women teachers in Pakistan differ in terms of academic qualification, professional training and inservice training. All of these may playa role in the quality of teaching they can provide. The different backgrounds and different life experienc1es of men and women are likely to affect their performance as teachers in the classroom. RESEARCH ON TE1\,CHERS AND TEACHING PRACTICES In this se<ction I will first review research studies about the factors related to the background of the teachers: academic qualifications, pre-service training and in-service training. I will then discuss research on classroom practices. I will present examples from research in developed countries, less developed countries and related research studies in Pakistan. RESEARCH ON TEA.CHER BACKGROUNDS It usually has been assumed that the academic qualifications and professiona.l training of teachers have a direct and positive bearing on the quality of teaching performance. Effective teaching is determined by both sUbject-matter knowledge and pedagogical skills (Husen, 1978; Avalos & Haddad 1981). Doyle (1990) argues that "conception of teaching as a curriculum process is offered as a framework for inquiry into the experienced curriculum in classrooms" and, thus, "as an approach to understanding the nature and acquisition of teachers' curriculum knowledge". He calls for: •••• study of teaching content as distipline to curriculum as classroom event, because herein lies the knowledge teachers must have of the content if it is to become pedagogical substance in the lives of students

1978. Husen et al. conclude about the general assessment of the 32 studies within the context of 16 teacher variables: Trained teachers do make a difference in student achievement in LDCs. p.74). in some of the less developed areas teachers' schooling is five years only. including the level of educational attainment and pedagogical training as it relates to student performance. But there are differences of opinion about teacher training. 1988 quoted in Lockheed and verspoor..5 (Doyle. 1985).37). 1989.28). p. and socioeconomic. while others showed negative or no association to student learning. this was the lowest minimum teacher's education requirement for all the African countries at the time (Zymelman & Destefano 1989 quoted in Lockheed and Verspoor. 1989). Research on the importance of teacher training provides mixed results. Husen.. saha. They did not consider the impact of training separately for female and male teachers.•• There is only slight support for the notion that teachers from higher status backgrounds are more successful than those from lower status origins (Husen et al.status. experience. In particular it seems clear that teacher qualifications. amount of education. even in 1990 there are teachers with less than 8 years of schooling. age.. 1990. Some of the variables showed positive relationships. In the same study. The authors reported that they found this relationship to be complex and mixed. 1983) as well as from developing countries (Lockheed. p. But the basic assumption still remains that the more teachers are academically as well as professionally prepared the more likely they are to do a better job. 1987). Although it is believed that the ability of teachers improves in a linear fashion with their level of general education. There is some evidence of the limited effectiveness of pre-service teacher training (Avalos and Beatrice. and knowledge are positively related to student achievement •. Evidence from developed countries shows a strong positive effect of teacher sUbject matter knowledge on student achievement. demographic and social variables such as sex. But only a few studies from developing countries have studied this question (Fuller. The evidence to support this notion comes from developed countries (Saha. in countries with high rates of population growth the rapid expansion of the primary education system has necessitated reducing the length of general education attained prior to entry into teacher training (UNESCO. . as in some countries the training received is mediated by other factors and does not contribute to teaching effectiveness. in developing countries.• Finally. In Pakistan. appear to have mixed effects . p. & Noonan (1978) have reviewed major research findings pertaining to the relationship of teacher characteristics. 74) • In Nigeria only five years of primary education were required for entry to teacher education in 1981. 1989. They concluded that the more carefully designed and executed studies revealed a positive relationship between teacher training and student achievement.

He concludes that overall expendi. About classroom teaching practices in developing countries they say: Little research on classroom teaching practices has been conducted cross-nationally. time for learning. effective teaching. Fuller (1985) analyzes school factors which boost achievement. Lockheed and Verspoor (1989) took into account the effectiveness o:f schools. 1985. teacher quality. Her review highlights the importance for learning outcomes of: teacher and student attendance. Montero-sieburth (1989) reviews the relevance of classroom management to developing countries by emphasizing teaching in relation to management. comparing the results of 72 empirical studies done in developing countries. Research on Teaching Practices Research in the United states and developing countries over the last two decades has shown the importance of specific teaching practi. school management and structure are deciding factors contributing to students' achievement. (e) evaluate student performance. In general. But little empirical research has tried to relate these differing ways of organizing material inputs with levels of student achievement (Fuller. (b) provide student opportunities to practice what is being taught. we are largely ignorant of how teachers manage mat:erial inputs.. teaching practices. p. Differing forms of management and variation in classroom organization are apparent to most observers of Third World schools. 1989.70). . material inputs. classroom organization.ture. 1991. and the use of instructional materials and time. p. in the study of teacher training in Pakistan presen. but the results are consistent with thOSE! from developed countries. p. and (d) accord appropriately paced feedback on student performance (Lockheed & Verspoor. He concludes that: Most importantly. and Reimers. provision of learning materials. improvement of the curriculum. efficient use of existing resources (which she identifies as t:ime spent on academic tasks leading to learning outcomes) and instructional materials. teaching practices found to enhance student learning are those that (a) offer instruction that requires active student participation. incentives for the teachers. and teachability. and most importantly how the time in the classroom ill utilized by the teacher. Nauman. factors that limit the amount of time available.ars' contribution towards the students' learning but does not document different teaching styles by men and women teachers. Her review does not deal with the gender of the teacher and its impact on classroom practices. Montero-Sieburth also deals with the conceptions of classroom management.32).2)..6 Warwick.ces for student learning. He considers teach.t a similar finding: The present system of training primary schools teachers in Pakistan makes a small difference for how teachers teach and how their students learn (Warwick et al.

Kelly points this out as following: Women's education as a research concern is relatively new to the academic scholarship as well as to policy makers and planners. 1989. some studies both in developed and less developed countries which deal with the gender of the teachers: As pointed out by Getzel and Jackson (1963). when all said and done. Gender was rarely acknowledged. and Australia in 1971 and concluded that some teacher variables. For example: Rosenshine examined 51 studies from united states.10). less . teachers' attributes. They reviewed the results for each of the major determinants of cognitive student achievement. Gender of the teachers has not been studied much relating to school effectiveness.149). p. even as a background variable (Kelly. None of the other school determinants of achievement have as high a proportion of significant findings (Schiefelbein and Simmons. They concluded: Academic engagement is the most important factor contributing to student achievement. and amount of content covered are related to each other. p. opportunity to learn. studies of males. There are.15). Britain. and to higher achievement ••• The amount of content covered was the strongest correlate of achievement (Davis and Thomas. p. however. i. academic research and policy studies focusing on women were virtually non-existent ••• Studies on education and its outcomes were. but most of those studies do not take the gender of the teacher into account.e. Davis and Thomas (1989) reviewed the research on effective schools and effective teachers in developed countries. were directly related to student performance (Cited in FUller. particularly relating to classroom interaction. schooling characteristics. some personalsocial characteristics were different for men and women teachers. Academic learning time is time engaged in activities related to the outcome measure ••• Allocated time. One of their findings about the student's characteristics was: Students who have schoolwork to be done outside the school. 1987.37). to academic engagement. with men generally being more business-like. 1981. Before the rebirth of the women's movement in the late 1960s. p. There are several studies in the united States and other developed countries which have observed the impact of background characteristics on classroom practices linking those to the achievement of students. 1989.7 Schiefelbein and Simmons (1981) reviewed results of twenty-six studies on the determinants of student cognitive achievement in developing countries. 'homework' tend to do better on achievement. and student traits.

The study concluded that pupils taught by female and long experienced teachers performed significantly better than pupils taught k~ males and those with short teaching experiences. The following list of assumptions about teaChing practices and background characteristics related to them is presented as part of . there is a vast quantity of research classroom practices related to student achievement. pp. Avalos and Haddad (1985) reviewed studies on teacher effectiveness in Africa. but a comprehensive and increasingly empirically supported eclectic approach to classroom management can be developed by combining different but compat:ible elements into an integrated system (Brophy.8 friendly and responsible (Cited in Husen. 1990. They summarized the results about differences in women and men teachers as follows: A number elf studies comparing male and female teachers found that female teachers were more satisfied with their careers. p. & Noonan 1978. (1989) studied Teachers' Characteristics and Pupils's AchiE!vement in Botswana Primary schools. Saha. b) classroom practices.1415) • Hussain examined the difference between the academic achievement of students taught by the female and male teachers in Primary schools of Pakistan. Brophy (1982) concluded his work on "classroom organization" as following: No single approach is SUfficient. 1982. Middle East. p.her factors.20). "Most of the studies agree that the effectiveness of pedagogical style varies widely from place to place and no single pedagogy can b. exhibited better mental health and suffered less from problems related to their teaching activities: •••• there was some indication that female teachers use more "modern" teaching approaches such as participation and problem solving methods (Avalos and Haddad. relating to classroom practices as outcome. 1989). India. I group these irlto two categories: a) background characteristics of teachers.22). 1985.a taken as a definitive model for policy" (Rugh. 5 They showed a relationship lbetween teacher characteristics and pupils' academic achievement. As there is no single pedagogy available. p. Summary on To summarize. especially by Lockheed and Verspoor (1989).· however. Mwamwenda et al. Latin America. has examined the impact of gender of the teachers mediated by ot. 6 One of the findings is that "students of male teachers achieve better results in mathematics in grade 4 and 5 1:han students taught by female teachers" (Hussain.51). I offer the following list 'Jf teaching practices as part of a longer list which have been identified by other researchers. and school work. students. possessed a better attitude towards their prOfession. Philippines and Thailand. But very little.

blackboards) more often contribute more to the students' knowledge. They can do this with the help of student translators. 3) Teachers who assign homework on a regular basis.lesson or maintain discipline within the group not being taught by the teacher at that time. 1) Teachers who assign fewer tasks to the students in the classroom and spend more time teaching provide a better learning environment for the students. 6) Teachers who give regular tests and discuss these with the students. If this is the case. teachers take help from student monitors to review the . 3) Teachers who come from higher social class are better teachers than those who come from comparatively lower social class. . 7) Teachers who use monitors l less often. 2) Teachers who use instructional material (teaching kit. 9) Teachers who plan their lessons teach in more effective 1 It is common in Pakistani classrooms that teachers have to teach more than on class at the same time. Students in Pakistan come from different ethnic backgrounds and speak different languages. are better teachers than those ones who give fewer tests. 1) Teachers with a higher level of schooling are better equipped to teach. This applies to mUlti-grade teaching. models and charts. which is common in Pakistan. more often and more severely. Classroom Practices. 8) Teachers who use translators teach their subject matter in a better way. check it themselves. 5) Teachers who systematically cover the textbooks and cover more chapters are better than teachers who don't teach the books in sequence and cover fewer of chapters. 4) Teachers who use less physical punishment are better teachers than those who use physical punishment. ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT EFFECTIVE TEACHING PRACTICES Background Characteristics. So it is important that teachers explain the sUbject matter in more than one language. 2) Teachers who have professional training in teaching (both pre-service and in-service) are more likely to use instructional material.--- ~-~---- 9 a longer list which have been identified by other researchers as "effective teaching". give feedback to the students help the students to learn more. This is because during the training they are taught to use the instructional material like teaching kits. and make more use of instructional material. spend more time with their students.

in-service training and living conditions? 2 The data for this study come from research carried in a national sample survey of government primary schools in Pakistan. That is. Ministry of Education. This hypothesis is also not tested in the study. with more education. This hypothesis is tested in the study. My expectation also was that female teachers will more often carry out effective teaching practices. Pakistan. women teachers are more oriented toward a high level of performance than are men teachers. fClrmal education. 'The survey was carried out in December 1988 and January 1989 in Pakistan's four provinces and the federal district. c. academic education. women teachers come from better educated families than men teachers. Do men and women teachers in primary schools of Pakistan come from different backgrounds. b. the subordination of women in Pakistani society increases for them the ilnportance of positive interpersonal relationships. This translates into greater understanding of young children. These hypotheses are based on the following assumptions: a. pre-service training. . more training are more likely to use more effective teaching practices. The purpose of the survey was to identify factors that c:ontribute to the achievement and promotion of students in primary schools. Gender and Teaching Practices I expected that the research would show differences between male and femall!! teachers. Background Characteristics and Teaching Practices Considering the related research and my hypotheses. the subordination of women requires them to strive harder than men to achieve the same social status. and <Ire therefore more likely to possess the "cultural capital" required by the school. in terms of socio-economic status. I expected that teachers from high social class. Data collection was a joint project of Project BRIDGES and the Academy of Educ<ltional Planning and Management (AEPAM). This hypothesis is not tested in the study. HYPOTHESES I expect that women teachers in Pakistan will more frequently than men teachers engage in the positive teaching practices listed above. training) of men and women in Pakistan lead to different behavior among male and female teachers in the classrooms? This can be translated into the following questions: 1. Research Ouestions 2 This paper asks: Do these differences in background (family background.10 way than teachers who don't plan the lessons.

such as academic level._ . do they check it themselves.. I treated gender of the teachers as an independent (influencing) factor. . The purpose of controlling for rural/urban was to see whether the different conditions in the rural/urban schools are contributing to the differences in teaching practices or if these are attributable to other factors such as gender. formal education. How do they handle problems related to students? Do they use physical punishment? 6.._ . Control variables were factors that differentiate women and men teachers. give feedback. How often do they use student translators in the classrooms? 8. 11 2. professional training and socio-economic status.. in terms of socio-economic status. How are women teachers different from men teachers regarding classroom practices that other researchers have found to be associated with good teaching? 3.. 4 3 SPECIFIC OUESTIONS to be answered with the data included: 1. Do they use student monitors while teaching more than one class and more than one sUbject? If they do. in-service training and living conditions? Analysis: To analyze the differences in ~eachers' backgrounds.. How many tests do they assign to their stUdents? Do they grade the tests. Question 1. pre-service training. How do they use instructional material provided by the Government (including the teaching kit. Rural/urban location of the school was used as a control variable mediating the relationship.. How much time do they spend for instruction of math and science in an average week? 4 STRATEGY FOR ANALYSIS 1... How do teachers assign tasks to the different groups if they have to teach more than one class at the same time? 2. Do men and women teachers come from different backgrounds. discuss it with students and how long do the discussions last? 5. return these to the students and discuss the tests? 9.... Are differences in classroom practices between men and women related to differences in their backgrounds?3 ANALYSIS For the purposes of the analysis. I used t-test statistics and chi-square statistics for continuous and categorical variables respectively. The teaching practices were the outcome variables.. how often? 3.... How many lessons had they taught in Mathematics and Science at the time of the survey? Do they teach the books in sequence? 7. Experience in teaching and mUltigrade teaching was also used as controls. _ . What is their policy regarding home work? If they assign it. modules and blackboards)? 4.

Female teachers belonged to a comparatively higher SES level compared to th. More male teachers than female plan the lesson before they teach.12 RESULTS summary of Background Characteristics Female tE!achers had less academic qualification. Are different classroom practices related to the different backgrounds of teachers? Analysis: ThE~ specific analyses was: The individual teaching practices will be seen controlling for background characteristics. More male teachers than female teach more than one class. In summary. frequency of the kit use. for background practices and gender of the teachers. Female teachers give ~lore tests in math and science. More female teachers use the blackboards. Female teachers. SUMMARY OF CIJ\. Anova and Chi-Square anctlysis will be used for continuous and categorical dependent variables. teach in a single or mUltigrade situation. Ouestion 2. The proportion of female teachers in urban schools is higher than the proportion of male teachers in urban schools. Ouestion 3.. had more possessions at home than male teachers. More male teachers use the students help for translations from one language to another. for gender of the teacher.. Male teachers had covered more of curriculum in math and science than female teachers. Female teachers use less physical punishment. The female teachers are comparatively younger than male teachers and slightly less experienced as teachers. How are women teachers different from men teachers regarding classroom practices that other researchers have found to be associated with good teaching? Analysis: Information on classroom practices contains both categorical and continuous dependent variables. Male teachers spend more time on instruction on math and science.g teaching practices for the two groups: follow up of the homework. Male teachers give more homework to their students in math and science. There are no differences in the followin. There are significant 2. and assigning the tasks. There were no significant differences between male and female teachers by years of experience or whether the~. .eir male colleagues. number of hours student monitors used for. tough physical punishment. More male teachers use the teaching kit if available.SSROOM PRACTICES BY GENDER OF THE TEACHERS The resu!t:s are summarized in annex 1. 3. T-test statistics and chi-square statistics were used for analysis. it can be said that men and women teachers do differ in their teaching practices. less professional training and fewer in-service teacher's training courses. Female teachers' parents were comparatively lDore educated than the parents of male teachers.

There are two levels of professional training where the distribution of lesson plans is significant. No. In both of these categories more males than females plan lessons. curriculum coverage. Furhter. i. There were no significant differences with controls by gender and professional training for the following teaching practices: follow up of the homework. In these groups male teachers use more translators than female teachers. More female teachers than male teachers with SV-PTC level of training use the blackboard for teaching.. Of these 9 significant differences. use of tough physical punishment. SUMMARy OF TEACHING PRACTICES BY ACADEMIC OUALIFICATIONS AND GENDER OF THE TEACHERS (see annex 3) Both male and female teachers. more male teachers than females who have matric level of education plan lessons. Teachers with matric and FA/FSc qualification use translators more than others. As shown in the above discussion. female teachers used 6 teaching practices which were contrary to my initial expectation. male teachers more frequently than females report using the effective practices in 6 comparisons.training and SV-PTC. teaching of integrated curriculum. In each group more male than female teachers use translators. Highly qualified teachers use the student monitors' help for the maximum number of hours. instructional time for teaching math and science. Male teachers in this category give more homework than female teachers. and assigning the tasks to the students.e. The use of translators by JV and SV-PTC teachers is significant. Male and female teachers who have matric level of education alos use the teaching kit more than teachers with other qualifications. Teachers with JV level of training use the teaching kit for more lessons than teachers with any other level of training. As seen in annex 2. tests in math and science. Teachers with CT and higher levels of qualifications use the student monitors for the maximum number of hours. More male than female teachers with JV and SV-PTC training use physical punishment. Female teachers use the kit for many more lessons than male teachers do. Male teachers· in this group use the monitors' help more than female teachers do. professional training of the teachers does not contribute towards positive practices.13 diffeences between the two groups for 9 out of 15 teaching practices. out of 9 statistically significant practices. with matric level of education give more homework compared with teachers with any other level of education. SUMMARY OF TEACHING PRACTICES BY PROFESSIONAL TRAINING AND GENDER OF THE TEACHERS (see annex 4) Male and female teachers with JV level of training give the most homework compared to those with other levels of training. Within this group more male than female teachers use the kit. In the category of teachers who have SV-PTC as professional training more male than female teachers use the teaching kit. It was .

same areas. SUMMARY OF TEACHING PRACTICES BY URBAN RURAL LOCATION OF THE SCHOOLS AND GENDER OF THE TEACHERS (see abnnex 6) Teachers i. used the student translators.14 assumed that p:r:ofessionally trained teachers are more likely to engage in teaching practices which are identified as positively realted to student achievement. Within rural schools more male than female teachers give homework to thl~ir students. As stated earlier.hows not much difference between the teachers who had training or those who did not have training. More teachers who are not trained use physical punishment and within this group more males than females use punishment in each category. More male teachers. This is not true in this research. both trained and not trained. More male teachers in urban schools use the kit than males in rural schools. More teachers who had training ha:d used the kit for more lessons than the teachers who did not have training. The content of the professional training in Pakistan needs change to make it more effective. " The significant difference for lesson planning was for rural schools in which more female teachers than male teachers plan their lessons for teaching. More male teachers both in urban and rura.n rural schools give more homework in math and science. This might be because of the content and quality of in-service teacher training they receive. For the use of blackboards. the expectation from the teachers who had professional tri!ining in teaching (both pre-service and in-service) were more likely to engage in effective teaching practices. summary of Teaching Practices the Teachers (see annex S) ~y In Service Training and Gender of . I schools use physical punishment than female teachers in the. More male than female teachers in rural and urban areas also are more likely to use help from student monitors. Within the trained teachers' category male teachers had used the kit for slightly more lessons than female teachers.id not have the training. The differences: for the use of the teaching kit were significant for the teachel~s who did not have in-service training. More untrained male teachers plan their lessons than female untrained teachers. Teachers who had in-service training give more homework than teachers who d. in which case more females than males used the blackboard. The teacher training contributes a little towards the effective teaching practices. This can be a substantive area of improvement where government can introduce changes. in which case more male teachers used the teaching kit. Female teachers in urban schools follow up on the homework more than males in urban schools. the only significant difference was for trained.. More female teachers in urban schools use the teaching kit than female teachers in rurcll schools. professional training of the teachers is not realted to good practices irrespective of the gender of the teachers. But this analysis s. irrespective of gender.

More male teachers in both single and multigrade teaching use physical punishment. More male teachers than female with less possessions. More male teachers than females planned the lessons. Teachers both male and female with more experience used the kit for more number of lessons compared to the teachers with less experience. More experienced female teachers used blackboards than males in this group. than do teachers with fewer possessions. More teachers with less educated parents also used the teaching kit and also used it more frequently or for more lessons. Male teachers used more student translators irrespective of their experience. More teachers from comparatively more educated families planned their lessons than the teachers from less educated families. More male teachers than females use the teaching kit in single grade teaching. SUMMARY OF TEACHING PRACTICES BY SINGLEt MULTIGRADE TEACHING AND GENDER OF THE TEACHERS See annex 10) Teachers both male and female. whether more or less experienced. Both male and female teachers with fewer possessions assign more tasks. Both male and female teachers from less educated families used help from students for translations. More female teachers use blackboards in both single and mUltigrade teaching. More male teachers both with more and less experience used physical punishment than female teachers in each category. More experienced male teachers used more help from monitors than more experienced female teachers. SUMMARY OF TEACHING PRACTICES BY TEACHERS' POSSESSIONS AND GENDER OF THE TEACHERS (see annex 8) Teachers both male and female with more possessions use monitors' help more. Comparatively more female teachers than males from more educated families assigned tasks to the students. use translators' help. More female teachers from educated families used blackboards than male teachers from more educated families. who have to teach mUltigrade give more homework than the teachers who teach single grade. More male teachers both in single and mUltigrade teaching use student translators and plan their lessons. SUMMARY OF TEACHING PRACTICES BY TEACHING EXPERIENCE AND GENDER OF THE TEACHERS (see annex 9) Within the group of less experienced teachers more male teachers than females used the teaching kit. ' DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS This stUdy was designed to compare and contrast the teaching .15 SUMMARY OF TEACHING PRACTICES BY TEACHERS' PARENTS EDUCATION AND GENDER OF THE TEACHERS (see annex 7) Teachers whose parents were less educated followed up on homework more than teachers whose parents were more educated. Teachers who came comparatively more educated families used less physical punishment.

teachers' formal education. Hence the general hypothesis that female teachers. educated and trained to be subordinate to men. Female teachers would be less likely than men to use harsh punishment. The expectation was that the data from the study would show sharp differences between the practices of male and female teachers. and supervising their homework.<: I ) . Female teachers would be more concerned with preparing lessons. MalEl and female teachers were compared on their selfreports on 15 practices. The expect:ation further was that female teachers would more often carry out those practices that in previous studies have been associated with higher levels of student learning. and nurtured. these were referred to as effective practices.nd female teachers could be attributed to their characteristics. to engage in effective teaching practices because of the ways men and women are treated in Pakistani society. This conception is developed in a society in which women arl~ accorded an inferior position. Even when female teachers receive the SClme amount of training as male teachers. urban rural location. Of the 9 statistically significant differences.!le and female teachers in the primary schools of Pakistan. single or mUltigrade teaching with each of the teaching practice variables.'ee /tr. 1.. level of training. There were significant differences between the twe. The specific hypotheses are re-stated in summary form in Table Interpretation of Findings An attempt: was made to determine whether the differences between male a. It was ar~led that this set of experiences would dispose women to be much more highly committed than men to the task of education of young children. experience in teaching. groups for 9 out of 15 comparisons. .. getting children to do their work.. or to use student monitors as a way to escape responsibility. their behavior could be different. more frequently than males. would more frequently report using more effective teaching practices is disconfirmed. male teachers more frequently than females 1:"eported using the effective practices in 6 comparisons (.. denied access to certain kinds of experiences and positions. Female teachers were expected. "-e. because women bring to the teaching profession a conception of themselves and their role that differs from that of ml~n.16 practices of m. The results are as follows. parents' education and teachers' possessions (social class). I examined the relationships between. holding gender of the teachers constant. " . For convenience.

Table 1 CLASSROOM PRACTICES BY GENDER OF THE TEACHERS (As Expected) Female Homework in math and science Follow up of the Homework Tests in math and science Use of Teaching Kit (% Yes) # of lessons kit used for Low Low Low Low High High High High Low Low High High Curriculum Coverage (math and science) Instructional Time in Minutes (math & science) Use of Student Monitors (# of hours) Use of Physical punishment (% Yes) Tough Physical Punishment Integrated Curriculum Use of Blackboards (% Yes) Use of Student Translators Assigning Tasks Lesson Plans (% Yes) Low High High High Low Low Low Low Low High Low Low Low High High High High High .

he control variables account for the differences between male . The study focused only on math and science becausEI of the existence of an achievement test only for those SUbjects. Male teachers covered more of the curriculum than females.). Social Studies and Islamic Studies. Here female teachers covered more of the curriculum. The other official subjects in Pakistani schools are urdu. (see PrI'\Vl~ '" ) What other factors could account for the differences between male and femalE! teachers. the differences associated wit:h gender cannot be explained by reference ~o education of the parents of the teacher (social class. except for those teachers with 8 years or less of schooling. the teacher's own level of academic education (see ~ 1'l1\'~:< ~ '). male teachers spend more time on math and science than do female teachers. only the level of teachers' academic educat:ion had a significant relationship to curriculum coverage.ss (see A'1"'4X 1'0 . then females must spend more time than males on other SUbjects. a question we cannot answer with this data. whether the teachers face a single or multigrade cla. we might have a better understanding of the math-science difference. There is a general conviction that better educated teachers do better in teaching than do those with less education. This diff.18 Instructional Time Instructicmal time is a good predictor of student achievement. That is. it is not surprising that male teachers also cover mOrE! of the curriculum for these two subjects. whereas for female teachers it was the FA/FSc holders. clccording to the research literature and other analyses of a random sample survey of primary schools in Pakistan. Those teachers with the highest levels of academic education are not those who most I::::over the curriculum. see )Inn"''' 7 ). If coverage of the curriculum is a measure of doing well in teaching (and other research shows that it is related to student achievement scores) then we should laxpect a steady increase in coverage with increases in levels of academic education. Reimers and Warwick in 1.arence in the impact of I academic education on coverage of math and science might be a reflection of the different quality of educ=ation male and female teachers have received." It ). male teachers spent more time on instruction of math and science theln did female teachers. Specifically. or whether the school is designated as urban or rural. they reported essentially the same length of school day during the survey. Once again the con't:rol variables were introduced to see if they accounted for the gender differences. 7 But this is not the case. This llleans that if male teachers spend more time on math and science theln females.and female teachers. the te. We saw in chapter 3 that the greatest coverclge by male teachers was for the matric diploma holders. in terms of time on math and science? In the Pakistani school system female teachers spend as much time in school during the week as the male teachers. 2. In this study. curriculum Coverage Given that. . If we know which of these SUbjects was favored by female teachers.!cher's own professional training or teaching experience (seEI A7\'I\e. None of t.

then it is possible that women from highly educated families who become teachers are less motivated to do well than are men who come from less well educated families. . They conclude: Variables. Downward mobility teachers covered less of the curriculum than did upward mobility teachers. This hypothesis was true in this case. This is contrary to the argument that formal schooling has a linear relationship with the good teaching practices. when the time came to transmit their knowledge of the field to their students. such as rural and urban location. When parent education is low and teacher education is high. To check this we can compare coverage of the curriculum by male and female teachers. As with respect to coverage of the curriculum. If social mobility is a reflection of personal motivation. controlling on both the education of their parents. Or in other words. and therefore less likely to engage in correct practices. 1991. (see table ***) A matric education for a female teacher could be said to be less of an advancement over that of her family.---------- -------- 19 their report "Influences on Academic Achievement in Pakistan: students. than a matric education for a male teacher. into Low and High. male teachers give more homework than female teachers. How can this be explained? Both male and female teachers with a matric level of education give the most homework. and Classrooms" comment on the quality of education teachers have received when they were students. formal education.' First I divided both parents' education and teacher education at the median. the teacher is classified as Upwardly mobile. As a result. those conditions are not plausible explanations for the lower achievement performance in mathematics. independent of its quality. multigrade teaching. The most likely reason is that in their own schooling female teachers received less or lower-quality instruction in mathematics than their male counterparts. The hypothesis is that Downward Mobility teachers are less motivated than Upward Mobility teachers. male teachers with a matric level of education give the most homework. and on their own education. In this study. For many women in this study. But it is also possible that the impact of formal education on teaching practices. differs for men and women. however. Earlier we noted that female teachers on average come from better educated families than do male teachers. teaching may be the only job a women from an educated family can get. and therefore is positively related to students' aChievement.3). p. in general male teachers have shown more social mobility in comparison with their parents than have female teachers in comparison with their parents. teaching is a way YR from the low status of their parents. 3 Homework Homework is considered a way of increasing the time students spend working on the lessons. For many men. Teachers. teachers with the most education give the least homework. they were ill-prepared to do so (Reimers and Warwick.

This suggests that teachers do use homework as a sUbstitute for not covering the lessons in class. The same pattern holds for the relationship between level of professional training and the amount of homework assigned. a condition positively related to achievement (Warwick and Reimers. urban schools have a larger pool of candidates for teaching positions. in rural schools give me. whether the school is urban or rural •••• Achievement was higher when: the school is located in urban area (Reimers and Warwick.p. I expected that female teachers would give more tests 4. Regular Use of Tests I I assumed that teachers can increase the time students spend on learning the curriculum by assigning tests which focus students' attention. then homework is not as necessary. This assumption is correct--urban schools are better off than rural schools on these dimensions. and have teachers and administrators with higher levels of training. Their findings include: Good schools were more likely to be in cities or towns than in rural arei!S and to be male or coeducational rather than female. and Classrooms" show the positive impact of urban schools on student achievement: The result. and found that there is a significant negative relationship. .20 and female teachers with FA/Fsc level give the most for their gender. To test this.2). 1991. This may not be correct. ~~he urban rural difference arises in part from the strong pre'ference of teachers to settle in urban locations. I looked at the relationship between time spent on math and science. One assumption was that in general quality of education is higher in urban schools than in rural schools: urban :schools are better equipped. and amount of homework assigned. both male and female. was contrary to e)(:pectations. have better facilities. Both for male and female teachers the highest level of training is associated with the lowest amount of homework assigned. 1991. The finding that teachers. It may be that in Pakistani schools homework is considered a substitute for work in the class. perhaps teachers give more homework in rural schools because they cannot complete lessons during the regular class period. Warwick and Reimers (1991) applied the term "good schools" to schools that scored in the top third of a pooled index of student achievement in mathematics and science and "pc)or schools" to those in the bottom third. out of this pool district officials can choose those with better levels of qeneral education. Reimers and Warwick in their report "Influences on Academic Achievement in Pakistan: Students. Given tha1: preference and government allowances that make urban residence financially more attractive. A second assumption was that better schools give more homework.s showed that the best predictors on all the four predictors on all four tests are.re homework than do teachers in urban schools.4). When the teacher is able to complete planned work during the class hours. teachers. p. in order.

Use of physical punishment is more common in rural schools than in urban schools. at least. Female teachers with no professional training are those who most use the kit. and it also confirms the notion that teaching practices are multi-dimensional. But it is possible that practices might reflect several dimensions..g. 5. I had originally assumed that the various types of practices are all a reflection of a single dimension---teacher commitment. the difference associated with the gender cannot be explained by reference to any of the controls. I reasoned that female teachers would be more committed to teaching. but it might be made up of several dimensions. are expected to be more kind to students and more understanding. Teachers whose parents are less educated. 5. and therefore less inclined to use physical punishment when exerting discipline in the class. As expected. Female teachers less frequently were in schools with kits. 6. Once again. by virtue of their own experience of subordination in society. It is important to" notice that highest use of monitors was made by the teachers with highest levels of academic educational and professional training. This expectation was also upheld. Kits are used more frequently by male teachers with matric diplomas. which is higher for females. On this variable. and had less opportunities for training. This is true for each level of academic education and professional training. e. Once again. on others men._-----------_. Use of physical punishment Female teachers._._--_. 21 than do male teachers. a higher proportion of male teachers compared to female teachers use physical punishment. another reflecting subject knowledge and interest (men higher on math and science). the original hypothesis is confirmed. Use of the Teaching Kit There clearly are differences between male and female teachers in the access to and training in the use of teaching kits. one reflecting kindness (women higher). This difference is not related to the levels of academic education or professional training. least by those with BAs. there is not a linear relationship between level of education and professional training and use of the kit._. It will be recalled that these teachers were often on the low side of . Male teachers were shown to use monitors more than female teachers. The relationship of gender to the use of the kit is therefore conditioned by other variables not taken into account in the study. Kits are more likely to be used by male and female teachers whose parents had little or no education. This expectation was upheld: at each level of education female teachers give more tests than male teachers. and would make less use of monitors. Use of Student Monitors The assumption made was that teachers use monitors to reduce the time they themselves have to spend teaching. I thought good teaching is all one thing. and teachers with fewer years of teaching also use punishment more frequently. On some women may excel. and therefore that use of monitors is a negative teaching practice.

22 completion of curriculum. 8 • • • • • Compared t:o teachers in poor schools. WltwiIX and Reimers report on teaching practices in good and poor schools in Pakistan. In addition. Male teachers give more homework. 8. Female teachers in rural schools more frequentllr say they plan their lessons than do female teachers in urban schools. Lesson Plans To avoid asking a question that might put teachers on the spot. It might be true that more time is available to male teachers to pre. good schools have less multigrade teaching. The reverse is true of male teachers. those in good schools .t explain the differences between male and female teachers about the available time to prepare lessons. and other practices considered positive. it would be neces. not say that there is time to plan lessons. not use students as translators f. use the teaching kit more. Male teachers spend more time than females teaching math and science and cover more of the curriculum in these subjects. Conclusions Male and :Eemale teachers differ in their teaching practices. spend less time on instruction in math and science b. they are less likely than those in poor schools to use student monitors t:o lead recitation or supervise the class they are not teaching at that time. The findings do not support my hypothesis that female teachers are more likely than male teachers to use what I defined as good teaching practices.pare the lesson plans as against female teachers who have total responsibility of child rearing and household affairs. they we. most are contrcldicted by other findings that show these practices to be positively correlated with student aChievement.ary to state that in Pakistani schools the better teaching practice is to: a. cover less of the curriculum in math and science c. Several teaching practices distinguish good from poor schools... In fact. And. give more tests. more frequently use students as translators and more often say they plan their lessons. not use the teaching kit when available e. To support my hypothesis with these data. assignment of homework . Another explanation might be that the question itself was taken in its literal sense. when their teachers are responsible for several grades. amount of instruction time. teachers in good schoo.re asked "Do you have time for lesson plans?" Proportionally more male teachers than female teachers say they have time to plan their lessons. Above all. These findings support the view that studEmt achievement will rise when teachers spend more time in class with their students.ls more often use student t!ranslators to make their presentations understood by pupils speaking other languages. Other controls do no. But there is no argument to support these statements. Female teachers less frequently use physical punishment and students as monitors. and more frequently use blackboards. give little or no homework d.

whether the teacher teaches more than one class. The sex of the teacher is a relatively strong predictor of student achievement in math but not in science. p. particularly in rural schools ••• classroom practices of teachers. Reimers and McGinn in their report on "Teacher Characteristics and Student Achievement in Math and Science in primary Schools of Pakistan" used the following predictors: sex of the teacher. Reimers and McGinn. and the number of exercises assigned in mathematics. p. something that persons had to do when nothing . as I have shown above. and whether the teacher had the teaching kit. Warwick. In several cases. more homework. 1991. I argued earlier that females are treated as subordinates in Pakistani society. These figures are consistent with other findings showing a major gender gap in achievement. the teacher's formal education. including mUltigrade teaching carry much more weight for achievement than the quality and equipment in school buildings (Warwick and Reimers. assign more exercises in math and science. it was teachers with higher levels of academic education or training who were less likely to use the effective practices. 1989.14). Students of female teachers have lower scores than those of male teachers ••• Asking students to translate for others is significantly related to achievement just in math 59 (Warwick. But the evidence is that even with the same training. female teachers less frequently used effective practices. The results suggest that persons from the higher social class do less well as teachers. p. Access to schooling is to some degree a reflection of the social class of the teacher. Why should this be so? It is worth reminding our selves that women teachers are product of an inferior system.23 show better coverage of the curriculum. the number of the exercises assigned in Mathematics. If they were less familiar than men with those responsibilities. It appears that. female teachers currently in service are less likely than male teachers to engage in good teaching practices. These are the teacher's formal education. They concluded: Results also show that three characteristics of teachers are significant predictors of achievement on all 4 tests. This might occur if teaching was seen as an inferior occupation. whether the teachers taught more than one class. Warwick and Reimers comment: Of the total sample of female teachers. whether the teachers used translators in the class. Women teachers were for the most part educated in girls' schools by female teachers. ••• give more tests (Warwick and Reimers.14). and therefore that they enter teaching with a stronger commitment than men to carrying out the responsibilities of teaching. 1991.23). by my definitions. then the negative findings I have shown would make sense. 42 percent are in good schools and 58 percent in poor schools.

achers are more likely than male teachers to come from higher soc:ial class backgrounds.achers had received when they were students in primary schools. instructional time for Math and Science. like social studies. Earlier I showed that teachers with d. Persons with this perspective would be less motivated to carry out the responsibilities of their positions. then changes in curriculum development particularly for girls' schools and also teacher training institutions with reference to teaching math and science may be a practical option. use of teaching kits. . There is a.Iso the possibility that ~he quality of education which women te.s paper was designed to answer some of the questions. As pointed out earlier evidence is needed on the effectiveness of teachers ill relation to their gender and other mediating factors. The awareness is sharply rising that in some countries unive:rsalization of primary education cannot be achieved if women teachelrs are not available. would lead to lower levels of motivation and therefore less use of effective practices. that all this is conjecture at this point. was not good. were less likely to carry out effective teaching practices: assigning the homework and its follow up. who had parents with high education but themselves had low education. Thi. Women teachers are a necessity even if there is no evidence that they are effective teachers. It bears repeating.ices. and therefore more often are classified as Downwardly mobile.24 else was available. Women's absences from school during the academic year might have been a good indicator to explain some of this and might have provided some explanation. This issue was beyond the scope of this paper and might be a good question for further researc:h. If evidence to this account does show that women's performance is better for other sUbjects. They might perform differently when it comes to teaching other sUbjects. and arts. coverage of curriculum in math and Science. Female te.o estimate the social class of teachers by reference to the education level of their parents. as a group. Downward mobility.ownward mobility. So when they became teachers they were not ready to do a good job. would use those practices less than male teachers. For example. certain social aspects like women's role in child rearing and the responsibilities in the joint family system could a:Efect teacher performance. If the argument is correct that downward mobility leads to low motivation and not carrying out effective pract. Why were the results of this research not as expected? There might be several reasons. languages. it was suggested. of course. POLICY IMPLICM~IONS Traditioncll governments like Pakistan realize that women teachers are ne!eded if female children are to be educated. that is. and lesson plans. particularly at rural schools. We can als. home economics. then we should expect that female teachers. It may also be possible that women teachers are not particularly good at teaching math and science. There is a genuine possibility that other variables~ interact in real life situations not included in this study.

In countries like Pakistan. where dropouts are a major problem. The recruitment policies of the government of Pakistan are an area which can be modified. the impact of physical punishment might be an important factor. are not very willing or cannot move away from the families and are not expensive to be hired. in-service training does not contribute much to the present system of primary education. Training of the teachers can be organized keeping in view the recommendation of the research by BRIDGES. An effective way of teaching mathematics particularly for female children. The low performance in the classrooms by highly qualified teachers (irrespective of their gender) is a strong argument for the" fact that teaching is considered a not very prestigious profession. Teachers have to be better paid. This perception has to be changed. This could be done through several changes in the system. This could be done through changes in the curriculum at the primary level. Teacher training is another area which may need much improvement. for otherwise girls' education will continue to suffer. and through changes in the teacher training courses. Poor quality of instruction yields ineffective teachers and the process continues. particularly women teachers who did not have as good an education as men when they themselves were students. difficult. This would be a practical solution for the recruitment of women teachers particularly in rural areas where they are needed the most. Women teachers who are not very highly educated to start with. Even if physical punishment is not related to student achievement it might have a big negative relationship with the retention of the students in the schools. This question has been not studied in relation of the student dropout from the elementary levels and might be a good question for further research. has to be a priority. A part of it has been explained by this dissertation and other research by Project BRIDGES that female teachers contribute to this low achievement but the differences of quality of instruction received by females have not been researched and seem a promising area. The Government of Pakistan has to break this circle at some point. The present system of training particularly. Teacher training can be improved both at the preservice and in-service level.25 (As noted earlier. If reorganized. and hard to implement. change of the social status of teachers is another area which might need long term planning. and they have to be . a similar conclusion has been presented by other researchers from project BRIDGES based on the same data set which has been used for this study). Teachers can be hired withmatric and FA/Fsc level and through teacher training their expertise can be developed. Women teachers are less likely to use physical punishment. teacher training can be a substitute for a high level of education for the teachers. Both of these would need further research to determine exactly what factors lead to the low performance of girl students in mathematics. A significant contribution has been made by Project BRIDGES to study this particular issue. This might be the most complicated.

Those master trainers are not yet enough to take the responsibility. Hiring comparatively less qualified teachers may solve a practical problem especially in case of women teachers. . On the basis of the findings of this research. that it needs extension for a reasonable amount of time. This could lead to a pOlicy option which can be less expensive deal for developing countries like Pakistan.26 treated better. as argued earlier. This poses a problem for recruitment for rural schools which are in desperate need of women teachers. Rural female schools need women teachers the most. so that being posted in the rural area does not mean getting paid less.. where social status was attached to being a civil servant cmd not to being a teacher. have to be paid more. The government has to pay equal allowances. This is a financially difficult decis:ion for the government to implement. The pakistani educiation system is still based on the traditions of British colonic:l rule. The low status of teachers is a very common argument for why teachers have negative attitudes towards their profession. but still is the most desired and consistently recommended by researchers from within the country and in countries with similar circumstances. Research institutes can be established at the national and provincial level. They are also reluc:tant to join teaching which is not one of the prestigious professions. It is the last priority even within the education system. they represent a higher social class and probably comparatively more educated families and usually have an urban base. effective teaching does not need highly qualified teachers at primary level. More qualified teachers are harder to find. The country has so many other pressing needs that this particular aspect gets neglected. Research c. . The BRIDGES project has filled a gap in this particular field but the need is so elaborate. As mentioned earlier. WheTI women teachers are more qualified.on but has also trained the educational planners and administrators 'to do research on problems of concern. U r ban / r u r a I disparities have to be eliminated and this can go with the recruitment policies. to recruit them into the service and to retain them.n the education system in Pakistan is a relatively new phenomenon. The BRIDGES project has not only conducted the research on important aspects of primary educati. Research in education has to be a priority within the education system. there are monetary incentives which make urbcm posting more attractive. In that case they like to be posted in urban areas only.

_ .3%.000) were in school. (p. literacy was estimated at 26. The definition was 'ability to read with understanding in any language'-writing ability was not included. The changing criteria detract from the comparability of the time series. Nepal. Ministry of Education. In 1981 the criterion became more precise 'the ability to read a newspaper and write a simple letter in any language'. Harvard University. there are large disparities..0%) Rural female literacy is only 7....6% (of the total population). In 1972 the definition was 'the ability to read and write with understanding in any language'.ll) 3.2% in 1981. this parameter was added.. (17..4% of the total population (all age groups) in spite of a liberal definition of literacy 'ability to read any printed language' Comprehension was not a condition. 7%. __ . In 1961. to a high of 93% for females in Baluchistan.3% against 47. In 1985 only a third of five year old girls (940. Sudan. and only half of those who entered school were expected to finish the fifth grade.1%) and male/female (35... We mark the borders of the bottom category of countries like Bhutan. (p.1% against 16. project BRIDGES (1989) 2. 1984.- 27 REFERENCES 1. .. Government of Pakistan. In 1983-84. the worst case being literacy in Baluchistan.. At any rate. In 1951 the literacy rate was estimated at 16. There are 56394 female teachers versus 176721 total.. and the ratio came down to 13. By the age 12... only 1.in terms of rural/urban. Mali and Zaire. dropout rates for primary school children ranged from a low of 18% in Punjab for males in urban area.4) The World Bank figures are quoted from "Effective Classroom Practices in Primary schools of Pakistan" by Andrea B. Behind this unflattering figure._. Rugh. Afghanistan. Chad. Islamabad..8%" Quoted from Action Plan for Educational Development (1983-'88). Ethiopia. The literacy rate was estimated at 21.. Differences in proportions of male ~nd female teachers are even more marked when further break-down of provinces and urban/rural areas is considered. only about 4% of the rural girls are still in schools.

The data was available where they could link the performance of the teachers to the students achievement . "students of teachers with secondary education outperformed students of teachers with only primary education on tests of mathematics and science" (Warwick et al.28 Source: Central Bureau of Education. 1989). It is particularly hard for the women who work in the rural schools and training courses are usually held in the urban areas. In-service! facilities are not enough as according to the needs of the tea. Pakistan.aan of 11 years) Teachers were administered a questionna. Islamabad (June 1983 cited in Action Plan of Educational Development: 1983-88).ople speak many languages . On the basis of grand mean pupils were divided into two groups based on less or more teaching experience. I studied' the different practices by the male and female teachers as mediated by the different background factors. Furthermore 52 women teachers and 35 men teachers were selected for the study (thedr teaching experience ranged from 2 to 34 years with a m. He used the same data set as of this study. So the teachers end up staying with the same qualificat:ions with which they entered the system. Quoted from "Primary Education Improvements: Desired Measures" National Educat:ion council. I dealt with 1000 teachers and not linking it to the achievement of the students.nd information was available for 500 teachers who taught math and science to grade 4 and 5. (1986) Islamabad. INC. The writers of this report used the same data set as I did with the only diffet'ence that they linked to the achievement of the students of claslses 4 & 5. 5.. 9.559 students selected (basis -final exam) sample was 1517 girls and 1042 boys).. making it harder for the women to attend. 8. The problem of perhaps 90% of the students beginning school with a different language greatly complicates the instruction. In Pakistan.. (p. 7. The researchers randomly selected 51 primary schools in Botswana and from those schools 2. 6.37) Quoted from Primary Education in Pakistan: Part III Case Studies of Schools in Pakistan (1986) by Development Associates. but he dealt with a number of 500 teachers because he linked it to the achievement of the students.ire stating their sexes and years of experience. 4.chers. Pakistan and schools are faced with a considerable problem in that the pe. a. The performance of the teache'rs were evaluated on the basis of the group they belonged.

I used for the study consisted on a sample of 1000 teachers from which 60% were male.29 only consisted of about 500 teachers. • . while the data.

7 1.5 90.84 72. . 911 .002 N.0 2.9 3.96 3.08 3. .000 533'. N.38 64.3 44.28 59.4 2.S.0 1. .000 N.S.87 Total 8.S.5 1.048 .5 44.000 .1 90.11 3.44 Female 7.S.S.92 3.04 4.000 815 N.24 22.7 82.000 N.1 46. 825 775 853 936 746 789 p < . .3 ~ 495.64 10.17 40.0 96.79 27.92 3.04 4.011 N.10 80.3 456.Annex 1 summary of Teaching Practices By Gender of the Teachers Male Homework :in math and scienc~e Follow up of the Homework Tests in lnath and science Use of Teaching Kit (% Yes) # of lesscms kit used for Curriculum Coverage (math and science) Instructional Time in Minuteel (math & sc:ience) Use of Student Monitors (# of hours) Use of Physical punishment: (% Yes) Tough Phys:ical Punishment: Integrated Curriculum Use of Blackboards (% Yes) Use of student Translators Assigning Tasks Lesson Plans (% Yes) 8.10 9.S.65 N.57 9.4 86.72 52.5 56.2 44.003 853 .35 30.39 4.9 66.3 765 934 876 358 877 879 .51 4.3 93.

S.000 Hi Lo Lo Lo Lo Lo Hi Lo Hi .S.003 .Annex 2 summary of Teaching Practices (expected versus actual) By Gender of the Teachers Expected Female Homework in math and science Follow up of the Homework Tests in math and science Use of Teaching Kit (% Yes) # of lessons kit used for Actual Female Lo Lo Hi Lo Lo Lo ~ Hi Hi Hi Hi Hi Hi .S.000 N.' Lo 3( .000 Use of Student Monitors Lo (# of hours) Use of Physical punishment (% Yes) Tough Physical Punishment Integrated Curriculum Use of Blackboards (% Yes) Use of Student Translators Assigning Tasks Lesson Plans (% Yes). . curriculum coverage (math and science) Instructional Time in Minutes (math & science) . N.011 N.002 N.S • . .048 . . Lo Lo Hi Hi Hi Lo Hi .000 N.S.S.000 N.

ching Kit (% Yes) # of lesse.nal Time in Minutes (math & science) Lo Hi Lo Lo Lo Hi Hi Hi Lo Hi .Annex 3 summary of Teaching Practices By Academic Qualifications Actual Expected Less Less More Educated Educated Educated (Female) (Female) (Female) Homework in math and science Follow up of the Homework Tests in math and science Use of Tea.' Not significant Lo Hi Use of Student Monitors (# of hours) Hi Use of Physical punishment (% Yes) Tough physical Punishment Integrated Curriculum Use of Blackboards (% Yes) Use of Student Translators Assigning Tasks Lesson Plans (% Yes) Hi Hi Lo Lo Lo Hi Lo Not Significant Not significant Not significant Hi Lo Lo Hi Not significant Lo Hi .ns kit used for More Educated (Female) Hi Lo Lo Lo Lo Lo Lo Hi Hi Hi Hi Hi Hi Lo Not Significant Hi Hi Hi Lo Lo Lo Lo Hi Curriculum Coverage (math and science) Instructie.

. Annex 4 summary of Teaching Practices By Professional Training Expected Less More QualifIed Qualified (Female) (Female) Homework in math and science Follow up of the Homework Tests in math and science Use of Teaching Kit (% Yes) # of lessons kit used for Actual Less More Qualified Qualified (Female) (Female) Hi Lo Lo Lo Lo Lo Lo Lo Hi Hi Hi Hi Hi Hi Not Significant Not Significant Hi Hi Lo Lo Curriculum Coverage (math and science) Instructional Time in Minutes (math & science) Not Significant Lo Hi Lo Lo Lo Hi Hi Hi Lo Hi Not Significant Lo Lo Hi Hi Use of Student Monitors (# of hours) Hi Use of Physical punishment (% Yes) Tough Physical Punishment Integrated Curriculum Use of Blackboards (% Yes) Use of Student Translators Assigning Tasks Lesson Plans (% Yes) Hi Hi Lo Lo Lo Hi Lo Not Significant Not Significant Mixed Mixed ..-.._ _-----------------.". Not Significant Hi Lo ..

Annex 5 Summary of Teaching Practices By In-Service Training Expected Not Trained Trained (Female) (Female) Homework in math and science Follow up of the Homework Tests in math and science Use of Teaching Kit (% Yes) Lo Lo Lo Lo Lo Lo Hi Hi Hi Hi Hi Hi Actual Not Trained Trained (Female) (Female) Not Significant Lo Hi Not Significant Lo Lo Hi Hi # of lesso:ns kit used for Curriculum Coverage (math and science) Instructio:nal Time in Minutes (math & science) Not Significant Lo Hi Lo Lo Lo Hi Hi Hi Lo Hi ." Not Significant Lo Hi Use of Student Monitors (# of hour:::) Hi Use of PhYI::ical punishment (% Yes) Tough physical Punishment Integrated Curriculum Use of Blackboards (% Yes) Use of Student Translatorl. Assigning ~rasks Hi Hi Lo Lo Lo Hi Lo Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Lo Hi Hi Lo Not Significant Lesson Plal1s (% Yes) La Hi .

---------------- Annex 6 summary of Teaching Practices By Urban Rural Location of the Schools Expected Rural Urban (Female) (Female) Homework in math and science Follow up of the Homework Tests in math and science Use of Teaching Kit (% Yes) # of lessons kit used for Actual Rural Urban (Female) (Female) Hi Lo Lo Lo Lo Lo Lo Lo Hi Hi Hi Hi Hi Hi Not Significant Not Significant Lo Hi Not Significant Not Significant curriculum Coverage (math and science) Instructional Time in Minutes (math & science) Lo Hi Lo Lo Lo Hi Hi Hi Lo Hi Not Significant Not Significant Hi Hi Lo Lo Use of Student Monitors (# of hours) Hi Use of Physical punishment (% Yes) Tough Physical Punishment Integrated Curriculum Use of Blackboards (% Yes) Use of Student Translators Assigning Tasks Lesson Plans (% Yes) Hi Hi Lo Lo Lo Hi Lo Not Significant Not Significant Hi Lo . Not Significant Hi Lo ..

Annex 7 summary of Teaching Practices By Teachers' Parents Education Expected Actual More Less More Less Educated Educated Educated Educated Parents Parents Parents Parents (Female) (Female) (Female) (Female) Homework in math Not Significant and science Lo Hi Follow up of the Homework Tests in Illath and science Use of Tea.ching Kit (% Yes) # of lessclns kit used for Lo Lo Lo Lo Lo Hi Hi Hi Hi Hi Hi Lo Not Significant Hi Hi Lo Lo curriculum Coverage (math and science) Instructional Time in Minutes (math & science) Not Significant Lo Hi Lo Lo Lo Hi Hi Hi Lo Hi I Not Significant Not Significant Hi Lo Use of Student Monitors (# of hours) Hi Use of physical punishment (% Yes) Tough Physical Punishment Integrated Curriculum Use of Blackboards (% Yes) Use of Student Translators Assigning Tasks Lesson Plans (% Yes) Hi Hi Lo Lo Lo Hi Lo Not Significant Lo Hi Hi Lo Lo Hi Lo Lo Hi Hi .

Annex 8 summary of Teaching Practices By Teachers' Possessions Expected Actual Less More Less More Possessions Possessions Possessions Possessions (Female) (Female) (Female) (Female) Homework in math Lo and science Hi Not Significant Follow up of the Homework Tests in math and science Use of Teaching Kit (% Yes) Lo Lo Lo Lo Lo Hi Hi Hi Hi Hi Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant # of lessons kit used for Curriculum Coverage (math and science) Instructional Time in Minutes (math & science) Lo Hi Lo Lo Lo Hi Hi Hi Lo Hi Not Significant Lo Hi Use of Student Monitors (# of hours) Hi Use of Physical punishment (% Yes) Tough Physical Punishment Integrated Curriculum Use of Blackboards (% Yes) Use of Student Translators Assigning Tasks Lesson Plans (% Yes) .Hi Hi Lo Lo Lo Hi Lo Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Hi Hi La Lo . Not significant .

4 More Exp. Less Exp.Annex 9 Summary of Teaching Practices By Teaching Experience Expected Actual Less Exp. More Exp. (Female) (Female) (Female) (Female) Homework in math and science Lo Not Significant Hi Follow up of the Homework Tests in math and science Use of Teaching Kit (% Yes) # of lessons kit used for Lo Lo Lo Lo Lo Hi Hi Hi Hi Hi Not Significant Not Significant Lo Lo Hi Hi curriculum Coverage (math and science) Instructional Time in Minutes (math & science) Not Significant Lo Hi Lo Lo Lo Hi Hi Hi Lo Hi Not significant Lo Hi Hi Lo Use of Student Monitors (# of hours) Hi Use of Physical punishment (% Yes) Tough Physical Punishment Integrated Curriculum Use of Blackboards (% Yes) Use of Student Translators Assigning 'rasks Lesson Plans (% Yes) Hi Hi Lo Lo Lo Hi Lo Not Significant Not Significant Lo Hi Hi Lo Not Significant Hi Lo " 4 Experienced .

.- .." Not Significant Hi Lo ..--- ------ Annex 10 Summary of Teaching Practices By Single/Multigrade Teaching Expected Actual Multigrade Singlegrade MUltigrade Singlegrade (Female) (Female) (Female) (Female) Homework in math and science Follow up of the Homework Tests in math and science Use of Teaching Kit (% Yes) # of lessons kit used for Lo Lo Lo Lo Lo Lo Hi Hi Hi Hi Hi Hi Hi Hi Lo Lo Not Significant Hi Lo Not Significant Not Significant curriculum Coverage (math and science) Instructional Time in Minutes (math & science) Lo Hi Lo Lo Lo Hi Hi Hi La Hi Not Significant Not Significant Hi Lo Use of Student Monitors (# of-hours) Hi Use of Physical punishment (% Yes) Tough Physical Punishment Integrated Curriculum Use of Blackboards (% Yes) Use of Student Translators Assigning Tasks Lesson Plans (% Yes) Hi Hi Lo Lo Lo Hi La Not Significant Not Significant Lo Hi Hi Lo ..

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