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B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01

ENGINEER FIELD MANUAL

ROUTE CLEARANCE TEAM FORMATIONS TTP
(ENGLISH)
This publication becomes active on receipt
WARNING ALTHOUGH NOT CLASSIFIED, THIS PUBLICATION, OR ANY PART OF IT, MAY BE EXEMPT FROM DISCLOSURE TO THE PUBLIC UNDER THE ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACT. ALL ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN MUST BE CLOSELY SCRUTINIZED TO ASCERTAIN WHETHER OR NOT THE PUBLICATION OR ANY PART OF IT MAY BE RELEASED.

Issued on the authority of the Chief of the Land Staff

B-GL-361-021 FP-Z01

ENGINEER FIELD MANUAL

ROUTE CLEARANCE TEAM FORMATIONS TTP
(ENGLISH)
This publication becomes active on receipt
WARNING ALTHOUGH NOT CLASSIFIED, THIS PUBLICATION, OR ANY PART OF IT, MAY BE EXEMPT FROM DISCLOSURE TO THE PUBLIC UNDER THE ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACT. ALL ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN MUST BE CLOSELY SCRUTINIZED TO ASCERTAIN WHETHER OR NOT THE PUBLICATION OR ANY PART OF IT MAY BE RELEASED.

Issued on the authority of the Chief of the Land Staff

OPI: DAD 8

2007-07-24

soldiers need to be proficient at mounted and dismounted movement in an IED environment. and determined through various interrogation methods to contain explosives. the soldier must be observant not only for IEDs but also IED indicators. Engineers conduct route clearance operations with specialized equipment along main supply routes. etc). b. which approach applies at any given moment depends on the circumstance. i . and result in very high numbers of coalition casualties. financier. This requires aggressive tactics. However. c. finally. but not an insurmountable one. soldiers need to understand the enemy’s basic IED placement techniques. distributor. in the appropriate balance. used together with combined arms support. Evidence must be extracted from explosive debris to aid in tracking down perpetrators and their supporters. EOD is the only designated agency responsible for rendering safe IEDs. To defeat this enemy. But IED attacks by insurgents are also criminal acts. Similarly. units are more successful in establishing patterns and discovering the bomb makers and their support networks. and procedures (TTP). techniques. and be able to identify IED components. not just the device. an EOD team will always form part of a route clearance team during counter-insurgency operations. The enemy is in fact the designer. The IED is not the enemy. alternate supply routes. 2. electronic countermeasures are only available because the enemy’s radio-control systems are captured intact. and information must be collected to determine how the devices function in order to develop technical countermeasures. Due to the critical need to capture devices intact for intelligence and law enforcement value. bomb maker. experience has taught that if IEDs are rendered safe using explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) expertise and information is extracted from the device. When suspect items are located. Route clearance operations involve three skill sets: a. 4. so other personnel view them as crime scenes as well.Route Clearance Team Formations TTP PREFACE INTRODUCTION 1. and other routes guided by decisions based on intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB) outcomes. Both approaches. For this reason. know IED indicators. the insurgent who emplaces and detonates the IED. The ever-increasing sophistication of IEDs is a challenge. and. IEDs are generally seen as obstacles or as remotely manned weapon systems. bomb maker. Soldiers need to take the fight to the enemy by attacking the entire IED system (financier. During contemporary counter-insurgency operations Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are often the insurgent’s weapon of choice. Some personnel thus view IEDs simply as hazards to breach or destroy in order to remove their potential to cause harm. and soldiers need to know the capabilities and limitations of their route clearance equipment. 3. are correct. engineer clearance operations cease and EOD becomes responsible for dealing with the device.

and describe the new protected route clearance engineer equipment now being fielded in theatre.B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 5. The purpose of this TTP is to familiarize all personnel who may operate with engineer route clearance teams with the basic structure of these teams and their tactical formations. ii . briefly describe the TTP commonly used in route clearance tasks.

........... Techniques for MIV Arm Interrogations of Suspected IEDs ................ General .......... AND PROCEDURES IN URBAN AND RURAL ENVIRONMENTS 201............................................................................ 6-1 RESEARCHED TERMS...................................................................................................................... 5-1 CHAPTER 6 MINE DETECTION TOWING VEHICLE 601.................. 3-2 CHAPTER 4 MINE INVESTIGATION VEHICLE 401. 1-1 102................................................................ 2-1 202. 3-1 302................................... 4-6 CHAPTER 5 RG-31 MEDIUM MINE-PROTECTED VEHICLE 501............................................................ SAID ......................................... General Description ...... 3-1 303.. General Description ............................................................................................................................................... 2-2 CHAPTER 3 ROUTE CLEARANCE TEAM ACTIONS ON CONTACT 301...Route Clearance Team Formations TTP TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE...... TECHNIQUES......................... Formations .................... General ......................................................................................... Urban Operations ..................................................................................................................................... RC Vehicle Roles and Responsibilities ....................................... General Description .................................. Rural Operations ............................................... RT-1 iii ............................................ 4-1 402................................... The Five Cs (Securing an IED Site)................................................. 1-1 103.... i CHAPTER 1 ROUTE CLEARANCE TEAM FORMATIONS 101............................................................................................................................................................................................. 1-3 CHAPTER 2 ROUTE CLEARANCE TACTICS...........

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......................................................................................................... 5-3 Figure 6-1 MDTV .................................................................... 4-5 Figure 4-5: IED Blast Fragment Zones................................................... 4-7 Figure 5-1: RG-31........................ 4-3 Figure 4-2: MIV Transmission .................................... 1-3 Figure 1-2: Platoon Staggered............................................ 1-4 Figure 1-4: Platoon Staggered with Team Staggered ........................................................................................................................................................................... 1-4 Figure 4-1: MIV Engine............................................................................Route Clearance Team Formations TTP TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 1-1: Platoon Column............................... 4-6 Figure 4-6 MIV: Arm Techniques ........ 4-5 Figure 4-4: Hydraulic Crane on MIV .............................................................................................................................................. 1-4 Figure 1-3: Platoon Column with Team Column............................................................................. 4-3 Figure 4-3: Hydraulic Crane .................................................................................................................................................. 5-2 Figure 5-2: RG-31 Side View ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6-1 v ............................................................................................

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one RC Team Leader’s vehicle (mineprotected vehicle preferred. this TTP focuses on the engineer component. B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 1-1 . troops and support available. and Vehicle #1 provides security to MDTV. one sapper section vehicle or EOD team vehicle (LAV Engineer or EOD rapid response vehicle depending on task assigned). Each type of vehicle within the RCT has a primary function/role. but as a minimum. armoured).Route Clearance Team Formations TTP CHAPTER 1 ROUTE CLEARANCE TEAM FORMATIONS 101. crew commander monitors road and relays information to patrol leader and trail vehicles. The IPB process and commander’s risk assessment will assist in determining the correct configuration necessary for each clearance mission. An engineer RC team (RCT) can be effective in both offensive and defensive operations. 102. enemy. Vehicle #1 (RG-31 or similar mine-protected vehicle): (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) driver monitors road ahead and sets pace of team. Due to the limited fielding of RC vehicles. The RCT consists of one RG-31 mineprotected vehicle (see Chapter 5). 2. Due to the scarcity of RC equipment this practice must not be compromised. Although RC is more frequently conducted as a combined arms effort. 3. but that once an IED is confirmed further interrogation ceases and EOD assumes responsibility for dealing with the device. The structure and function of the engineer RC package is not only conditioned by mission. RC VEHICLE ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES 1. and each vehicle’s personnel are assigned individual responsibilities: a. one mine detection towing vehicle (MDTV) (see Chapter 6). crew commander communicates all suspicious indicators to MIV (or MDTV) for further interrogation. gunner usually orients turret weapon to 12 o’clock and covers sector of fire from 10 o’clock to 2 o’clock. but is also contingent on the operational environment and defined by mission objectives within the AOR. The most common organization engaged in RC is the engineer support troop within the battle group engineer squadron. terrain and weather. GENERAL 1. one Mine Investigation Vehicle (MIV) (see Chapter 4). Route clearance (RC) is primarily an engineer mission. It must be clearly identified that the RCT is authorized to interrogate suspect devices. and one armoured ambulance. time available and civil considerations. the RCT should always deploy as a team and not be parcelled out for non-RC tasks.

1-2 B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 . c. task force elements. d. and establish plan to clear full width of road (options are to have MDTV clear one side of road for designated distance and then return along cleared side to start point and clear other side. tactical operations center.Route Clearance Team Formations TTP b. and crew commander communicates with other vehicle commanders. Vehicle #2 (MDTV): (1) (2) (3) (4) sole responsibility for MDTV operator is marking metal signatures for MIV interrogation. TL controls actions of all vehicles and personnel during RC mission. operator (sole occupant) leading the RCT must maintain situational awareness at all times. and is primary arm operator. vehicle must be equipped with means to communicate with all other elements of the RCT. and halts RCT when necessary. arm operator monitors road and right shoulder. team leader (TL) maintains position centered on the road behind the MIV for best visibility and control. and land-owning unit. provides situational awareness of MIV actions. TL coordinates with battle space owner. all suspicious indicators are interrogated visually before arm is employed. or to clear one side of road to turnaround point and then clear in opposite direction on other side back to start point). interpreter provides support to TL. and is alternate arm operator. Vehicle #4 (RC Team Leader’s vehicle): (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) driver monitors road ahead and left shoulder. Vehicle #3 (MIV): (1) (2) (3) (4) driver monitors road ahead and left shoulder. TL maintains communications with all crew commanders. gunner orients turret weapon to 2 o’clock and covers sector of fire from 12 o’clock to 4 o’clock.

and Vehicle #7 (LAV/RG-31/) RCT rear security vehicle (if available). Vehicle #6 (Armoured Ambulance). time available and civilian considerations. It is primarily used to move to and from named and targeted areas of interest (NAI/TAI) at higher rates of speed. RG-31 MDTV MIV TL Vehicle LAV Engr/ERRV RG-31 Vehicle separation along axis of travel: minimum 25 metres. used primarily when travelling through NAI and TAI. enemy. blast craters. and other mission related information (orally when required and in writing upon completion of the mission). FORMATIONS 1. and TL conducts patrol debrief at end of mission. Figure 1-1: Platoon Column 3. f. Actual distance determined by TL/unit SOPs and ECM equipment coverage. and time of day. explosive hazard (EH) events. maximum 50 metres. Various factors influence the selection of a formation. dismounted locations. Vehicle #5 (Sapper Section vehicle or EOD Team vehicle—LAV Engineer or EOD rapid response vehicle). local road and traffic conditions. The platoon column (in the order of march described in paragraph 4 above) is the most basic formation (see Figure 1-1). g. 103. troops and support available. terrain. B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 1-3 . It involves offsetting every other vehicle in the column to give greater flexibility in response to an IED event (see Figure 1-2). including mission. The platoon staggered is the most common formation. (9) e. Several formations are available to the RCT. It is also used on narrow roads that restrict the use of staggered formations. 2.Route Clearance Team Formations (8) TL reports checkpoints.

Figure 1-4: Platoon Staggered with Team Staggered 1-4 B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 . and in dispersed residential areas where a team over-watch is required. The platoon column with team column is used when travelling through urban areas along narrow roads. maximum 50 metres. The platoon staggered with team staggered is primarily used when travelling through urban developed areas. Vehicle separation: minimum 25 metres. maximum 50 metres. Vehicle separation along axis of travel: minimum 25 metres. and in industrial areas where a team over-watch is required. maximum 50 metres.Route Clearance Team Formations TTP Vehicle separation along axis of travel: minimum 25 metres. Actual distance determined by TL/unit SOPs and ECM equipment coverage. Standoff distance between three-vehicle groupings varies depending on visibility between rear and front grouping. Figure 1-3: Platoon Column with Team Column 5. Actual distance determinedby TL/unit SOPs and ECM equipment coverage. along multi-lane roads. Actual distance determined by TL/unit SOPs and ECM equipment coverage. Figure 1-2: Platoon Staggered 4. The two three-vehicle teams are separated by an appropriate standoff distance (see Figure 1-3). The two three-vehicle teams are separated by an appropriate standoff distance (see Figure 1-4).

Route Clearance Team Formations NOTES The rear security vehicle illustrated in each of the above figures can be substituted with a LAV III as determined by the Task Force commander. Regardless of the formation type or task. located behind the sapper section vehicle or EOD vehicle. forward of the rear security vehicle. an armoured ambulance will accompany the RCT. and may not accompany all RC task serials (especially for urban tasks) B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 1-5 . The MDTV may or may not form part of a RC task.

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B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 2-1 . e. b. Friendly forces must identify all subways.Route Clearance Team Formations TTP CHAPTER 2 ROUTE CLEARANCE TACTICS. cellars. and major underground utility systems in the urban area. 3. high-rise areas. dense. Supra-surface systems are the internal levels and external roofs or tops of buildings. constitute a significant threat to exposed personnel in vehicle hatches. AND PROCEDURES IN URBAN AND RURAL ENVIRONMENTS 201. walkways. sewers. f. towers or other vertical structures. Subsurface or subterranean systems can easily be employed as avenues of approach and escape for friendly and enemy dismounted elements. stadiums. and restrict or block movement of mounted and dismounted troops. URBAN OPERATIONS 1. limit or enhance fields of fire. closed. c. dispersed residential areas. Most urban areas contain heavy traffic. utility poles. orderly block areas. Urban operations are defined as all military actions conducted on terrain where manmade construction affects tactical operations. Trees. TECHNIQUES. c. and permanent or fixed fortifications and other military installations. These IEDs. 2. industrial and transportation areas. They also provide cover and concealment for enemy snipers and IED triggermen. d. The following factors must be considered in an urban environment: a. reducing IED standoff distances and complicating their control. Buildings provide cover and concealment. overhead bridges. Streets afford avenues of approach and are the primary means for rapid ground movement. random construction. b. and buildings close to streets all provide opportunities for IED placement above surface level. if properly sited. There are several types of urban terrain: a. d.

RURAL OPERATIONS 1. Thus many rural areas are not subject to 2-2 B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 . debris. Rural routes are normally poorly maintained hard surface or dirt roads. used while travelling through NAI or known hotspots. and mine detection towing vehicle (MDTV) is not used due to the large amount of trash. lower rate of travel (7-12 kph).Route Clearance Team Formations TTP 4. located in less densely populated areas. used when travelling to and away from named areas of interest (NAI). methodical search by vehicles to clear MSRs and ASRs of IEDs. Rural environment differs significantly from urban areas. swift employment of vehicles to quickly scan and clear main supply routes (MSRs) and alternate supply routes (ASRs) of IEDs. Urban Hasty Type 2: (1) (2) (3) slow. etc that produce continuous metal signatures. Three tactical RC methods are particularly suited for use in the urban environment: a. resulting in false IED indications. dismounts. close air. though effective. higher rate of travel (15-25 kph). Urban Deliberate: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) used while travelling within targeted areas of interest (TAI) characterized by high frequency and lethality of IED attacks. or known hot spots with low frequency and lethality of IED attacks. Coalition forces do not regularly patrol these roads. other support as necessary). are not normally deployed with RCTs in urban areas due to their lack of protection and manoeuvrability. c. reconnaissance and aerial surveillance of large rural areas are problematic. and turret gunners remain down until tactical situation dictates otherwise. Due to the scarcity of resources. lead vehicle maintains control of surrounding traffic and prevents vehicle borne IEDs (VBIEDs) from getting close to the RCT. should be coordinated as combined arms RC operation (infantry. buried infrastructure. and lower rate of travel (7-12 kph). 202. Urban Hasty Type 1: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) b.

questioning locals. Air reconnaissance (both manned and unmanned) should be used on non-regularly patrolled routes 1-2 days prior to the RC mission and. and speed of travel will vary due to the large amount of road which RCTs must clear. if available. The formation types are: a. Rural deliberate clearance missions can be used to expand the number of routes available for movement (as time permits). b. making the use of victim-operated IEDs (VOIEDs) and command-wire IEDs (CWIEDs) more prevalent. Locating command wires and tracing to firing points. B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 2-3 . Flushing triggermen out of hiding. Rural Deliberate. however. Rural areas generally afford IED emplacers more time to camouflage and conceal their work. The operation of the MDTV will generally be the focal point of the rural deliberate RC mission and set the operations tempo for the RCT. Spotting poorly camouflaged and sited IEDs from the triggerman perspective. thus helping to avoid reliance on a few well-established routes and avoiding patternsetting behaviour. during the mission. Dismounts play an important role in rural RC operations and perform a variety of tasks such as: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Looking for IED indicators and triggerman locations. since security c. These missions are conducted in high threat areas on unimproved rural roads that are not as heavily travelled as improved roads. Conducting hasty searches for caches near IED sites along the routes. except that the MDTV leads. where there is an imminent threat of ambush or VBIED.Route Clearance TTP in Urban and Rural Environments continuous surveillance. These roads are generally free from debris and buried infrastructure found in urban areas. Deliberate sweeps should be combined arms operations that incorporate all available assets with the RCT. that searches of nearby buildings. since they will often flee prior to detonating IED or detonate prematurely if dismounted troops are spotted. will the MDTV move behind the lead mine protected vehicle. Dismounts. Rural Hasty: The rural hasty is used on improved hard surface roads. Only in a high threat environment. It must be stressed. and is similar in structure to the Urban Hasty formations except that: (1) (2) MDTV leads the formation. RCTs use the same types of formations as in the urban environment. 2. etc should be tasked to other follow-on elements.

where an RCT. Route Sterilization in Urban and Rural Environments. One solution to this problem is route sterilization. it is more difficult for the enemy to emplace IEDs. 3. with attached assets including security elements. removes trash and debris from a designated stretch of road. Roadside trash and debris are common in many areas in the AO and make spotting possible IEDs more difficult. 2-4 B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 . and all coalition forces can more easily identify IEDs should the enemy attempt to emplace them again along the sterilized route. Sterilization serves multiple purposes: IED detection devices become more effective.Route Clearance Team Formations TTP elements attached to the RCT must maintain their focus on protecting the RCT and equipment in order to complete the mission in a timely fashion. The end result is a road cleaned of all possible IEDs.

Drills: a. If there has been a detonation and the choice is to strike and/or defend a downed vehicle/personnel: (1) Immediately focus out. GENERAL 1. ‘S’ is not a default for stop. Within the RCT. since the necessity to react rapidly will likely require concurrent activity. different elements may be required to take different actions. and provides a detailed report and assessment to higher HQ. strike or speed will probably be the most difficult action to decide upon due to uncertainty concerning the nature of the event and what may unfold. 2. Confirm the presence of an IED. Inform. The contact should be immediately reported by means of a contact report to higher headquarters. Understand the nature of the threat to assess the associated risk and determine follow-on courses of action. and return suppressive fire as quickly as possible (engage as per ROE). 2. 4. If there has been no detonation. Whether pre. Assess. secure the area and use the five “Cs” described below (see section 303) as guidance for follow-up actions. The effects of the ambush may range from catastrophic to no damage at all. you are in the enemy’s kill zone.Route Clearance Team Formations TTP CHAPTER 3 ROUTE CLEARANCE TEAM ACTIONS ON CONTACT 301. An IED attack is an ambush. Look for other indicators. 302. On contact. Reaction must be swift. The TL gives the RCT further direction on action drills. Stop/Strike/Speed.or post-detonation. warn RCT personnel by radio or hand signals. Continue to be vigilant. 3. The following may not necessarily be sequential. and be prepared to initiate ambush immediate action drills. SAID 1. relying on well rehearsed drills. Assessing the situation will facilitate an appropriate decision. The decision to stop. look for enemy. b. Assess the damage (personnel or vehicular casualties). 5. and therefore the RCT response must be appropriate to secure and control the area. While executing the RC task all personnel must be prepared to react accordingly when encountering an IED (or suspected IED). The acronym SAID is a useful mnemonic that describes the actions to be taken in response to discovery or detonation of an IED. Quickly assess the overall tactical situation. Be vigilant for possible ambush. B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 3-1 .

Only those required will move into the kill zone to aid the downed vehicle. (4) (b) c. MIV arms will not be used in any attempt to dismantle. If not. The presence of an IED should be confirmed. 3-2 B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 . but also be wary of the potential for secondary devices/attack on or near the perceived FP. cordon. Remember that the longer you remain at the site.Route Clearance Team Formations TTP (2) (3) Immediately move unnecessary personnel and vehicles out of the kill zone. Upon confirmation that the suspect device is an IED. remove sensitive items. or render safe the IED. contact ops centre. treat. If there is a downed vehicle in the kill zone: (a) Personnel not in the kill zone move unnecessary vehicles and personnel to a safe area and await orders. Conduct 5 and 20 metre checks to ensure no secondary devices are present. the greater the risk of a follow-on attack. The Five Cs (confirm. Expect other attacks by the enemy and secondary IEDs. The ability to secure the site will depend on the resources at hand and the tactical environment. move. An investigation or recovery may be required—employ the Five Cs. but may occur concurrently. THE FIVE Cs (SECURING AN IED SITE) 1. clear. If the decision is to strike at the enemy. f. Preserve forensic evidence for follow-on investigation. Any follow-up must be robust. Secure the site as needed or as instructed. The steps are not necessarily conducted sequentially. g. Recover vehicles if possible. then manoeuvre against the enemy to kill or capture him. This should be done from a safe distance. The period immediately following contact is often critical as there is potential for coalition forces to kill or capture the attacker. e. Confirm. including actions to strike at the enemy. 303. All steps should be conducted using cover to your advantage: 2. Move the MIV into position to the rear of the suspect IED (to minimize blast effects) to conduct the interrogation. Supporting personnel in the kill zone is the priority. and MEDEVAC wounded. Personnel in the kill zone provide protection and assistance to the downed vehicle. conduct 5 and 20 metre drills. Recover. the MIV will immediately move away from the device. control) are a simple set of guidelines to secure a site when a suspected or confirmed IED has been discovered or detonated. At the new location. Report. d.

Route Clearance Team Actions on Contact 3. Clear. Assess whether your distance and cover are adequate. Contact Op Centre. Report any additional devices found immediately to the TL. Establish obstacles to control approaches to security positions. EOD. and medical personnel within the cordon. Control. looking for secondary devices. Control must be maintained until EOD has rendered safe the device and evidence has been collected. 5. and avoid danger from broken glass and debris should the device detonate. The TL is the Incident Commander and controls operations from the ICP. always conduct 5 and 20 metre checks at new locations. All personnel should attempt to remain out of the line of sight of the device. A full or partial cordon may already be established while the ‘clear’ is being conducted. Clearance should be systematic and orderly. Set up incident command post (ICP) for TL. B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 3-3 . Cordon. When moving to another area. If the render safe procedure causes device detonation the cordon and control of the site must be maintained until forensic collection has been completed. Conduct 5 and 20 metre checks at new locations. Complete the cordon as necessary beyond the 300 metre cleared area to prevent accidental or deliberate ingress to the cordoned area and to protect personnel working within it. Immediately contact ops centre to let higher HQ know what you have found and what actions you are taking to deal with the device. Only personnel authorized by the TL will entered the cordon area. 4. Establish 360 degree security and dominate the area. Clear the area of people to a safe distance 300 metres beyond the device. starting nearest the device and working away from it. 6.

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GENERAL DESCRIPTION 1.Route Clearance Team Formations TTP CHAPTER 4 MINE INVESTIGATION VEHICLE 401.62 x 51mm NATO ball standard All wheels and centerline 6 topside standard 1 rear door only.000 lb drive steer Mack tandem 50. The MIV can be employed over all types of roads and can be driven cross-country and in all weather conditions. brake chambers protected 44. Based on a design of South African origin.62 x 51mm NATO ball standard 7. co-driver. and up to four passengers 7. SPECIFICATIONS Engine Horsepower Torque Transmission Front axle Rear axles Tires Drive system Cooling system Electrical system Batteries Brakes Air conditioning Seating Armour protection Glass protection Mine protection Hatches Doors Height Width Length overall Mack 6-cylinder turbo-charged diesel (burns DF-2) (see Figure 4-1) 450 hp @ 1800 revolution per minute (rpm) 1450 foot-pounds at 1200 rpm Allison 5-speed automatic high and low range (see Figure 4-2) Fabco SDA 2300 23. two spares Full-time 6x6 Liquid.000 British thermal units (BTU) Driver. The mine investigation vehicle is purpose-built for use in mine-clearing operations. opens into load bay 117 inches (in) 97 in 323 in (27 ft) B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 4-1 . the vehicle is manufactured and assembled in South Carolina using Mack Truck and proprietary components. radiator protected against debris Dual voltage 12v/24v 4x l2v wired in parallel or series Air.000 lb Michelin 1600 R20 XZL.

and dashboard-mounted monitor. high-resolution video camera mounted on articulated arm. 4. 2.000 lb 16 in under front axle. fully adjustable. 3. armour-plated steel body. articulated arm modified from a commercially available hydraulic crane. welded.320 lb/84. 4-2 B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 .Route Clearance Team Formations TTP Curb/Max weight Ground clearance PERFORMANCE Range Speed Fording depth OTHER FEATURES 1. 45. 20 in under transfer case cover 382 miles with 85 gallon fuel cell 55 miles per hour (mph) (sprint speed 65 mph) Approximately 40 in one-piece.

Mine Investigation Vehicle Figure 4-1: MIV Engine Figure 4-2: MIV Transmission B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 4-3 .

MIV is equipped with a 24v slave receptacle. electroniccountermeasures devices). 5. 6. Arm replacement can take months. trunk hatches. The MIV is equipped with a dual-charging alternator to run 12v and 24v systems. use jumper cables from one 12v battery of another vehicle. HYDRAULIC CRANE/ARTICULATING ARM DESCRIPTION 1. Do not use the arm to lift concrete barriers. If a MIV needs to be jump-started. 2. 4. 3. 3. The articulating arm is a commercially fitted crane with a mine-clearing tool attached (see Figures 4-3 and 4-4). The boom is fitted with a video camera. vehicles. Lifting items beyond the arm’s capacity may bend or overstress components. 2. CAUTION The MIV cannot be slave-started from another 24v power source. 2. resulting in reduced range of motion or loss of hydraulic power.Route Clearance Team Formations TTP ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 1. 7. 4. The 12v system is used for the vehicle’s main internal operating functions. or guardrails. LIFT CAPACITY 1. When the object is protruding from the ground. A damaged articulating arm renders a MIV non-mission capable. equipment. large concrete objects. the “spoon” portion of the spork is used to surface and remove any loose dirt from the object. The outer section is the only portion of the boom that extends telescopically. The effective working range of the boom is approximately 23 ft. but can only slave-start other vehicles. Do not lift anything over 250 lb. The hydraulic arm has two sections. people. both of which can move simultaneously. The 24v system is used to run all added support equipment (radios. 4-4 B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 . 4. The single spike on the bottom of the spork is used to break the ground around a suspected object that may be buried. 3. The tool is called a “spork” (from a 1970s fork/spoon eating utensil of the same name).

Mine Investigation Vehicle LESSON LEARNED The MIV is not a Backhoe! Figure 4-3: Hydraulic Crane Figure 4-4: Hydraulic Crane on MIV B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 4-5 .

When investigating a suspicious trash pile. the arm operator should interrogate long cylindrical objects from the nose or tail. the MIV backs off and the RC TL takes appropriate actions in the reporting and decision-making process. the operator pushes the debris forward to maximize standoff from a yet-unconfirmed threat. TECHNIQUES FOR MIV ARM INTERROGATIONS OF SUSPECTED IEDS 1. i. The stand-off approach is recommended when interrogating suspected IEDs with the MIV arm. Fewer fragments come off the round at 0 degrees (the nose) or 180 degrees (the tail). Figure 4-5: IED Blast Fragment Zones 4-6 B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 . the operator uses slow. methodical raking motions. Once an IED is confirmed. When the situation/terrain allows. which shows that the majority of fragments from a detonating mortar or artillery round are explosively propelled in a cylindrical pattern 90 degrees out from the long axis of the round. rather than from the side. therefore. on the front passenger side (see Figure 4-6). The same slow raking motion is used when interrogating a patch of disturbed earth or potential buried IED. working from top to bottom of the pile. the operator achieves maximum standoff when the arm is nearly fully extended from the 1 o’clock through 2 o’clock position. If possible.Route Clearance Team Formations TTP 402.e. This recommendation is based upon Figure 4-5.

4. Rake debris piles from top to bottom. Scratch surface with pick in deliberate movements to check for command wires and detonation cord.Mine Investigation Vehicle Figure 4-6 MIV: Arm Techniques 1. cardboard boxes. other soft containers) can be checked for volume by applying slight pressure with the front of the spork. Push suspect containers (like debris piles and 5 gallon oil cans) away from MIV with spork while interrogating. using the pick part of the spork. 2. Some objects (large white rice bags. B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 4-7 . 3.

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vehicle is top heavy) 97 in 252 in 19. full-time 4x4 335/80 R20 Michelin XZL 24v 2 x 12v with NATO slave receptacle yes Driver plus four when configured for standard RC mission 7.62 x 51mm NATO ball 7.350 lb configuration and load dependent 13.8 in 148 litres (39 gal) B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 5-1 .62x 51mm NATO ball 14 kilograms (kg) TNT under any wheel. rear entry 110 inches (in) (caution . 7 kg TNT under hull Six top hatches plus turret with gun mount One.180/25.600 rpm Allison S es5OQ 5-speed automatic ZF VG 750 2-speed.500 revolutions per minute (rpm) 627 foot-pounds at 1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION 1. The RG-31 can be employed over all types of roads and can be driven cross-country and in all weather conditions. It is manufactured in South Africa by Land Systems OMC and has been purchased by several other nations besides Canada. Seating Armour protection Glass protection Mine protection Hatches Doors Height Width Length overall Curb/Max weight Ground clearance Fuel cell Cummins QSB 6-cycle Liquid-cooled diesel 275 hp at 2.Route Clearance Team Formations TTP CHAPTER 5 RG-31 MEDIUM MINE-PROTECTED VEHICLE 501. The RG-31 4x4 medium mine-protected vehicle (MMPV) is purpose-built for use in high mine-threat environments (see Figures 5-1 and 5-2). SPECIFICATIONS Engine Horsepower Torque Transmission Transfer Case Tires Electrical system Batteries Air conditioning.

3. All-steel welded-armour monocoque body with V-shaped hull. Shear-off fenders for water and equipment storage.Route Clearance Team Formations TTP PERFORMANCE Range Speed Fording depth OTHER FEATURES 1. Engine. and fuel cell reside within armoured hull for maximum protection. Single top-turret that will accommodate one medium-size soldier wearing stripped vest. command and control. ambulance. Eleven gun ports for personal weapons. Modular interior layout that can be configured for armoured personnel carrier. 7. spare tires are normally removed and additional armour added to protect air tanks and fuel lines. For RC operations. 6. transmission. 4. 342 miles with 39 gal fuel cell (performance) 62 miles per hour (mph) 39 in 2. reconnaissance or other applications. Figure 5-1: RG-31 5-2 B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 . 5.

Mine Protected Vehicle Figure 5-2: RG-31 Side View B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 5-3 .RG-31 Medium.

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The MDTV can be employed over all types of roads as well as off road. 2. It is manufactured in South Africa by RSD and has been purchased by several other nations besides Canada. and the United Kingdom. including Australia. providing a full three-metre-wide proofing capability. GENERAL DESCRIPTION 1. The MDTV as a towing vehicle pulls three mine-detonation trailers. France. Figure 6-1 MDTV B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 6-1 .Route Clearance Team Formations TTP CHAPTER 6 MINE DETECTION TOWING VEHICLE 601. each with a different track. The MDTV as a stand-alone vehicle is equipped with a mine-detection system with height-adjustable heads to detect surface-laid and buried high-metallic content anti-tank and antipersonnel mines and IEDs containing metal components. 3. The towing mine-detection vehicle (MDTV) is purpose-built for use in high mine-threat environments (see Figure 6-1).

35 m (13.56 m (8 ft 4 in) pans up. with specially designed seat and safety harness 7. rear-wheel drive. front-wheel drive. front and rear breakaway modules Top only None 2. or 4-wheel drive using five drive shafts Central inflation-control system 24 v with slave receptacle 2 x 12v Yes Operator only.6 gallons) 6-2 B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 . liquid-cooled.62 x 51-mm NATO ball 7.8 in) pans down . 3.7 m (2ft 4 in) Mercedes Benz 6-cylinder.62 x 51-mm NATO ball Mine-blast and fragmentation survivable. turbo-charged diesel 201 hp at 2.250 rpm Electronically controlled automatic Low and high ranges.55 m (24 ft 9 in) 18.600 revolutions per minute (rpm) 553 foot-pounds at 1.3 m (11.985 meters(m) (9ft 10 in) 2.8 in) pans up 150 liters (39.100 lb .01 m (9 ft 11 in) pans down 7.Route Clearance Team Formations TTP SPECIFICATIONS Engine Horsepower Torque Transmission Transfer Case Tires Electrical system Batteries Air Conditioning Seating Armour protection Glass protection Mine protection Hatches Doors Height Width Length overall Curb weight Ground clearance Fuel cell PERFORMANCE Range Speed Fording depth 600 miles 62 miles per hour (mph) (100 kilometers per hour [kph]) maximum road. 20-45 mph (cruise) 0.

metal content of device.5 m diameter circle to turn around and it cannot back up. They act in a similar manner as a centipede and are used together. Travel speed for the MDTV with trailers is limited to 15 kph. Target ink-marking system to mark the detected target. MDTV with trailers can climb 20 percent slope. height of detection heads. MDTV by itself can negotiate 60 percent slope. Will pass over (without detonating) antitank mines with specially designed tires at deflated pressures. the MDTV must use lowest gear and the trailer brakes must be selectively employed to maintain a safe. Formal designation of trailers is first mine-detonation trailer (FMDT). 8. If a mine detonates under a trailer. permitting replacement of a single wheel. MDTV with trailers attached requires a 25. Will detect AT-TM57 mine(7 kg of explosives) at a depth of 75 cm. followed by second (SMDT) and subsequently third (TMDT) trailers. 9. but descending is difficult due to braking force required. Actual performance with IEDs depends on speed. Requires before and after mission cleaning for optimum performance. wheel bolts are designed to sheer. More effective in rural environment where there is less ambient trash. controllable speed. type and content of soil. and sensitivity settings. 6. 4. When going downhill. 7. Each trailer has two axles of different lengths. 7. 3. 5. size of device.Mine Detection Towing Vehicle DETECTION SYSTEM FEATURES 1. 5. B-GL-361-02/ FP-Z01 6-3 . 2. Trailers are designed to exert large ground pressure to initiate pressure-activated mines and IEDs. 6. providing clearing capability to a width of 3 metres. MINE-DETONATING TRAILER SYSTEM FEATURES 1. Less effective in areas of high metal content trash (typically urban areas). 3. Combined weight of the trailers is 25 tons. 4. 2.

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forces.gc.gc.ca/lf/Francais display.ca/ResearchTech/Products/MilEn g_Products/RD2005_12_EOD/index_f.asp?FlashEnabled=1&product =73&more=73 Main supply route (MSR) Itinéraire principal de ravitaillement (IPR) http://www.vcds.drdcrddc.forces.asp?product=73&more=73 http://www.gc.ca/lf/Francais /2_display.forces.ca/lf/Francais /2_display.gc.armee.forces.asp Command-wire IED http://www.suffield.gc.ht ml Range http://www.armee.ca/dgsp/pubs/r ep-pub/dda/cjtl/cjtl14/lex_e.asp?product=73&more=73 Ground Clearance Garde au sol http://www.gc.ca/lf/English/2_ http://www.suffield.gc.forces.drdcrddc.ht ml Autonomie http://www.asp?product=73&more=73 http://www.vcds.ca/dgsp/pubs/r ep-pub/dda/cjtl/cjtl14/lex_f.asp?product=73&more=73 /2_display.asp?product=73&more=73 B-GL-361-021/ FP-Z01 RT-1 .forces.gc.Route Clearance Team Formations TTP RESEARCHED TERMS Mine protected vehicle Véhicule à l’épreuve des mines http://www.armee.ca/lf/Francais /2_display.armee.ca/ResearchTech/Products/MilEn g_Products/RD2005_12_EOD/index_e.forces.asp EEI contrôlés par fil de commande à distance http://www.ca/lf/Francais /2_display.army.armee.gc.gc.forces.