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Liceul Teoretic Dante Alighieri

The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

Student Banica Andreea ing teacher


Coordinat : Baicu Lucia

School Year : 2010 -2011 .

Contents Introduction 3 Chapter 1 4 Chapter 2 6 Chapter 3 7 Chapter 4 8 Chapter 5 11 Chapter 6 12 .

Chapter 7 13 Conclusion and bibliography 16 .

Others did not even co-exist. The list comprised the seven most impressive monuments of the Ancient World. they reflect the ability of humans to change the surrounding landscape by building massive yet beautiful structures. mythology. The first reference to the idea is found in History of Herodotus as long ago as the 5th century BC. Callimachus of Cyrene (305BC-240BC). For their builders. and science. Decades later. power. one of which stood the test of time to this very day. only few can name them. art. . Among the oldest references to the canonical list are the engravings by the Dutch artist Maerten van Heemskerck (1498-1574). The final list of the Seven Wonders was compiled during the Middle Ages. the Seven Wonders were a celebration of religion. Chief Librarian of the Alexandria Mouseion. for it was destroyed with the Alexandria Library. All we know about the collection is its title. For us. and Johann Fischer von Erlach's History of Architecture. Greek historians wrote about the greatest monuments at the time. some of which barely survived to the Middle Ages. wrote "A Collection of Wonders around the World". The list of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World was originally compiled around the second century BC.Introduction Although most people know that a list exists of the Seven World Wonders.

The monument was built by the Egyptian pharaoh Khufu of the Fourth Dynasty around the year 2560 BC to serve as a tomb when he dies. Imhotep. eased the displacement of the blocks which were pushed (or pulled) into place. Egypt. Throughout their history. The tradition of pyramid building started in Ancient Egypt as a sophistication of the idea of a mastaba or "platform" covering the royal tomb. is on top of the list of Wonders. only discovered in 1954 near the south side of the pyramid. It is the oldest. History Contrary to the common belief. An outer casing (which disappeared over the years) was then used to smooth the surface. Also in the area is the museum housing the mysterious Sun Boat. only the Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops). not all three Great Pyramids. When Napoleon invaded Egypt in 1798. Location: At the city of Giza. (Soldiers! From the top of these Pyramids. and shape. Although it is not known how the blocks were put in place. 40 siècles nous contemplent". The site was first prepared.Chapter 1 The Great Pyramid of Giza It is the one and only Wonder which does not require a description by early historians and poets. size. in the touristic region of the Giza Plateau. The boat is believed to have been used to carry the body of Khufu . the Great Pyramid is enclosed. yet it is the only surviving of the Seven Ancient Wonders. his pride was expressed through his famous quote: "Soldats! Du haute de ces Pyramides. Later. the pyramids of Giza have stimulated human imagination. One theory involves the construction of a straight or spiral ramp that was raised as the construction proceeded. several theories have been proposed. It is the Great Pyramid of Giza. This ramp. A second theory suggests that the blocks were placed using long levers with a short angled foot. coated with mud and water. a necropolis of ancient Memphis. and blocks of stone were transported and placed. together with the other pyramids and the Sphinx. Early pyramids. and today part of Greater Cairo. The great pyramid is believed to have been built over a 20 year period. illustrate this connection. several stacked mastabas were used. such as the Step Pyramid of King Zoser (Djoser) at Saqqara by the famous Egyptian architect. It is the one and only Wonder that does not need speculations concerning its appearance. They were referred to as "The Granaries of Joseph" and "The Mountains of Pharaoh". 40 centuries are looking at us) Today.

. each weighing more than two tons.. It has been suggested that there are enough blocks in the three pyramids to build a 3 m (10 ft) high.. 0. and Westminster and St Paul's in London combined... yet Time fears the Pyramids. The area covered by the Great pyramid can accommodate St Peter's in Rome. Description When it was built. it lost 10 m (30 ft) off its top. and is only about 1 cm smaller in dimensions than the chamber entrance..3 m (4 ft) thick. All of the interior stones fit so well. only to be surpassed in height in the nineteenth century AD. as are the interior walls of the King's Chamber. A number of corridors. is the pyramid's entrance.3 m (1 ft) thick wall around France. and escape shafts either lead to the King's burial chamber.. The structure consists of approximately 2 million blocks of stone. the Great pyramid was 145. The sloping angle of its sides is 54 degrees 54 minutes. Tombs where Khufu. a card won't fit between them. The overwhelming scientific and historic evidence still supports the conclusion that. The King's chamber is located at the heart of the pyramid. The King's sarcophagus is made of red granite. galleries. Most impressive is the sharp-edged stone over the doorway which is over 3 m (10 ft) long.75 m (481 ft) high. It may also serve him as a means of transportation in his afterlife journey according to Ancient Egyptian beliefs. It was covered with a casing of stones to smooth its surface (some of the casing can still be seen near the top of Khefre's pyramid). Each side is carefully oriented with one of the cardinal points of the compass. On the north face.. ‘Man fears Time. like many smaller pyramids in the his last journey on earth before being buried inside the pyramid. The sarcophagus is oriented in accordance with the compass directions. the cathedrals of Florence and Milan. The horizontal cross section of the pyramid is square at any level.’ . Geometric structures constructed by a long-gone civilization. Astronomic observatories. The maximum error between side lengths is astonishingly less than 0.1%. New theories concerning the origin and purpose of the Pyramids of Giza have been proposed. Over the years.. east. north. It might have been introduced as the structure was progressing. the Great Pyramids were built by the great Ancient Egyptian civilization off the West bank of the Nile as tombs for their magnificent Kings. 2.4 m (8 feet) high and 1. that is. and Menkaure could start their mystic journey to the afterlife. with each side measuring 229 m (751 ft) in length.. Even extraterrestrial-related theories have been proposed with little evidence in support. south. or were intended to serve other functions. only accessible through the Great Gallery and an ascending corridor.. Places of cult worship. Khefre.. and west. It ranked as the tallest structure on Earth for more than 43 centuries.

the city of Babylon. It wasn't until the twentieth century that some of the mysteries surrounding the Hanging Gardens were revealed. they were impressed. Even the historians who give detailed descriptions of the Hanging Gardens never saw them. Here are some excerpts from their accounts: "The Garden is . about 50 km south of Baghdad.. It was not until the reign of Naboplashar (625-605 BC) of the Neo-Babylonian dynasty that the Mesopotamian civilization reached its ultimate glory. Gardens hanging from the palace terraces.. Exotic animals. And it was the imagination of poets and ancient historians that blended all these elements together to produce one of the World Wonders. and their true appearance ..Description Detailed descriptions of the Gardens come from ancient Greek sources. It is said that the Gardens were built by Nebuchadnezzar to please his wife or concubine who had been "brought up in Media and had a passion for mountain surroundings"... Hammurabi (1792-1750 BC). although descriptions of his palace.. Iraq. This is the picture of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon in most people's minds. History The Babylonian kingdom flourished under the rule of the famous King. His son. Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562 BC) is credited for building the legendary Hanging Gardens. including the writings of Strabo and Philo of Byzantium. Tablets from the time of Nebuchadnezzar do not have a single reference to the Hanging Gardens. and the walls are found.Arab Proverb Chapter 2 The Hanging Gardens of Babylon Fruits and flowers. It may be surprising to know that they might have never existed except in Greek poets and historians imagination! Location On the east bank of the River Euphrates. Babylonian records stay silent on the matter... their irrigation system. Archaeologists are still struggling to gather enough evidence before reaching the final conclusions about the location of the Gardens.. About the palace of Nebuchadnezzar.. they had stories to tell about the amazing gardens and palm trees at Mesopotamia. Waterfalls. When they later returned to their rugged homeland. About the Tower of Babel and the ziggurats. While the most descriptive accounts of the Gardens come from Greek historians such as Berossus and Diodorus Siculus. Modern historians argue that when Alexander's soldiers reached the fertile land of Mesopotamia and saw Babylon.

quadrangular.. This is a work of art of royal luxury and its most striking feature is that the labor of cultivation is suspended above the heads of the spectators"." "The Hanging Garden has plants cultivated above ground level.. Streams of water emerging from elevated sources flow down sloping channels. On the river banks.. They reconstructed the site of the palace and located the Gardens in the area stretching from the River to the Palace.. The ascent of the uppermost terrace-roofs is made by a stairway. A group of archaeologists surveyed the area of the southern palace and reconstructed the Vaulted Building as the Hanging Gardens. Location The ancient city of Ephesus near the modern town of Selcuk... It consists of arched vaults which are located on checkered cube-like foundations. the Greek historian Strabo had stated that the gardens were situated by the River Euphrates. Chapter 3 The Temple of Artemis at Epheseus Is it simply a temple? How could it take its place among other unique structures such as the Pyramid.. So others argue that the site is too far from the Euphrates to support the theory since the Vaulted Building is several hundreds of meters away. Other findings include the Vaulted Building with thick walls and an irrigation well near the southern palace. the ones described in Greek references.. It was the most beautiful structure on earth.. More recent archaeological excavations at the ancient city of Babylon in Iraq uncovered the foundation of the palace.. and the roots of the trees are embedded in an upper terrace rather than in the earth. about 50 km south of Izmir (Smyrna) in Turkey. recently discovered massive walls 25 m thick may have been stepped to form terraces. It was built in honor of the Greek goddess of hunting and wild nature.. It was not just a temple. These waters irrigate the whole garden saturating the roots of plants and keeping the whole area moist. the answer was simple. and the Colossus of Rhodes? For the people who actually visited it. . That was the Temple of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus.. Hence the grass is permanently green and the leaves of trees grow firmly attached to supple branches. the Hanging Gardens. and each side is four plethra long.. However. The whole mass is supported on stone columns...

There is no evidence that a statue of the goddess herself was placed at the center of the sanctuary. and only in the late nineteenth century has the site been excavated. with a decorated façade overlooking a spacious courtyard. most Ephesians had converted to Christianity and the temple lost its religious glamor. Strangely enough. or temple D. Marble steps surrounding the building platform led to the high terrace which was approximately 80 m (260 ft) by 130 m (430 ft) in plan. the sanctuary was visited by merchants. On the night of 21 July 356 BC. however. he was confronted by the Artemis' cult who had no plans to abandon their goddess. . The Roman historian Plutarch later wrote that the goddess was "too busy taking care of the birth of Alexander to send help to her threatened temple". Many reconstructions such as that by H. Recent archeological excavations at the site revealed gifts from pilgrims including statuettes of Artemis made of gold and ivory. the Ephesians vowed to rebuild. Referred to as the great marble temple. The temple housed many works of art. similar to most temples at the time. The temple served as both a marketplace and a religious institution. artisans. earrings. By the fourth century AD.F. It was decorated with bronze statues sculpted by the most skilled artists of their time: Pheidias. the building was made of marble. The early detailed descriptions of the temple helped archeologists reconstruct the building. Over the next two decades. and kings who paid homage to the goddess by sharing their profits with her. including four ancient bronze statues of Amazons sculpted by the finest artists at the time. but there is no reason not to believe so. tourists. And when the temple was again destroyed by the Goths in AD 262. Unlike other sanctuaries.. He did indeed. it was sponsored by the Lydian king Croesus and was designed by the Greek architect Chersiphron. The digging revealed the temple's foundation and the road to the now swampy site. he helped rebuild the destroyed temple. There were 127 columns in total. and was decorated with paintings.. except for the central cella or house of the goddess. And when Alexander the Great conquered Asia Minor. aligned orthogonally over the whole platform area. Alexander the Great was born the same night. Attempts were recently made to rebuilt the temple. artifacts from as far as Persia and India.. the temple was restored and is labeled "temple E" by archeologists. Polycleitus. The columns were 20 m (60 ft) high with Ionic capitals and carved circular sides. and Phradmon. bracelets. When St Paul visited Ephesus to preach Christianity in the first century AD. the temple was adorned with golden pillars and silver statuettes. and necklaces.. von Erlach depicted the façade with a four-column porch which never existed. the structure that earned a spot in the list of Wonders was built around 550 BC. but only a few columns have been re-erected.History Although the foundation of the temple dates back to the seventh century BC. Description The foundation of the temple was rectangular in form. The final chapter came when in AD 401 the Temple of Artemis was torn down by St John Chrysostom. a man named Herostratus burned the temple to ground in an attempt to immortalize his name. For years. Kresilas. Ephesus was later deserted. When St Paul visited the city.

and modifications were needed. his attempt failed when the scaffolding built by Caligula's workmen . However. At the time of the games. wars stopped. The magnificent temple of Zeus was designed by the architect Libon and was built around 450 BC. its true beauty lies in the architectural and artistic details which will forever remain unknown. History The ancient Greek calendar starts in 776 BC. about 150 km west of Athens. Under the growing power of ancient Greece. For the years that followed. Chapter 4 The Statue of Zeus at Olympia This is the statue of the god in whose honor the Ancient Olympic games were held. In the first century AD. the Roman emperor Caligula attempted to transport the statue to Rome. and Sicily to celebrate the Olympics and to worship their king of gods: Zeus. reminiscent of Michelangelo's paintings at the Sistine Chapel. In the second century BC repairs were skillfully made to the aging statue. and athletes came from Asia Minor. for the Olympic games are believed to have started that year. the temple attracted visitors and worshippers from all over the world. Egypt. Location At the ancient town of Olympia. on the west coast of modern Greece. The solution: A majestic statue. The Athenian sculptor Pheidias was assigned for the "sacred" task. However. the simple Doric-style temple seemed too mundane. It was located on the land that gave its very name to the Olympics. Syria.More accurate reconstructions may give us an idea about the general layout of the temple.

but with the head almost touching the ceiling. When the statue was completed. including a large prototype at Cyrene (Libya). equivalent to a modern 4-story building.. He has shown Zeus seated. he had developed a technique to build enormous gold and ivory statues. although the temple itself is very large. and Niobe's children. he holds a sceptre inlaid with every kind of metal. landslides and floods. The legs of the throne were decorated with sphinxes and winged figures of Victory.. the statue had been transported by wealthy Greeks to a palace in Constantinople. None of them. it barely fitted in the temple. The base of the statue was about 6. Strabo wrote: ". There. precious stones. as is his robe. In his right hand he holds a figure of Victory made from ivory and gold. Years earlier. it survived until it was destroyed by a severe fire in AD 462. and fallen columns. with an eagle perched on the sceptre. not criticized. Earlier. The height of the statue itself was 13 m (40 ft). After the Olympic games were banned in AD 391 by the emperor Theodosius I as Pagan practices. Pheidias' workshop in Olympia still exists. This was done by erecting a wooden frame on which sheets of metal and ivory were placed to provide the outer covering. and the temple was damaged by fire in the fifth century AD.. It is the idea that the king of gods is capable of unroofing the temple if he stood up that fascinated poets and historians alike. he sculpted and carved the different pieces of the statue before they were assembled in the temple. however. Olympia was further struck by earthquakes. Copies of the statue were made. His sandals are made of gold. the sculptor is criticized for not having appreciated the correct proportions. In his left hand. His garments are carved with animals and with lilies. survived to the present day .identical in size and orientation to the temple of Zeus. except that the sculptor is to be commended. Artemis. Today nothing remains at the site of the old temple except rocks and debris. It is this size impression that made the statue so wonderful. and is coincidentally -. The statue was occasionally decorated with gifts from kings and rulers.5 m (20 ft) wide and 1.collapsed.0 meter (3 ft) high. the most notable of these gifts was a woollen curtain "adorned with Assyrian woven patterns and Pheonician dye" which was dedicated by the Syrian king Antiochus IV.or may be not -. The throne is decorated with gold." Strabo was right. There. the foundation of the buildings. ebony. The Greek Pausanias wrote: On his head is a sculpted wreath of olive sprays. and ivory. Description Pheidias began working on the statue around 440 BC. so that we have the impression that if Zeus moved to stand up he would unroof the temple. The statue was so high that visitors described the throne more than Zeus body and features. Greek gods and mythical figures also adorned the scene: Apollo. the temple of Zeus was ordered closed.

In the early . three years after Maussollos death. the kingdom of Caria in the western part of Asia Minor (Turkey) was so far from the Persian capital that it was practically autonomous. Geographically. and Asia Minor. Nothing is exciting about Maussollos life except the construction of his tomb. Egypt. the Mausoleum remained in good condition until an earthquake caused some damage to the roof and colonnade. The Mausoleum was completed around 350 different from the Pyramid that it earned its reputation . History When the Persians expanded their ancient kingdom to include Mesopotamia. the king could not control his vast empire without the help of local governors or rulers -.Like many other provinces.we can only wonder about the true appearance of the statue -. Halicarnassus) on the Aegean Sea. Early reconstructions such as the one by von Erlach are now believed to be rather inaccurate.the greatest work in Greek sculpture. From 377 to 353 BC. king Mausollos of Caria reigned and moved his capital to Halicarnassus. Location In the city of Bodrum (f. Northern India.a. For 16 centuries.and a spot within the list . we are now visiting the burial place of an ancient king. Syria. For us.. The project was conceived by his wife and sister Artemisia.k. and one year after Artemisia's. in south-west Turkey. And it was the beauty of the tomb rather than its size that fascinated its visitors for years..the Satraps. it is closer to the Temple of Artemis. Yet the Mausoleum is different .for other reasons. Chapter 5 The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Similar to the Great Pyramid. and the construction might have started during the king's lifetime..

7 m (22 ft) for the pyramid. horses. When they decided to fortify it in 1494. This is broken down into 20 m (60 ft) for the stepped podium.mausoleums. The total height of the Mausoleum was 45 m (140 ft). a building for a King whose name is celebrated in all large tombs today -. the Knights of St John of Malta invaded the region and built a massive crusader castle. and 6 m (20 ft) for the chariot statue at the top. and the polished stone and marble blocks of the Mausoleum can be spotted within the walls of the structure. Leochares. lions. The statues were carved by four Greek sculptors: Bryaxis. Description The structure was rectangular in plan. with base dimensions of about 40 m (120 ft) by 30 m (100 ft). only the foundation remains of the once magnificent Wonder. A statue of a chariot pulled by four horses adorned the top of the tomb. The burial chamber and the sarcophagus of white alabaster decorated with gold were located on the podium and surrounded by Ionic columns. and other animals. At the site of the Mausoleum itself. The beauty of the Mausoleum is not only in the structure itself. Overlying the foundation was a stepped podium which sides were decorated with statues. Because the statues were of people and animals. Since the nineteenth century. These include fragment of statues and many slabs of the frieze showing the battle between the Greeks and the Amazons. The colonnade supported a pyramid roof which was in turn decorated with statues..fifteenth century. the massive castle still stands in Bodrum. and Timotheus. Today. By 1522. each responsible for one side. almost every block of the Mausoleum had been disassembled and used for construction. Some of the sculptures survived and are today on display at the British Museum in London. but in the decorations and statues that adorned the outside at different levels on the podium and the roof. archeological excavations have been undertaken at the Mausoleum site. A modern reconstruction of the shorter side of the Mausoleum illustrates the lavish nature of the art and architecture of the building. they used the stones of the Mausoleum. the Mausoleum holds a special place in histroy as it was not dedicated to the gods of Ancient Greece. These excavations together with detailed descriptions by ancient historians give us a fairly good idea about the shape and appearance of the Mausoleum. These were tens of lifesize as well as under and over life-size free-standing statues of people. Chapter 6 The Colossus of Rhodes . Scopas.. 12 m (38 ft) for the colonnade.

From its building to its destruction lies a time span of merely 56 years. However. wrote Pliny. leaving a wealth of military equipment behind. The city thrived commercially and had strong economic ties with their main ally. Helios. it stood about 33 m (110 ft) high. When the colossus was finished. with a unified capital.Rhodes. Although it disappeared from existence. . the statue laid broken in ruins. They disassembled the remains of the broken Colossus and sold them to a Jew from Syria. The structure was gradually erected as the bronze form was fortified with an iron and stone framework. it did never straddle the harbor entrance. The base was made of white marble. Kamiros. and the Colossus was broken at its weakest point -. and Lindos. And when it fell. To reach the higher parts. In 408 BC. the Antagonids lifted the siege. it is a marvel". It was rather a symbol of unity of the people who inhabited that beautiful Mediterranean island -. the cities united to form one territory. an oracle was consulted and forbade the re-erection. Given the height of the statue and the width of the harbor mouth. Recent studies suggest that it was erected either on the eastern promontory of the Mandraki harbor. straddling its entrance. When a peace agreement was reached in 304 BC.Moreover. Although we do not know the true shape and appearance of the Colossus. On the small island of Rhodes were three of these: Ialysos. Ptolemy's offer was declined. his workers cast the outer bronze skin parts. or even further inland. The project was commissioned by the Rhodian sculptor Chares of Lindos.the knee. Ptolemy I Soter of Egypt. the statue stood at the harbor entrance. the ancient World Wonder inspired modern artists such as French sculptor Auguste Bartholdi best known by his famous work: The Statue of Liberty. To build the statue. and the feet and ankle of the statue were first fixed. the Antigonids of Macedonia who were also rivals of the Ptolemies. The city was badly damaged. History Throughout most of its history. Location At the entrance of the harbor of the Mediterranean island of Rhodes in Greece. an earth ramp was built around the statue and was later removed. modern reconstructions with the statue standing upright are more accurate than older drawings. To celebrate their unity. They could never penetrate the city. Anyway. the fallen Colossus would have blocked the harbor entrance. The construction of the Colossus took 12 years and was finished in 282 BC. It has long been believed that the Colossus stood in front of the Mandraki harbor. ancient Greece was comprised of city-states which had limited power beyond their boundary. In AD 654. In 305 BC. "few people can make their arms meet round the thumb". The Rhodians received an immediate offer from Ptolemy III Eurgetes of Egypt to cover all restoration costs for the toppled monument. For almost a millennium. It is said that the fragments had to be transported to Syria on the backs of 900 camels. "But even lying on the ground. Description Let us first clear a misconception about the appearance of the Colossus. this picture is rather impossible than improbable. the Rhodians sold the equipment and used the money to erect an enormous statue of their sun god. besieged Rhodes in an attempt to break the Rhodo-Egyptian alliance. For years. the Arabs invaded Rhodes. one of many in the city of Rhodes. Rhodes. said Pliny the Elder. Yet the colossus earned a place in the famous list of Wonders. until a strong earthquake hit Rhodes about 226 BC. The Colossus of Rhodes was not only a gigantic statue.

Off of the city's coast lies a small island: Pharos. When the mirror was brought down mistakenly. But the new rulers moved their capital to Cairo since they had no ties to the Mediterranean. It was even shown on Roman coins. but was completed after his death.. it was the mysterious mirror that fascinated them most. they admired Alexandria and its wealth. Sostratus. Its name. When the famous Arab traveler Ibn Battuta visited Alexandria in 1349. And because of dangerous sailing conditions and flat coastline in the region. his commander Ptolemy Soter assumed power in Egypt.Chapter 7 The Lighthouse of Alexandria Of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. a contemporary of Euclid. The mirror's reflection could be seen more than 50 km (35 miles) off-shore. The island was connected to the mainland by means of a dike . just as famous monuments are depicted on currency today. When the Arabs conquered Egypt. The monument was dedicated to the Savior Gods: Ptolemy Soter (lit. now a promontory within the city of Alexandria in Egypt. Location On the ancient island of Pharos.. The project was conceived and initiated by Ptolemy Soter around 290 BC. was the architect. legend says. The Lighthouse continues to be mentioned in their writings and travelers accounts. only one had a practical use in addition to its architectural elegance: The Lighthouse of Alexandria. and established his capital there. they did not restore it back into place. is a variation of Pharaoh's Island. For centuries. He had witnessed the founding of Alexandria. but detailed calculations for the structure and its accessories were carried out at the Alexandria Library/Mouseion. it ensured a safe return to the Great Harbor. For sailors. And for scientists. and caused little damage to the Lighthouse. In AD 956. he could not . History Shortly after the death of Alexander the Great. For architects. during the reign of his son Ptolemy Philadelphus.the Heptastadion .which gave the city a double harbor. an earthquake shook Alexandria. It was later in 1303 and in 1323 that two stronger earthquakes left a significant impression on the structure. the Lighthouse of Alexandria (occasionally referred to as the Pharos Lighthouse) was used to mark the harbor. using fire at night and reflecting sun rays during the day. it meant even more: it was the tallest building on Earth. savior) and his wife Berenice. the construction of a lighthouse was necessary.

. and the third circular 7.0 ft) and a height of 27. Italian. Although the Lighthouse of Alexandria did not survive to the present day. as far away as Spain.enter the ruinous monument or even climb to its doorway. They tell us how the mysterious mirror could reflect the light tens of kilometers away.45 m (90. equivalent to a 40-story modern building. the monument has been used as a model for many prototypes along the Mediterranean.Pharos -.1 ft). From an architectural standpoint. using the fallen stone and marble. It was composed of three stages: The lowest square.30 m (24.. a statue of Poseidon adorned the summit of the building. decided to fortify Alexandria's defense. He built a medieval fort on the same spot where the Lighthouse once stood. Abou-Haggag Al-Andaloussi visited the Lighthouse. Qaitbay.30 m (60. Legend says the mirror was also used to detect and burn enemy ships before they could reach the shore. the mirror reflected sunlight during the day while fire was used during the night. In 1166.4 ft) high with a cylindrical core. it gave its name -. it left its influence in various respects. an Arab traveler. He documented a wealth of information and an gave accurate description of the structure which helped modern archeologists reconstruct the monument. the Lighthouse of Alexandria was the last to disappear. or Spanish word for lighthouse. At the top stage. Therefore we have adequately accurate knowledge of its location and appearance. 55. The internal core was used as a shaft to lift the fuel needed for the fire. In ancient times. Ancient accounts such as those by Strabo and Pliny the Elder give us a brief description of the "tower" and the magnificent white marble cover. . the middle octagonal with a side length of 18. Description Of the six vanished Wonders. Just look up the dictionary for the French. The final chapter in the history of the Lighthouse came in AD 1480 when the Egyptian Mamelouk Sultan.0 ft) all the lighthouses in the world. And from a linguistic standpoint. The total height of the building including the foundation base was about 117 m (384 ft).9 m (183.

imagination and sheer hard work of which human beings are capable. it is possible that at least one of the wonders might not have existed at all. They are also. Ultimately." it became fodder for debate over which achievements deserved inclusion. embellishment. destruction and. Furthermore. human hands joined with natural forces to destroy all but one of the wonders. all seven continue to inspire and be celebrated as the remarkable products of the creativity and skill of Earth’s early civilizations.Conclusion The amazing works of art and architecture known as the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World serve as a testament to the ingenuity. reminders of the human capacity for disagreement. . As soon as ancient writers compiled a list of "seven wonders. Still. however. possibly.

com http://www.wonderclub.Bibliography .