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INTRODUCTION - Heterotrophs  energy in food made available to cells in usable form  metabolism OVERVIEW OF METABOLISM - all various chemical processes which food is utilized - provide energy for energy, growth of substances, cell repair - many specific metabolic pathways, each requires diff enz 1. Catabolism breakdown / degeneration of absorbed food substances into simpler, smaller molq release egy needed to drive cellular func give rise to small organic molq  metabolites  building blocks for biosynthesis 2. Anabolism biosynthesis of complex molq from simple compounds  requires egy generated from catabolism synthesize polymers (starch / glycogen)  store egy, growth, repair

ATP - efficient linking / coupling of exergonic catabolism & endergonic anabolism - specific molq conserve egy derived from exergonic rxns, release it when egy is needed - ATP  phosphorylated cpd, significant in most cellular egy transactions 1. Structure nucleotide  aromatic base adenine, 5 C ribose, 3 phosphate grps phosphate grps linked to each other by phosphoanhydride bonds linked to ribose by phosphodiester bond 1 phosphate grp attached to C 5 of ribose  adenosine monophosphate 2 phosphate grps  adenosine diphosphate 2. Usefulness ATP molq serves as intermediate in cellular egy metabolism Most egy (30.6 kJ/mol) released when phosphoanhydride bond that links terminal phosphate to 2nd phosphate undergoes hydrolysis



ATP/ADP system  reversible means of conserving, transferring, releasing egy Catabolic processes in cell energy liberating, drives formation of ATP from ADP Egy from ATP hydrolysis  provides driving force for essential life processes

C removed by decarboxylation. calvin cycle. muscle contraction. bioluminescence Oxidative Phosphorylation Enzymatic endergonic phosphorylation of ADP to ATP by ATP synthase Coupled to exergonic e. nitrogen fixation.acceptor: molecular O2 Exergonic passage of protons along a proton / electrochemical grad During ETC in inner mitochondrial membrane Dependent in membrane integrity Almost 90% of any ATP generated in respiration 3. carriers of e. removal / addition of eDecarboxylation Removal of C atoms from compound to form CO2 Only H from glucose is needed.- Biosynthesis. Methods of Forming Substrate Level Phosphorylation Process Phosphorylation of ADP / other nctd with 5’ diphosphate Dephosphorylation of organic substrate Occurrence During glycolysis in cytoplasm During Krebs cycle in mitochondrial matrix No memb required Products Small amt of ATP BIOLOGICAL OXIDATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Reaction Function Redox Reactions involve 1./ small func grps . active transport. Removal / addition of H 2. Coenzymes in Biological Oxidations small molq  function along with enz.transport from substrate to final e. CO2 released as waste material 1.

- most common : NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) & FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) upon reduction. Effect of O2 on Glucose Catabolism obligate aerobes  must have O2 obligate anaerobes  must NOT have O2 facultative anaerobes  can function both aerobically & anaerobically a) Presence of O2 aerobic respiration / cellular respiration complete ox of glucose to CO2 and H2O yields max ATP (36-38) b) Absence of O2 anaerobic respiration / fermentation (lactic acid fermentation.glucose metabolism always begins with glycolysis (aerobic / anaerobic) 1. NADH / FADH2 2.ATP utilization 2.and protons from ATP via oxidative phosphorylation NAD / FAD + H+ + e. Overview Location Cytoplasm of all cells Metabolism Catabolic pathway.ATP formation Substrates Glucose / other hexose sugars . 6C glucose split into 2 3C molq Rearranged to form 3C compound pyruvate (ionized form of pyruvic acid) Both SLP (ADP  ATP) and dehydrogenation (NAD  NADH) For glycolysis to continue at constant rate both ATP & NADH must be regenerated to NAD & ADP at rate they are produced Major Phases 1. alcohol fermentation) incomplete ox of glucose 2 ATP molq - - GLYCOLYSIS . NADH & FADH2  reservoirs of e. Energy Payoff Phase . Energy Investment Phase . Glucose as Important Oxidizable Substrate a) Excellent Fuel breakdown of 1 glucose molq releases enough egy to form 36-38 ATP in presence of O2 b) Versatile Precursor intermediates formed by glucose breakdown can be used in many biological rxns 3.

Products ATP Generation ADP Inorganic phosphates (Pi) NAD 2 molq of pyruvate 2 ATPS (net gain) 2 NADH Water (waste product) 2 ATPs by SLP supplies energized e.6 – bisphosphate hydrolysis of 2 ATPs to provide phosphate grps & egy driving force step 3  rate limiting step of glycolysis.6-bisphosphate to 2 3-C sugars (dihydroxyacetone & glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate G3P) dihydroxyacetone converted to G3P to produce 2 G3P molq per glucose b) Energy Payoff Phase i. Cleavage / Lysis (Step 4-5) cleavage of fructose 1.that directly drive most ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation at inner mitochondrial memb form of reduced NAD  directly drive most ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation - 2. involve enz phosphofructokinase ii. Activation of Glucose (Step 1-3) conversion of unphosphoryated glucose to phosphorylated fructose 1. Substrate Level Phosphorylation (Step 7-10) coupled to dephosphorylation of organic substrate directly produces 4 ATPs per glucose. overall net gain of 2 ATPs c) Flowchart - - . Detailed Look a) Energy Investment Phase i. Reduction of NAD / Dehydrogenation (Step 6) G3P oxidized (dehydrogenation) & NAD reduced to NADH 1 NADH supplies 2 energized e.

coli.- d) Summary of Glycolysis 2 molq of ATP initially invested in steps 1-3. Regulation Phosphofructokinase (step 3)  allosteric enz with receptor sites for specific inhibitors & activators  inhibited by ATP Phosphofructokinase stimulated by AMP (which cell derives from ADP) As ATP accumulates. cholesterol. overall pathway written as: Glucose + 2 NAD + 2 ATP + 2 Pi  2 Pyruvate + 2 NADH + 2 H+ + 2 ATP 3. carbo converted to fat  glycolysis supplies initial steps of fat biosynthesis with substrate rather than source of ATP micro-organisms (E. bile acids. provides precursors for molq it synthesizes (fats. inhibition of en slows down glycolysis  becomes active when ATP becomes ADP (& AMP) faster than ATP is being regenerated - . 2 returned to phosphorylation event (step 7) 2 ATP formed per glucose. yeast growing on carbo)  both egy & biosynthesic precursors obtained from glycolysis 4. striated muscles receive insufficient O2 to saturate tissures  aerobic generation of ATP is curtailed. increase in rate of glycolysis supplies cells with essential biosynthetic precursors  in liver. plasma prot) once liver glycogen reserves full. Importance glucose is vital source of egy  only catabolic rxn that occurs in abs of oxygen for mammalian red blood cells (no memb bound organelles)  only means of ATP formation during exercise.

Mitochondria localization of mito in cell  clustered in regions with most intense metabolic activity.- Sensitive to citrate (1st pdt of Krebs)  citrate accumulates in mito. Krebs Cycle (KC) Components Outer Memb Inner Memb Matrix . proceed to ETC Occurs only under aerobic conditions Coupled to ETC Pdts – most of max 36-38 molq of ATP Location Cytoplasm Mitochondrial matrix Mitochondrial matrix Mitochondrial membrane - - 1. proceeds to ETC and acetyl CoA (starting substrate for Krebs cycle) Occurs only under aerobic conditions Pdts – H carriers. only way cell can obtain egy in usable form series of enz-catalysed redox reactions  respiratory substrates completely oxidized to CO2 & O2 reduced to H2O  series of enz controlled rxns  much higher ield of ATP some egy lost as heat b) Main Stages Stage Glycolysis Link Reaction Krebs Cycle / TCA Oxidative Phosphorylation Details Occurs in both aerobic & anaerobic conditions Aerobic  pdts of glycolysis proceed to Krebs cycle and ETC Occurs only under aerobic conditions Pdts  1 H carrier. some of it passes into cytosol & inhibits phosphofructose kinase AEROBIC RESPIRATION a) What it Is occurs in every living ell. greatest need for ATP muscle cells  mito organized in rows along fibrils responsible for contraction Roles Freely permeable to ATP / ADP / sucrose Selectively permeable memb Highly folded to form cristae  increase SA for ETC Not permeable to NADH. prots for transporting anions & ATP & ADP Contains members of ETC & ATP synthase complex (stalked particles) Site of Link Rxn (LR).

occurs 2x for every glucose Completes glucose breakdown & oxidation by 8 enzyme controlled steps 1.4. 6 NADH 4. catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase 1 CO2 removed. pyruvate enters mito. 2 ATP by SLP 2. enz of Krebs cycle complete oxidation of organic fuel pyruvate first converted to acetyl CoA through oxidative decarboxylation 1 C of pyruvate liberated as CO2 (decarboxylation) . 2 e. 1 NADH formed. SLP Direct net pdtn of 2 ATP molq per glucose (step 5) 3. 2 FADH2 3. Krebs Cycle (TCA) begins with entry of acetate in form of acetyl CoA with each round of Krebs. Oxidative Decarboxylation Acetyl CoA  CO2 (step 3-4) 2. only after being covalently added to large molq oxaloacetate Regenerated at end of 1 earn of cycle to receive more acetyl grps Breakdown of multiple metabolic intermediates  lipids. 2 C atoms enter in organic form (as acetate). FAD Per glucose molq (2 turns of cycle) 1.and 1 proton removed from substrate (oxidation) transferred to co-enz NAD  NADH occurs in mito matrix. supplies energized e. Link Reaction (Between Glycolysis and TCA) if molecular O present. 2 C leave in inorganic form (as CO2) Mito matrix of all cells (plants & animals) Catabolic pathway. 4 CO2 1. 2 ATP form of NADH & FADH2 that directly drive most ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation in ETC a) Overview Location Metabolism Crucial Reactions Cyclic Property Substrates Products ATP Generation .- 2. carbo enter TCA at various steps Various cpds in cycle can be siphoned off form formation of chlorophyll.8) Coenzymes 1 FADH2 produced (step 6) process linked to production of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation Acetyl grps not oxidized directly. co-enz A added to form acetyl CoA per pyruvate molq 3. aa. Production of Reduced 3 NADH produced (steps 3. aa etc  TCA is centre for metabolic interconversions Acetyl CoA / other intermediates in pathway ADP Inorganic phosphates (Pi) NAD.

drives chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation b) Detailed Look i. more e. Diagram c) Overall Budget for Aerobic Respiration CO2 ATP (SLP) Glycolysis 2 Link Reaction 2 Krebs Cycle (Twice) 4 2 NADH 2 2 6 FADH2 2 . regenerating oxaloacetate in each turn of ETC.carriers carry e.extracted & transferred to NAD & FAD to form NADH & FADH2 e.yielding oxidation rxns. new acetyl grp replaces 2 CO2 molq lost. 2 CO2 molqs split off. exergonic passage of e. pyruvate that enters mitochondrion oxidized to form acetyl CoA in Link Rxn acetyl CoA oxidized in series of rxns (TCA)  2 C acetyl grp of acetyl CoA combines with 4 C molq oxaloacetate to form 6 C citrate citrate goes through seq of e.- after glycolysis catabolizes glucose to produce pyruvate.

transport 4th stage of aerobic respiration ETC & OP (oxidative phosphorylation) functionally linked by electrochemical proton grad that is result of e.acceptors for participation in glycolysis & TCA cycle again e.eventually passed to final e. source of egy that drives ATP synthesis Inner mito memb (cristae) Energy released from glycolysis & Krebs cycle (stored in NADH & FADH2) used to drive ATP synthesis No ATP directly generated Egy from e. ETC System process of coenzyme reoxidation by transfer of e.carried by NADH used to pump H+ across inner mito memb to inner mito memb Flow of protons back into matrix through ATP synthase allows for ATP synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation a) Overview Location Crucial Reaction ATP Generation - - b) Components ETC is embedded in inner mito memb.from NADH. a coenzyme Ubiquinone / coenzyme Q  conenzyme that can carry H+ and eCytochromes (metalloproteins)  impt cytochromes in ETC: cytochromes b. temporarily accommodate 1 or 2 e. a. a3 (cytochrome b in diagram) c) Function coenzymes + cytochromes in ETC + enzymes + essential factors  functional groups / complexes 4 main complexes (I – IV) various e.carriers that can be reversibly reduced & oxidized as e.carriers in ETC have differing reduction potentials  each subsequent member of ETC has greater affinity of emembers of ETC accept e.within molecular struct Flavoproteins  flavin mononucleotide (FMN). comprises seq of e. c.Total - 6 4 10 2 4.acceptor in molecular O2 (diffused into mito) O2 reduced in mito matrix to produce 1 molq of H2O d) Importance - - . O  e. oxidized co-enz NAD & FADS are regenerated as e.transport.

Oxidative Phosphorylation a) Generation of Proton Gradient – Chemiosmotic Coupling Model egy released during e. catalyses ATP formation F1 barrel is turned as protons move through F0 stalk. e. protons can only re-enter matrix through ATP synthase complex b) ATP Synthase Complex ATP synthase complex / stalk particle  coupes exergonic passage of H+ to endergonic phosphorylation of ATP from ADP F0 stalk  membrane-spanning proton channel. releasing egy egy released drives proton pumps (in inner mito memb) to actively move H+ across inner mito memb from mitochondrial matrix to intermembrane space generates electrochemical proton grad with 2 components conc grad of H+ / chemical / pH grad electrical gradient  voltage across memb build up of H+ conc in intermembrane space. movement draws in ADP and inorganic phosphate. of H+ pumped into intermemb space as e.pass along chain of specialized e.not passed down ETC & no NAD / FAD regenerated)  link rxn & Krebs will cease 5.transport  generate electrochemical prot gradient  drive ATP synthesis exergonic transfer of e. allows for proton movement F1 particle  attached to F0 stalk on matrix side of membrane.are passed down ETC - - - .through ETC is accompanied by uni-directional pumping of protons across inner mito membrane into intermembrane space creates proton motive force (PMF)  potential egy stored in proton grad e. fall to successively lower egy states. generate ATP from ADP and Pi Amt of ATP produced depends on no. release ATP c) Chemiosmosis using kinetic egy of passing H+ down electrochemical grad.acceptor & donor molq in ETC.- ETC generates proton grad across inner mito memb for subsequent oxidative phosphorylation Regenerates NAD & FAD  link rxn & Krebs cycle can continue In abs of O2. tendency for H+ to go back into matrix due to PMF inner mito memb impermeable to H+.

from NADH / Reduced NAD and passed down to ETC 10 H+ pumped across inner mito memb into intermembrane space Re-entry of H+ into matrix provides egy to generate 3 ATP molq 6.short term  satisfies greater priority of regenerating NAD . no further oxidation of pyruvate occurs.from NADH to pyruvate. occurring in cytosol uses organic molq as terminal e. Overall ATP Yield Reaction Cytoplasmic reactions (glycolysis) Mitochondrial reactions (link reaction) Krebs Cycle Oxidative Posphorylation Total ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION - a) What it Is under anaerobic conditions. converted to acetaldehyde 2.- Dependent on no.contributed by reduced coenz NADH and FADH2  originated from glycolysis & Krebs cycle For each 2 e. no acetyl CoA formed. CO2 released from pyruvate.from FADH2 / Reduced FAD and passed down to ETC H+ pumped across inner mito memb into intermembrane space Re-entry of H+ into matrix provides egy to generate 2 ATP molq Red NAD +2 +2 +8 -10 0 Red FAD 0 0 +2 0 0 ATP +2 0 +2 34/32 38/36 For each 2 e. of e. acetaldehyde reduced by NADH to ethanol Fungi : Yeast Most plant tissues Equation Steps Involved Occurrence Occurs in animals & certain fungi / bacteria Animals . end pdt of glycolysis b) 2 Types Lactic Acid Fermentation NADH + C3H4O3 (pyruvate)  NAD + C3H6O3 (lactate) Pyruvate reduced directly by NADH to form lactate as waste pdt No release of CO2 Alcohol Fermentation NADH + C3H4O3 (pyruvate)  NAD + C2H5OH (ethanol) + CO2 Pyruvate is converted to ethanol in 2 steps: 1. no additional ATP generated 2 ATP mol per glucose in glycolytic pathway  cells must consume glucose more rapidly in order to maintain steady-state cellular ATP lvls oxygen independent process.acceptors. results in release of organic/inorganic byproducts NAD regenerated by transfer of e.

6 kJ 40.2 kJ 40.- Products long term  lactic acid is toxic.used in diary industry to make cheese / yoghurt Lactic Acid NAD Ethanol NAD COMPARING ENERGY YIELD Aspect No.2 kJ 29.4% Anaerobic Alcoholic 2 210 kJ 61. must be removed Certain fungi and bacteria: .1% Lactic Acid 2 150 kJ 61.8% . of ATP produced per glucose Total Energy released by complete ox of 1 glucose Energy carried in ATP Efficiency of Energy Transfer Aerobic 38 2880 kJ 30.